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effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in spain.with the aim of determining rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (rvve) in spain, from oct-2008/jun-2009, 467 consecutive children below 2 years old with acute gastroenteritis (age) were recruited using a pediatric research network (regalip-www.regalip.org) that includes primary, emergency and hospital care settings. of 467 enrolled children, 32.3% were rotavirus positive and 35.0% had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine. rrve to prevent any episode of rotavirus age was 91.5% (95% ci: ...201121521947
epidemiology and burden of rotavirus disease in central asia.background: rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. new rotavirus vaccines are not currently used in the five countries that make up the central asian region. three of these countries, kazakhstan, uzbekistan, and kyrgyzstan, have a combined total population of 48 million and an estimated 1 million annual births. methods: we conducted prospective hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea in three central asian countries (kazakhstan, u ...201121524932
clinical and molecular observations on two fatal cases of rotavirus-associated enteritis in italian children.two fatal cases of infantile rotavirus enteritis occurred in north italy during 2005. both children were severely dehydrated and death was related to severe cerebral oedema. histological examination demonstrated extensive damage of the intestinal epithelium, villous atrophy or blunting and macrophage infiltration. the two rotavirus strains possessed g1p[8] types and long electropherotype. the 2005 g1p[8] rotaviruses differed in the nsp4, vp3, vp4 and vp7 genes from g1p[8] rotaviruses circulating ...201121525221
rotavirus in children with diarrhea in tripoli, libya. 201121526041
decline in diarrhea mortality and admissions after routine childhood rotavirus immunization in brazil: a time-series analysis.in 2006, brazil began routine immunization of infants <15 wk of age with a single-strain rotavirus vaccine. we evaluated whether the rotavirus vaccination program was associated with declines in childhood diarrhea deaths and hospital admissions by monitoring disease trends before and after vaccine introduction in all five regions of brazil with varying disease burden and distinct socioeconomic and health indicators.201121526228
rotavirus surveillance --- worldwide, 2009.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea worldwide among children aged <5 years. an estimated 527,000 children in this age group died from rotavirus in 2004, and approximately 85% of those deaths occurred in south asia and sub-saharan africa. in 2009, the world health organization (who) recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in all national immunization programs. disease burden data generated from surveillance are important for making decisions regarding whether to introduce rot ...201121527889
epidemiology of rotavirus and cholera in children aged less than five years in rural bangladesh.despite the known presence of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in bangladesh, its prevalence, including records of hospitalization in rural health facilities, is largely unknown. in a systematic surveillance undertaken in two government-run rural health facilities, 457 children, aged less than five years, having acute watery diarrhoea, were studied between august 2005 and july 2007 to determine the prevalence of rotavirus. due to limited financial support, the surveillance of rotavirus was include ...201121528784
rare rotavirus strains in children with severe diarrhea, malaysia.to the editor: we report the identification of g3p[9] rotavirus in children with acute diarrhea in malaysia. globally, rotavirus infections are the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children admitted to hospital. it is estimated that 527,000 children <5 years of age die each year of rotavirus diarrhea (1). strains with a g3p[9] genotype represent a rare group of viruses, initially reported in japan in 1982. these viruses have been sporadically associated with diarrhea in ...201121529427
oral immunization with live lactococcus lactis expressing rotavirus vp8* subunit induces specific immune response in mice.rotaviruses are the major cause of worldwide infectious diarrhea in children and vaccination is considered to be the most effective way to control these infections. the development of a mucosal live vaccine using the food-grade lactic acid bacteria lactococcus lactis as antigen vehicle is an attractive and safe vaccination strategy against rotavirus. in this study, the construction of recombinant l. lactis strains able to produce the rotavirus spike-protein subunit vp8* in cytoplasmic, secreted ...201121530589
mxa rna quantification in febrile patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency.the presence of myxovirus resistance protein a (mxa) rna was studied in 55 febrile children with primary immunodeficiency, 27 of whom underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation, and in 28 age-matched controls. the level of mxa rna was above the cutoff, established as the 95th percentile found in controls, with primary immunodeficiency either undergoing transplantation or not in febrile patients, and with a documented diagnosis of infection by adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus, re ...201121532489
rotavirus infection: optimal treatment and prevention.which fluids should you avoid when treating patients' gastroenteritis? should nursing mothers continue to breastfeed? and what about the timing of the 2 vaccines and their administration with other vaccines? read on.201121544269
characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from quillaja saponaria molina.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the chilean soapbark tree. the extract is approved for use in humans by the fda for use in beverages as a food addictive. we have demonstrated that quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. in this study, we evaluated the in vivo ...201121549151
[epidemiology of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis in fuenlabrada (madrid).]introduction: rotavirus is the main aetiological agent of severe acute gastroenteritis in childhood. material and methods: a prospective study on the incidence and cost of acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years. results: rotavirus was the most frequent aetiological agent. the cumulative incidence of hospitalisation decreased over the study period. conclusions: rotavirus is the most common cause of acute community acquired gastroenteritis requiring hospital admission in the area of fuenl ...201121561688
molecular epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis in children in jiangmen, china, 2005-2007.human noroviruses (novs) are an important cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. their role in sporadic cases, however, is less clear. in this study, we performed a two-year surveillance (september 2005 to august 2007) of nov gastroenteritis in outpatient clinics in a southern city of china, jiangmen city. novs were detected in 115 patients (115/881, 13.1%) with 30 (26.1%) co-infections with rotaviruses. sequence analysis showed that all 115 novs belonged to genogroup ii, with gii.4 being the ...201121562879
molecular characterization and analysis of equine rotavirus circulating in japan from 2003 to 2008.using a total of 2018 fecal samples collected between 2003 and 2008 from foals with diarrhea, the molecular epidemiology of group a equine rotaviruses circulating in japan was investigated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) typing and sequence analysis of the vp4 (p type) and vp7 (g type) genes. a total of 1149 samples showed positive reactions with rt-pcr, of which 462 samples (40.2%) were positive for g3 type, 502 samples (43.7%) were positive for g14 type, and 185 ...201121565456
diverse origin of p[19] rotaviruses in children with acute diarrhea in taiwan: detection of novel lineages of the g3, g5, and g9 vp7 genes.we previously reported the detection of genotype p[19] rotavirus strains from children hospitalized with acute dehydrating diarrhea during a 5-year surveillance period in taiwan. the characterization of five p[19] strains (0.4% of all typed), including three g3p[19], a novel g5p[19], and a unique g9p[19] genotype is described in this study. phylogenetic analysis of the vp4, vp7, vp6, and nsp4 genes was performed, which demonstrated novel lineages for respective genotypes of the vp4 and the vp7 g ...201121567431
detection of g3p[3] and g3p[9] rotavirus strains in american indian children with evidence of gene reassortment between human and animal rotaviruses.the distribution and evolution of human rotavirus strains is important for vaccine development and effectiveness. in settings where rotavirus vaccine coverage is high, vaccine pressure could select for replacement of common strains (similar to those included in rotavirus vaccines) with uncommon strains, some of which could be generated by reassortment between human and animal rotaviruses. between 2002 and 2004, a phase-iii rotavirus vaccine clinical trial was conducted among american indian chil ...201121567432
results from evaluations of models and cost-effectiveness tools to support introduction decisions for new vaccines need critical appraisal.abstract: the world health organization (who) recommends that the cost-effectiveness (ce) of introducing new vaccines be considered before such a programme is implemented. however, in low- and middle-income countries (lmics), it is often challenging to perform and interpret the results of model-based economic appraisals of vaccines that benefit from locally relevant data. as a result, who embarked on a series of consultations to assess economic analytical tools to support vaccine introduction de ...201121569407
molecular and process design for rotavirus-like particle production in saccharomyces cerevisiae.abstract: background: virus-like particles (vlp) have an increasing range of applications including vaccination, drug delivery, diagnostics, gene therapy and nanotechnology. these developments require large quantities of particles that need to be obtained in efficient and economic processes. production of vlp in yeast is attractive, as it is a low-cost protein producer able to assemble viral structural proteins into vlp. however, to date only single-layered vlp with simple architecture have been ...201121569612
molecular and infectivity studies of porcine circovirus in vaccines.this report describes fda's laboratory response to the 2010 reports that porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv-1) dna was present in u.s.-licensed rotavirus vaccines and in cells used to produce inactivated poliovirus vaccines. in the present study, rotarix(®) (glaxosmithkline, rixenxart, belgium) was found to contain full-length pcv-1 genomes that are particle-associated, and cell culture assays in swine testis (st) and pcv-free porcine kidney (pk-15) cells confirmed that pcv-1 sequences in this vacci ...201121569811
gastroenteritis outbreak due to g2p[4] rotavirus and gii norovirus at two correctional facilities in brazil, 2010. 201121570903
integrated microfluidic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection of food- or waterborne pathogenic rotavirus.the development of microfluidic tools for nucleic acid analysis has become a burgeoning area of research during the postgenome era. here we have developed a microfluidic device that integrates reverse transcription (rt) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with online fluorescence detection to realize a rapid detection system for performing both genetic amplification and product analysis. the microfluidic device mainly comprises a grooved copper heating block for rt and a heated cylinder for ampl ...201121570946
impact of rotavirus vaccination on laboratory confirmed cases in belgium.rotavirus vaccines were introduced in belgium in 2006 and recommended in the universal schedule in january 2007. we measured the impact of rotavirus vaccination through an active laboratory-based surveillance system. in 2008, the number of laboratory confirmed rotavirus cases declined by 61.4% (95% ci 60.2-62.6%) compared to the 2005-2006 pre-vaccination period, with the highest decline in children <1 year (80.1%; 95% ci 78.7-81.4%). the rotavirus season was delayed compared to pre-vaccination s ...201121571023
incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending jos university teaching hospital, nigeria.abstract: this study was conducted to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending jos university teaching hospital, plateau state. a total of 160 children with acute diarrhea were selected by random sampling. stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using standard diagnostic bioline rotavirus kit. demographic data of parents were also recorded. rotavirus were detected in faeces of 2 ...201121575246
direct and indirect impact on rotavirus positive and all-cause gastroenteritis hospitalisations in south australian children following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus vaccine for infants was introduced into the national immunisation program in australia in july 2007. to determine the impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis hospitalisations amongst children less than six years of age in south australia, we conducted a retrospective analysis of hospital admissions over two time periods: 1 may 2005-30 april 2007 (prior to rotavirus vaccination introduction) and 1 may 2008-30 april 2010 (post rotavirus vaccination introduction). the introduct ...201121575665
rotavirus-coded deaths in children, united states, 1999-2007.the introduction of specific international classification of diseases-10th revision code for rotavirus in 1999 prompted us to examine the us mortality data for 1999-2007 to validate rotavirus-coded deaths. of 38 rotavirus-coded deaths identified in the national multiple cause-of-death database, results of laboratory testing could be obtained for 21 deaths, all of which had confirmation of rotavirus by either microbiologic or histopathologic testing.201121577173
lactobacilli producing bispecific llama-derived anti-rotavirus proteins in vivo for rotavirus-induced diarrhea.aims: using genetically engineered lactobacilli, producing high avidity llama vhh domains (referred to as anti-rotavirus proteins; arps), to test the effect of multimeric antibody fragments as prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection. methods: two arps, arp1 and arp3, shown to bind to different epitopes and act synergistically against rotavirus, were displayed on the surface of lactobacillus paracasei as monovalent or bivalent proteins (mono- or bi-specific). results: although a nonsi ...201121585264
a community outbreak of rotavirus diarrhea associated with exposures in a hospital outpatient department in south china.introduction:: between october 1 and december 10, 2006, bao'an, china had a 5-fold increase in acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (arge) cases compared with the same time in 2005. to identify the risk factors for arge during this outbreak, we conducted a case-control study among children ≤24 months old from the most heavily affected area. methods:: we defined an arge case as diarrhea, with group a rotavirus antigen detected from fecal samples by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. in the ca ...201121587095
reassortment among bovine, porcine and human rotavirus strains results in g8p[7] and g6p[7] strains isolated from cattle in south korea.group a rotaviruses (garvs) cause severe acute gastroenteritis in children and young animals. although zoonotic infections with bovine-like g6 and g8 garvs have been reported in many countries, there is little evidence for reassortment between bovine garvs and garvs from heterologous species. the finding of bovine garvs with the g6 and g8 genotypes in combination with the typical porcine p[7] prompted us to characterize all 11 genes of 30 bovine garvs isolated from clinically infected calves. by ...201121592683
immune mediators of rotavirus antigenemia clearance in mice.the immunological mediators that clear rotavirus antigenemia or viremia remain undefined. immunodeficient mice and antibody-transfer were used to test whether lymphocytes or rotavirus-specific serum antibodies are essential for resolving antigenemia. clearance of antigenemia required lymphocytes but neither t or b lymphocytes was absolutely required. transfer of convalescent or non-neutralizing rotavirus-specific serum antibodies to the systemic compartment of severe combined immunodeficient (sc ...201121593155
use of fluoroscopy to study in vivo motility in mouse pups.objectives:: few methods exist to noninvasively study in vivo gastrointestinal motility in animal models of enteric infections. none have been used on mouse pups, which often display more severe symptoms during enteric infections than adult mice. this study sought to determine whether digital fluoroscopy could be used to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in mouse pups as well as adult mice. materials and methods:: fluoroscopic imaging studies were performed on normal 6- to 8-week-old adult mice ...201121593642
uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg).in april 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group a rotaviruses (rvs). this system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular rv strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. using this approach, the genome of individual rv strains are given the complete descriptor of gx-p[x]-ix-rx-cx-mx-ax-nx-tx-ex-hx. the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg) was formed by scientists in the fi ...201121597953
molecular and immunohistochemical detection of rotavirus in urinary sediment cells of children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.clin microbiol infect abstract: this is the first report showing that rotavirus infects the urinary sediment cells in immunocompetent children with rotavirus gastroenteritis. we found that inclusion-bearing cells were frequently detected in the urine samples of patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis. these cells were positive for cytokeratin, which was sometimes coexpressed with rotavirus antigen, in our immunohistochemical analysis. moreover, in nested rt-pcr experiments, we detected rotavirus ...201121599796
determination of the whole-genome consensus sequence of the prototype ds-1 rotavirus using sequence-independent genome amplification and 454(®) pyrosequencing.the prototype ds-1 rotavirus strain, is characterised by a short electropherotype and g2p[4] serotype specificity. following sequence-independent genome amplification and 454(®) pyrosequencing of genomic cdna, differences between the newly determined consensus sequence and genbank sequences were observed in 10 of the 11 genome segments. only the consensus sequence of genome segment 1 was identical to sequences deposited in genbank. a novel isoleucine at position 397 in a hydrophobic region of vp ...201121600242
rotavirus surveillance worldwide – 2009. 201121608199
multiple reassortment and interspecies transmission events contribute to the diversity of feline, canine and feline/canine-like human group a rotavirus strains.rna-rna hybridization assays and complete genome sequence analyses have shown that feline rotavirus (frv) and canine rotavirus (crv) strains display at least two distinct genotype constellations (genogroups), represented by the frv strain rva/cat-tc/aus/cat97/1984/g3p[3] and the human rotavirus (hrv) strain rva/human-tc/jpn/au-1/1982/g3p3[9], respectively. g3p[3] and g3p[9] strains have been detected sporadically in humans. the complete genomes of two crv strains (rva/dog-tc/ita/rv198-95/1995/g3 ...201121609783
rotavirus rearranged genomic rna segments are preferentially packaged into viruses despite not conferring selective growth advantage to viruses.the rotavirus (rv) genome consists of 11 double-stranded rna segments. sometimes, partial sequence duplication of an rna segment leads to a rearranged rna segment. to specify the impact of rearrangement, the replication efficiencies of human rv with rearranged segments 7, 11 or both were compared to these of the homologous human wild-type rv (wt-rv) and of the bovine wt-rv strain rf. as judged by viral growth curves, rotaviruses with a rearranged genome (r-rv) had no selective growth advantage o ...201121611152
scope for rotavirus vaccination in india: revisiting the scientific evidence.rotavirus vaccines have been developed to prevent deaths resulting from severe diarrhea of rotavirus origin. the use of vaccines as an intervention at scale to prevent and control the burden of rotavirus diarrhea is supported by the argument that prevailing public health measures such as hygiene and sanitation, breast feeding and use of ors have failed to prevent severe dehydration resulting from diarrhea. the article reviews the existing evidence on the rationale of using rotavirus vaccine as a ...201121611712
babies and bearded dragons: sudden increase in reptile-associated salmonella enterica serovar tennessee infections, germany 2008.abstract introduction: in 2008 a marked increase in salmonella enterica serovar tennessee infections in infants occurred in germany. in march and april 2008, eight cases were notified compared to a median of 0-1 cases in 2001-2006. materials and methods: we carried out an investigation including a case-control study to identify the source of infection. a patient was a child <3 years of age with salmonella tennessee isolated from stool from september 1, 2007, through december 31, 2008, identified ...201121612527
standardized positive controls for detection of norovirus by reverse transcription pcr.abstract: background: norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. rapid spread by contaminated food and person-to-person transmission through the fecal-oral route are characteristics of norovirus and result in high morbidity in vulnerable patient populations. therefore, detection of norovirus is a major public health concern. currently, the most common method for detecting and differentiating among noroviruses in clinical and environmental samples is rev ...201121612660
re: four cases of postrenal renal failure induced by renal stones associated with rotavirus infection. 201121612763
viroplasm matrix protein pns9 from rice gall dwarf virus forms an octameric cylindrical structure.the nonstructural pns9 protein of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) accumulates in viroplasm (vp) inclusions, which are structures that appear to play an important role in viral morphogenesis and are commonly found in host cells infected by viruses in the family reoviridae. immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy of rgdv-infected vector cells in monolayers (vcms), using antibodies against pns9 of rgdv and expression of pns9 in spodoptera frugiperda cells demonstrated that pns9 is the minimal ...201121613445
whole genomic analysis reveals the complex evolutionary dynamics of kenyan g2p[4] human rotavirus strains.although g2p[4] rotaviruses are common causes of acute childhood diarrhoea in africa, to date, there are no reports on whole genomic analysis of african g2p[4] strains. in this study, the nearly complete genome sequences of two kenyan g2p[4] strains, ak26 and d205, detected in 1982 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed. strain d205 exhibited a ds-1-like genotype constellation, whilst strain ak26 appeared to be an intergenogroup reassortant with a wa-like nsp2 genotype on the ds-1-like genotype c ...201121613446
genotypes of rotavirus strains circulating in amman, jordan, in 2006/07 and their significance for the potential effectiveness of future rotavirus vaccination.the prevalence, seasonality and genotypes of rotavirus circulating in jordan were determined to provide data useful for the implementation of a rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood vaccination program. during 2006/07, rotavirus was detected in 35% of hospitalized children, and 88% of the cases occurred in children aged between 6 and 23 months. rotavirus infection persisted throughout the year and peaked in winter. seven genotypes were identified by rt-pcr and sequencing: g1p[8], g9p[8], g ...201121614437
detection of group a rotavirus rna and antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from two children with clinically mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion.we report on two children with mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion associated with group a rotavirus (garv) infection. we examined stool, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples to determine the presence of the garv vp7 gene and garv antigen by reverse-transcription pcr and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. garv antigen was detected in stool samples from both patients. the garv g genotype was g9 in one child and g3 in the other. garv antigens were also found in bo ...201121617303
symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus among hospitalized children in xi'an, china.rotavirus (rv), norovirus (nov), and adenovirus (adv) have been reported as the common viral pathogens of acute gastroenteritis in children. to determine the prevalence of rv, nov, and adv infections among hospitalized children with and without symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, fecal specimens, and data on clinical symptoms were collected from 201 children with diarrhea and 53 children without diarrhea admitted to the xi'an children's hospital in xi'an, china between march 2009 and may 2010. rv ...201121618552
host inflammatory response to infectionsince humans are believed to be a major reservoir for h. pylori, the continued survival of the bacterial species depends largely on human-to-human transmission. h. pylori is not as easily transmitted as other pathogens such as rotavirus; therefore, persistent infection would increase the chance that the infection can be disseminated. on the basis of the discussion above, it appears that h. pylori has selected a niche that favors survival based on many factors, including the inability of gastric ...200121290742
medical microbiologythe family reoviridae is composed of eight genera: orthoreovirus, orbivirus, coltivirus, rotavirus, aquareovirus, cypovirus, phytoreovirus, and fijivirus. certain orthoreovirus, orbivirus, coltivirus, and rotavirus species infect humans; phytoreovirus and fijivirus species infect plants and insects; the cypoviruses (the cytoplasmic polyhidrosis viruses) infect insects, and aquareovirus ...199621413350
[study on the ubiquitin ligase activity of rotavirus nsp1 protein].to confirm the activity of non structural protein 1 (nsp1) of rotavirus (rv) as e3 ubiquitin ligase by experiments and to provide some clues for nsp1 on the pathogenic mechanisms and replication of rv.201021604574
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in bolivia from the state perspective.background: in bolivia, the under-five mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births. diarrhea causes 15% of these deaths, and 40% of pediatric diarrhea-related hospitalizations are caused by rotavirus illness (ri). rotavirus vaccination (rv), subsidized by international donors, is expected to reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic burden to the bolivian state. estimates of the illness and economic burden of ri and their reduction by rv are essential to the bolivian state's policies on rv program ...201121624421
bug breakfast in the bulletin: rotavirus. 201121632006
enteric pathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in tripoli-libya.abstract. stool samples from children < 5 years of age with diarrhea (n = 239) were examined for enteric pathogens using a combination of culture, enzyme-immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction methods. pathogens were detected in 122 (51%) stool samples; single pathogens were detected in 37.2% and co-pathogens in 13.8% of samples. norovirus, rotavirus, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli (dec) were the most frequently detected pathogens (15.5%, 13.4%, and 11.2%, respectively); salmonella, aden ...201121633024
current level of consensus on probiotic science-report of an expert meeting- london, 23 november 2009.the present paper summarizes  the consensus views of a group of 9 european clinicians and scientists on the current state of scientific knowledge on probiotics, covering those areas where there is substantial evidence for beneficial effects and those  where the evidence base is poor or inconsistent. there was general agreement that probiotic effects were species and often strain specific. the experts agreed  that some probiotics were effective in reducing the incidence and duration of rotavirus ...201021637035
detection of the first g6p[14] human rotavirus strain from a child with diarrhea in egypt.we report the first detection of a g6p[14] rotavirus strain in egypt from the stool of a child participating in a hospital-based diarrhea surveillance study conducted throughout the year 2004. rotavirus infection was initially detected using a rotavirus group a vp6 enzyme immunoassay; the p (vp4) and g (vp7) genotypes of the strain were identified by rt-pcr. we sequenced the vp7 gene and the vp8* portion of the vp4 gene and the strain displayed the strongest identity to the vp7 [>94% nucleotides ...201121640199
efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of rix4414 in japanese infants during the first two years of life.a phase iii, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy, reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 in japanese infants aged 6-14 weeks when administered as two doses (0, 1-month schedule). efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis leading to medical intervention caused by circulating wild-type rotavirus from two weeks post-dose 2 until two years of age was 79.3%(95% ci: 60.5-89.8%) and 91.6%(95% ci: 62.4-99.1%), respectively. solic ...201121640780
molecular characterization of genotype g6 human rotavirus strains detected in italy from 1986 to 2009.group a human rotavirus (hrv) strains with a bovine-like (g6) major outer capsid protein vp7 were first detected in palermo, italy, in the late 1980s, and subsequently worldwide. during a 25-year rotavirus surveillance period, additional hrv g6 strains, associated with either a p[9] or p[14] vp4 genotype, have been detected sporadically, but repeatedly, in palermo. whether these g6 hrvs were transmitted to humans directly from an animal reservoir or could have circulated at low prevalence in sus ...201121640847
full genomic analyses of human rotavirus strains possessing the rare p[8]b vp4 subtype.rotaviruses with the p[8] vp4 genotype are a major cause of acute infantile diarrhea. the p[8] genotype is classified into two genetically distinct subtypes, p[8]a and p[8]b. most of the p[8] strains belong to subtype p[8]a, whilst p[8]b strains are rare. to date, the whole genomes of a few p[8]a strains have been analyzed, whilst there are no reports on full genomic analysis of the p[8]b strains. to determine the genetic makeup of the rare p[8]b strains and their overall genetic relatedness to ...201121640848
a duplex real-time rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous genogroup-specific detection of noroviruses in both clinical and environmental specimens.norovirus (nov) is the major etiological agent causing foodborne and waterborne outbreaks worldwide. we developed a novel duplex real-time quantitative rt-pcr assay designed for the simultaneous detection of and discrimination between nov genogroups gi and gii, by targeting the short junction region between orf1 and orf2, with sensitivity and efficiency comparable to those of each simplex rt-pcr assay. this new duplex assay was evaluated against clinical stool (n = 82) and environmental (groundw ...201121643768
epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric gastroenteritis associated with new viral agents.a 22-month study (2008-2009) was carried out on 273 patients (average age 40 months), admitted with gastroenteritis to the pediatric unit of l. sacco university hospital in milan, italy. fecal samples were investigated for rotavirus (hrv), norovirus (nov), adenovirus (adv), sapovirus (sav), enterovirus, astrovirus and bocavirus (hbov). a 38.3% incidence of infection was observed for hrv, followed by nov (16.2%), hbov (13.6%), adv (2.6%) and sav (0.6%). clinical evaluation of 109 gastroenteritis ...201121643788
rotavirus nsp4: cell type-dependent transport kinetics to the exofacial plasma membrane and release from intact infected cells.abstract: background: rotavirus nsp4 localizes to multiple intracellular sites and is multifunctional, contributing to rv morphogenesis, replication and pathogenesis. one function of nsp4 is the induction of early secretory diarrhea by binding surface receptors to initiate signaling events. the aims of this study were to determine the transport kinetics of nsp4 to the exofacial plasma membrane (pm), the subsequent release from intact infected cells, and rebinding to naive and/or neighboring cell ...201121645398
rotavirus diarrhea among children less than 5 years of age in urban ghana.we collected clinical and morphologic data from children with diarrhea attending 3 diverse hospitals/clinics in accra. stool samples were tested for rotavirus and cryptosporidium spp. in all, 58% of the children with diarrhea had rotavirus infections, 25% of which were of the g3 sero/genotype. the most common strains were g3p [6] (18.8%) and g2p [6] (12.5%). cryptosporidium spp. infections were uncommon (3/143, 2.0%).201121646938
egg yolk igy: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.bovine rotavirus (brv) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. igy technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent brv diarrhea in dairy calves. the aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in brv specific igy to experimentally brv infected calves. all ...201121652087
estimated economic benefits during the 'decade of vaccines' include treatment savings, gains in labor productivity.in 2010 the bill & melinda gates foundation announced a $10 billion commitment over the next ten years to increase access to childhood vaccines in the world's poorest countries. the effort was labeled the "decade of vaccines." this study estimates both the short- and long-term economic benefits from the introduction and increased use of six vaccines in seventy-two of the world's poorest countries from 2011 to 2020. increased rates of vaccination against pneumococcal and haemophilus influenzae ty ...201121653952
vaccines as a global imperative--a business perspective.during the past thirty years, vaccines have experienced a renaissance. advances in science, business, and distribution have transformed the field to the point where vaccines are recognized as a "best buy" in global health, a driver of pharmaceutical industry growth, and a key instrument of international development. with many new vaccines available and others on the horizon, the global community will need to explore new ways of ensuring access to vaccines in developing nations. so-called tiered ...201121653955
acute diarrhoea in a community cohort of children who received an oral rotavirus vaccine in northeast brazil.rotavirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhoea. a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rotarix®) was introduced into the immunization program of brazil in 2006. in this study, we describe the incidence and burden of disease of rotavirus diarrhoea in two cohorts of children (vaccinated and unvaccinated). we followed two groups of 250 children under one year old, who were enrolled in december 2006 from a low-income residential area in northeast brazil. the children were monitored every two weeks ...201121655821
detection and full genomic analysis of g6p[9] human rotavirus in japan.a rare genotype g6p[9] was identified in two human group a rotavirus strains designated as kf14 and kf17, that were detected in stool specimens from children with diarrhea in japan. vp7 gene sequences of these two strains were identical and genetically closely related to g6 human rotavirus strains reported in european countries and the united states. to our knowledge, this is the first report of detection of a g6 human rotavirus in japan. for further genetic analysis to elucidate the origin of t ...201121656185
intestinal and extra-intestinal pathogenicity of a bovine reassortant rotavirus in calves and piglets.despite the impact of bovine group a rotaviruses (garvs) as economically important and zoonotic pathogens, there is a scarcity of data on cross-species pathogenicity and extra-intestinal spread of bovine reassortant garvs. during the course of characterizing the genotypes of all 11 genomic segments of bovine garvs isolated from diarrheic calves in south korea, a unique g6p[7] reassortant garv strain (kj9-1) was isolated. the strain harbors five bovine-like gene segments (vp7: g6; vp6: i2; vp1: r ...201121658866
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the netherlands; the results of a consensus model.each year rotavirus gastroenteritis results in thousands of paediatric hospitalisations and primary care visits in the netherlands. while two vaccines against rotavirus are registered, routine immunisation of infants has not yet been implemented. existing cost-effectiveness studies showed inconsistent results for these vaccines because of lack of consensus on the impact. we aimed to investigate which factors had a major impact on cost-effectiveness and were primarily responsible for the large di ...201121663620
first description of gastroenteritis viruses in lebanese children: a pilot study.human enteric viruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children. the role of rotaviruses, adenoviruses, human caliciviruses and astroviruses in the development of severe acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization of infants and young children in north lebanon was investigated. stool specimens collected between april and may 2010 from 79 lebanese infants and children hospitalized for severe acute gastroenteritis, were screened for enteric viruses by immunoassays a ...201121663874
high prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in slovenia.waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. in total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples ...201121665537
molecular characterization of noroviruses and rotaviruses involved in a large outbreak of gastroenteritis in northern italy.noroviruses and rotaviruses from a gastroenteritis outbreak affecting >300 people near garda lake (northern italy) in 2009 were investigated. characterization of viruses from 40 patient stool samples and 5 environmental samples identified three distinct rotavirus and five norovirus genotypes; two of the latter were detected in both patient and environmental samples.201121666024
rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact.abstract.ôçé gray j (norfolk and norwich university hospital, norwich, uk). rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact (foresight). j intern med 2011; 270: 206-214. rotaviruses are the cause of acute gastroenteritis, and disease is widespread amongst infants and young children throughout the world. also, rotavirus is associated with significant mortality in developing countries with more than 500ôçâ000 children dying each year as a result of the severe dehydration associated w ...201121668823
rotavirus infection in a tertiary hospital: laboratory diagnosis and impact of immunization on pediatric hospitalization.rotavirus (rv) is the main etiological agent of diarrhea in childhood; its laboratory diagnosis is crucial to guide the clinical management and prevention of its spread. rv immunization was introduced in brazilian 6-month-old children in 2006. the present study was aimed to evaluate three methodologies used for human rv detection in stool samples obtained from patients hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in a teaching hospital and report the impact of rv immunization in hospitalization by diarrh ...201121670920
detection of mutations in antigenic regions of rotavirus viral proteins 4 and 7 in a child with chronic shedding of rotavirus vaccine-type strain. 201121673551
modification of the trypsin cleavage site of rotavirus vp4 to a furin-sensitive form does not enhance replication efficiency.the infectivity of rotavirus (rv) is dependent on an activation process triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of its spike protein vp4. this activation cleavage is performed by exogenous trypsin in the lumen of the intestines in vivo. here, we report the generation and characterization of a recombinant rv expressing cdna-derived vp4 with a modified cleavage site (arginine at position 247) recognized by endogenous furin as well as exogenous trypsin. unexpectedly, the mutant virus (ku//rvp4-r247fu ...201121813706
monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic g9p[4] rotavirus strain in mexico.after the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rv1) in mexico in 2006-2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among mexican children under 5 years of age. in january 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel g9p[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. we conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of rv1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the g9p[4] emergence was related to vacci ...201121810915
[impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization or presenting to emergency room among children less than 5years in france.]background: in france, rotavirus infections are responsible for approximately 300,000 cases of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children less than 5 years every year, 138,000 outpatient consultations and 18,000 hospitalizations. surveillance for rotavirus infections in hospitalized kids (shrik) is a european prospective observational study conducted to assess the burden related to rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in these children. methods: patients less than 5 years visiting emergency rooms for a ...201121807470
economic evaluations of rotavirus immunization for developing countries: a review of the literature.diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality for children under 5 years of age, and rotavirus is identified as the main cause of severe diarrhea worldwide. since 2006, two rotavirus vaccines, rotarix and rotateq, have been available in the market. these vaccines have proved to have high efficacy in developed countries. clinical trials are being undertaken in asia and africa, and early clinical results found that the vaccine significantly reduces severe diarrhea episodes due to rotavirus (48.3% for a ...201121806398
sequence analysis of vp4 genes of wild type and culture adapted human rotavirus g1p[8] strains.to conduct a comparative analysis of the vp4 gene sequences of indian wild type (06361, 0613158, 061060 and 0715880) and cell culture adapted (06361-ca, 0613158-ca, 061060-ca and 0715880-ca) g1p[8] rotavirus strains.201121803305
control and prevention of viral gastroenteritis.diarrheal illness remains 1 of the top 5 causes of death in low-income and middle-income countries, especially for children <5 years of age. introduction of universal childhood vaccination against rotaviruses has greatly reduced the incidence and severity of illness in upper-income and lower-income settings. for adults, norovirus is the leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal illness and is responsible for nearly 21 million episodes annually in the united states, of which 5.5 ...201121801608
rotavirus vaccine and intussusception:report from an expert consultation. 201121800466
detection of a porcine rotavirus strain with vp4, vp7 and nsp4 genes of different animal origins.a new rotavirus strain, sh0902, was detected in diarrheic piglets on a farm in shanghai, china, and its genotype was characterized as g1p[7]. analysis of the vp4, vp7 and nsp4 genes demonstrated vp4 homology to bovine and swine rotavirus strains; the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identities were 99.7% and 99.5%, respectively. the vp7 gene was highly homologous to that of a giant panda rotavirus strain, with 98.5% similarity at the nt level and 99% similarity at the aa level. the nucleotide ...201121796401
sequence analysis of human rotavirus strains: comparison of clinical isolates from northern and southern italy.the surveillance and monitoring of rotavirus (rv)-related diseases, preferably through the establishment of sentinel surveillance sites, are essential for assessing the need for vaccination and the projected results of the vaccine in terms of reducing the burden of disease. the objective of the present study was to compare rv strains isolated in northern (ferrara) and southern (galatina-le) italy. during 2007-2008, 115 rv-positive stool samples were collected from children with diarrhea admitted ...201121796344
protective effect of natural rotavirus infection in an indian birth cohort.more than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in india. two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in mexico. we studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in india (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has ...201121793745
gastroenteritis in children.acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. it is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. methods and outcomes: we conducted a systematic review and aimed to ans ...201121791124
[molecular and epidemiological study on viral diarrhea among infants in lanzhou].to study the epidemiologic characteristics of viral diarrhea in children under 5 years old in lanzhou, understand the four major virus in children of distribution.201121789851
incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, georgia, usa, 2004-2005.approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (age) occur annually in the united states. however, lack of routine clinical testing for viruses limits understanding of their role among persons seeking medical care. fecal specimens submitted for routine bacterial culture through a health maintenance organization in georgia, usa, were tested with molecular diagnostic assays for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and adenovirus. incidence was estimated by using national health c ...201121801613
rotavirus stimulates release of serotonin (5-ht) from human enterochromaffin cells and activates brain structures involved in nausea and vomiting.rotavirus (rv) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. a virus-encoded enterotoxin, nsp4 is proposed to play a major role in causing rv diarrhoea but how rv can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. in this study we have addressed the hypothesis that rv-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-ht) by enterochromaffin (ec) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during rv infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves c ...201121779163
porcine rotavirus closely related to novel group of human rotaviruses.we determined nucleotide sequences and inferred amino acid sequences of viral protein (vp) 4, vp6, vp7, and nonstructural protein 4 genes of a porcine rotavirus strain (ska-1) from japan. the strain was closely related to a novel group of human rotavirus strains (b219 and j19).201121801631
evaluation and verification of the seeplex(r) diarrhea-v ace assay for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus, rotavirus and norovirus genogroups i and ii in clinical stool specimens.acute viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection that can be caused by several different viruses. here we describe the evaluation and verification of seeplex® diarrhea-v ace (seeplex® dv), a novel commercial multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay that detects 5 diarrheal pathogens including adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus genogroup i (gi) and gii and astrovirus. we describe a retrospective study of 200 clinical specimens of which 177 were stool specimens ...201121775550
genetic heterogeneity of wild-type g4p[6] porcine rotavirus strains detected in a diarrhea outbreak in a regularly vaccinated pig herd.group a rotavirus (rv-a) with short electropherotype was identified by ss-page in a neonatal diarrhea outbreak at a brazilian pig farm where the sows were regularly vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing osu (g5p[7]) and gottfried (g4p[6]) porcine rv-a (porv-a) strains. the ss-page positive stool samples (n=20) were characterized as p[6] genotype by multiplex-nested-rt-pcr assay. the nucleotide analysis of the vp4 gene (vp8*) state that the viruses clustered in p[6] lineages that are al ...201121775076
rotavirus infection activates the upr but modulates its activity.abstract:201121774819
case-control study of the effectiveness of vaccination with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in nicaragua.background:: in 2006, merck & co., inc., partnered with the nicaraguan ministry of health to demonstrate the public health impact of routine universal vaccination by delivering more than 1.3 million doses of the oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) in a 3-year period. methods:: a matched case-control study evaluated the effectiveness of rv5 in reducing the risk for severe wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) resulting in hospitalizations and emergency department visits among children w ...201121768920
effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe disease.objective: to determine the vaccine effectiveness (ve) of complete and partial vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) in the prevention of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age) hospitalizations and emergency department visits during the first 3 rotavirus seasons after vaccine introduction. methods: active, prospective population-based surveillance for age and acute respiratory infection (aris) in inpatient and emergency department settings provided subjects for a case-control e ...201121768317
burden of rotavirus and other enteropathogens among children with diarrhea in burkina faso.objective: there is limited information available regarding the etiology of gastrointestinal infections in burkina faso. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of enteric pathogens causing gastroenteritis in young children, with a focus on rotavirus, and to investigate the levels of malnutrition and other clinical factors in association with the severity of diarrhea. methods: a prospective study was undertaken from may 2009 to march 2010, covering the rainy and ...201121763172
antiviral activity of substituted salicylanilides - a review.chemotherapy of viral infections is still challenging. salicylanilides demonstrated a wide range of biological activities including antiviral potency and the review summarizes this field. niclosamide was described to be able to affect coronaviruses, some salicylanilides and salicylamides could inhibit hiv virus by targeting of hiv-1 integrase or reverse transcriptase. hepatitis c virus is another virus, which could be potentially afflicted by salicylanilides on the level of two enzymes - ns3 pro ...201121762100
incidence assessment of rotavirus and adenovirus associated acute gastroenteritis cases in early childhood.this study was undertaken to give an insight into the incidence of acute gastroenteritis cases of rotaviral/adenoviral aetiology in patients presenting to the emergency room of an inner-city government teaching hospital. group a rotavirus and adenovirus serotype 40-41 antigen results were obtained via immunochromatography. in 2007, there were 1543 patients with gastroenteritis between 0-5 years of age whose stool samples were tested for rota and adenovirus, of whom 386 (25%) had positive stool s ...201121753251
genotypes of rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.acute viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children. rotavirus is mainly important in childhood. the present study determined the detection rate, seasonality and g and p genotypes of rotaviruses in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea in 2009. a total of 1,423 stool specimens were screened by elisa for the presence of rotavirus antigens and the rotavirus-positive stools genotyped by rt-pcr. the g genotype was determin ...201121752085
update on childhood and adolescent immunizations: selected review of us recommendations and literature: part 1.to provide a clinically relevant synopsis of research findings regarding childhood and adolescent vaccines.201121750429
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions in brazil.objective to analyse the data reported by the national surveillance system of brazil, including data on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction, and evaluate the impact of its widespread use under operational conditions. method retrospective analysis of routinely collected data was reported by several surveillance systems of brazil, comprising an 8-year period of all diarrhoea-related hospitalisations and deaths in children <5 years old (2002 ...201121749584
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