rat interferons. iv. sialoproteins in rat serum.introduction of virus as inductor of interferon into rats caused a decline in serum levels of sialic acid in blood taken at the time of maximum interferon activity. differences in the acute phase proteins were dependent on the type of virus used for induction. ndv injected intravenously did not lower serum levels of seromucoid, but given together with dmso markedly depressed the content of this protein in the serum. stimulation of interferon production by sindbis virus was accompanied by a signi ...1977879992
strategy of the flavivirus genome: evidence for multiple internal initiation of translation of proteins specified by kunjin virus in mammalian cells. 1977888349
two small virus-specific polypeptides are produced during infection with sindbis virus.we have identified and characterized two small virus-specific polypeptides which are produced during infection of cells with sindbis virus, but which are not incorporated into the mature virion. the larger of these is a glycoprotein with an approximate molecular weight of 9,800 and is found predominantly in the medium of infected cells. three independent lines of evidence demonstrate conclusively that this 9,800-dalton glycoprotein is produced during the proteolytic conversion of the precursor p ...1979448798
a comparison of saint louis encephalitis and sindbis virus rna.rna isolated from purified st. louis encephalitis and sindbis virus particles was compared by cellulose cf-11 chromatography, and rnase t1 and pancreatic rnase a digestion. sle rna eluted from the cellulose cf-11 column as a molecule with very little secondary structure, while sindbis appears to have some internal bonding. ribonuclease digestion indicates that sle rna contains 2.4 per cent polyadenylic acid.1977889439
pathogenesis of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus in the embryonated egg. iii. autologous, homologous, and heterologous interference.two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis virus able to synthetize rna, but not two ts mutants defective in viral rna synthesis, reduced to lethality of the superinfecting heat-resistant parent strain of sindbis virus in embryonated chicken eggs as compared with results in controls. autologous interference (of mutant with parent) was observed under a variety of conditions. time-course studies in one selected system showed that lower titers of superinfecting parent virus were detected in ...1977889615
requirements for the insertion of the sindbis envelope glycoproteins into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.previous work has shown that the sindbis structural proteins, core, the internal protein, and pe2 and e1, the integral membrane glycoproteins are synthesized as a polyprotein from a 26s mrna; core pe2 and e1 are derived by proteolytic cleavage of a nascent chain. newly synthesized core protein remains on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum while newly synthesized pe2 and e1 are inserted into the lipid bilayer, presumably via their amino-termini. pe2 and e1 are glycosylated as nasce ...1979479287
glycopeptides of murine leukemia viruses. i. comparison of two ecotropic viruses.the glycopeptides obtained by pronase digestion of two ecotropic strains of murine leukemia virus (mulv) were compared by gel filtration. four different glycopeptide size classes, designated g(1), g(2), g(3), and g(4), with molecular weights of approximately 5,100, 2,900, 2,200, and 1,500, respectively, were shown to be associated with rauscher mulv virions grown in jls-v9 cells. various sugar precursors, including glucosamine, galactose, fucose, and mannose were incorporated into g(1) and g(2), ...1979228050
the continued presence of interferon is not required for activation of cells by interferon. 1977896806
mutants of sindbis virus. ii. characterization of a maturation-defective mutant, ts103. 1977898673
evolution and properties of aedes albopictus cell cultures persistently infected with sindbis virus. 1977898680
nucleolar fragmentation in cells infected with alphaviruses (39886). 1977909877
the significance and nature of defective interfering viruses.deletions in viral genomes appear to be a common occurrence in the replication of all dna and rna viruses which have been adequately studied. such defective genomes can replicate in the presence in the same cell of a helper virus as long as the deletion does not involve the initiation site for genome replication. coinfection of a cell with defective and "normal" infectious virus leads to reduction in the yield of the latter. the nature of di viruses and genomes found in sindbis virus-infected ve ...1977912148
reaction of the protease inhibitor p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate with sindbis virus. 1977929977
[inhibition of vaccinia, sindbis and para-influenza virus replication by isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone derivative and methisazone in vitro and in vivo]. 1979232050
ribonuclease-resistant rna of kemerovo virus.rna of partially purified kemerovo virus sedimented in a relatively broad region in sucrose density gradient with a peak at 14 s. approximately 65% of this rna was resistant to the action of ribonuclease which indicates the double-stranded nature of kemerovo virus rna.1975235200
functional defects of rna-negative temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis and semliki forest viruses.defects in rna and protein synthesis of seven sindbis virus and seven semliki forest virus rna-negative, temperature-sensitive mutants were studied after shift to the restrictive temperature (39 degrees c) in the middle of the growth cycle. only one of the mutants, ts-6 of sindbis virus, a representative of complementation group f, was clearly unable to continue rna synthesis at 39 degrees c, apparently due to temperature-sensitive polymerase. the defect was reversible and affected the synthesis ...1979541824
mutants of sindbis virus. iii. host polypeptides present in purified hr and ts103 virus particles.the amounts of host-encoded protein present in purified sindbis virions of both the hr strain and of a mutant (ts103) which makes multicored particles were examined. cells were labeled with [35s]methionine before infection and with [3h]methionine postinfection. virions were purified by velocity sedimentation and isopycnic banding, and their polypeptides were examined by polyacrylamide gels in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing discontinuous buffer system. host prelabeled material was found prin ...1978569218
biological activity of hepatitis b antigens in cell interference by purified hepatitis b surface antigen or virus particles was not demonstrated in tissue culture. significant levels of interferon were not induced. the surface antigen did not block the adsorption of other viruses.1978569686
comparison of the carbohydrate of sinbis virus glycoproteins with the carbohydrate of host glycoproteins.the carbohydrate portions of the sindbis virus glycoproteins were compared with the carbohydrate portions of cell surface glycoproteins from uninfected host cells. comparisons of the size of glycopeptides were made using gel filtrations. comparisons of sugar linkages were made by methylation analysis. the conclusion was that the sindbis carbohydrate is similar to a portion of the host carbohydrate. thus, the sindbis carbohydrate structures appear to be structures normally made in the uninfected ...1977616485
hexagonal glycoprotein arrays from sindbis virus membranes.freeze-etch electron microscopy of sindbis virus and of glycoprotein arrays derived from sindbis membranes by nonionic detergent treatment shows that the local geometry of glycoprotein-glycoprotein interaction does not depend on the presence of the nucleocapsid.1978722862
inhibition of sindbis virus replication by zinc ions. 1976945640
enveloped virus acquires membrane defect when passaged in fibroblasts from i-cell disease patients.sindbis virus obtained after passage on human fibroblasts from patients with i-cell disease (mucolipidosis ii) and called i-cell virus differed from sindbis virus obtained from chick fibroblasts or from normal human fibroblasts in two ways: (1) the i-cell virus was extremely unstable to freezing and thawing, (2) the i-cell virus showed greatly exaggerated sensitivity to inactivation by triton x-100. sindbis virus from fibroblasts from two patients with mucolipidosis iii, a milder form of i-cell ...1976821054
[comparative studies of two alphavirus by macroplaque assays and by a fluorescent focus method in vero cell lines (author's transl)].immune anti-sindbis and anti-chikungunya ascitic fluids have been titrated by the classic way of plaque reduction and by a quick fluorescent focus method using an indirect staining. the results are comparable, allowing to consider the use of this quick and inexpensive technic for counting-assays by neutralization.1976828464
kinetics of the rapid action of interferon.the present study was undertaken to examine some factors which lead to early-appearing resistance in human cells treated with interferon. it was previously shown that two conditions required for rapid development of resistance were continuous maintenance of cultures at 37 degrees and use of more than 10 units/ml of interferon. the decay kinetics of the established resistance appear to be approximately the same whether the resistance was induced under conditions favoring rapid or slow development ...1976967891
interaction of sindbis virus glycoproteins during cells infected with the sindbis temperature-sensitive mutants ts-23 and ts-10 (complementation group d), which contain a defect in the envelope glycoprotein e1, the precursor polypeptide pe2 is not cleaved to the envelope glycoprotein e2 at the nonpermissive temperature. this defect is phenotypically identical to the defect observed in the complementation group e mutant, ts-20. the lesion in ts-23 is reversible upon shift to permissive temperature, whereas that of ts-10 is not. antiserum agai ...1977833949
defects in rna+ temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus and evidence for a complex of pe2-e1 viral glycoproteins. 1976982835
microviscosity of togavirus membranes studied by fluorescence depolarization: influence of envelope proteins and the host cell.the microviscosities of the hydrophobic regions of the membranes of intact semliki forest and sindbis viruses grown on bhk-21 cells, of liposomes derived from the extracted viral lipids, and of protease-treated virions were measured by fluorescence depolorization using the fluorescence probe 1, 6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. the intact virus membranes were found to have a higher microviscosity than did virus-derived liposomes, indicating the viral envelope proteins contribute to microviscosity. ho ...1976985887
membrane biogenesis. in vitro cleavage, core glycosylation, and integration into microsomal membranes of sindbis virus glycoproteins.sindbis virus 26s rna has been translated in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system from rabbit reticulocytes. when the system was supplemented with edta-stripped dog pancreas microsomal membranes, the following results were obtained: (a) complete translation of 26s rna, resulting in the production, by endoproteolytic cleavage, of three polypeptides that are apparently identical to those forms of c, pe2, and e1 that are synthesized in vivo by infected host cells during a 3-min pulse with [35s]m ...1979422651
characteristics of sindbis virus temperature-sensitive mutants in cultured bhk-21 and aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells.a number of the temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus originally isolated and characterized by burge and pfefferkorn (1966, 1968) were reexamined for their abilities to grow and complement one another in cultured bhk-21 and aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells. the response of the mutants to conditions of high and low temperature was similar in cultured cells of both the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. complementation experiments in bhk-21 cells produced growth patterns similar to those ...1976987251
the pathogenesis of sindbis virus infection in athymic nude mice. 1979469246
formation of a sindbis virus nonstructural protein and its relation of 42s mrna function.chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with an rna- temperature-sensitive mutant (ts24) of sindbis virus accumulated a large-molecular-weight protein (p200) when cells were shifted from the permissive to nonpermissive temperature. appearance of p200 was accompanied by a decrease in the synthesis of viral structural proteins, but [35s]methionine tryptic peptides from p200 were different from those derived from a 140,000-molecular-weight polypeptide that contains the amino acid sequences of viral str ...1976994299
purification and composition of the proteins from sindbis virus grown in chick and bhk cells.procedures are described for the purification of the sindbis virus structural proteins. the amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the purified proteins are presented for virus grown in bhk-21/13 and chicken embryo cells. glycoprotein e1 from virus grown in bhk cells is deficient in a mannose-rich glycopeptide found on that glycoprotein when virus is grown in chicken embryo cells. the complex glactose-containing glycopeptides appear similar for virus grown in both hosts. however, when virus ...1976994303
di-and trimethylated congeners of 7-methylguanine in sindbis virus mrna. 1976995206
maintenance and recovery of the interferon-induced antiviral state. 1976995931
a radioisotopic technique for measuring the mononuclear inflammatory response in sindbis virus-induced encephalitis of mice.the mononuclear inflammation occurring in sindbis virus-induced encephalitis of mice has been measured by means of pulse labelling with [125i]udr at a defined time after infection. the method should be applicable to other studies of encephalitis and of mononuclear cellular infiltration occurring in other organs as a result of disease or infection.1979479615
absence of a cleavable signal sequence in sindbis virus glycoprotein pe2.partial nh2-terminal sequence analysis has been performed on some products that result from the translation of 26 s mrna of sindbis virus either in vivo or in vitro. in vivo products were obtained after pulse-labeling of virus-infected cells. in vitro products were obtained after cell-free translation either in the absence or presence of microsomal membrane vesicles from dog pancreas. the sequence data indicate that the selective translocation across the microsomal membrane required for a distin ...1979500711
interferon induction by viruses. ii. sindbis virus: interferon induction requires one-quarter of the genome--genes g and a.we have measured the amounts of interferon formed by chick cells 'aged' in vitro in response to different amounts of infectious wild-type sindbis virus. our results suggest that one plaque-forming unit is enough to induce maximum interferon formation. with higher m.o.i. the yield of interferon is less. to inactivate the interferon-inducing activity of sindbis virus, four times more u.v.-radiation was needed than to inactivate the infectivity of the virus. this suggests that only 25% of the virus ...1979501335
ord river arboviruses--serological epidemiology.this paper presents the results of haemagglutination-inhibition tests carried out on sera from 441 persons, 1,080 cattle and 335 birds in the kimberley area. two alphaviruses (group a) (ross river and sindbis) and one flavivirus (murray valley encephalitis) were used for the preparation of haemagglutinins in the haemagglutination-inhibition tests. the tests showed a high percentage of antibody of murray valley encephalitis in humans, birds and cattle, with an obvious focus of infection in the st ...19761021093
[identification of rnaase-sensitive 20s rna in a cell culture infected with sindbis virus].rnase-sensitive 20s rna component with molecular weight of 0.7-10(6) is found when analysing virus-specific rnas isolated from cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis virus by means of gradient centrifugation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.19761022269
biophysical studies on circle formation by sindbis virus 49 s rna. 1979513134
[effect of rimantadine on the synthesis of virus-specific rna in the culture of cells infected with sindbis virus].effect of rimanthadine (alpha-methyl-i-adamantane methylamine) on the synthesis of virus specific rna was studied in culture of cells, infected with syndbis virus. rimanthadine inhibits the synthesis of virus specific rna beginning from the 3-rd hr of infection. a magnitude of inhibition from the 3-rd to the 7-th hrs of infection was practically the same and exceeded 50%. in the presence of rimanthadine "early" rna was formed (with sedimentation constant of 20-14 s), where radioactivity was lowe ...19761027258
the production and action of interferon in chinese hamster cells.the interferon system has been investigated in primary cell cultures established from chinese hamster embryos and new born pups. interferon synthesis was induced with sindbis virus, ultraviolet inrradiated newcastle disease virus (u.v.-ndv) and with polyriboinosine acid-polyribocytidylic acid complex [poly (ri). poly (rc)]. only u.v.-ndv induced significant production of interferon, maximum amounts being produced in 'aged' cells. its apparent mol. wt. was 25000. cho-ki cells, an established line ...19761033270
replication of standard and defective ross river virus in bhk cells: patterns of viral rna and polypeptide synthesis.virus-specific macromolecule synthesis has been examined in bhk cells infected with ross river virus. unpassaged virus (r-0) and tenth-passage virus (r-10) have been compared. in infected cells r-0 generates i) 45s, 28s, 33s and 26s viral rnas, ii) virus-specific precursor polypeptides of mol. wt. 127,000, 95,000 and 61,000 and iii) viral envelope proteins (mol. wts. 52,000 and 49,000) and nucleocapsid protein (mol. wt. 32,000). thus in terms of virus-specific rna and polypeptide synthesis, the ...1979518301
[integration and transfection of an arbovirus by mammalian cells].a system: l cells chronically infected with sindbis virus was studied. unlike acute infection wherein the mature virions are produced, the chronically infected tissue culture produces subviral structures-infectious ribonucleoproteins. molecular hybridization experiments revealed the integration of the viral genome (dna-transcript) into the cellular genome. transfection experiments showed the possibility to induce the synthesis of the virus in sensitive cells treated with dna from the chronically ...19761053085
sindbis virus rna replication. i. properties of the 38s rna species.four species of single-stranded virus rna (49s, 38s, 33s and 26s) were detected in chick embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis virus. the relative amounts of these rnas were unaffected by the m.o.i. there was also no significant difference in the molar proportions of the four rna species when purified virion rna was used as the inoculum. these findings suggest that the 38s and 33s species represent products of the transcription of non-defective virion rnas. kinetic analyses of rna synthesis i ...1979528982
in vivo behavior of a sindbis virus mutant isolated from persistently infected aedes aegypti cell cultures.a mutant of the sindbis virus sv-s was found to interfere with the regular course of infection by the wild strain of the virus sv-w in a. aegypti mosquitoes and in suckling mice. in mosquitoes, this result was manifested by a reduced titer of sv-w in the presence of sv-s and by a failure of the mosquitoes to transmit sv-w. in the brains of suckling mice, in the presence of sv-s, the growth of sc inoculated sv-w was suppressed, and as a result, the usually lethal course of infection by this virus ...19751072594
observations of aedes albopictus cell cultures persistently infected with sindbis virus. 19751072595
neutralization of a togavirus by antivector a. aegypti-propagated togavirus (sindbis) is neutralized by antisera to both whole-body extracts and to salivary fluid of the vector mosquito. virus propagated in vero cells is not neutralized by such antisera. neutralizing activity resides in the immune globulin fraction of sera. sera from animals injected with adjuvant neutralized neither virus propagated in mosquitoes nor virus obtained from vero cells. although neutralizing titers were low, such activity may protect, to some degree, verte ...19751072597
[origin and formation of different types of vacuoles induced by the multiplication of the alphavirus sindbis virus in various cell systems].spherule-containing vacuoles and nucleocapsid-bearing vacuoles (cytopathic vacuoles types 1 and 2 respectively of grimley et al. 1968) induced by alphavirus sindbis were studied in brains from newborn mice, chicken embryo fibroblasts, and two lines of tumoral glial cells from muridae. endoplasmic reticulum (er) elements and finely granular electron-dense material also seen in contact with nucleocapsids seemed to be involved in the formation of the classical single-membrane spherule-containing va ...1979534962
inhibition of group b arbovirus antigen production and replication in cells enucleated with cytochalasin b.a comparative study of the growth of sindbis (sin) virus, a group a arbovirus (togavirus), and japanese encephalitis (je) virus, a representative group b arbovirus (togavirus), was conducted in enucleate and nucleate cells. immunofluorescent tests and yield measurements demonstrated that chicken embryo cells which had been enucleated and subsequently infected with sin virus produced virus-specific antigens and infectious virus. by contrast, je failed to replicate or produce virus-specific antige ...19751090752
sindbis virus replication in vertebrate and mosquito cells: an interpretation.this paper summarizes recent comparative studies of sindbis virus (sv) replication in cultured aedes albopictus (a. albo) or (a. aegypti (a. aeg) and bhk21 or chick embryo (cef) cells. 1. viral growth kinetics and yields are similar in a. albo cells at 28 degress c and in vertebrate cells at 37 degrees c. a. albo exhibit no cpe and yield persistenetly infected cultures. 2. sv grown in a. albo cells lacks sialic acid but is antigenically and in terms of particle/pfu or particle/hau ratios equival ...19751107684
the effect of infection with sindbis virus and its temperature-sensitive mutants on cellular protein and dna synthesis. 1976936476
[possible mechanisms of chronic viral infections (author's transl)]. 19751108450
polyadenylic acid size and position found in sindbis virus genome and mrna species. 1976936483
sialic acid contents of sindbis virus from vertebrate and mosquito cells. equivalence of biological and immunological viral properties. 1976942807
[infection of mice with sindbis virus during pregnancy]. 1976944402
the distribution and prevalence of group a arbovirus neutralizing antibodies among human populations in southeast asia and the pacific islands.plaque reduction neutralization tests, using five group a arboviruses (chikungunya, ross river, getah, bebaru and sindbis), were done on sera from human populations in 44 southeast asia and pacific island localities. specificity of the plaque neutralization test was determined by examining convalescent sera from patients with known alphavirus infections. chikungunya-specific neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera of persons living in south vietnam, northern malaysia, indonesia (kalima ...19751155702
the induction of interferon by temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus: its relationship to double-stranded rna synthesis and cytopathic effect.sindbis virus strain ar339 induces interferon by 3 h after infection at 39 degrees c and by 8 h after infection at 30 degrees c. the time course of interferon induction between 4 and 9 h after infection at the restrictive temperature (39 degrees c) was measured for 24 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants, all of which induced interferon by 16 h after infection. mutants showing total rna synthesis at 39 degrees c greater than 10% of the wild-type level induced interferon with kinetics similar to th ...1976950559
proposed nomenclature for alphavirus polypeptides. 1976950561
failure of defective interfering particles of sindbis virus produced in bhk or chicken cells to affect viral replication in aedes albopictus cells.whereas defective interfering particles of sindbis virus are readily produced in bhk-21 cells or chicken embryo fibroblasts by the techniques of serial undiluted passage, similar methods failed to generate such particles in aedes albopictus cell cultures. in addition, sindbis virus stocks produced in bhk-21 cells or chicken embryo fibroblasts and which contained defective interfering particles, when tested in a. albopictus cells, failed (i) to interfere with the replication of standard sindbis v ...1976986481
isolation of a sindbis virus variant by passage on mouse plasmacytoma cells.a variant of sindbis virus has been isolated by growing a stock of virus, previously passaged on chicken embryo cells, in mouse plasmacytoma (mopc 315) cells in suspension culture. an indirect immunofluorescence test and infective center assay showed that only a small fraction of cells could be infected by the stock wild-type virus, but that the population of virus accumulating after a few passages on the mouse cells had host-range properties distinct from the stock virus. the mouse-passaged vir ...19751167912
the role of interferon in interference and auto-interference elicited by newcastle disease virus.newcastle disease virus (ndv) strains interfere in different degree with the growth of the velogenic ndv strain texas gb (homologous interference) and sindbis virus (heterologous interference) in chick embryo fibroblast cells. homologous interference was elicited by interferon-producing live or uv-inactivated strains and non-interferon-producing live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated strains and it was not influenced by actinomycin d. thus, interferon had apparently no role in homologous interfe ...19751168397
replication of lactic dehydrogenase virus and sindbis virus in mouse peritoneal macrophages. induction of interferon and phenotypic mixing. 19751170684
structure and chemical-physical characteristics of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus and its rna.lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv) was purified from culture fluid of infected primary cultures of various mouse tissues (peritoneal macrophage, bone marrow, spleen, and embryo) and from plasma of infected mice. electron microscopy of negatively stained virus and positively stained sections of ldv revealed spherical particles of uniform size with a diameter of about 55 nm, containing an electron-dense core with a diameter of about 30 nm. during sample preparation the envelope had a tend ...19751171266
sindbis virus glycoproteins: effect of the host cell on the oligosaccharides.sindbis virus was grown in four different host cells and the carbohydrate portions of the glycoproteins were analyzed. sindbis virus grown in bhk-21 cells has more sialic acid and galactose than sindbis virus grown in chicken embryo cells. in other respects the carbohydrates from virus grown in these two hosts are very similar. sindbis virus grown either in chick cells transformed by rous sarcoma virus or in bhk cells transformed by polyoma virus was also examined. in comparisons of virus from n ...19751171992
defective interfering particles of sindbis virus. iii. intracellular viral rna species in chick embryo cell cultures. 19751172323
initiation sites for translation of sindbis virus 42s and 26s messenger rnas.sindbis virus 26s rna is the principal species of virus-specific rna found in the infected cell; it is derived from a one third segment of virion 42s rna. when translated in cell-free extracts from mouse ascites cells or rabbit reticulocytes, 26s rna directed the synthesis primarily of the 33,000 dalton virus capsid protein, and the protein products were in the form of free peptides rather than peptidyl-trna. in contrast, the polypeptides synthesized in either extract in response to sindbis viru ...19751182802
crystalline arrays of nucleocapsids in sindbis virus-infected l cells. 19751184346
unexpectedly rapid action of human interferon in physiological conditions. 19751186843
methylation of sindbis virus "26s" messenger rna. 19751191298
defective particles in alphavirus infections.this article summarizes our studies with defective-interfering particles of sindbis virus obtained by high multiplicity passaging of the virus in bhk cells. cells infected with these defective passages accumulate a species of rna (20s) at the expense of 26s rna--the mrna coding for the viral structural proteins. although the structure of the rna in defective particles remains undefined, our studies of replicative forms and replicative intermediates suggest that it is larger than the intracellula ...19751207189
function of sindbis virus 49s and 26s rnas in in vitro protein synthesizing systems. a summary. 19751207190
sindbis virus infected l cells studied by ferritin-labelled antibodies.sindbis virus infected l cells were examined by immunoferritin technique at different times after infection. initially virus-specific antigens appeared diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm and at the surface of vacuoles. later on, both labelled nucleocapsids surrounding vacuoles and mature virus within their lumen were demonstrated. maturation of virus occurred predominantly at the periphery of cells, and that mainly by budding from cell processes. the appearance of big crystals consisting of ...19751221673
[study of the antiviral action of gentamicin].experimental data on the effect of various concentrations of gentamycin on reproduction of vee and sindbis viruses in tissue culture are presented. it was found that gentamycin had no cytotoxic effect on the primary tripsinized chick embryon fibroblasts (cef) when used in doses of 10, 20 or 30 mg/ml and only when used in a dose of 50 mg/ml it induced 50 percent destruction of the cell layer. multiplication of the vee and sindbis viruses in the culture of cef was inhibited in the presence of gent ...19751225192
requirement of cell nucleus for the replication of an hamster kidney (bhk21) cells enucleated with cytochalasin b were infected with pichinde virus or sindbis virus. viral replication was measured by plaque assay, and the synthesis of viral antigens was determined by immunofluorescence. pichinde virus replication was completely inhibited in cells enucleated prior to infection as measured by both techniques while the replication of sindbis virus was unaffected. enucleation of cells at different times after infection with pichinde virus indicate ...19751235853
interferon induction by viruses and polynucleotides: a differential effect of comptothecin.the plant alkaloid comptothecin inhibits interferon production induced by newcastle disease virus (ndv) or ultraviolet-irradiated ndv in chick and human cells, and by sindbis virus in chick cells. it has no effect on interferon production induced by poly (ri).poly(rc) in chick and human cells. no effect of comptothecin could be detected on the multiplication of ndv, and it is concluded that the inhibition reflects a difference between interferon induction by viruses and by polynucleotides.19751239490
the effect of canavanine on the capsid protein of sindbis the presence of the arginine analogue canavanine, sindbis virus-infected bhk 21 cells synthesize a capsid protein of somewhat larger molecular weight than that of controls. this protein can also be seen in short pulse-labelled cells, and probably represents a precursor of the normal capsid protein. in our experiments canavanine had no effect on the viral envelope proteins, and the canavanine containing capsid protein formed nucleocapsids and virus particles as well as normal capsid protein do ...19751239648
effect of cycloheximide on viral precursor protein b in sindbis virus-infected bhk cells.the possible role of b protein, a postulated precursor of viral envelope proteins was studied in sindbis virus-infected bhk cells. although tryptic digestion of the b protein produces tryptic peptides of the viral envelope proteins it seems unlikely that b molecules accumulated in the cytoplasm of infected cells are subsequently cleaved into structural proteins. we suggest that if b is really the precursor of e1 and pe2 viral envelope proteins, the cleavage takes place on the ribosomes during th ...19751239649
binding of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid with cultured cells.homogenates prepared from polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid copolymer [poly(ri) - poly(rc)]-treated cells exhibited antiviral activity in chick embryo, l and rabbit kidney cells. the antiviral activity in the homogenate co-sedimented with cellular membrane material and was shown to be poly(ri) - poly(rc) by a hybridization competition test with immobilized polyribocytidylic acid. the results indicate that poly(ri) - poly(rc) binds firmly to cellular membrane. these studies, however, could ...19751239991
[the absence of sindbis virus from french polynesia].the authors report, in french polynesia that sindbis antigen is a good control for rubella serodiagnosis. data are presented on hemagglutination inhibition from 2,032 sera, showing no evidence of any sindbis antigen circulation.19751243736
effects of cytosine arabinoside, adenine arabinoside, and 6-azauridine on rabies virus in vitro and in vivo.the antiviral agents cytosine arabinoside, adenine arabinoside, and 6-azauridine were shown to inhibit the replication of rabies virus in vitro but not the replication of sindbis virus. these same drugs were not effective in reducing the mortality rate in mice challenged with street rabies virus.19761245759
ribosome-protected fragments from sindbis 42-s and 26-s rnas.sindbis virus 42-s and 26-s rnas labeled with 32p were purified from infected chick embryo fibroblasts. the rna's were incubated in the presence of a wheat germ cell-free translating system under conditions that yielded 40-s and 80-s initiation complexes. after digestion with rnase a, ribosome-protected fragments were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and compared with respect to number, size, cap content and oligonucleotide composition. the two rna species yielded several fragments ...1979436845
[cellular immune lysis patterns in viral infection]. 1977888574
comparison of sindbis virus and immunoglobulin glycopeptides in mouse myeloma cells. 1979447657
[effect of various adamantane compounds on the reproduction of sindbis virus. isolation and properties of a resistant strain].rimantadine and its structural analogs, i. e. amide of 1-adamantane carboxylic acid (aaca) and 1-adamantane acetic acid amide, were shown to be able to inhibit reproduction of sindbis virus in culture vero cells. aaca had the maximum antiviral activity. subcultures of the initial sensitive population of sindbis virus in the presence of aaca led to formation of mutants resistant to aaca as well as to rimantadine, adamantane acetic acid amide and ammonium chloride. the sindbis virus population was ...19921296534
[the antiviral action of a modified bacterial ribonuclease].the antiviral activity of a bacterial ribonuclease conjugate with chitosane of kamchatka crab (in a form of water soluble chito-oligosaccharides) has been studied. the conjugate inhibitory activity for a and b viruses as well as to sindbis arbovirus in tissue cultures is shown. the preparation efficiency at intramuscular and intranasal administration was observed at experimental influenza infection of white mice.19921302513
inhibitory effects of hsp70 chaperones on nascent polypeptides.several of the major heat shock proteins (hsps) function normally as molecular chaperones to prevent aggregation of immature polypeptides and thereby facilitate folding and oligomerization. to determine their effect on nascent polypeptides, we added purified preparations of different isoforms of hsp70 to in vitro translation reactions primed by the 26s mrna of sindbis virus, which encodes an autoprotease that functions cotranslationally, or by the mrna encoding the yeast vacuolar h+atpase, which ...19921304386
divergent envelope e2 alphavirus sequences spanning amino acids 297 to 352 induce in mice virus-specific protective immunity and antibodies with complement-mediated cytolytic activity.we have proposed a general algorithm for identification of potential immunoprotective domains (cassettes) on the envelope e2 polypeptide of alphaviruses (h. grosfeld, b. velan, m. leitner, s. cohen, s. lustig, b.e. lachmi, and a. shafferman, j. virol. 63:3416-3422, 1989). to assess the generality of our approach, we compared analogous e2 cassettes from sindbis virus (sin) and semliki forest virus (sfv), two alphaviruses which are philogenetically very remote. the antigenically distinct sfv e2 an ...19921309890
utilization of heterologous alphavirus junction sequences as promoters by sindbis virus.we used sindbis virus, an alphavirus, as a model to study the evolution of the recognition of viral cis-acting sequences. during the life cycle of alphaviruses, a full-length minus-strand rna is made and serves as a template for both genomic rna replication and subgenomic mrna transcription. transcription initiates at an internal promoter site, the junction sequence, to produce a subgenomic mrna. the junction sequences of alphaviruses are highly conserved, but they do contain a number of base di ...19921309918
solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a virus-inactivated substitute for fresh frozen plasma.fresh frozen plasma (ffp) is prepared in blood banks world-wide as a by-product of red blood cell concentrate preparation. appropriate clinical use is for coagulation factor disorders where appropriate concentrates are unavailable and when multiple coagulation factor deficits occur such as in surgery. viral safety depends on donor selection and screening; thus, there continues to be a small but defined risk of viral transmission comparable with that exhibited by whole blood. we have prepared a v ...19921310064
the immune response in viral encephalitis.the central nervous system (cns) offers a unique organ system in which to study viral immunopathogenesis. the presence of the blood-brain barrier that restricts entry of cells and protein, the restricted expression of mhc antigens and the nonrenewable nature of the neuronal cell population offer challenges to the immune system for viral clearance and increase the chances for viral persistence. we have used sindbis virus encephalitis in mice as a model system for the study of the development of i ...19921319767
expression of the nonstructural proteins of sindbis virus in insect cells by a baculovirus vector.the genome of sindbis virus encodes the polypeptides that are required for the replication and transcription of the virus rna in infected cells. these polypeptides are translated as a polyprotein that is co- and post-translationally cleaved by an autoproteinase to give rise to four polypeptides designated nsp1, nsp2, nsp3 and nsp4. we have initiated a study of the functions of these proteins by expressing them in the autographa californica baculovirus polyhedrin expression system. spodoptera fru ...19921320794
isolation of a cell line for rapid and sensitive histochemical assay for the detection of herpes simplex virus.a cell line which can be used in a simple, sensitive, and rapid histochemical assay was isolated for detection of herpes simplex virus (hsv). the cell line was derived by selection of g418 resistant colonies following co-transfection of baby hamster kidney cells with a plasmid which contains a g418 antibiotic resistance marker and a plasmid which contains the escherichia coli lacz gene placed behind an inducible hsv promoter. the promoter is from hsv-1ul39 which encodes icp6, the large subunit o ...19921325470
[the identification of alphaviruses by using cdna probes complementary to the 3'-terminal of the viral genome].venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and sindbis viruses, as well as members of various serological groups of alphaviruses were identified using synthesized molecular probes complementary to 3'-terminus of the molecule of the appropriate genomic rna: 32p-single-stranded kdna and e. coli-cloned 32p-double-stranded kdna. a high species-specificity of kdna-probes was demonstrated. the sensitivity of the method was 1 ng of viral rna overlayed on the nitrocellulose fi ...19921332260
identification of a sequence element in the alphavirus core protein which mediates interaction of cores with ribosomes and the disassembly of cores.early in infection core protein is transferred from alphavirus cores to ribosomes (wengler and wengler, 1984, virology 134, 435-442) and it has been suggested that ribosome binding is a property of alphavirus core protein which is involved in core disassembly. here we describe in vitro analyses of this transfer. sindbis virus cores, incubated with ribosomes either in a reticulocyte lysate or in buffer, are disassembled with a concomitant transfer of core protein to the large ribosomal subunit. p ...19921333127
structure-activity studies of photoactivated antiviral and cytotoxic tricyclic thiophenes.the photoactivated antiviral and cytotoxic activities of the naturally occurring thiophene, alpha-terthienyl (1), and 15 synthetic analogues were evaluated against murine cytomegalovirus and sindbis virus, and murine mastocytoma cells. after irradiation with near uv light, alpha-terthienyl and most of its analogues had significant toxicity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.02-40 microm. in the absence of near uv irradiation, only one analogue had antiviral activity and fi ...19921333615
long term intraparenchymal ig secretion after acute viral encephalitis in mice.oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid indicate intrathecal synthesis of ig of restricted heterogeneity and are associated with a number of central nervous system inflammatory diseases. to gain better insight into the persistence of oligoclonal bands found in the central nervous system we studied mice infected with sindbis virus (sv), a rna virus that causes an acute, nonfatal encephalitis in mice. sv was inoculated intracerebrally into weanling mice and brains and spleens were harvested a ...19921334109
susceptibility of aedes krombeini cell line to some arboviruses.the susceptibility of the newly established ae. krombeini cell line (nivi-ak-453) to six arboviruses, belonging to four different families, was studied. sindbis (sind), vesicular stomatitis (vsv) chandipura (chp) and african horse sickness (ahs) viruses multiplied in these cultures. a four-to-five-fold increase in the virus titres was observed. the maximum titre of sind, vsv, chp and ahs viruses were observed on 1st, 4th, 3rd and 10th post infection days, respectively. a steady and significant i ...19921335966
expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in aedes albopictus (c6/36) cells using a non-infectious sindbis virus expression vector.genomic rna was transcribed in vitro from the non-infectious sindbis (sin) virus expression vector (ptrcat) and introduced into c6/36 (aedes albopictus) cells by liposome-mediated transfections. the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) polypeptide expressed within cells was detected by an indirect immunofluorescent assay directly into 24-well polystyrene tissue culture plates. approximately 1 in 1000 c6/36 cells showed fluorescence when the transfection was optimized. cat enzyme activity was ...19921343776
a novel variant of sindbis virus is both neurovirulent and neuroinvasive in adult mice.a strain of sindbis virus (sv), recently isolated from mosquitoes in israel, was used as a source for variants which differ in neuroinvasiveness and virulence that were generated by serial passage of sv in suckling and weanling mouse brain. at the 15th passage a neurovirulent variant was observed and designated svn (neurovirulent). after 7 more passages in weanling mouse brains, another variant was observed and designated svni (neuroinvasive) and both were isolated and purified. all strains caus ...19921346243
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