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[the new-world hantaviruses. ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in latin america].the hantaviruses are a group of emerging rodent-borne pathogens (family bunyaviridae; genus hantavirus) that are etiologic agents for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in europe and asia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in the americas. hfrs is associated with rodents of the family muridae, subfamilies murinae and arvicolinae; hps is associated with rodents of the subfamily sigmodontinae. since the identification of hcps in usa in 1993, a large number of cases of hps and ...200616977974
[progress on the study of biological characteristic of hantavirus]. 200617299972
deer mouse movements in peridomestic and sylvan settings in relation to sin nombre virus antibody prevalence.prevalence of antibody to sin nombre virus (snv) has been found to be nearly twice as high in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in peridomestic settings as in sylvan settings in two studies in montana and one in new mexico. we investigated whether this difference may be related to a difference in deer mouse movements in the two settings. we used radiotelemetry to determine home range size and length of movement for 22 sylvan (1991-1992) and 40 peridomestic deer mice (1995-1999). we also determi ...200617255448
changes in sin nombre virus antibody prevalence in deer mice across seasons: the interaction between habitat, sex, and infection in deer mice.we examined the impact of season and habitat on sin nombre virus (snv) seroprevalence in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in utah's great basin desert from may 2002 through summer 2003. low mouse captures in 2002 limited analysis for that year. in two seasons during 2003, mouse density and sagebrush cover were positively linked (spring: r = 0.8, p = 0.01; summer: r = 0.8, p = 0.04). in the spring, seroprevalence was negatively correlated with density (r = -0.9, p< 0.01); male and female antibo ...200617255449
developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006-2007.el niño/southern oscillation (enso) related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. the climate prediction center of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration (noaa/cpc) has recently issued an unscheduled el niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hemisphere particularly ov ...200617194307
tick-borne encephalitis virus in clethrionomys glareolus in the czech republic.a total of 474 specimens from 157 rodents caught at the military training area of boletice in the south of the czech republic from may to november 1999 were screened for tbev by nested pcr. tbev-specific rna was amplified from lung, kidney, and spleen derived from one clethrionomys glareolus in the first rt-pcr round. sequence analysis revealed a 100% identity to the tbev strain neudoerfl. tbev presence in the sample was confirmed by mouse brain passage of backup samples and cell culture. the re ...200617187572
[hantavirus in zulia state?].during the last years, there has been a worldwide rise in the number of infectious diseases caused by newly discovered agents, in some cases and in others, by variants known as emergent or reemergent pathogens. the analysis of the nucleotide sequences of four rna-positive hantaviruses (s. altoni) suggests that the caño delgadito virus is widely distributed in the venezuelan plains. a similar distribution has been found for some isolates and strains of a novel hantavirus (proposed name "mamporal" ...200617176900
wildlife, environment and (re)-emerging zoonoses, with special reference to sylvatic tick-borne zoonoses in north-western italy.over the last century, changes in land-use, modification of agriculture-livestock production systems, disruption of wildlife habitats, increase of human activities, higher frequency of international and intercontinental travels, wider circulation of animals and animal products have contributed to alter the distribution, presence and density of hosts and vectors. as a result, the number of emerging and reemerging diseases, including zoonoses, have greatly increased. some infectious pathogens, ori ...200617361062
[haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs)--hantavirus infection disease appearing in poland].authors take up the problem of occurrence of the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in poland and present the measures undertaken by chief sanitary inspectorate, which brought to detection of the first, serologically confirmed case of hfrs in may 2005. they strongly emphasize the existence of the disease on polish territory despite the poor epidemiological recognition, an possibility of its testing.200617345831
[a case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs)].in our article we describe clinical and epidemiological analysis of the first case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs)--with serological confirmation--in poland.200617345843
[surveillance on natural infection of rodents with hantavirus in shenzhen city and identification of a hantavirus strain sz2083].for clarifying the situation of the natural infection of rodents having hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus and to type hantavirus (hv) using molecular technique in shenzhen city in 2005, and offering guidance for prevention and control of hfrs.200617402203
[a clinical study on cd178 positive t lymphocyte in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].to further probe into the role of cd178 in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs).200516416001
habitat factors associated with bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) and concomitant hantavirus in northern sweden.puumala virus (puuv), genus hantavirus, causes nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. in this study, bank voles, the natural reservoir of puuv, were captured at locations of previous human puuv exposure and paired controls within a region of high incidence in northern sweden. the aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of bank voles and the occurrence of puuv. the total number of voles and the numbe ...200516417427
[infection due to hantavirus and other rodent-borne viruses].the term "robovirus" (rodent-borne virus) refers to viruses belonging to the bunyaviridae (genus hantavirus) and arenaviridae families, which are occasionally transmitted to human beings from rodents, their natural hosts. hantaviruses cause two human diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. arenaviruses produce hemorrhagic fevers or acute central nervous system disease in humans. this article reviews the biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical feat ...200516185565
norway rat population in baltimore, maryland, 2004.norway rats are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including hantaviruses, and are implicated in the transmission of pathogens to humans in urban environments. the rat population of baltimore, maryland was estimated from surveys in 1949 and again in 1952, but has not been evaluated for more than 50 years. previously identified sociodemographic risk factors for rat infestation, including median income, human density, and percentage of rental properties, were used to categorize census block g ...200516187901
[analysis of part of m gene and genotyping for m segment of hantavirus detected from hfrs patients' sera in qingdao region during 2000 - 2003].to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of hantavirus seen during 2000-2003 in qingdao region of shandong province.200516201465
[genotype of isolated strain of hantavirus in liaoning area].to isolate hantavirus and to genotype isolated strains of hantavirus (sy 13) in liaoning province.200516201470
a retrospective study of hantavirus infection in kinmen, taiwan.in this retrospective study, 140 serum samples collected from 85 scrub typhus-negative patients in kinmen island in 2000 were tested for antibodies to hantavirus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. seven patients (8.23%) were confirmed as having hantavirus infection as demonstrated by increased hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin m and/or immunoglobulin g antibodies in their convalescent serum samples. analysis of indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that seoul type was the etiologic age ...200516211143
community-acquired pneumonia: new facets of an old disease--hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.it seems that with climatic and geoecologic changes, hantaviruses have re-emerged as human pathogens related to increases in interaction between humans and rodent reservoirs. infection with snv in north america and the andes virus in south america can produce infection manifest initially as a flu-like illness. in the setting of a history of possible exposure to rodents or their excreta, clinical symptoms and laboratory clues such as thrombocytopenia should raise the suspicion of hps. clinical de ...200515763221
[diagnostic tests: hantavirus]. 200516111261
hantavirus infection in thailand: first clinical case report.this study involved 115 cases of fever of unknown origin (fuo) patients who were admitted to the department of medicine, siriraj hospital from may 1999 to november 2000. among the patient sera screened by elisa for igg hantavirus, five were positive for igg hantavirus-reacting antibodies and eight tested positive for igm hantavirus-reacting antibodies. one serum had both igg and igm antibodies. the patient exhibited acute encephalitic febrile illness, thrombocytopenia, high ast and alt levels, a ...200516124441
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the pomurje region of slovenia--an 18-year survey.to determine the etiology of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in the north-eastern part of slovenia (pomurje region) together with demographic, epidemiological and clinical data on 25 patients from this region who were diagnosed and treated at the general hospital in murska sobota between 1986 and 2003.200516053195
quality assurance for the diagnostics of viral diseases to enhance the emergency preparedness in europe.the threat posed by emerging and re-emerging communicable diseases and, more recently, by the intentional release of infectious agents in a susceptible population, has been receiving considerable attention at the national and international levels. public health efforts to strengthen disease detection, surveillance and control have been intensified. however, clinicians and clinical microbiology laboratories play an important role in the early detection of disease, the identification of the putati ...200516077216
[the epizootological and virological characteristics of a natural hantavirus infection focus in the subtropic zone of the krasnodarsk territory].a natural focus of hantavirus infection was detected and examined during the studies conducted in 2000-2002 around the sochi (the western spurs of the great caucasus ridge, which descended to the black sea (the krasnodar territory of russia). at least 4 rodent species, such as microtus majori, a. (s.) ponticus, a. agrarius, a. (s.) ciscaucasicus, were shown to participate in the circulation of hantaviruses. a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of genomic s- and m-segments of hantav ...200516078428
tula hantavirus triggers pro-apoptotic signals of er stress in vero e6 cells.tula virus is a member of the hantavirus genus of the family bunyaviridae. viruses of this family have an unusual pattern of intracellular maturation at the er-golgi compartment. we recently found that tula virus, similar to several other hantaviruses, is able to induce apoptosis in cultured cells [li, x.d., kukkonen, s., vapalahti, o., plyusnin, a., lankinen, h., vaheri, a., 2004. tula hantavirus infection of vero e6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation. j. gen. virol. 85, 326 ...200515708603
recombinant tula hantavirus shows reduced fitness but is able to survive in the presence of a parental virus: analysis of consecutive passages in a cell culture.tula hantavirus carrying recombinant s rna segment (rectulv) grew in a cell culture to the same titers as the original cell adapted variant but presented no real match to the parental virus. our data showed that the lower competitiveness of rectulv could not be increased by pre-passaging in the cell culture. nevertheless, the recombinant virus was able to survive in the presence of the parental virus during five consecutive passages. the observed survival time seems to be sufficient for transmis ...200515725355
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in central bolivia: relationships between reservoir hosts, habitats, and viral genotypes.in august 2002, two cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) were confirmed in mineros and concepcion, within the santa cruz department of bolivia. extensive alteration of the native ecosystem, from dense forest to pasture or sugarcane, had occurred in both regions. an ecologic assessment of reservoir species associated with the human disease identified a single hantavirus antibody-positive oligoryzomys microtis from mineros and three hantavirus antibody-positive calomys callosus from concep ...200515728866
enhancing dna vaccine potency against hantavirus by co-administration of interleukin-12 expression vector as a genetic adjuvant.the heavy incidence and mortality of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, as well as no specific drugs in curing the disease, clearly indicate the need for development of the more effective hantavirus vaccine. refining the dna vaccination strategy to elicit more clinically efficacious immune responses is now under intensive investigation. in the present study, we examined the effects of using an interleukin-12 expression plasmid as a genetic adjuvant to enhance the immune responses induced by ...200515740670
nucleocapsid protein of cell culture-adapted seoul virus strain 80-39: analysis of its encoding sequence, expression in yeast and immuno-reactivity.seoul virus (seov) is a hantavirus causing a mild to moderate form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that is distributed mainly in asia. the nucleocapsid (n) protein-encoding sequence of seov (strain 80-39) was rt-pcr-amplified and cloned into a yeast expression vector containing a galactose-inducible promoter. a survey of the pattern of synonymous codon preferences for a total of 22 n protein-encoding hantavirus genes including 13 of seov strains revealed that there is minor variation in ...200515744561
new ecological aspects of hantavirus infection: a change of a paradigm and a challenge of prevention--a review.in the last decades a significant number of so far unknown or underestimated pathogens have emerged as fundamental health hazards of the human population despite intensive research and exceptional efforts of modern medicine to embank and eradicate infectious diseases. almost all incidents caused by such emerging pathogens could be ascribed to agents that are zoonotic or expanded their host range and crossed species barriers. many different factors influence the status of a pathogen to remain unn ...200515744574
potential importance of error catastrophe to the development of antiviral strategies for hantaviruses.hantaviruses represent an important and growing source of disease emergence in both established and developing countries. the new world hantaviruses have been touted as potential biological weapons because of their lethality to humans and high infectivity as an aerosol. it is also important to acknowledge the threat that hantaviruses can represent to us troops that operate in a foreign territory endemic for hantavirus infection, as was demonstrated in the korean war. effective vaccines, immunoth ...200515649565
the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein recognizes specific features of the viral rna panhandle and is altered in conformation upon rna binding.hantaviruses are tripartite negative-sense rna viruses and members of the bunyaviridae family. the nucleocapsid (n) protein is the principal structural component of the viral capsid. n forms a stable trimer that specifically recognizes the panhandle structure formed by the viral rna termini. we used trimeric glutathione s-transferase (gst)-n protein and small rna panhandles to examine the requirements for specific recognition by sin nombre hantavirus n. trimeric gst-n recognizes the panhandles o ...200515650206
pathogenic hantaviruses bind plexin-semaphorin-integrin domains present at the apex of inactive, bent alphavbeta3 integrin conformers.the alphavbeta3 integrins are linked to human bleeding disorders, and pathogenic hantaviruses regulate the function of alphavbeta3 integrins and cause acute vascular diseases. alphavbeta3 integrins are present in either extended (active) or dramatically bent (inactive) structures, and interconversion of alphavbeta3 conformers dynamically regulates integrin functions. here, we show that hantaviruses bind human alphavbeta3 integrins and that binding maps to the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (psi) dom ...200515657120
andes virus stimulates interferon-inducible mxa protein expression in endothelial cells.mxa is a cellular protein activated in cells treated with type i interferons. mxa protein is a member of the dynamin superfamily of large guanosine triphosphatases. a unique property of mx1 gtpases is their antiviral activity against a wide range of rna viruses. replication of several hantavirus strains is inhibited in cells constitutively expressing mxa protein. we have found that andes virus (andv) infection up regulates transcription of mxa rna and expression of mxa protein in human endotheli ...200515602733
[expression of hsp70 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by hantavirus].to study stress response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvec) infected with hantavirus (htv).200515629073
interactions and trafficking of andes and sin nombre hantavirus glycoproteins g1 and g2.this study was designed to investigate the trafficking of andes virus (andv) and sin nombre virus (snv) glycoproteins and to determine if andv or snv glycoproteins g1 and g2 could be substituted for each other while still retaining normal trafficking. trafficking of hantaan virus (hntv) and snv glycoproteins has been studied and conflicting results were published regarding the golgi targeting of g1 and g2 when expressed individually. the results reported in this manuscript suggest that both snv ...200515629773
identification of genetic evidence for dobrava virus spillover in rodents by nested reverse transcription (rt)-pcr and taqman rt-pcr.a survey of 158 rodents caught in the czech republic identified dobrava virus sequences closely related to that of the dobrava virus type strain in apodemus sylvaticus and mus musculus rodents. the identity of a. sylvaticus was unequivocally confirmed by random amplified polymorphic dna analysis. the data seem to indicate hantavirus spillover from apodemus flavicollis to other rodents.200515695684
human and rodent humoral immune responses to andes virus structural proteins.in the present work we identified b-cell epitopes recognized by sera of humans and rodents naturally infected with andes virus, a hantavirus present in chile and argentina. analysis of patient and rodent sera with overlapping peptides revealed 21 human and rodent epitopes on the three structural proteins. whereas in the nucleoprotein the region comprising aa 248-260 was shown to be the key determinant of human sera, the major antigenic site of rodent antibody reactivity is located at aa 326-338. ...200515780882
[increase of hantavirus infections in france, 2003].hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in north eastern france. humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. in february 2003, the national reference centre (nrc) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. an investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures.200515780895
[outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the ulyanovsk region]. 200515801222
newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs.following the occurrence of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in maranhao state, brazil, rodents were trapped and rodent materials screened by elisa for antibodies to sin nombre and andes hantaviruses. antibody-positive samples were tested by rt-pcr, amplified products were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparison with known hantaviruses. from 104 rodent blood samples collected (40 bolomys lasiurus, 52 holochilus sciureus, 12 oli ...200515815145
clinical sin nombre hantaviral infections in children. 200515818300
epizootiology of sin nombre and el moro canyon hantaviruses, southeastern colorado, 1995-2000.sin nombre virus (snv) is an etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. to better understand the natural history of this virus we studied population dynamics and temporal pattern of infection of its rodent hosts in southeastern colorado (usa) from 1995 to 2000. we present evidence for the presence of two hantaviruses, snv in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and el moro canyon virus in western harvest mice (reithrodontomys megalotis), at our study sites. sin nombre virus appeared only sp ...200515827206
detection of human hantavirus infections in lithuania.in europe certain hantaviruses are known to cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome of different severity. the objective of the present investigation was to study the presence of hantavirus infections in lithuania.200515827873
hfrs causing hantaviruses do not induce apoptosis in confluent vero e6 and a-549 cells.hantaviruses are known to cause little or no cytopathic effect in vitro, but have been suggested to cause apoptosis. to determine whether different hantaviruses would induce apoptosis to varying degrees, confluent vero e6 cells were infected with the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) causing viruses hantaan, dobrava, saaremaa, and puumala. however, no difference was found in the percentage of adherent cells, or of cells with condensed nuclei, between non-infected and virus-infected ce ...200515834879
ribavirin trials and hantavirus--what we should not conclude. 200515844085
[hantavirus infections].hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. four pathogenic types for humans and part of the bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the sin nombre virus responsible for the severe american respiratory form; the hantaan and seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (hfrs) of severe to moderate expression in asia and also in the balkans; the puumala virus responsible for hfrs of moderate expression or the s ...200515859577
acute sin nombre hantavirus infection complicated by renal failure requiring hemodialysis. 200515887441
hantavirus infection in thailand: first clinical case report.this study involved 115 cases of fever of unknown origin (fuo) in patients who were admitted to the department of medicine, siriraj hospital from may 1999 to november 2000. among the patient sera screened by elisa for igg hantavirus, five were positive for igg hantavirus-reacting antibodies and eight tested positive for igm hantavirus-reacting antibodies. one serum had both igg and igm antibodies. the patient exhibited acute encephalitic febrile illness, thrombocytopenia, high ast and alt levels ...200515906672
development and evaluation of serological assays for detection of human hantavirus infections caused by sin nombre virus.the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) was first recognized in 1993 after a cluster of acute respiratory distress syndrome deaths in the southwestern of the united states. the major causative agent of hcps in north america is the sin nombre virus (snv) carried by the deer mouse peromyscus maniculatus. the first hcps case imported to europe was reported in 2002.200515911448
[nephropathia caused by hantavirus puumala: a case report].we present a patient from germany with hantavirus infection, admitted in the emergency room of our hospital, with fever, thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure, oliguria, mild proteinuria and hematuria. percutaneous renal biopsy revealed an acute interstitial nephritis without medulla haemorrhages. the virus infection confirmation was made by detection of igm against hantavirus puumala. this infection should be considered in patients with thrombocytopenia, fever and acute renal failure, over all ...200515912658
[emerging respiratory infections caused by pneumotropic viruses]. 200515915382
a hantavirus nucleocapsid protein segment exposed on hepatitis b virus core particles is highly immunogenic in mice when applied without adjuvants or in the presence of pre-existing anti-core antibodies.hepatitis b virus (hbv) core particles carrying the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the nucleocapsid (n) protein of the hantaviruses dobrava, hantaan or puumala have been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in mice when complexed with adjuvants. here we demonstrate that even without adjuvant, these chimeric particles induced high-titered, and strongly cross-reactive n-specific antibody responses in balb/c and c57bl/6 mice. the induced n-specific antibodies represented all igg subclasses ...200515917119
peptide antagonists that inhibit sin nombre virus and hantaan virus entry through the beta3-integrin receptor.specific therapy is not available for the treatment of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome caused by sin nombre virus (snv). the entry of pathogenic hantaviruses into susceptible human cells is dependent upon expression of the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, and transfection of human beta(3) integrin is sufficient to confer infectibility onto cho (chinese hamster ovary) cells. furthermore, pretreatment of susceptible cells with anti-beta(3) antibodies such as c7e3 or its fab fragment reopro prevents h ...200515919886
inactivation of hantaan virus-containing samples for subsequent investigations outside biosafety level 3 facilities.the potential risk of accidental infection by hantaviruses in a clinical or research laboratory necessitates special precautionary measures. a biosafety program must address handling and disposal of infectious materials as well as appropriate virus inactivation or depletion procedures to permit necessary further processing of specimens outside the biosafety level 3 laboratory.200515920350
low seroprevalence among farmers from nebraska and vicinity suggests low level of human exposure to sin nombre virus. 200515927920
variability of g1 gene of hantaviruses occurring in the hubei province, p.r. china from 1985 to 2000.we studied variability of g1 gene of hantaviruses occurring in the hubei province, p.r. china. serum samples were collected from 229 patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromes (hfrs) during 1985--1989 and 1996--2000 and were tested by rt-pcr for the presence of hantaan and seoul viruses (htnvs, seovs) and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis for the respective pattern. out of 229 sera 166 (72.5%) were hantavirus-positive by rt-pcr, including 124 from 1985--1989 a ...200515929399
hantavirus nucleocapsid protein: a multifunctional molecule with both housekeeping and ambassadorial duties.in recent years important progress has been made studying the nucleocapsid (n) protein of hantaviruses. the n protein presents a good example of a multifunctional viral macromolecule. it is a major structural component of a virion that encapsidates viral rna (vrna). it also interacts with the virus polymerase (l protein) and one of the glycoproteins. on top of these "house keeping" duties, the n protein performs interactive "ambassadorial" functions interfering with important regulatory pathways ...200515931462
central european dobrava hantavirus isolate from a striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius).dobrava virus (dobv) is a hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in europe. it is hosted by at least two rodent species, apodemus flavicollis and a. agrarius. according to their natural hosts they form the distinct genetic lineages dobv-af and dobv-aa, respectively. we have now established a dobv isolate named slovakia (sk/aa) from an a. agrarius animal captured in slovakia. the complete s and m and partial l segment nucleotide sequences of the new isolate were deter ...200515956394
clinical survey of hantavirus in southern brazil and the development of specific molecular diagnosis tools.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is an emerging disease caused by an increasing number of distinct hantavirus serotypes found worldwide. it is also a very severe immune disease. it progresses quickly and is associated with a high mortality rate. at the prodrome phase, hantavirosis symptoms can resemble those of other infectious diseases such as leptospirosis and influenza. thus, prognosis could be improved by developing a rapid and sensitive diagnostic test for hantavirus infection, and by im ...200515964966
hantaviruses in central south america: phylogenetic analysis of the s segment from hps cases in paraná, brazil.we sequenced the complete s segments of hantaviruses detected from 12 hps patients living in southern of brazil. samples were obtained from patients diagnosed in different years, in distinct areas, and with a broad spectrum of clinical signs. despite these differences, all the s proteins of hantavirus from paraná were identical, except for one amino acid substitution. phylogenetic analyses of the complete s segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences indicated that hantaviruses from paraná form ...200515977228
hanta hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: a case report and review.hantavirus infection is seldom reported in taiwan. the spectrum of clinical severity ranges from mild to severe and may cover hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). we report a case of hfrs in a 24-year-old soldier presenting with fever, chills, abdominal pain and generalized myalgia. his clinical course progressed through febrile, hypotensive, oliguria and polyuria phases. hantavirus infection was proven by serology at the second hospital week. the patie ...200515986074
cross-species transfer of viruses: implications for the use of viral vectors in biomedical research, gene therapy and as live-virus vaccines.all living organisms are continuously exposed to a plethora of viruses. in general, viruses tend to be restricted to the natural host species which they infect. from time to time viruses cross the host-range barrier expanding their host range. however, in very rare cases cross-species transfer is followed by the establishment and persistence of a virus in the new host species, which may result in disease. recent examples of viruses that have crossed the species barrier from animal reservoirs to ...200515986492
[expression and genetic immunization of hantaan virus g2 recombinant adenovirus].to express hantaan virus(htnv) envelope glycoprotein g(2) recombinant adenovirus(adeno-g(2)) in vero e6 cells and explore its property of inducing immune response.200515989780
diffusion and home range parameters from rodent population measurements in panama.simple random walk considerations are used to interpret rodent population data collected in hantavirus-related investigations in panama regarding the short-tailed cane mouse, zygodontomys brevicauda. the diffusion constant of mice is evaluated to be of the order of (and larger than) 200 meters squared per day. the investigation also shows that the rodent mean square displacement saturates in time, indicating the existence of a spatial scale which could, in principle, be the home range of the rod ...200515998498
distribution and abundance of sigmodontine rodents in relation to hantavirus in neuquén, argentina.in order to estimate spatial distribution, temporal variation, and prevalence of andes hantavirus antibody in the rodent community, and especially in oligoryzomys longicaudatus populations, four different ecosystems were trapped seasonally between spring 2001 and winter 2002 in neuquen, northwestern argentinean patagonia. five peridomestic settings were sampled within the same period. the rodent o. longicaudatus had the widest distribution in neuquen, as it was the only species captured at every ...200516007965
a preliminary study of the patterns of sin nombre viral infection and shedding in naturally infected deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus).deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) were trapped in southern manitoba, canada and tested for evidence of sin nombre virus infection. viral genome was amplified from tissues as well as saliva/oropharyngeal fluid, and urine samples were collected from seropositive animals. detection of viral rna in tissue samples and excreta/secreta from mice suggest that differences may exist between naturally infected rodents with respect to viral shedding.200516011428
state-by-state incidences of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states, 1993-2004.we investigated geographic disparity in numbers of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) cases in the united states. the 12-year incidences of hps (cases/100,000 for total and rural residents) by state did not parallel the number of cases per state. the state with the greatest overall incidence was new mexico, with montana ranking second. when rural incidence based on rural human population sizes were compared, new mexico also had the highest incidence, but utah, nevada, montana, arizona, and colo ...200516011436
essential amino acids of the hantaan virus n protein in its interaction with rna.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of hantavirus encapsidates viral genomic and antigenomic rnas. previously, deletion mapping identified a central, conserved region (amino acids 175 to 217) within the hantaan virus (htnv) n protein that interacts with a high affinity with these viral rnas (vrnas). to further define the boundaries of the rna binding domain (rbd), several peptides were synthesized and examined for the ability to bind full-length s-segment vrna. peptide 195-217 retained 94% of the vrna ...200516014963
[the renal failure and capillary leak during the acute stage of (dobrava) dob and puu (puumala) infection].the target organ for puumala (puu) and dobrava (dob) viruses is the kidney, but the impact on renal function seems far more important in dob infection than in puu infections. aim of study was to estimate the renal failure and capillary leak during the acute stage of dob-infection and puu-infection. 50 patients with serological conformed diagnosis of acute hantavirus infection were included in the study. diuresis, serum urea and creatinine were measured. size of kidneys and presence of ascites wa ...200516018388
hantavirus: 'tis the season. 200516027428
hantaviruses: molecular biology, evolution and pathogenesis.hantaviruses are tri-segmented negative sense single stranded rna viruses that belong to the family bunyaviridae. in nature, hantaviruses are exclusively maintained in the populations of their specific rodent hosts. in their natural host species, hantaviruses usually develop a persistent infection with prolonged virus shedding in excreta. humans become infected by inhaling virus contaminated aerosol. unlike asymptomatic infection in rodents, hantaviruses cause two acute febrile diseases in human ...200516375712
rift valley fever virus.rift valley fever is considered to be one of the most important viral zoonoses in africa. in 2000, the rift valley fever virus spread to the arabian peninsula and caused two simultaneous outbreaks in yemen and saudi arabia. it is transmitted to ruminants and to humans by mosquitoes. the viral agent is an arbovirus, which belongs to the phlebovirus genus in the bunyaviridae family. this family of viruses comprises more than 300 members grouped into five genera: orthobunyavirus, phlebovirus, hanta ...200516375716
phylogenetic evidence for the distinction of saaremaa and dobrava hantaviruses.dobrava virus (dobv) and saaremaa virus (saav) are two closely related hantaviruses carried by different rodent species. the distinction of these two viruses has been a matter of debate. while the phylogenies based on the viral m segment sequences were repeatedly showing monophyly of saav strains, some trees based on the s segment sequences were not, thus causing questions on the demarcation between these two viruses. in order to clarify this issue, the current collection of the virus s segment ...200516336658
[addition of an arterio-venous shunt during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support in a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].a subgroup of patients infected with the hantavirus develops a pulmonary syndrome (hps) characterized by severe acute respiratory failure and myocardial depression, that has a high mortality rate. extracorporeal life support (ecls) could be a valuable therapeutic tool in such patients. we report a 24 years old male with hps that was successfully managed when an arterio-venous shunt was added to a conventional veno-arterial ecls technique. precise criteria have been developed to predict which pat ...200516341389
a longitudinal study of bayou virus, hosts, and habitat.what is currently known about the ecology of north american hantaviruses has come largely from studies on sin nombre virus (snv). we conducted a longitudinal study of bayou virus (bayv), the second-leading agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states. antibodies to hantavirus were detected from oryzomys palustris (most commonly infected species), sigmodon hispidus, peromyscus leucopus, reithrodontomys fulvescens, and baiomys taylori. however, only o. palustris had viral rna in tis ...200516354810
regulation of rodent-borne viruses in the natural host: implications for human disease.prevalence and transmission rates of rodent-borne viruses within host populations vary in time and space and among host-virus systems. improving our understanding of the causes of these variations will lead to a better understanding of changes in disease risk to humans. the regulators of prevalence and transmission can be categorized into five major classes: (1) environmental regulators such as weather and food supply affect transmission rates through their effect on reproductive success and pop ...200516355867
hantavirus gc glycoprotein: evidence for a class ii fusion protein.hantavirus cell entry is promoted by its envelope glycoproteins, gn and gc, through cell attachment and by fusion between viral and endosomal membranes at low ph. however, the role of gn and gc in receptor binding and cell fusion has not yet been defined. in this work, a sequence presenting characteristics similar to those of class ii fusion peptides (fps) of alphavirus e1 and flavivirus e proteins is identified within the hantavirus gc glycoprotein. a three-dimensional comparative molecular mod ...200516227214
long-term dynamics of sin nombre viral rna and antibody in deer mice in montana.infections with hantaviruses in the natural host rodent may result in persistent, asymptomatic infections involving shedding of virus into the environment. laboratory studies have partially characterized the acute and persistent infection by sin nombre virus (snv) in its natural host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). however, these studies have posed questions that may best be addressed using longitudinal studies involving sequential sampling of individual wild-caught, naturally infected ...200516244056
are humans infected by hantaviruses in australia?hantavirus antibody-positive rodents have been found across australia although, to date, there are no reports of infections in humans. this could be due to misdiagnosis clinically and/or inadequate laboratory technique/skills. there are close trading ties between australia and asian countries as well as our geographical neighbours where both human and rodent infections are found, so importation is a continuing threat. we consider that further sero-epidemiological surveys are warranted among rode ...200516248862
hantaviruses are here in india. 200516251773
a pilot study for serological evidence of hantavirus infection in human population in south india.hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the family bunyaviridae that have been identified as aetiological agents of two human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). there are no reports of hantavirus infections in humans from india, hence this pilot study was undertaken to provide the serological evidence of hantavirus infections in humans in south india.200516251777
metabolic activity of macrophages infected with hantavirus, an agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.monocytes/macrophages are thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of viral infections. these cells are involved in distribution and persistence of viruses in the organism and also influence the regulation of immune reactions. the functional and enzymatic activities of macrophages infected with an agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome were analyzed for the first time. this disease is caused by a virus of the hantavirus genus, the bunyaviridae family. activities of ectoenzymes 5 ...200516266269
hantavirus infection. 200516267154
[rodents as the vectors of infective agents in the natural foci of infections in the moscow megapolis].this work deals with the results of 40-year observations on the circulation of infective agents in the natural foci of infections (tularemia, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) among rodents and other small mammals in the territory of the moscow. the monitoring of their frequency and the infection rates remains the main effective measure for the prophylaxis of dangerous infections among the population of the megapolis.200516279545
double-stranded rna induces the synthesis of retinoic acid-inducible gene-i in vascular endothelial cells.viral infection induces various responses in vascular endothelial cells. polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly ic) is a synthetic double-stranded rna (dsrna), and treatment of cells with poly ic mimics the viral infection to the cells. retinoic acid-inducible gene-i (rig-i) is a protein belonging to the dexh-box family and designated as a putative rna helicase. rig-i is considered to play a role in antiviral responses through the regulation of gene expressions. in the present study, the authors ...200516291516
induction of innate immune response genes by sin nombre hantavirus does not require viral replication.maladaptive immune responses are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of the two diseases caused by hantaviruses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps). while the intensity of adaptive antiviral t-cell responses seems to correlate with the severity of hcps, there is increasing evidence that innate antiviral responses by endothelial cells, the native targets for hantavirus infection in vivo, are induced within hours of exposure to i ...200516306571
person-to-person transmission of andes virus.despite the fact that rodents are considered to be the infectious source of hantavirus for humans, another route of transmission was demonstrated. andes virus (andv) has been responsible for most of the cases recorded in argentina. person-to-person transmission of andv sout lineage was described during an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southwest argentina. in this study, we analyzed 4 clusters that occurred in 2 disease-endemic areas for different andv lineages. we found new eviden ...200516485469
[genetics subtypes and distribution of seoul virus in henan].to investigate the sub-genotypes and distribution ot seoul virus in henan.200516390005
[hantavirus nephropathy]. 200516392314
[hantavirus infection].hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) are rodent borne viral zoonosis caused by hantavirus infection. hfrs and hps cause epidemic in eurasia continent and north and south american continent, respectively. various species of wild rodents play as a reservoir animal in nature. laboratory rat derived hfrs epidemic has also been reported in several countries including japan. recently, hfrs and hps were classified to category 4 diseases in the japanese la ...200516363694
larger than usual increase in cases of hantavirus infections in belgium, france and germany, june 2005. 200516785666
increased hantavirus infections in luxembourg, august 2005. 200516785690
delayed viremia and antibody responses in puumala hantavirus challenged passively immunized cynomolgus macaques.no specific therapy is currently available against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. in order to study if passive immunization could inhibit hantavirus infection and/or symptoms, we inoculated two cynomolgus macaques with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and subsequently challenged them with wild-type puumala virus (puuv), recently shown to induce typical signs of milder hfrs in cynomolgus macaques. although viral load and antibody titers did not di ...200515449139
l protein, the rna-dependent rna polymerase of hantaviruses.l protein of hantaviruses is the rna transcriptase and replicase that transcribes mrnas and replicates the genomic rna using antigenomic rna as an intermediate. it also appears to have endonuclease activity. in this review, the current knowledge on the hantavirus l protein is presented including sequence motifs conserved in rna polymerases, mechanisms of rna synthesis and also the most recent findings on homologous rna recombination and membrane association.200515503219
a cophylogenetic perspective of rna-virus evolution.the extent to which viruses and their hosts codiverge remains an open question, given that numerous cases of both "cospeciation" and horizontal switching have recently been documented. dna viruses that form persistent infections are thought to be the most likely candidates for phylogenetic congruence. phylogenetic reconciliation analysis was used to compare established phylogenies for four rna viruses and their hosts. the analysis employs a cophylogeny mapping technique, implemented in treemap v ...200412949128
development of reassortant viruses between pathogenic hantavirus strains.segment reassortment of negative strand viruses is an important mechanism for the development of new virus strains with altered pathogenicity. this study reports on in vitro generation of reassortants between andes (andv) and sin nombre (snv) viruses. although they both cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), andv is the only hantavirus that has been transmitted from person to person (). following dual infection of cells with andv and snv, 8.9% of 337 progeny plaques contained reassortants, o ...200415351210
complete gene sequence of a human puumala hantavirus isolate, puumala umeå/hu: sequence comparison and characterisation of encoded gene products.puumala virus is a member of the hantavirus genus in the bunyaviridae family, and the major causative agent of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in europe. this study was conducted with a human puumala virus isolate (puuv umeå/hu), and contains the determination of the first complete puuv sequence from a human source. when the relationship to other puumala viruses was analysed, a possible rna segment exchange between two local strains of puuv was noticed. furthermore, the coding regions of ...200415351488
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in latin america.since the identification of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states in 1993, latin america has been the region of the world where more hantaviruses have been identified, associated with human disease or not. this update shows the advances in the study of hantaviruses in several countries of the region and the problems that are still unresolved.200415353962
vaccination of c57/bl6 mice with dobrava hantavirus nucleocapsid protein in freund's adjuvant induced partial protection against challenge.dobrava hantavirus (dobv) causes a severe form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) for which there is no therapy or vaccine available. we compared the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant dobv nucleocapsid protein (rdobv n) given with alum or freund's as adjuvant, or pbs, in c57/bl6 mice. all mice given alum or freund's seroconverted as did 6/8 mice given rdobv n with pbs. reciprocal geometric mean total igg-titers were 5380, 18,100, and 800, respectively, while the ...200415364453
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