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[effect of virazole on the antiviral activity of poly(g) x poly(c) and other polyribonucleotide interferonogens].the effect of virazole on the antiviral activity of poly (g) x poly (c), poly (g, a) x x poly (c) and poly(g, i) x poly (c) was studied in cell cultures and on mice. it was shown that virazole in concentrations not sufficient for significant inhibition of the development of vesicular stomatitis virus or sindbis virus in chick embryo cell cultures markedly increased the antiviral effect and allowed decreasing the minimum effective doses of the synthetic polyribonucleotide complexes with respect t ...19846089650
arbovirus infections in humans in new south wales. seroepidemiology of the alphavirus group of togaviruses.a seroepidemiological study of the prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses (ross river [rrv], sindbis [sin] and getah [get] viruses) was carried out on 16 842 specimens of sera collected during 1981 and 1982 from individuals of all ages living in all health regions of new south wales. prevalence rates were found to be low in the major coastal cities of sydney, newcastle and wollongong, and in the whole of the tablelands. in coastal populations, the rates were highest in the far and mid north co ...19846094993
disparate response of encephalomyocarditis virus and mm virus to interferon in jls-v9r cells.jls-v9r cells, a balb/c mouse bone marrow cell line chronically infected with rauscher leukemia virus, were treated with mouse interferon and inoculated with several different lytic viruses. relatively low interferon concentrations protected the cells against sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and mm virus. in contrast, encephalomyocarditis virus replication was inhibited by less than 1 log even with an interferon concentration of 1000 u/ml. these findings provide further evidence that in ...19846099710
cross-reactive killer t lymphocytes in a flavivirus infection.splenocytes from mice immunized intravenously with one dose of langat or yellow fever viruses were cytotoxic for target cells infected with virulent tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus; cytotoxicity was measured by 51cr release from target l929 cells. no significant lysis of the tbe virus-infected taget cells with splenocytes from sindbis virus-infected mice was noted.19806106380
sindbis virus receptor protein of bhk cells.exposure of cultured bhk 21 cells to very low concentrations of non-ionic detergent nonidet p40 resulted in the elution of cellular proteins located on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. one of these proteins, partially purified by affinity ultrafiltration and cosedimentation with sindbis virions, seems to be the "receptor molecule" of sindbis virus.19806107024
haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against sindbis virus in human and bovine sera in eastern sicily. 19806107029
japanese encephalitis virus surveillance in the taipei area, taiwan in 1978.attempts were made to isolate japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes collected with three light traps operated twice a week at three sentinel pigpens in the taipei area from may to oct. 1978. a total of 6,549 mosquitoes trapped alive were processed in 283 pools. suspensions were inoculated into aedes albopictus cell cultures and into suckling mice. a total of 19 je virus isolates were made; 12 from pools of cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 6 from cx. annulus and one from cx. quinquefaciatus. sindbis ...19806107994
separation by affinity chromatography of human very low and low density lipoproteins inhibiting sindbis virus haemagglutination.the haemagglutination-inhibiting activity of human serum towards sindbis virus is linked to very low and low density lipoprotein classes, in particular to their lipid component. to investigate the specific role played in this inhibition by carbohydrates contained in the molecule, inhibitor separation was carried out by concanavalin a-sepharose affinity chromatography. a different behaviour among the inhibiting molecules in relation to the carbohydrate content was observed. the importance of mann ...19806108058
inhibitors of imp dehydrogenase prevent sindbis virus replication and reduce gtp levels in aedes albopictus cells. 19816111860
radial haemolysis in gel used in serological studies on venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.radial haemolysis in gel was successfully used for the detection of antibody in convalescents after laboratory infection with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus at remote intervals after infection (up to 23 years). the antibodies reacted only with vee antigen but not with sindbis and chikungunya alphavirus antigens. radial haemolysis in gel was sensitive as the haemagglutination inhibition test but the antibody could be titrated by the diameter of the haemolysis zone omitting the se ...19816112864
host modification of sindbis virus sialic acid content influences alternative complement pathway activation and virus clearance.previous studies have shown that sindbis virus, an enveloped alphavirus of the togavirus group, activates the alternative complement pathway in the absence of detectable antiviral immunoglobulin. the present studies examined the role of the host-determined sialic acid content of sindbis virus on activation of the alternative complement pathway. purified sindbis virus grown in baby hamster kidney (bhk-sv) and in mosquito (mosq-sv) cells yielded virus with 10.2 and less than 2.0 nmol sialic acid/m ...19816117595
ockelbo disease: epidemic arthritis-exanthema syndrome in sweden caused by sindbis-virus like agent. 19826121242
[study of combined foci of mosquito-transmitted arbovirus infections].a total of 5227 serum specimens from humans, horses and swine collected in the seasons of 1968--1976 in 15 administrative areas of the primorskiy kray were examined with antigens of a number of mosquito-borne arboviruses: japanese encephalitis (je), west nile (wn), getah, and sindbis. both independent and combined circulation of these viruses in the region was established. sindbis virus was found to be circulating separately most frequently, west nile virus the least frequently. according to the ...19816121423
arthritides caused by mosquito-borne viruses.five different mosquito-borne viruses (chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong, mayaro, ross river, and sindbis) have been associated with arthritis in humans. these agents occur most commonly in the tropics and subtropics. the symptoms they produce are similar and typically consist of fever, arthralgia, and rash. in general, the symptoms are of short duration (less than one week) and recovery is complete, although some patients have recurrent episodes of joint swelling and tenderness for months after infect ...19826123291
[ockelby disease--a skin and joint disease probably caused by a mosquito-borne alpha arbovirus]. 19826128446
experimental infection of pancreatic organ cultures from suckling white mice with tick-borne encephalitis and sindbis viruses. 19826128912
current problems of the epidemiology and prophylaxis in mosquito-induced haemorrhagic fevers in sea transport. 19826137253
isolation of karelian fever agent from aedes communis mosquitoes. 19846147473
ockelbo disease in sweden: epidemiological, clinical, and virological data from the 1982 outbreak.an outbreak of ockelbo disease, a syndrome with rash, arthralgia and moderate fever reactions, which occurred in sweden 1982 is described. a virus, designated edsbyn 5/82, isolated from mosquitoes and closely related to sindbis virus (togaviridae: alphavirus) is the probable etiologic agent. sixty-five patients with typical clinical manifestations of the disease became ill in august 1982 and exhibited antibody titer rises against both edsbyn 5/82 and sindbis viruses by indirect immunofluorescenc ...19846150654
association of a sindbis-like virus with ockelbo disease in sweden.an alphavirus isolated from culiseta mosquitoes has been associated with ockelbo disease, an exanthema arthralgia syndrome occurring in sweden. the isolate was made from mosquitoes collected in edsbyn (central sweden), an area with considerable ockelbo disease morbidity. this isolate proved to be indistinguishable from sindbis virus by complement-fixation and hemagglutination-inhibition tests, and was antigenically related to sindbis in plaque reduction neutralization tests. patients with ockelb ...19846150655
interferon induction by viruses. iv. sindbis virus: early passage defective-interfering particles induce interferon.we have shown that a single defective-interfering (di) particle of early (5th) passage sindbis virus induces maximal amounts of interferon in an 'aged' primary chick embryo cell. the capacity of such di particles to induce interferon is inactivated by small amounts of u.v. radiation (i/e dose = 232 ergs/mm2). the i/e dose for inactivation of the interferon-inducing capacity of infectious virus particles is 399 ergs/mm2 and for infectivity is 101 ergs/mm2. pre-treatment with interferon blocks for ...19806155435
interferon induction by viruses. sindbis virus: defective-interfering particles temperature-sensitive for interferon induction.a defective-interfering (di) particle of sindbis virus was generated from a ts mutant of rna-complementation group a by serially undiluted passages at 30 degrees c. this mutant induced interferon at a permissive temperature (30 degrees c), but not at a non-permissive temperature (40.5 degrees c); it also expressed homotypic interference throughout the range 30 to 40.5 degrees c. this demonstrates for the first time in a di particle a ts function, namely, the ability to induce interferon. in addi ...19806156997
chicken fetal antigens: role as cell surface receptors for sindbis virus hemagglutinin. 19806158165
[virus persistence factors]. 19806158172
sensitivity of group c arboviruses (bunyaviridae) to human amnion interferon.the sensitivity of several group c arboviruses (bunyaviridae) to human amnion interferon was compared to that of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and sindbis virus. in cpe inhibition assays. apeu virus was the most sensitive of the group c arboviruses tested; it was significantly more inhibited than vsv, but was in the same range as sindbis virus. in plaque reduction assays, the increasing order of sensitivity was apeu, marituba, vsv and sindbis viruses. single-cycle yields of vsv and apeu virus ...19806162822
transfer of interferon-induced viral resistance from human leukocytes to other cell types.nonsensitized human leukocytes cocultured with various xenogeneic epithelioid and fibroblastic cells produced human leukocyte interferon and shortly thereafter transferred antiviral activity to the xenogeneic cells. antiviral activity in the cocultured xenogeneic cells was not due to cell-mediated cytotoxicity as measured by specific 51cr release and staining with vital dyes. the transfer of antiviral activity from leukocytes to xenogeneic cells was blocked by rabbit antiserum to human leukocyte ...19806163708
chronic alphavirus infection of l cells.chronic infection of l cells with sindbis virus, induced in the absence of antiviral antibody, was studied by virological methods in combination with light and electron microscopy. both sindbis virus and endogenous oncovirus antigens were revealed in the cells by immunofluorescence. sindbis virus and interferon were detected in the culture fluid. immunoelectron microscopy revealed aggregation of sindbis virus particles by immune serum.19816166186
comparison of specific and cross-reactive antigens of alphaviruses on virions and infected cells.rabbit hyperimmune antisera against sindbis (sin) or semliki forest (sf) virus were absorbed with purified sin virus or sin virus-infected cells, or with sf virus or sf virus-infected cells. residual antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (hai) and antibody-dependent, complement-mediated cytolysis (adcmc) assays. it appeared that absorption with virus-infected cells removed adcmc-detectable cross-reactive antibody much more efficiently than did absorption with either viru ...19826172382
induction of rat interferon in vivo and in vitro--physicochemical and biological characterization. 19816173585
virus yield-reduction assay for interferon by titration of infectious virus. 19816173611
virus yield-reduction assay for interferon by titration of sindbis virus hemagglutinin. 19816173612
cytopathic effect inhibition assay for interferon: microculture plate assay. 19816173616
new simple dye-uptake assay for interferon.using the spectrophotometer that the authors developed, the amounts of human leukocyte and mouse l cell interferons on fl cells and l929 cells were measured and values were compared with those measured by the cytopathogenic effect (cpe) reduction method (cpe method). the spectrophotometric method, which was simpler than the original dye-uptake method, was found to be more sensitive than the latter. when sindbis virus was used instead of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), there were no significant ...19816175308
cross-reactive, cell-associated antigen on l929 cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus.temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis virus (sin) were used to aid in the identification of alphavirus cross-reactive proteins on the surface of infected cells by antibody-dependent, complement-mediated cytolysis. antisera prepared in rabbits against purified sin or semliki forest viruses were highly cytotoxic for cells infected with wild-type sin and for cells infected at the permissive temperature with maturation-defective, ts mutants of sin belonging to several distinct complementatio ...19826177636
regulation of 2-5 a synthetase activity and antiviral state in interferon treated chick cells. 19826178403
comparison of (2'-5') oligo-adenylate synthetase and interferon blood-levels in mice early after viral infection.the level of the ifn-induced enzyme (2'-5') oligo a synthetase in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) was determined in mice at different times following virus infection. there was a significant increase (4-7-fold) of the enzyme level within less than 12 h after i.p. injection of either vsv (10(7) pfu) or sindbis virus (2.10(4) pfu). the elevated level was maintained for about a week and then the activity returned to normal. there was, however, a marked difference in the pattern of ser ...19826181178
the interferon inducer moiety of viruses: a single molecule of dsrna. 19816184835
identification by monoclonal antibodies of a new epitope in the glycoprotein complex of sindbis virus.monoclonal antibodies against a deletion mutant of sindbis virus were produced and characterized in order to determine the fine mapping and functional activities of single viral epitopes. all monoclonal antibodies so far tested showed a certain degree of reciprocal competition and were directed against an antigenic determinant which was present only on the undissociated complex of the e1 and e2 glycoproteins. a biological assay measuring viral haemagglutination showed no decrease in the titre of ...19836190835
microassay for sindbis virus and interferon activity.a simple and rapid microplaque assay for sindbis virus was developed which uses microtiter plates and overlay medium consisting of methylcellulose and specific antibody to sindbis virus. discrete plaque formation was consistently observed on baby hamster kidney (bhk-15) cells within 24 h. the assay was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique on chicken embryo cells in 35-mm petri dishes. the microplaque assay could be accurately applied to mea ...19836194173
mechanism of interferon action iii--significance of pppa2'p5'a2'p5'a in the antiviral action of interferon.this paper is to evidence that the antiviral effect of pppa2'p5'a2'p5'a(2'-5'p3a3) could cover a wide spectrum of viruses, the rna viruses such as influenza h3n2/77, influenza h1n1/77, echo11, rhino, sendai, sindbis and vsv, and the dna viruses such as herpes (type i). in addition, the antiviral effect of 2'-5'p3a3 on echo11 virus, as compared with other viruses, is more efficient than that of ifn. it seems likely that 2'-5'p3a3 plays an important role in the antiviral action of ifn. after compa ...19836194560
protective monoclonal antibodies define maturational and ph-dependent antigenic changes in sindbis virus e1 glycoprotein.monoclonal (mc) antibodies specific for either the ei or e2 glycoproteins of sindbis virus (sin) were used to probe for differences in the surface topography of sin epitopes between infected cells and mature virions. employing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in which binding of individual peroxidase-labeled mc antibodies to immobilized (solid-phase) detergent-disrupted sin was inhibited specifically by one or more unlabeled antibodies, viral epitopes could be grouped into six spatia ...19836195815
mechanisms of neutralization of animal viruses. 19846202836
sindbis virus mutants selected for rapid growth in cell culture display attenuated virulence in animals.mutants of sindbis virus were selected for rapid growth in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cell cultures and screened for attenuation of virulence in suckling mice. comparisons among independently isolated virulent and attenuated strains, as well as a classical reversion analysis, showed that accelerated penetration of bhk cells was correlated with attenuation in vivo. both phenotypic changes resulted from a reorganization of virion structure as detected by monoclonal antibodies. these results suggest ...19846204381
evaluation of immunoadsorbent electron microscopic techniques for detection of sindbis virus.two immunosorbent electron microscopic techniques (isem), the protein a coated grid technique (pa-cgt) and the antibody coated grid technique (ab-cgt) were applied and evaluated for the detection of sindbis virus from infected tissue culture fluids. at optimal conditions, the efficiency of trapping the virions was only about 1.5 higher with the pa-cgt as compared to the ab-cgt, but the pa-cgt was less dependent on the antiserum dilution used in the test. both methods were suitable for quantitati ...19846205012
primary structural comparison of rna-dependent polymerases from plant, animal and bacterial viruses.possible alignments for portions of the genomic codons in eight different plant and animal viruses are presented: tobacco mosaic, brome mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, sindbis, foot-and-mouth disease, polio, encephalomyocarditis, and cowpea mosaic viruses. since in one of the viruses (polio) the aligned sequence has been identified as an rna-dependent polymerase, this would imply the identification of the polymerases in the other viruses. a conserved fourteen-residue segment consisting of an asp-asp seq ...19846207485
comparative studies of rabies and sindbis virus replication in human neuroblastoma (sym-i) cells that can produce interferon.k-104 cells, a cloned cell line derived from a human neuroblastoma (sym-i), were induced by rabies hep-flury virus to release large amounts of interferon, and the resulting antiviral activity significantly suppressed the rabies virus replication. the role of endogenous interferon was confirmed by treatment with anti-interferon antibody which increased the yield of progeny virus. the virus yield in the second undiluted passage through k-104 cells was much less than that in the first passage, beca ...19846208314
interferon induction by viruses. xi. early events in the induction process.the mechanism by which ndv, sindbis virus, and vsv enter "aged" primary chick embryo cells to initiate ifn induction was studied by using nh4cl, a lysosomotropic weak base that compromises low ph-dependent membrane fusion. nh4cl was used to perturb the early steps in virus entry into the cytosol thought to result ultimately in presentation of dsrna to the cell's first-stage recognition system for ifn induction. three parameters were monitored: (i) the nature of the dose (multiplicity)-response ( ...19846209349
relation of fatty acid attachment to the translation and maturation of vesicular stomatitis and sindbis virus membrane glycoproteins. 19806245077
differential stimulation of capped mrna translation in vitro by cap binding protein. 19806246452
vesicular stomatitis virus and sindbis virus glycoprotein transport to the cell surface is inhibited by ionophores. 19806247822
synthesis and assembly of viral membrane proteins. 19806249165
growth and release of several alphaviruses in chick and bhk cells.the growth and release of several alphaviruses, including several strains of sindbis virus (the wild-type strain, the large plaque and small plaque variants of the hr strain, and the hr mutant ts103), semliki forest virus(sfv) and middelburg virus, and of the unrelated rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), have been compared in chick cells and in bhk-21 cells as a function of the culture conditions for the host cell and the ionic strength of the medium. the small plaque strain of sindbi ...19806255069
selective inhibition of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein synthesis by a benz-amidinohydrazone derivative.1h-benz[f]indene-1.3(2h)dione-bis-amidinohydrazone (benzhydrazone) inhibited incorporation of 14c-glucosamine, 14c-fucose and 14c-mannose into glycoproteins of hep-2 cells infected with various strains of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and impaired rna and protein synthesis to a low extent. these biochemical effects are very similar to those induced by glycosylation inhibitors such as tunicamycin, d-glucosamine and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. in contrast to these inhibitors, benzhydrazone reduced hsv gly ...19806255895
monensin and fccp inhibit the intracellular transport of alphavirus membrane glycoproteins.temperature-sensitive mutants of semliki forest virus (sfv) and sindbis virus (sin) were used to study the intracellular transport of virus membrane glycoproteins in infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. when antisera against purified glycoproteins and (125)i- labeled protein a from staphylococcus aureus were used only small amounts of virus glycoproteins were detected at the surface of sfv ts-1 and sin ts-10 infected cells incubated at the restrictive temperature (39 degrees c). when the mutant- ...19806257729
fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements reveal differences in envelopment of sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses.fluorescence photobleaching recovery (fpr) measurements of virus glycoproteins on the surfaces of cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and sindbis virus showed that the vsv glycoprotein (g) remained mobile throughout the infectious cycle, whereas sindbis virus glycoproteins (e1, e2) were partially mobile early after infection and immobile at later times when greater amounts of these proteins were on the cell surface. a highly mobile fraction of sindbis virus glycoproteins was det ...19816258803
comparative studies of the 3'-terminal sequences of several alpha virus rnas. 19816259811
the natural history of transmembrane cell-surface glycoproteins. 19806260106
transformation-dependent alterations in the oligosaccharides of prague c rous sarcoma virus glycoproteins.the influence of cell transformation on the glycosylation of viral envelope glycoproteins was examined by high-resolution gel filtration and specific glycosidase digestions of 3h-sugar-labeled glycopeptides from nondefective and transformation-defective prague c strains of rous sarcoma virus replicated in fibroblasts from the same chicken embryo. the major difference in glycosylation attributable to the viral transformation of the host cells was an increase in this relative amount of larger acid ...19816260974
distribution of virus structural proteins and protein-protein interactions in plasma membrane of baby hamster kidney cells infected with sindbis or vesicular stomatitis virus.the plasma membrane of baby hamster kidney (bhk-21) cells infected with either sindbis or vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated by a technique involving the ingestion of latex beads by the cells. plasma membrane isolated from sindbis virus-infected cells contained only one (e1) of the three (e1, e2, and c) structural proteins of this virus. when the latex beads were pretreated with either polylysine or deae-dextran, plasma membrane obtained from sindbis virus-infected cells contained all three ...19806261249
investigation about the surface structure of some viruses by the freeze-etching and freeze-drying methods.an electronmicroscopic study of a suspension of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus by freeze-drying and freeze-etching methods showed that glycoprotein peplomers are located on the surface of the lipoprotein shell. these peplomers are trimeric in shape and form a regular icosahedral surface lattice corresponding to t = 4. the modes of glycoproteins clustering for the two clones of vee are different. venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus belongs to the alpha-viruses of the ...19816261294
[alphavirus reproduction in cultures of transplantable human lymphoblastic cells in acute infection].the results of investigations of acute infection of continuous human b- and t-cells with typical members of the alphavirus group--semliki forest, sindbis, and venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses, are presented. virus amplification was shown to pass through the typical phases: eclipse, logarithmic growth, plateau. infectious virus production per one cell was from 10 to 10,000 pfu in various cultures. cell infection results in interferon production. replication of the viruses under study i ...19806261461
effects of chloroquine and cytochalasin b on the infection of cells by sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.the effects of cytochalasin b and chloroquine on the process of endocytosis of sindbis virus particles and polystyrene spheres were determined by electron microscopy. the effects of these agents on the process of infection (attachment, penetration, and uncoating) of bhk-21 cells by sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus were also determined. cytochalasin b completely blocked ingestion of sindbis virus particles or latex spheres by bhk cells but had no effect on the ability of sindbis virus ...19816262524
broadly active inhibitor of viruses spontaneously produced by many cell types in culture.a broadly active inhibitor of viruses (vaccinia, polio 1, and vesicular stomatitis) was found in the culture fluid from many types of normal human and mouse cells in culture. virus plaque-inhibiting activity appeared in culture fluids within a few hour after incubation of cultures with fresh medium. peak inhibitory activity occurred within 24 h. blockade of cellular ribonucleic acid or protein synthesis decreased appearance of the inhibitor, thereby substantiating that it is a cell-produced vira ...19816265356
cell-produced viral inhibitor: possible mechanism of action and chemical composition.a newly recognized cell-produced viral inhibitor appeared to be spontaneously released from most cells in tissue culture. it strongly inhibited the replication of a variety of viruses but did not exhibit species specificity as does interferon. these studies on the inhibitor's mechanism of action indicated that it inhibited attachment and penetration of virus by a readily reversible reaction requiring the presence of both virus and cells. studies of inactivation by specific enzymes or chemicals i ...19816265357
viral interference and persistence in sindbis virus infected aedes albopictus cells. 19816266625
two forms of purified m7g-cap binding protein with different effects on capped mrna translation in extracts of uninfected and poliovirus-infected hela cells.eukaryotic mrna cap binding proteins were purified from ribosomal salt wash in the presence of protease inhibitors by sucrose gradient sedimentation and m7gdp-sepharose affinity chromatography. rabbit reticulocyte and erythrocyte proteins with sedimentation constants of less than 6 s yielded a approximately 24,000-dalton cap binding protein. it stimulated capped mrna translation in extracts of uninfected hela cells but did not restore capped mrna function in extracts prepared from poliovirus-inf ...19816267020
activation of the alternative complement pathway by enveloped viruses containing limited amounts of sialic acid. 19816270885
the effects of adenosine and guanosine on the replication of sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses in aedes albopictus cells. 19816270900
studies of immune responses during recovery from sindbis virus encephalitis in selectively reconstituted, thymectomized, lethally irradiated mice.recovery from acute sindbis virus encephalitis was studied in selectively reconstituted, thymectomized, irradiated mice. intact mice cleared virus from the brain by day 10 and developed inflammation along with immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg antibodies 4 to 6 days after infection. unreconstituted mice died by day 11, with virus still present but decreasing, no detectable antibody, and no evidence of inflammation. mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells alone produced only igm antibody and no in ...19816271684
synthesis, cleavage and sequence analysis of dna complementary to the 26 s messenger rna of sindbis virus. 19816271974
[role of the host cell in virus persistence]. 19816272491
translation of vesicular stomatitis and sindbis virus mrnas in cell-free extracts of aedes albopictus cells.we have developed a cell-free system from aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells which is able to carry out endogenous protein synthesis and is stable to freezing and thawing. successful preparation of extracts was found to depend on the presence of purified placental rnase inhibitor during cell breakage. micrococcal nuclease-treated extracts translated exogenously added sindbis 26s or vesicular stomatitis virus mrna with a high degree of fidelity, demonstrating that initiation of protein synthesis h ...19816273418
synthesis and assembly of transmembrane viral and cellular glycoproteins. 19816276668
[biogenesis of viral glycoproteins and role of sugar chains in biological functions of virus (author's transl)]. 19816276923
[morphological study of a mixed alphavirus infection].in combined paired cultivation of 8 venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, multiploid virions formed in 17.8% of cases. five clones with this effect were used in mixed infections with clones of semliki forest and sindbis viruses. in these infections changes in virions of the virus progeny were observed in 20% and 16.6%, respectively. mixed cultivation of pairs of sindbis and semliki forest viruses resulted in formation of multiploid virions in 42.8%. besides, in two mixed populations formed ...19816278779
production of mononuclear cell chemotactic factors during sindbis virus infection of mice.draining lymph node cells of mice infected subcutaneously with sindbis virus (sv) produced two mononuclear chemotactic factors in vitro. one factor did not require the addition of sv in vitro and was only detectable during the first week after infection. a second factor, resembling lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor, required the addition of sv in vitro, was first detectable at 3 days, reached a peak at 15 to 18 days, and was gone by 29 days after infection. the production of this factor was ...19826279519
non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies can prevent lethal alphavirus encephalitis. 19826280072
development of age-dependent resistance to sindbis virus encephalitis: correlation with inactivation of virus within the blood stream.the clearance of sindbis virus from the blood stream and its localization in the reticuloendothelial system (res) was studied in mice susceptible (2 weeks old) and resistant (6 weeks old) to fatal sindbis virus encephalitis. no significant differences in the relative capacity of 2-week-old and 6-week-old mice to remove 125i-labelled virus from the blood stream and to localize virus within the liver were observed. however, the decline of infectious virus was more rapid in the blood of adult mice. ...19816280609
sindbis virus-induced ocular immunopathology.the intraocular injection of the sindbis virus in adult balb/c mice produces a uveoretinitis with little or no central nervous system involvement. ocular disease starts on the third day after infection and presents as a mild to moderate iridocyclitis and retinitis, usually accompanied by typical severe dysplastic changes of the retina. the inflammatory infiltrate consists almost exclusively of lymphocytes and histiocytes. immunosuppression of the mouse with cyclophosphamide on the day after infe ...19826281208
properties of monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoproteins of sindbis virus.four monoclonal antibodies that react with sindbis virus glycoproteins have been examined for (i) their effects on virus infectivity, (ii) their ability to recognize conformational changes in glycoprotein structure, and (iii) their cross-reaction with several different alphaviruses. two of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with the native forms of the e1 glycoprotein but did not neutralize virus infectivity. one of the anti-e1 antibodies formed an infectious virus-antibody complex. the other two ...19826281377
inhibition of sindbis virus maturation after treatment of infected cells with trypsin.brief treatment of sindbis virus-infected bhk-21 or vero cells with low concentrations of trypsin irreversibly blocked further production of progeny virions after removal of the enzyme. the inhibitory effects of the trypsin treatment could only be demonstrated in cells in which virus infection was established; optimal inhibition occurred at ca. 3 h postinfection. production of virus structural proteins pe2, e1, and c occurred at normal levels in inhibited cells. pe2 and e1 were also transported ...19826281478
haemorrhagic manifestations with sindbis infection. case report.sindbis infection in man occurs rarely in australia. most recorded cases are either asymptomatic or result in a fever sometimes accompanied by a macular or vesicular rash. this case is of particular interest because of the severe haemorrhagic vesicular rash and the repeated recurrence of symptoms over a 5 month period together with the persistence of igm antibodies to sindbis virus.19826281716
[comparative studies on susceptibility of viruses to ultraviolet rays]. 19826283768
cerulenin blocks fatty acid acylation of glycoproteins and inhibits vesicular stomatitis and sindbis virus particle formation.cerulenin, an antibiotic that inhibits de novo fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis, effectively inhibited the formation and release of virus particles from chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis or vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). when added for 1 h at 3 h postinfection, the antibiotic blocked vsv particle production by 80 to 90% and inhibited incorporation of [3h]palmitic acid into the vsv glycoprotein by an equivalent amount. the effect of this antibiotic on virus protein and rn ...19826286658
lectin affinity chromatography of sindbis and rous sarcoma virus glycopeptides and oligosaccharides.glycopeptides and endogly cosidase-digested oligosaccharides from [3h]mannose-labeled rous sarcoma virus and sinbis virus have been fractionated by lentil lectin-sepharose and concanavalin a-agarose affinity chromatography and subsequently analyzed by biogel p-4 gel filtration. only a specific subset of the con a-bound asparaginly-oligosaccharides from he two viruses was also bound to lentil lectin, and this freaction apparently represented fucose-containing, diantennary acidic-type structures ( ...19826286708
ultraviolet-irradiated vesicular stomatitis virus and defective-interfering particles are similar non-specific inhibitors of virus infection.the way in which ultraviolet-irradiated vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) inhibits the early events in vsv infection has been further characterized. comparison of several different u.v.-irradiated thermolabile, temperature-sensitive mutants before and after heat inactivation established a requirement for inhibitory activity of functional g, n and l proteins, but not m protein. defective-interfering (di) particles, whether irradiated or not, inhibited vsv primary transcription as efficiently as uv ...19826286855
membrane-mediated alterations of intracellular na+ and k+ in lytic-virus-infected and retrovirus-transformed cells.infection of chick-embryo fibroblasts and other cells by certain animal viruses results in alterations in the intracellular concentrations of na+ and k+. dramatic alterations in monovalent-cation concentrations of lytic-virus-infected cells may favor the synthesis of viral proteins over cellular proteins. more subtle alterations in retrovirus-transformed cells may result in the expression of many morphological and biochemical changes associated with the transformed phenotype.19826291667
fatty acid acylation of eucaryotic cell membrane proteins. 19826295485
effect of alphavirus infection on mouse embryos.seven strains and mutants of the alphaviruses, semliki forest virus and sindbis virus, differed in their lethality for mouse embryos and their mothers. the a7 strain and the neurovirulence mutant m103 of semliki forest virus were selected for detailed comparison. a7 produced 100% lethality of mouse embryos but was avirulent for their mothers. m103 did not kill embryos or their mothers but did induce postnatal immunity. this immunity could be induced in utero or by suckling to an immune mother. i ...19826295945
unusual neutral oligosaccharides in mature sindbis virus glycoproteins are synthesized from truncated precursor oligosaccharides in chinese hamster ovary cells.we have previously demonstrated the presence of unusual small asparaginyl-oligosaccharides [(man)3glcnac2-asn] in the mature glycoproteins of sindbis virus released from both wild-type and lectin-resistant chinese hamster ovary cells, but the mechanism of synthesis of these structures was not determined. gel filtration and endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase analyses of pronase-digested glycopeptides from [3h]mannose-labelled sindbis virus released at different times after infection of a phytohaem ...19836298348
variation in arbovirus infection rates in species of birds sampled in a serological survey during an encephalitis epidemic in the murray valley of south-eastern australia, february 1974.there was extensive and exuberant breeding of waterbirds before and during an epidemic of arboviral encephalitis in the murray valley of south eastern australia in 1974. as estimated by haemagglutination inhibition tests on 432 bird sera collected between 4th and 13th february, 1974, infection with murray valley encephalitis virus, kunjin virus and possibly other flaviviruses was concentrated in species of the order ciconiiformes (55% positive) and pelecaniformes (41%), compared with only 5% in ...19826299259
mutant chinese hamster ovary cells pleiotropically defective in receptor-mediated endocytosis.populations of chinese hamster ovary cells selected for resistance to diphtheria toxin were found to be highly enriched for mutants deficient in the uptake of lysosomal hydrolases via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. one doubly defective mutant, dtf 1-5-1, exhibited increased resistance to sindbis virus, although it was able to bind and internalize virus normally. normal production of virus was obtained when, subsequent to virus binding, the mutant was exposed for 2 min to acidic ph. similarly, ...19836300143
requirement of cell nucleus for sindbis virus replication in cultured aedes albopictus cells.the ability of sindbis virus to grow in enucleated bhk-21 (vertebrate) and aedes albopictus (invertebrate) cells was tested to determine the dependence of this virus upon nuclear function in these two phylogenetically unrelated hosts. although both cell types could be demonstrated to produce viable cytoplasts (enucleated cells) which produced virus-specific antigen subsequent to infection. bhk cytoplasts produced a significant number of progeny virions, whereas mosquito cytoplasts did not. the p ...19836300436
natural immunity to sindbis virus is influenced by host tissue sialic acid content.recent studies have shown that the sialic acid content of sindbis virus influences both its ability to active the alternative pathway in vitro and its susceptibility to complement dependent clearance from the bloodstream in vivo. other studies have shown that the sialic acid content of sindbis virus is determined by the host in which it is propagated. because individuals vary in their cell surface sialic acid content, it is possible they also vary in their ability to defend themselves against si ...19836300853
improved conditions for the production and detection of interferon from guinea pig embryo cells.primary guinea pig embryo (gpe) fibroblasts were assessed as potential sources of guinea pig interferon (ifn). gpe cells proved to be excellent in vitro producers of guinea pig ifn, although the actual amounts produced were only detectable when sample irradiation under ultraviolet light (to inactivate inducing viruses) was substituted for overnight sample treatment at ph 2. thus, the rapid spontaneous inactivation of large proportion of the antiviral activity after overnight exposure to 4 degree ...19836302182
rnas from two independently isolated defective interfering particles of sindbis virus contain a cellular trna sequence at their 5' ends.defective interfering (di) particles are deletion mutants that interfere specifically with the replication of homologous standard virus. we have determined the 5'-terminal nucleotide sequences of two di rna populations by the following methods: (i) cloning of the cdna from one of the di rna populations and sequencing a representative clone, and (ii) using both di rna populations as templates for preparing primer-directed cdna transcripts and sequencing these transcripts. the 5' terminal sequence ...19836304704
the 5'-terminal sequences of the genomic rnas of several alphaviruses.the 5'-terminal sequences of the genomic rnas of several alphaviruses have been determined. the nucleotide sequences at the extreme 5' termini are not highly conserved among the alphaviruses, but a similar stem and loop structure, which begins at the 5' end and utilizes about the first 40 nucleotides, can be formed in each case. downstream from this structure, beginning about 150 nucleotides from the 5' end, a conserved sequence of 51 nucleotides is found which can form two stable hairpin struct ...19836308269
ross river virus 26 s rna: complete nucleotide sequence and deduced sequence of the encoded structural proteins.the complete sequence of the 26 s rna of ross river virus (t48 strain) has been obtained and from this the amino acid sequences of the encoded structural proteins have been deduced. these include a basic capsid protein and two envelope glycoproteins. the nucleotide sequence was obtained by chemical sequence analysis of both single-stranded and double-stranded cdna made to rna and the sequence data so obtained was rapidly aligned by making use of the protein homology found among the alphaviruses. ...19836310876
induction of stress proteins in sindbis virus- and vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells.two proteins which are related to certain proteins induced by hyperthermia (heat shock proteins; hsp) are synthesized during lytic infection of chick embryo (ce) cells by sindbis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). incubation of the infected cells at elevated temperature further increased the rate of synthesis of these proteins. the stress proteins induced by sindbis virus had different mobilities on sds-polyacrylamide gels compared to related stress proteins induced in mock-infected ce c ...19836312678
[characteristics of experimental alphavirus infection during pregnancy and in the early stages of ontogeny in mice].inoculation of random-bred mice with sindbis virus at various periods of pregnancy resulted in the development of marked changes and loss of 24.7% of fetuses when mice were infected at the stage of placentation. retardation in the development and death of progeny in females infected at later stages of pregnancy were observed. antibody production was shown to be enhanced in pregnant mice as compared with non-pregnant. possible mechanisms of increased susceptibility to alphaviruses during pregnanc ...19836314670
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