survey of national immunization programs and vaccine coverage rates in asia pacific countries.children in the asia pacific region are still suffering from certain vaccine-preventable diseases. the current study surveyed the national immunization programs and vaccine uptake of traditional and newly developed vaccines in 12 countries in this area. the results showed children in most countries were well protected from conventional vaccine-preventable diseases, while immunization programs for certain diseases such as poliovirus or measles should be strengthened in certain countries. protecti ...201122075085
Effect of Detection Methods on Risk Estimates of Exposure to Biosolids-Associated Human Enteric Viruses.This study illustrates the effect of virus detection methods on estimates of risks of infection of biosolids-associated viruses for occupational workers and residential population during a hypothetical exposure of biosolids. Five gastroenteritis-associated human enteric viruses-enteroviruses (echovirus-12, enteroviruse types 68-71), adenoviruses, rotaviruses, and noroviruses genotype-I-were considered to represent human enteric viruses for risk estimation purposes. Ingested viral doses were calc ...201122050302
molecular characterization of two strains of porcine group c c rotaviruses are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals. fecal samples were collected from a porcine herd in july, 2009. group c rotavirus rna was detected using rt-pcr for the vp6 gene. the identified strain was further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial vp4, and complete vp6 and vp7 gene sequences. the partial vp4 and complete vp6 gene sequences of the cuk-5 strain were most closely related to those of the cuk-6 strain of grou ...201122203575
group a rotavirus detection on environmental surfaces in a hospital intensive care unit.background: environmental surfaces can play a role in the spread of pathogens, such as enteric viruses, within a hospital. this study assessed the level of contamination of group a rotavirus (rv-a) on environmental surfaces samples from an adult intensive care unit in a hospital in rio de janeiro, brazil. methods: a total of 504 environmental surface samples were obtained from multiple sites in the intensive care unit, including flushing buttons, telephones, and alcohol gel supports. nested and ...201122018841
Enteroendocrine and Neuronal Mechanisms in Pathophysiology of Acute Infectious Diarrhea.BACKGROUND: While enterocyte secretion is the predominant mechanism considered responsible for secretory diarrhea in response to acute enteric infections, there are several lines of evidence that support alternative mechanisms controlling fluid and electrolyte secretion in diarrhea. AIM: To review enteroendocrine and neuronal mechanisms that participate in the development of acute infectious diarrhea. ...201122001941
a case of kawasaki disease with anasarca and concomitant rotavirus infection.we present the case of a child who initially presented with gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by hyponatraemic dehydration. appropriate intravenous fluid therapy was administered but the patient, still feverish, developed anasarca probably due to hyperpermeability of microvessels following massive inflammation. atypical kawasaki disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical findings and laboratory tests. an echocardiogram performed on the 1 ...200921897831
Rotavirus vaccine and health care utilization for diarrhea in U.S. children.Routine vaccination of U.S. infants with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) began in 2006.201121992123
projecting the effectiveness of rotateq® against rotavirus-related hospitalisations in brazil.rotateq® (merck & company, inc, whitehouse station, nj, usa) is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) that has shown high and consistent efficacy in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in randomised clinical trials previously conducted in industrialised countries with high medical care resources. to date, the efficacy and effectiveness data for rv5 are available in some latin american countries, but not brazil. in this analysis, we projected the effectiveness of rv5 in terms of the ...201121894373
rotavirus prevalence in the primary care setting in nicaragua after universal infant rotavirus immunization.nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5). initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. however, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1-3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. we measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in ...201122049057
high prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ed) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (tast-2) in 26.53%. ...201122017049
enteric viruses in new zealand drinking-water sources.this study determined whether human pathogenic viruses are present in two new zealand surface waters that are used as drinking-water sources. enteric viruses were concentrated using hollow-fibre ultrafiltration and detected using pcr for adenovirus (adv), and reverse transcription pcr for norovirus (nov) genogroups i-iii, enterovirus, rotavirus (rov) and hepatitis e virus (hev). target viruses were detected in 106/109 (97%) samples, with 67/109 (61%) samples positive for three or more viral type ...201121866776
crystallographic analysis reveals octamerization of viroplasm matrix protein p9-1 of rice black streaked dwarf virus.the p9-1 protein of rice black streaked dwarf virus accumulates in viroplasm inclusions, which are structures that appear to play an important role in viral morphogenesis and are commonly found in viruses in the family reoviridae. crystallographic analysis of p9-1 revealed structural features that allow the protein to form dimers via hydrophobic interactions. each dimer has carboxy-terminal regions, resembling arms, that extend to neighboring dimers, thereby uniting sets of four dimers via later ...201222072761
leveraging state immunization information systems to measure the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine.electronic immunization information systems (iiss) are now established in almost all us states. we used the iis in minnesota, georgia, and connecticut for immunization data and as the source of 1 of 2 control groups to measure pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) effectiveness (ve) using case-control methodology.201122084328
updating prevaccination rotavirus-associated mortality. 201122030331
Increased prevalence of rotavirus among children associated gastroenteritis in Riyadh Saudi Arabia.ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiology along with the molecular structure of rotavirus causing pediatric diarrhea among Saudi patients. However, in this report we sited the epidemiological reflect coming from our project. METHODS: One thousand and seven diarrheal stool samples had been collected between Jan1st, 2008 and OCT 31st, 2010 from hospitalized patients below the age of 5 year. Samples were then examined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Demographic ...201122176997
vaccine adjuvant properties of probiotic bacteria.vaccine-preventable diseases are still responsible for the deaths of more than 1 million children under the age of 5 years annually, mostly in developing countries. a substantial number of these deaths are due to pneumococcal bacteria and infections with rotavirus. important issues faced by the who, governments, vaccine manufacturers, and international organizations such as unicef and the global alliance for vaccines and immunization (gavi) are the cost-effective introduction of these life-savin ...201122204769
[immunization schedule of the spanish association of pediatrics: 2012 recommendations].the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish association of pediatrics (cav-aep) updates the immunization schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the effectiveness and efficency of vaccines. the present schedule includes grades of recommendation. we have graded as routine vaccinations those that the cav-aep believes all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunization and would ideally be giv ...201122177424
Rotavirus vaccines: Update on global impact and future priorities.Early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in the Americas, Europe, and in Australia have documented substantial declines in rotavirus disease burden following the introduction of vaccination.  However, the full public health impact of rotavirus vaccines has not been realized as they have not been introduced into routine immunization programs in countries of Africa and Asia with the highest rotavirus disease morbidity and mortality burden.  In this article, we review the epidemiology of rotavirus ...201122108032
[gastroenteritis viruses in france and europe].rotaviruses and noroviruses are the main causes of acute gastroenteritis in young children and adults, respectively. prospective molecular surveillance of rotavirus genotypes in france and europe shows that circulating strains may vary with the season, locality or country. rotavirus ok? genotypes g1 and g9 are the most prevalent. most strains are associated with p[8], showing a certain genotypic stability of rotaviruses currently circulating in europe and suggesting that vaccination would be eff ...201022046707
Characterization of rotavirus and norovirus strains: a 6-year study (2004-2009).To monitor rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) infections in hospitalized children = 5 years with acute gastroenteritis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during a 6-year period (2004- 2009).201121979837
High dose and low dose Lactobacillus acidophilus exerted differential immune modulating effects on T cell immune responses induced by an oral human rotavirus vaccine in gnotobiotic pigs.BACKGROUND: Strain-specific effects of probiotics in pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses have been well recognized. Several proinflammatory Lactobacillus strains have been shown to act as adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. However, dose effects of probiotics in modulating immune responses are not clearly understood. This study examined the dose effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) NCFM strain on T cell immune responses to rotavirus vaccination in a gnotobiotic (Gn) ...201122178726
Impact of rotavirus vaccination on epidemiological dynamics in England and Wales.Rotavirus infection causes severe gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. Its disease burden has been reduced in countries where mass vaccination programs have been introduced. However, England and Wales have not yet implemented such a mass vaccination program. This paper uses a dynamic model to predict the effect of a mass vaccination program in England and Wales beginning in the fall of 2011. The dynamic model is parameterized with country-specific data for the introduction of a rotaviru ...201222133508
Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in children with sporadic gastroenteritis in Valencia, Venezuela.The epidemiology and clinical symptoms in infants and young children with acute sporadic viral gastroenteritis due to viral etiologies other than rotaviruses have not been studied thoroughly in developing countries. Fecal specimens from 480 children <5 years of age who were admitted to a large children's hospital in the city of Valencia, Venezuela, with acute diarrhea during January to December 2003 were collected and screened by ELISA and RT-PCR for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, ...201121915873
Rotavirus infection in an Indian birth cohort. 201122010932
interaction of enterovirus infection and cow's milk-based formula nutrition in type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity.background: enteral virus infections and early introduction of cow's milk (cm)-based formula are among the suggested triggers of type 1 diabetes (t1d)- associated autoimmunity, although studies on their role have remained contradictory. here, we aimed to analyse whether interactions between these factors might clarify the controversies. materials: the study population comprised 107 subjects developing positivity for at least two t1d-associated autoantibodies and 446 control subjects from the fin ...201121922634
recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants.rotavirus infection occurs in the majority of healthy children before five years of age, and is the most common diarrheal illness associated with hospitalization. the majority of children present with symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea and fever. as a result, rotavirus gastroenteritis is responsible for greater morbidity than other common childhood diarrheal illnesses. the highest risk of severe disease is in children younger than two years of age. it is estimated that one in 20 children will requir ...201021966238
[interaction of rotavirus with protein disulfide isomerase in vitro and cell system].rotavirus entry process involves a multi-step mechanism, the first of which is when the outermost viral proteins interact with four different integrins and hsc70. recently, rotavirus infection reportedly has been decreased after blocking cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (pdi). this suggested that this protein interacts with rotavirus during the entry process.201122159485
adsorption characteristics of an enteric virus-binding protein to norovirus, rotavirus and poliovirus.abstract:201122176631
the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotaviruses: three-year surveillance in the region of monastir, tunisia.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. in developing countries, approximately 1440 children die from rotavirus infections each day, with an estimated 527,000 annually. in infants, rotavirus is estimated to cause more than 2 million hospitalizations every year depending on the income level of the country. the purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion of rotavirus gastroenteritis and identify the distribution of cir ...201121967503
role of temperature and suwannee river natural organic matter on inactivation kinetics of rotavirus and bacteriophage ms2 by solar irradiation.although the sunlight-mediated inactivation of viruses has been recognized as an important process that controls surface water quality, the mechanisms of virus inactivation by sunlight are not yet clearly understood. we investigated the synergistic role of temperature and suwannee river natural organic matter (srnom), an exogenous sensitizer, for sunlight-mediated inactivation of porcine rotavirus and ms2 bacteriophage. upon irradiation by a full spectrum of simulated sunlight in the absence of ...201122017181
virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection.viral contamination of surfaces is thought to be important in transmission. chemical disinfection can be an effective means of intervention, but little is known about the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (hpv) against enteric and respiratory viruses.201122153909
[contribution of mathematical modeling to vaccination decision making. examples from varicella, rotavirus and papillomavirus vaccinations].the decision to add a new vaccine to the immunization schedule is a complex and multidisciplinary process based on the risk-benefit balance and, increasingly, on the cost- effectiveness ratio. such decisions now use mathematical models that can predict the indirect, and potentially detrimental, effects of mass vaccination on the epidemiology of the target disease. the adjunction of an economic component to the modeling process ensures that vaccination represents an efficient allocation of availa ...201022046716
oral immunoglobulin for the prevention of rotavirus infection in low birth weight infants.rotavirus is a common neonatal nosocomial viral infection and epidemics with the newer p(6)g9 strains have been reported. local mucosal immunity in the intestine to rotavirus is important in the resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infections. oral administration of anti-rotaviral immunoglobulin preparations might be a useful strategy in preventing rotaviral infections, especially in low birth weight babies.201122071808
whole genome analyses of african g2, g8, g9, and g12 rotavirus strains using sequence-independent amplification and 454® pyrosequencing.high mortality rates caused by rotaviruses are associated with several strains such as g2, g8, g9, and g12 rotaviruses. rotaviruses with g9 and g12 genotypes emerged worldwide in the past two decades. g2 and g8 rotaviruses are however also characterized frequently across africa. to understand the genetic constellation of african g2, g8, g9, and g12 rotavirus strains and their possible origin, sequence-independent cdna synthesis, amplification, and 454(®) pyrosequencing of the whole genomes of fi ...201121915879
Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in preventing cases and hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Navarre, Spain.Two rotavirus vaccines have been available since 2006. This study evaluates the effectiveness of these vaccines using a test-negative case-control design in Navarre, Spain. We included children 3-59 months of age who sought medical care for gastroenteritis and for whom stool samples were taken between January 2008 and June 2011. About 9% had received the pentavalent vaccine (RotaTeq) and another 8% received the monovalent vaccine (Rotarix). Cases were the 756 children with confirmed rotavirus an ...201222122860
Molecular Techniques in Ecohealth Research Toolkit: Facilitating Estimation of Aggregate Gastroenteritis Burden in an Irrigated Periurban Landscape.Assessment of microbial hazards associated with certain environmental matrices, livelihood strategies, and food handling practices are constrained by time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques that lead to health risk assessments of narrow geographic or time scope, often targeting very few pathogens. Health risk assessment based on one or few indicator organisms underestimates true disease burden due a number of coexisting causative pathogens. Here, we employed molecular techniques i ...201122146856
enteric viral pathogens in children with inflammatory bowel disease.the causes of exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) are unknown. the presence of rna of an enterovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus was sought in stool samples of 50 children (median age 12.9 years) undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopies for ibd or its exclusion (crohn's disease n = 18, ulcerative colitis n = 13, indeterminate colitis n = 2, non-ibd n = 17). viral rna was found in three fecal samples (norovirus gii n = 2, sapovirus n = 1), all i ...201222170557
diversity and zoonotic potential of rotaviruses in swine and cattle across a rotaviruses can infect both humans and animals. individual rotavirus strains can occasionally cross species barriers and might hereby contribute to the emergence of new genotypes in heterologous hosts. the incidence and impact of zoonotic rotavirus are not well defined, and one reason for this is a lack of data about strains circulating in suspected reservoir animal hosts. in this study we report the incidence, genetic diversity, and molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses detected in dome ...201122079216
rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™): a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in developing countries.this article provides an overview of the clinical profile of rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in developing countries, followed by a comprehensive review of pharmacoeconomic analyses with the vaccine in low- and middle-income countries. rvge is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries. the protective efficacy of a two-dose oral series of rotavirus vaccine rix4414 has been d ...201121988293
Genotyping of human rotaviruses circulating among children with diarrhea in Valencia, Venezuela.Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis during childhood worldwide, especially in developing countries. Two rotavirus vaccines are available for childhood immunization programs. Evaluation of the vaccine performance will benefit from knowledge of the epidemiological features of rotavirus infection in regional settings. Limited information on the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus types circulating in Venezuela is available. Eighty seven (89.7%) of the 97 EL ...201122012733
modeling rotavirus strain dynamics in developed countries to understand the potential impact of vaccination on genotype distributions.understanding how immunity shapes the dynamics of multistrain pathogens is essential in determining the selective pressures imposed by vaccines. there is currently much interest in elucidating the strain dynamics of rotavirus to determine whether vaccination may lead to the replacement of vaccine-type strains. in developed countries, g1p[8] strains constitute the majority of rotavirus infections most years, but occasionally other genotypes dominate for reasons that are not well understood. we de ...201122084114
Norovirus VLPs and rotavirus VP6 protein as combined vaccine for childhood gastroenteritis.Noroviruses (NoVs) and rotaviruses (RVs) are the two most important viral causes of severe gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Live oral RV vaccines are already part of routine childhood immunization in many countries, but may be associated with low risk of intussusception and other potential risks associated with live vaccines. NoV capsid-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) are in early phase clinical trials, but there is no vaccine available yet. We suggest that there is a need for no ...201121854823
VP8* antigen produced in tobacco transplastomic plants confers protection against bovine rotavirus infection in a suckling mouse model.Group A rotavirus is a major leading cause of diarrhea in mammalian species worldwide. In Argentina, bovine rotavirus (BRV) is the main cause of neonatal diarrhea in calves. VP4, one of the outermost capsid proteins, is involved in various virus functions. Rotavirus infectivity requires proteolytic cleavage of VP4, giving an N-terminal non-glycosilated sialic acid-recognizing domain (VP8*), and a C-terminal fragment (VP5*) that remains associated with the virion. VP8* subunit is the major determ ...201121893114
first reports of human rotavirus g8p[4] gastroenteritis in the united 2009, three children were hospitalized in rochester, ny with sequence-confirmed g8p[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis-the first us detection of this uncommon strain more typically found in africa. continued monitoring of g8p[4] and other rotavirus genotypes not represented in current vaccines is essential to assess whether vaccination will result in an increase in prevalence of these strains.201122170918
Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production.Safety and quality are important issues for vaccines. Whereas reversion to virulence poses a safety risk with live attenuated vaccines, the potential for the presence of adventitious agents is also an issue of vaccine quality. The recent detection or porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in human vaccines has further highlighted the importance of quality control in vaccine production. The purpose of this study was to use a novel conventional PCR to detect PCV1, and subsequently screen materials used ...201222079617
th2 signals induce epithelial injury in mice and are compatible with the biliary atresia phenotype.biliary atresia (ba) is a destructive cholangiopathy of childhood in which th1 immunity has been mechanistically linked to the bile duct inflammation and obstruction that culminate in liver injury. based on reports of decreased th1 cytokines in some patients and the development of ba in mice lacking cd4+ t cells, we hypothesized that th1-independent mechanisms can also activate effector cells and induce ba. here, we tested this hypothesis using stat1-/- mice, which lack the ability to mount th1 ...201122005305
unexpected modulation of recall b and t cell responses after immunization with rotavirus-like particles in the presence of, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of e. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. to investigate this point, we compared b and t cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-vlp) and lt-r192g. after a boost, we found, an unexpected lower b cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a ...201022069670
clinical and molecular epidemiology of norovirus infection in childhood diarrhea in china.a prospective investigation was carried out among pediatric outpatients and inpatients with acute non-dysenteric diarrhea between august, 2008 and july, 2009 in shanghai, hangzhou, chongqing, and tianjin, china. one step real-time rt-pcr was used for detection of norovirus (nov) genogroups i and ii (gi, gii). the nov genotypes were classified based on partial capsid sequences. rotavirus (rv) was detected in parallel. among 4,123 fecal samples from outpatients, 1,067 (25.9%) were nov-positive, of ...201222028199
Study results show potential impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalization rates of children. 201121854305
Astrovirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children of less than 5 years of age in Taiwan, 2009.BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acute gastroenteritis is a common illness in children under 5 years old. Although rotavirus is a leading cause, other viruses including astrovirus are also important, but have been the subject of limited studies. This is a prospective study to investigate astrovirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Taiwan. MATERIAL/METHOD: From January 2009 to December 2009, children below 5 years of age admitted to three hospitals in Taiwan due to acute gastroenteritis were eligib ...201122209687
Effects of vaccine on rotavirus disease in the pediatric population.PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in infants and young children worldwide and continues to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. Two effective rotavirus vaccines are available and recommended for routine immunization of all infants. These vaccines have been introduced in both developed and developing countries. As rotavirus vaccines are implemented, studies have been undertaken that assess the effects of vaccinat ...201122189398
canine viral enteritis: prevalence of parvo-, corona- and rotavirus infections in dogs in the netherlands.summary after a brief review of the present knowledge about canine viral enteritis, the role played by parvoviral, coronaviral and rotaviral infections in contagious diarrhoea in dogs in the netherlands is discussed. for this purpose a serologic survey, pathologic findings in dogs, and the demonstration of parvoviral antigen with an immunofluorescence test and with a newly developed haemadsorption-elution-haemagglutination assay (heha) are presented. it is concluded that infections with ca ...198022039978
notes from the field: outbreaks of rotavirus gastroenteritis among elderly adults in two retirement communities--illinois, february 2011, three residents of a retirement community in illinois were hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. the admitting physicians ordered testing of stool specimens for several pathogens, including rotavirus. the hospital laboratory detected rotavirus antigen in specimens from each patient, and the hospital infection control practitioner reported that information to the cook county department of public health. two additional residents were hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis s ...201122031219
Human infection with novel G3P[25] rotavirus strain in Taiwan.Genotype P[25] rotaviruses are rare and to date have been reported to occur only in a few countries of mainland Asia. Here we report the molecular characterization of a novel human rotavirus genotype combination, G3P[25], detected in a 17-month-old child hospitalized due to severe gastroenteritis during 2009 in central Taiwan. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 gene demonstrated a distinct origin from other strains bearing the P[25] VP4 gene, whereas the VP7, VP6 and NSP4 gene phylo ...201121851477
Epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan, with emphasis on the association of viruses and syndromes.A research committee supported by the Japanese government conducted a nationwide survey on the epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan using a questionnaire. A total of 983 cases reportedly had acute encephalopathy during the past 3years, 2007-2010. Among the pathogens of the preceding infection, influenza virus was the most common, followed by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and rotavirus. Among syndromes of acute encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced di ...201121924570
Rotavirus disease burden among children <5 years of age - Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 2007-2009.Objectives To assess the burden of rotavirus disease in Guatemala, in view of the recent introduction of a national rotavirus vaccination programme. Methods We examined data from an active, facility-based surveillance system in Santa Rosa, Guatemala, from October 2007 through September 2009 among children <5 years of age presenting to the hospital or ambulatory clinics with diarrhoea (=3 loose stools in 24 h during the last 7 days). Demographic and epidemiological data were collected, and spec ...201122175547
trends in intussusception-associated deaths among us infants from 1979-2007.objective: we examined data from 1979-2007 to generate up-to-date baseline estimates of rotavirus intussusception mortality in us infants, to inform policy deliberations of the risks and benefits of vaccination. study design: secular trends in the infant intussusception mortality rate were evaluated using national multiple cause-of-death and natality data from 1979- 2007. linked birth/infant death data from 1998-2006 were examined to identify risk factors for intussusception deaths. results: aft ...201121925681
Whole-genomic analysis of rotavirus strains: current status and future prospects.Studies on genetic diversity of rotaviruses have been primarily based on the genes encoding the antigenically significant VP7 and VP4 proteins. Since the rotavirus genome has 11 segments of RNA that are vulnerable to reassortment events, analyses of the VP7 and VP4 genes may not be sufficient to obtain conclusive data on the overall genetic diversity, or true origin of strains. In the last few years following the advent of the whole-genome-based genotype classification system, the whole genomes ...201121958144
meta-analysis: the effects of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg supplementation for the prevention of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in children, healthcare-associated diarrhoea, in particular, due to rotavirus, may prolong the hospital stay and increase medical costs, prompting interest in effective, low-cost, preventive strategies.201121899584
rotavirus nsp4 is secreted from infected cells as an oligomeric lipoprotein and binds to glycosaminoglycans on the surface of non-infected cells.abstract: background: nonstructural glycoprotein 4 (nsp4) encoded by rotavirus is the only viral protein currently believed to function as an enterotoxin. nsp4 is synthesized as an intracellular transmembrane glycoprotein and as such is essential for virus assembly. infection of polarized caco-2 cells with rotavirus also results in the secretion of glycosylated nsp4 apparently in a soluble form despite retention of its transmembrane domain. we have examined the structure, solubility and cell ...201122185400
occurrence of group b rotavirus infections in the outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis from western india. 201121985827
toxin mediated diarrhea in the 21 century: the pathophysiology of intestinal ion transport in the course of etec, v. cholerae and rotavirus estimated 4 billion episodes of diarrhea occur each year. as a result, 2-3 million children and 0.5-1 million adults succumb to the consequences of this major healthcare concern. the majority of these deaths can be attributed to toxin mediated diarrhea by infectious agents, such as e. coli, v. cholerae or rotavirus. our understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying these infectious diseases has notably improved over the last years. this review will focus on the cellular mechani ...201022069677
putative canine origin of rotavirus strain detected in a child with diarrhea, taiwan.abstract rotavirus g3p[3] strains have been reported from a variety of species including humans, cats, dogs, monkeys, goats, and cows. here, we report the characterization of the first human g3p[3] rotavirus from east asia identified in a 2-year-old child who was treated in a hospital's emergency ward in taiwan in february 2005. sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close genetic relationship between the vp4, vp6, vp7, and nsp4 genes of taiwanese g3p[3] strain 04-94s51 and an itali ...201122022813
norovirus: an overview.although noroviruses (novs) were the first viral agents linked to gastrointestinal disease, for a long time they have been considered secondary cause of gastroenteritis, second to rotaviruses as etiologic agents. the development of molecular techniques in diagnosing nov provided a clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of these viruses, which are currently recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks, but also as a major cause of sporadic gastroent ...201121876931
protection against rotavirus challenge in mice orally inoculated with trypsin inhibitor.the burden of rotavirus disease is significant in developed as well as developing countries and has not diminished with improved hygiene. in the present studies the protective efficacy of soyabean trypsin inhibitor (ti) was investigated on the gut following rotavirus (rv) infection in inbred mice.200121901906
intussusception risk of rotavirus vaccination. 201122129262
[epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis in france and europe].continuous surveillance of acute diarrhea in france has been conducted by inserm's sentinel network of general practitioners (gp) since 1991. similar gp-based studies have been performed in the netherlands, austria and the uk. the causes of most cases of acute diarrhea are unclear. in case-controlstudies designed to identify viruses in stools, 35 to 40% of cases and virtually none of the controls were positive for one of 4 major viruses (rotavirus, calicivirus, astrovirus and adenovirus). thus, ...201022046706
One year environmental surveillance of rotavirus specie A (RVA) genotypes in circulation after the introduction of the Rotarix® vaccine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Rotavirus specie A (RVA) infection is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea among young children worldwide. To reduce this major RVA health impact, the Rotarix® vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) was introduced in the Brazilian Expanded Immunization Program in March 2006 and became available to the entire birth cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spread of RVA in the environment after the introduction of Rotarix® in Brazil. For this purpose, a Wastewater Treatment P ...201121917289
complete molecular genome analyses of equine rotavirus a strains from different continents reveal several new genotypes and a largely conserved genotype this study, the complete genome sequence of seven equine group a rotavirus (rva) strains (rva/horse-tc/gbr/l338/1991/g13p[18], rva/horse-wt/irl/03v04954/2003/g3p[12] and rva/horse-wt/irl/04v2024/2004/g14p[12] from europe; rva/horse-wt/arg/e30/1993/g3p[12], rva/horse-wt/arg/e403/2006/g14p[12], and rva/horse-wt/arg/e4040/2008/g14p[12] from argentina, and rva/horse-wt/zaf/eqrv-sa1/2006/g14p[12] from south africa) were determined. multiple new genotypes were identified and genotype numbers were a ...201122190012
lessons from the us rotavirus vaccination program. 201122009102
the emergence of rotavirus g12 and the prevalence of enteric viruses in hospitalized pediatric diarrheal patients in southern vietnam.diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and the majority of infections are of viral etiology. we aimed to compare the etiological prevalence of the major enteric viruses in an urban and a rural setting in southern vietnam. we simultaneously screened fecal specimens from 362 children in ho chi minh city and dong thap province that were hospitalized with acute diarrhea over a 1-month-long period for four viral gastrointestinal pathogens. rotavirus wa ...201121976585
benign afebrile convulsions in the course of mild acute gastroenteritis: a study of 28 patients and a literature review.since the description of afebrile convulsions in the course of mild acute gastroenteritis (age) in 1982 by morooka in japan, there have been few reports of further cases outside asia. the aim of this study was to share our casuistry--from a non-asian country.201122068069
acute cerebellitis associated with rotavirus infection.background: rotavirus infection is occasionally associated with central nervous system involvement, including cerebellitis. however, the precise clinical sequelae of central nervous system disorders and the usefulness of neuroradiological examination for clinical therapies such as steroid pulse therapy have not been clarified. methods: we present a case of rotavirus cerebellitis examined by magnetic resonance imaging (mri), magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and single photon emission computed tom ...201121874616
Clinical characteristics of obstructive uropathy associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japan.Aims: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is severe and often results in dehydration and pre-renal azotemia. However, we have encountered four children with acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis, and several similar cases have been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the epidemiology and clinical features of acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japanese children. Patients and methods: We sent questio ...201222185968
Addition of history of intussusception as a contraindication for rotavirus vaccination.The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved revised prescribing information and patient labeling from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals for the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1, marketed as Rotarix) and revised prescribing information and patient labeling from Merck & Co. for the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5, marketed as RotaTeq) to include history of intussusception as a contraindication. FDA approved the revisions for RV1 in February 2011 and for RV5 in July 2011. In its rotavirus vac ...201122012117
current immunization policies for pneumococcal, meningococcal c, varicella and rotavirus vaccinations in italian regions can implement different policies for immunizations that are not already recommended "across the board" in the country, the present study aimed to describe regional recommendations and strategies concerning pneumococcal, meningococcal c, varicella and rotavirus vaccines.201122030308
molecular characterization of vp4, vp6, vp7 and nsp4 genes of group b rotavirus strains from outbreaks of characterize vp4, vp6, vp7 and nsp4 genes of representative gbr strains (niv-005625, niv-04622 and niv-094456) detected as the major etiologic agent in the outbreaks of gastroenteritis in western india.201122078944
aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in adults requiring hospitalization in the netherlands.summaryinfectious gastroenteritis causes a considerable burden of disease worldwide. effective control should be targeted at diseases with the highest burden and costs. therefore, an accurate understanding of the relative importance of the different microorganisms is needed. the objective of this study was to determine the incidence and aetiology of gastroenteritis in adults requiring hospital admission in the netherlands. five hospitals enrolled patients admitted with gastroenteritis for about ...201122152987
progress introducing rotavirus vaccine into latin america and the caribbean, 2006–2010. 201122128387
rotarix®: vaccine performance 6 years postlicensure.rotarix(®) was first licensed in 2004 and rapidly introduced into private and public markets worldwide. in a previous 2009 article, we reviewed the impact of rotavirus-associated disease, the rationale for different vaccines, prelicensure efficacy studies and cost-effectiveness studies for rotarix. as of september 2011, rotarix had been licensed in 123 countries in the americas, europe, australia, africa and asia, of which 27 have incorporated the vaccine into national or regional immunization p ...201122085167
evaluation of vaccines against enteric infections: a clinical and public health research agenda for developing countries.enteric infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. to date, vaccines have played a limited role in public health efforts to control enteric infections. licensed vaccines exist for cholera and typhoid, but these vaccines are used primarily for travellers; and there are two internationally licensed vaccines for rotavirus, but they are mainly used in affluent countries. the reasons that enteric vaccines are little used in developing countries are multiple, and ...201121893543
immunisation coverage annual report, 2009.this, the third annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2009 for a range of standard measures derived from australian childhood immunisation register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the national immunisation program (nip). coverage by indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness is also summarised according to standard templates. with respect to overall coverage, ...201122010506
clinical manifestations of a cluster of rotavirus infection in young infants hospitalized in neonatal care units.purpose: to define the clinical manifestations of rotavirus (rv) infection in neonates and young infants hospitalized in neonatal care units, which are rarely reported. materials and methods: from october 2008 to september 2010, a total of 153 stool specimens positive for rv were detected from 100 neonates and young infants hospitalized in neonatal care units of our hospital. four infants had two episodes of rv infection. demographics and clinical presentations of these infants were collected an ...201122154991
the molecular biology of rotaviruses x: intercellular dissemination of rotavirus nsp4 requires glycosylation and is mediated by direct cell-cell contact through cytoplasmic extrusions.the effect of expressing the nsp4 protein of group a rotaviruses in cells has been studied. it led to the rapid appearance of long cytoplasmic extrusions, which, through site-directed mutagenesis of the n-linked glycosylation sites near the amino terminus of the protein, were shown to be dependent on its ability to become fully glycosylated. real-time confocal microscopy was used to follow the appearance of similar cytoplasmic extrusions in virus-infected cells and revealed them to grow at a rat ...201122116494
structural organisation of the rotavirus nonstructural protein nsp5.rotavirus is one of the leading agents of gastroenteritis worldwide. during infection, viral factories (viroplasms) are formed. the rotavirus nonstructural proteins nsp5 and nsp2 are the major building blocks of viroplasms; however, nsp5 function and organisation remain elusive. in this report, we present a structural characterisation of nsp5. multi-angle laser light scattering, sedimentation velocity and equilibrium sedimentation experiments demonstrate that recombinant full-length nsp5 forms a ...201121864538
Rotavirus Encephalitis With Basal Ganglia Involvement in an 8-Month-Old Infant. 201121868600
structural insights into the coupling of virion assembly and rotavirus replication.viral replication is rapid and robust, but it is far from a chaotic process. instead, successful production of infectious progeny requires that events occur in the correct place and at the correct time. rotaviruses (segmented double-stranded rna viruses of the reoviridae family) seem to govern their replication through ordered disassembly and assembly of a triple-layered icosahedral capsid. in recent years, high-resolution structural data have provided unprecedented insight into these events. in ...201222266782
evaluation of a multiplex real time reverse transcription pcr assay for the detection and quantitation of the most common human rotavirus a rotaviruses (rvs) are important pathogens that cause acute, dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. in this study, a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol using primers and taqman(®) probes specific for viral vp4 and vp7 genes was evaluated. this assay offers simultaneous genotyping and quantification of the most common rv genotypes g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8], and g9p[8]. it was compared to the molecular typing results provided by conventional pcr. ...201222245180
conformational differences unfold a wide range of enterotoxigenic abilities exhibited by rnsp4 peptides from different rotavirus strains.nsp4 has been recognized as the rotavirus-encoded enterotoxin. however, a few studies failed to support its diarrheagenic activity. as recombinant nsp4 (rnsp4) peptides of different lengths were used in the limited number of studies, a comparison of relative diarrheagenic potential of nsp4 from different strains could not be possible. to better understand the diarrheagenic potential of nsp4 from different strains, in this report we have evaluated the enterotoxigenic activity of the deletion muta ...201122253650
inhibition of rotavirus infectivity by a neoglycolipid receptor a rotaviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young of many mammalian species. in rotavirus infected piglets mortality can be as high as 60%. previous research in this laboratory has identified a porcine intestinal gm(3) ganglioside receptor that is required for sialic acid-dependent rotavirus recognition of host cells. in addition, we previously demonstrated exogenously added gm(3) can competitively inhibit porcine rotavirus binding and infectivity of host cells in vitro. sialyllacto ...201122254094
whole genomic analysis reveals the porcine origin of human g9p[19] rotavirus strains mc323 and mc345.the group a rotavirus (rva) p[19] is a rare p-genotype of the rva vp4 gene, reported so far in humans and pigs. whole genomic analyses of p[19] strains are essential to study their origin and evolutionary patterns. to date, all the 11 genes of only two p[19] strains, rva/human-wt/ind/rmc321/1990/g9p[19] and rva/human-wt/ind/mani-97/2006/g9p[19], have been analyzed, providing evidence for their porcine origin. in the present study, the whole genomes of the first reported human p[19] strains, rva/ ...201122226701
bifidobacterium lactis bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.background: addition of probiotics to infant formula may positively affect immune function in nonexclusively breastfed infants. this study aimed to investigate the effect of infant starter formula containing the probiotic bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (bb12) on intestinal immunity and inflammation. methods: six-week-old healthy, full-term infants (n = 172) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with 2 groups studied in parallel to a breas ...201222237870
no evidence of murine leukemia virus-related viruses in live attenuated human vaccines.the association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related virus (xmrv) in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of xmrv and mlv into human populations. to address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic pcr for xmrv and mlv ...201122216219
efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis among american indian children.background:: before the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus was a leading cause of gastroenteritis among children. navajo and white mountain apache children suffer a disproportionate burden of severe rotavirus disease compared with the general us population. methods:: we enrolled navajo and white mountain apache infants in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (prv). subjects received 3 doses of vaccine or plac ...201222252206
safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the human rotavirus vaccine in pre-term european infants: a randomized phase iiib study.background: rotavirus disease is more severe in pre-term infants than in full-term infants. this study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 in european pre-term infants. methods: 1009 pre-term infants were randomized (2:1; vaccine: placebo) and stratified into two groups: 20% of early [27-30 weeks; group 1] and 80% of late [31-36 weeks; group 2] gestational age pre-term infants in each group. two doses of rix4414/placebo were administered t ...201222228231
genomic characterization of a cell-culture-adapted korean human g9p[8] rotavirus, cau05-202.the human rotavirus g9 strain is the fifth most common rotavirus worldwide. a human rotavirus g9p[8] strain cau05-202 was isolated from a young child with diarrhea using a cell culture system, and its major gene sequences were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 gene revealed that cau05-202 clustered into genetic lineage iii-d and was most closely related to g9 rotaviruses from turkey (strain guh13) and sri lanka (strain 05slc056 and 05slc057). vp4 and nsp4 gene analysis showed that cau ...201222274623
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis and distribution of rotavirus strains in asia: a systematic review.background: rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. we systematically reviewed the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) and distribution of rotavirus strains in asia. methods: we searched medline, embase and the world health organization (who) website for the term "rotavirus" and the name of each country. we included studies that were conducted in children between 2000 and 2011 and that examined the epidemiology, health and/or economic burden of rvge, and g ...201122212128
sequence and phylogenetic analyses of nonstructural protein 2 genes of species b porcine rotaviruses detected in japan during 2001-2009.porcine rotavirus b (rvb) has been often detected in diarrhea of suckling and weaned pigs. because it is difficult to serially cultivate rvbs in cell culture, the number of available sequence data for rna segments other than vp7 and nsp1 in especially porcine rvbs is still limited. we performed genetic analysis focusing on nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) using several porcine rvb strains, which were detected in diarrheic feces collected around japan during 2001-2009. comparison of nsp2 nucleotide ...201222248642
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