[development of a rehydration therapy in diarrheic disease. 1980].intravenous rehydration is required only in patients with severe diarrhea due to v. cholerae who are in shock, with absent peripheral pulse and blood pressure; when the shock has been corrected, rehydration can be completed using an oral rehydration solution. the intravenous solution to be used is 5:4: 1 (5g of sodium chloride, 4g of sodium bicarbonate and 1g of potassium chloride per liter) or a comparable commercial alkaline solution. for oral rehydration a solution is used containing 3.5 g so ...19911767034
mass screening of cattle sera against 14 infectious disease agents, using an elisa system for monitoring health in livestock.mass screening elisa methods were developed for testing cattle serum for antibodies against 14 common livestock diseases simultaneously. the absorbance values were transformed to a %elisa (spectrophotometric antibody end point) by a computer interfaced with a microplate reader. a histogram indicating a cutoff point and a report for the veterinarian also was generated. the computer program produced a print-out of the antibody profile for each animal tested, the antibody concentration against each ...19911767993
an outbreak of rotaviral gastroenteritis in a nursing home for senior citizens. 19911768997
fluorimetric quantification of cell death in monolayer cultures and cell suspensions.a fluorimetric assay using ethidium bromide (eb) was employed to quantify cell death in monolayer cell cultures (ma-104 cells) in situ and isolated cell suspensions (isolated colonic cells and leishmania). fluorescence of eb stained cells was measured with a photometer coupled to an inverted microscope for cell monolayers or in a spectrofluorometer for cell suspensions. dead cells stained with trypan blue were fluorescent with eb in all preparations studied, but the latter gave an unequivocal si ...19911779095
comparison of glucose/electrolyte and maltodextrin/glycine/glycyl-glycine/electrolyte oral rehydration solutions in acute diarrhea in children.male children (n = 101) 6-35 months of age presenting with acute watery diarrhea for less than 48 h at home before hospitalization were admitted into a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. fifty-one children were treated with standard oral rehydration solution (ors) (world health organization [who] formulation containing citrate) and 50 were treated with an improved ors formulation (containing, in addition to the standard formula, 20 g maltodextrin instead of glucose, and 4 g glycine and 4 g ...19911779314
infectious gastroenteritis does not act as a triggering mechanism for the synthesis of serum igg antibody to beta-lactoglobulin.beta-lactoglobulin (blg)-specific serum igg antibody was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 1,392 serum samples from newborn to 5-year-old ecuadorian children enrolled into a representative nutrition and health survey. at a 1:100 serum dilution, 62% of the children showed specific antibody (blank-corrected optical density greater than or equal to 0.1). this prevalence did not change with increasing age. more specifically, we did not observe a prevalence or titer increase of blg-spe ...19911779315
persistent diarrhea: total gut transit time and its relationship with nutrient absorption and clinical response.the study was undertaken to better understand the role of total gut transit time (tgtt) on the absorption of nutrients in patients with persistent diarrhea. twenty-six boys aged 3-18 months with persistent diarrhea and 25 age-matched healthy controls were studied. their tgtt was measured with charcoal markers during their treatment with a diet made up with rice powder soya oil, glucose, and egg white. coefficients of absorption of nutrients were estimated in a 72-h balance study. the median tgtt ...19911779316
diarrhoeal disease in children less than one year of age at a children's hospital in guangzhou, people's republic of china.we performed a case-control study of diarrhoea to determine its causes in children less than 1 year old in guangzhou, people's republic of china, in april to september 1989. stools were cultured for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter and vibrios by standard techniques; rotavirus (rv) was identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; and specific deoxyribonucleic acid probes were used to identify escherichia coli containing genes coding for shiga-like toxin i and ii, enteropathogenic e. coli ...19911781004
[occurrence of human astrovirus in são paulo city, brazil].human astrovirus was detected during a 13-month longitudinal study of the incidence of diarrhoea viruses among hospitalized children (less than 2 years of age) in a pediatric clinic of the city of s. paulo (university hospital). serial fecal samples (intervals of 4 days) were collected from 146 children with and without acute diarrhoea at admission and during their stay in the hospital. two (3%) of the 67 children with diarrhoea were positive at admission to the clinic by the highly sensitive as ...19911784973
childhood diarrhoea in a low-income urban community in bangkok: incidence, clinical features, and child caretaker's behaviours.a one-year surveillance study of childhood diarrhoea in a low-income urban community in bangkok revealed an annual incidence of 2.2 episodes per child among infants, and that the overall annual incidence among children under five years of age was 0.9 per child. rotavirus, salmonella and campylobacter jejuni were common aetiologic agents. in children less than one year, diarrhoea was caused mostly by rotavirus and salmonella. in 1-2 year old children, the major causative agent was rotavirus while ...19911787280
[direct electron microscopic virus detection in diseases of goslings and moscovy ducks (cairina moschata)].various organs of goslings and muscovy duck chickens were investigated by electron microscopy, with the negative contrast technique being used in a routine diagnosis programme. investigations were extended over several years and were, more specifically, applied to 1,148 samples obtained from 525 goslings and 429 samples which had been collected from 139 muscovy duck chickens. viruses were directly detected in 132 or 76 samples. parvoviruses were predominant in geese and muscovy ducks and account ...19911789728
epidemiology of equine rotavirus infection among foals in the breeding region. 19911790219
transmission of rotavirus diarrhea in a bone marrow transplantation unit by a hospital worker. 19911790432
rotavirus diarrhea in newborn this study, the frequency of rotavirus infection and also the relation of rotavirus pathogens to necrotizing enterocolitis were investigated in newborns with diarrhea. we observed that rotavirus is a very important agent as a cause of nosocomial infection and also that it has a role in the development of nec.19911792693
operator-induced contamination in cell culture systems.operator-induced biological contamination in cell cultures is a multifaceted problem involving the unexpected introduction of other animal cells, microbial and viral contaminants. detailed studies on animal cell cross contaminations have been performed and published. the frequency of detection of problem cultures has been as high as 36% for one service performed in the usa, with interspecific cross contamination accounting for 25% and human intraspecific contamination representing 11%. awareness ...19911794620
prognostic indicators and risk factors for increased duration of acute diarrhoea and for persistent diarrhoea in identify the prognostic indicators and risk factors for increased duration of acute diarrhoea and for occurrence of persistent diarrhoea (i.e. acute episodes lasting longer than 14 days) in children under three years, a systematic sample (3690) of patients attending a large treatment centre in bangladesh was analysed using multiple regression, logistic regression and stratified (mantel-haenszel) analysis. significant prognostic indicators or risk factors for increase in duration of acute diar ...19911800405
acute diarrhoeal diseases in infants aged below six months in hospital in calcutta, india: an aetiological a prospective 2-year study, 218 infants aged less than 6 months admitted to a children's hospital in calcutta with acute diarrhoea and 102 infants (control group) from the out-patient department of the same hospital with similar age, sex and socio-economic composition as the diarrhoea patients, were concurrently investigated for enteropathogenic agents in the faeces. enteropathogenic escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic e. coli, and enteroadherent e. coli constituted the 3 types of diarrhoeageni ...19911801358
chronic diarrhoea in children: a clinical perspective.chronic diarrhoea in its previously described severe malnourished presentation is not common in singapore. a retrospective study was made of children with chronic diarrhoea between january to september 1990, at the department of paediatrics, national university hospital. chronic diarrhoea in our context included all those who presented with diarrhoea of 7 or more days duration. the age range was one month to 11 years, with 23 males and 13 female patients. approximately half of the patients had a ...19911812335
mucosal immunity and vaccination.the gut mucosal immune system is a critical component of the body's defense against pathogenic organisms, especially those responsible for enteric infections associated with diarrhoeal disease. attempts to vaccinate against infections of mucosal tissues have been less successful than vaccination against systemic infections, to a large extent reflecting a still incomplete knowledge about the most efficient means for inducing protective local immune responses at these sites. secretory iga (siga) i ...19911815705
the scanning electron microscope: how valuable in the evaluation of small bowel mucosal pathology in chronic childhood diarrhea?data are presented on scanning electron microscopy (sem) on small intestinal biopsies of children with chronic diarrhea. in particular, there were 230 patients aged 3 months to 13 years with the following diagnoses: chronic nonspecific diarrhea, cow's milk protein intolerance, soy protein intolerance, giardiasis, cystic fibrosis, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, isolated lactase deficiency, isolated sucrase-isomaltase lactase deficiency, microvillus inclusion disease, rotavirus enteritis, protracte ...19911822028
current status of pediatric vaccines.pediatric immunization schedules have become more complex, especially with the approval of two new vaccines for haemophilus influenzae type b and changes in recommendations for measles vaccine. in addition, vaccines for other infections (eg, rotavirus, varicella, and respiratory syncytial virus) are in development and likely will become available in the future. these recent advances raise hope that the list of diseases eradicated through vaccination will be expanded.19911833727
oral enteric vaccines--clinical trials.oral enteric vaccines are reviewed with particular reference to cholera and typhoid. enterotoxigenic e. coli, shigella and rotavirus vaccines are also considered. clinical trials of those potentially useful vaccines are surveyed.19911836466
rotavirus associated diarrhoea during infancy in the city of s. luís (ma), brazil: a two-year longitudinal study.a total of 479 diarrhoeic children and 337 children without diarrhoea (controls) less than 5 years old were investigated in a two-year study in the city of s. luís (ma), with the purpose to determine the incidence, the age distribution and the seasonality of rotaviruses, as well as to establish the severity of the disease in this region between the north and the northeast of brazil. rotavirus incidence was highest in children of the 1st. year of life, showing an average of 25% per year among the ...19911844976
rotavirus morphogenesis: domains in the major inner capsid protein essential for binding to single-shelled particles and for trimerization.a cell-free system containing rotavirus subviral particles (svps), rabbit reticulocyte lysate, and [35s]methionine was programmed to synthesize viral protein by the addition of messenger rna (mrna). electrophoretic analysis of single-shelled particles recovered from the system by cscl centrifugation showed that newly made vp6 assembled into the particles in vitro. electrophoretic analysis also showed that the newly made vp6 which bound to single-shelled particles in vitro was arranged in trimeri ...19911846494
heterogeneity in the genome rnas and polypeptides of five members of a novel group of rotavirus-like viruses isolated from aquatic animals.biochemical characteristics of five rotavirus-like viruses isolated from striped bass (morone saxatilis), turbot (scophthalmus maximus), smelt (osmerus mordax) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in north america and europe were compared. the genome of each isolate was composed of 11 segments of dsrna and each isolate had a unique electropherotype in polyacrylamide gels. agarose gel electrophoresis showed similar rna profiles for all four isolates from north america, whereas the rna profile of the ...19911846647
characterization of rotavirus electropherotypes excreted by symptomatic and asymptomatic infants.human rotavirus isolates from 1100 stool samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 48 different migration patterns were detected. heterogeneity in the migration of segment 10 was observed in both long and short electropherotypes in which three long and two short patterns were identified. in spite of these variations all short and long electropherotypes were subgrouped by enzyme immunoassay as subgroups i and ii respectively. mixed infections were detected in 17% of cases a ...19911847104
l-glutamine stimulates jejunal sodium and chloride absorption in pig rotavirus enteritis.rotavirus enteritis is the leading cause of diarrhea in infants worldwide. a research priority of the world health organization is to develop oral rehydration solutions containing amino acids or other additives that will stimulate intestinal absorption more efficiently than the current glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. glutamine is the principal metabolic fuel of the small bowel and a putative stimulator of mucosal repair. this report describes the transport response to mucosal l-glutami ...19911847119
prevalence of serum neutralizing antibody to serotype 9 rotavirus wi61 in children from south america and central europe.neutralizing serum antibody to serotype 9 rotavirus wi61 was detected in 41% of 870 ecuadorian children and 26% of 140 german children. in both areas an age-related prevalence increase was observed. we identified 11 serum samples from ecuadorian children which neutralized exclusively serotype 9 rotavirus. thirteen of 71 (18%) german children hospitalized with serologically defined primary rotavirus gastroenteritis showed a seroconversion to serotype 9 rotavirus; however, in 10 of these 13 patien ...19911847150
shift in genomic rna patterns of human rotaviruses isolated from white children in south africa.the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in white children in pretoria was investigated over a 2-year period. rotavirus-positive specimens from 322 infants and young children submitted to private pathology laboratories were analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the viral rna. a predominance of long rna profiles occurred and a temporal shift in the genomic patterns was identified. an epidemic of the classic shorter rna profiles (suggestive of sub-group i rotaviruses) was obse ...19911847242
expression of rotavirus proteins encoded by alternative open reading frames of genome segment 11.the nucleotide sequence of rotavirus genome segment 11 shows that this gene contains three potential open reading frames. we used several approaches to determine whether any polypeptides other than ns26, the primary protein product, are expressed. in particular, we sought to determine whether the strong out-of-phase start codon present at nucleotides 80-82, which would encode a protein of 92 amino acids, is used in vivo or in cell-free systems. several modifications of gene 11 were made and foun ...19911847258
memory and distribution of virus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) and ctl precursors after rotavirus infection.the gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to a variety of potentially invasive bacteria, viruses, and parasites. the first line of defense against these pathogens is the intestinal mucosal surface, which consists of epithelial cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes (iels), mucus, and secretory immunoglobulins. in addition, the intestine is a rich source of lymphocytes located within peyer's patches and the lamina propria. little is known about the function, memory, trafficking, or origin of i ...19911847457
the amino-terminal half of rotavirus sa114fm vp4 protein contains a hemagglutination domain and primes for neutralizing antibodies to the virus.we have previously reported the synthesis in escherichia coli of polypeptide ms2-vp8', which contains the amino-terminal half of the sa114fm vp4 protein fused to ms2 bacteriophage polymerase sequences (c. f. arias, m. lizano, and s. lópez, j. gen. virol. 68:633-642, 1987). in this work we have synthesized the carboxy-terminal half of the vp4 protein also fused to the ms2 polymerase. this protein, designated ms2-vp5', was recognized by sera to the complete virion and was able to induce antibodies ...19911847459
vp4 monotype specificities among porcine rotavirus strains of the same vp4 serotype.the porcine rotavirus osu strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the outer capsid protein vp4. from two separate fusions, eight mabs that inhibited hemagglutination activity of the osu strain were selected. all mabs immunoprecipitated both the osu vp4 protein derived from a lysate of infected ma104 cells and the osu vp4 protein expressed in sf9 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. by immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated osu gene 4 transcripts of different l ...19911847483
ht-29 cells: a new substrate for rotavirus growth.susceptibilities of a continuous rhesus monkey kidney cell line (ma-104) and that of a human colon carcinoma cell line (ht-29) to infection by different human and animal rotavirus strains were compared. ht-29 cells appeared to be more sensitive to human rotavirus infection than ma-104 cells, whereas the latter cell line was more susceptible to animal rotavirus replication. the greater sensitivity to human rotavirus infection of ht-29 cells was confirmed by the successful, direct isolation of the ...19911848062
detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus using cdna probes.five cdna probes prepared from molecular clones representing genomic rna sequences of the virulent miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) were used in a dot blot hybridization assay to detect tgev in cell culture and fecal specimens. two clones (pa2 and pb4) represent nucleotide base pairs at the 3' terminus of the miller tgev genome. the other three clones represent various portions of the 5' end of the e2 gene, which codes for the major surface glycoprotein of tgev. each o ...19911848070
serotypic change in the prevalence of human rotavirus strains in israel. 19911848541
rotavirus infection alters na+ and k+ homeostasis in ma-104 cells.infection of ma-104 cells with the osu strain of rotavirus induced an increase in na+ and a decrease in k+ intracellular concentrations, starting at 4 h post-infection. these changes were not related to an inhibition of the na+/k+ pump since ouabain-sensitive 86rb uptake was augmented in rotavirus-infected cells compared to control cells, whereas the [3h]ouabain binding and na+/k+ atpase activity in the cell homogenate were unaffected. furosemide-sensitive 86rb uptake (na+/k+/2cl- cotransport) w ...19911848590
vaccines and milk immunoglobulin concentrates for prevention of infectious diarrhea.considerable progress has been made in the last decade in developing vaccines against the most important enteric infections. two new, widely licensed vaccines (oral ty21a and parenteral vi) are available against typhoid fever, and new attenuated salmonella typhi strains are ready for testing. an engineered live orally administered cholera vaccine, cvd 103-hgr, is undergoing clinical trials for safety, immunogenicity, and transmissibility in children in areas where cholera is endemic. multiple ca ...19911848888
effect of rotavirus infection on intracellular calcium homeostasis in cultured cells.the effect of rotavirus infection on intracellular [ca2+] was studied in a model system (ma-104 cells). in cells infected at high multiplicity with the osu strain of rotavirus, production of infectious viruses was maximal at 6 hr postinfection. cell death, as measured by incorporation of ethidium bromide, started at 6 hr and was complete at 15 hr postinfection. at 4 hr postinfection, intracellular [ca2+], measured by quin2 fluorescence, was not modified, but ca2+ permeability was increased. with ...19911849676
the vp8 fragment of vp4 is the rhesus rotavirus hemagglutinin.the amino-terminal trypsin cleavage fragment of vp4, called vp8, was expressed from a recombinant baculovirus in sf-9 cells. the baculovirus-expressed vp8 protein is antigenically conserved as demonstrated by its recognition by a library of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. in sf-9 cell sonicates, the expressed vp8 protein is capable of agglutinating human type o erythrocytes, indicating that the functionally intact rhesus rotavirus viral hemagglutinin is contained in the 247-amino acid vp8 tr ...19911849677
bluetongue virus evolution: sequence analyses of the genomic s1 segments and major core protein vp7.the s1 segments, encoding the group-specific antigen, vp7, from the five united states prototype btv serotypes were cloned as full-length entities. the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of segment s1 of btv-2 were determined and compared with btv-10, -11, -13, and -17, completing the sequencing of this cognate gene segment from all five us btv serotypes. each segment is 1156 bp long and contains an open reading frame encoding the 349-amino acid vp7 protein. most (greater than 94%) of t ...19911849684
antibodies to the trypsin cleavage peptide vp8 neutralize rotavirus by inhibiting binding of virions to target cells in culture.two distinct patterns of neutralization were identified by comparing the neutralization curves of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed at the two surface proteins, vp4 and vp7, of rhesus rotavirus. vp7-specific mabs were able to neutralize virus efficiently, and slight increases in antibody concentration resulted in a sharp decline in infectivity. on the other hand, mabs to vp4 proved much less efficient at neutralizing rhesus rotavirus, and the fraction of infectious virus decreased gradually ...19911850007
serologic and mucosal immune response to rotavirus infection in the rabbit model.we examined the humoral immune response to rotavirus infection in specific pathogen-free rabbits inoculated and challenged orally with rabbit ala rotavirus (7.5 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(7) pfu). the humoral immune response in both serologic and mucosal samples was monitored by using total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas), isotype-specific elisas, and plaque reduction neutralization assays. following a primary infection, all rabbits shed virus and serologic and mucosal antibody respo ...19911850029
formation and selection of intergenogroup reassortants during cell culture adaptation of rotaviruses from dually infected subjects.a previous study showed that intergenogroup reassortants of human rotaviruses can persist in nature (r.l. ward, o. nakagomi, d.r. knowlton, m.m. mcneal, t. nakagomi, j.d. clemens, d.a. sack, and g.m. schiff, j. virol. 64:3219-3225, 1990), but the mechanisms involved in their formation and selection had not been determined. in this study it was shown that, during cell culture adaptation of rotaviruses belonging to different genogroups from stools of dually infected subjects, intergenogroup reasso ...19911850042
rotavirus particles function as immunological carriers for the delivery of peptides from infectious agents and endogenous proteins.a major problem in the development of useful animal subunit vaccines has been the generation of immune responses to weakly immunogenic molecules. for this purpose a new and effective delivery system has been devised. this system is based upon the inner capsid of bovine rotavirus. under the appropriate conditions, the inner capsid protein, designated bp6, can be made to self-assemble in vitro and form spherical particles. these particles possess an inherent capacity to target to cells of the immu ...19911850113
antibody to serotype 8 rotavirus in ecuadorian and german children.only 2 out of 71 german patients infected with rotavirus (3%) and 8 out of 147 german control patients (5%) showed serum antibody to the new serotype 8 rotavirus. such antibody was detected in the sera of 232 of 870 ecuadorian children (27%). twelve ecuadorian sera showed neutralizing activity only against serotype 8 and not to the other serotypes (1-4) tested, indicating that human serotype 8 rotavirus circulates in south america.19911850364
what's new in infectious diseases. 19911850689
the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in the netherlands.complex trapping blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) and indirect elisas for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (cpv), canine coronavirus (ccv) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. double antibody sandwich elisas for the detection of cpv-, ccv- and rotavirus antigens in fecal samples were also developed. both the serological and antigen-detection elisas were used to screen samples from dogs in the netherlands, with or without a history of acute dia ...19911850889
human rotavirus strain 69m has a unique vp4 as determined by amino acid sequence analysis.the group a rotavirus strain 69m has recently been classified as a new rotavirus serotype, g8, based on the antigenic specificity of its vp7 outer capsid glycoprotein. the fourth gene of 69m, which encodes the other outer capsid protein vp4, was sequenced. the gene is 2362 nucleotides in length and contains one long open reading frame beginning at the 10th nucleotide from the 5' end and terminating with a stop codon 22 bases from the 3' end. the encoded vp4 contains 776 amino acids. comparative ...19911850912
rotavirus ns26 is modified by addition of single o-linked residues of n-acetylglucosamine.we studied the post-translational modification of ns26, the protein product of rotavirus gene 11 segment. based on the presence of a putative n-glycosylation site and the high content of serine and threonine residues in gene 11 amino acid sequence we investigated whether ns26 is modified by carbohydrate addition. specific antibodies raised against the gene 11 product expressed in escherichia coli recognized in infected cells two polypeptides with apparent molecular weight of 26,000 (26-kda polyp ...19911850914
rotavirus temperature-sensitive mutants are genetically stable and participate in reassortment during mixed infection of mice.mixed and single infections of 7-day-old suckling mice with sa11 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants and rrv wild-type were examined to determine if selection against ts mutations occurred in the suckling mouse model. single infections with ts mutants indicated that mutant replication was restricted relative to wild-type and that disease was similarly reduced. revertant (ts+) progeny did not appear to be selected during infection. mixed infection with ts mutant and rrv wild-type revealed a reduct ...19911850916
sequence conservation of gene 8 between human and porcine group c rotaviruses and its relationship to the vp7 gene of group a rotaviruses.cdna libraries from porcine group (gp) c rotavirus strain cowden and a human gp c rotavirus strain were generated. the complete nucleotide sequence of gene 8 from the cowden strain was determined from gene 8-specific clones and viral transcript rna. a full-length gene 8 clone was generated from the human gp c virus by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers deduced from the 3' and 5' ends of the cowden strain gene 8, and the sequence of the human gp c gene 8 was determined from this clone ...19911850919
expression of the outer capsid protein vp5 of two bluetongue viruses, and synthesis of chimeric double-shelled virus-like particles using combinations of recombinant baculoviruses.we have previously reported the assembly of virus-like particles (vlps), consisting of the four major structural proteins of bluetongue virus (btv), in spodoptera frugiperda cells coinfected with recombinant baculoviruses (french et al. (1990). j. virol. 64, 5695-5700). in this paper we report further studies using this system to assemble heterologous vlps containing the outer capsid proteins (vp2 and vp5) of a range of different btv serotypes. s. frugiperda cells were coinfected with three reco ...19911850928
expression of the major inner capsid protein of the group b rotavirus adrv: primary characterization of genome segment 5.a complete cdna copy of the fifth rna segment of the human group b rotavirus, adrv, has been cloned into plasmid ad512. gene segment 5 contains 1269 bases and encodes one long open reading frame of 391 amino acids beginning at base 31 and terminating at base 1203. the gene 5 polypeptide, expressed in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, comigrates with the 44-kda major inner capsid protein present on edta treated adrv virions. the gene 5 protein is immunoprecipitable by hyperimmune serum to ad ...19911850929
rotavirus excretion by village pigs in papua new guinea.cohort studies were conducted on 29 pigs from 3 villages in the highlands of papua new guinea. animals ranged in age from 9 d to 5 m old. three hundred and twenty nine faecal samples were collected from individual pigs followed over 3 to 6 w periods, and were examined for group a rotavirus antigen by elisa, and rotaviral genomic rna by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). electron microscopy was also conducted on selected samples. group a rotavirus was detected in the faeces of 16 pigs wit ...19911850980
the status of rotavirus vaccines in 1990.the status of rotavirus (rv) vaccines in 1990 is reviewed with particular reference to the range of rv strains which infect human beings as well as the antibody response and immunity to naturally acquired rv infections. the requirements for an ideal vaccine are stated and the various approaches towards developing rv vaccines are described. results of various field trials are given and finally important questions are posed which remain to be addressed if success in producing an ideal vaccine is t ...19911851196
serological and genomic characterization of l338, a novel equine group a rotavirus g serotype.a group a rotavirus designated l338 was isolated from the faeces of a diarrhoeic foal and was compared to 11 standard g serotype strains of group a rotaviruses by cross-neutralization. it was clearly distinct from serotypes g1 to g11 and thus representative of a novel rotavirus g serotype tentatively designated g13. the nucleic acid sequence of the virion protein 7 (vp7) coding region was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence compared to published sequences. within vp7 regions a and b, ...19911851806
expression of rotavirus vp2 produces empty corelike particles.the complete vp2 gene of bovine rotavirus strain rf has been inserted into the baculovirus transfer vector pvl941 under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. cotransfection of spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells with wild-type baculovirus dna and transfer vector dna led to the formation of recombinant baculoviruses which contain bovine rotavirus gene 2. infection of s. frugiperda cells with this recombinant virus resulted in the production of a protein similar in size and antigenic properties to the ...19911851866
heterotypic passive protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding to vp7 and vp4 of bovine rotavirus.we have evaluated the potential of two peptides derived from highly conserved regions of rotavirus outer capsid proteins (vp7 and vp4) to act as a rotavirus vaccine. the capacity of peptides coupled to rotavirus vp6 spherical particles to provide passive protection in a murine model was compared with the protection induced by peptide-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh) conjugates. female mice were immunized a total of three times before and during pregnancy. suckling mouse pups were challenged at 7 ...19911851871
efficacy of two doses of rit 4237 bovine rotavirus vaccine for prevention of rotavirus diarrhoea.candidate oral bovine rotavirus vaccine rit 4237 or placebo was given to 252 finnish infants at birth and at 7 months of age. no vaccine-associated reactions were observed. primary rotavirus elisa igm responses were detected in 36% of the infants after the first vaccination; after the second dose 68% of the vaccinees were seropositive for rotavirus elisa igg antibody. the infants remained in clinical follow-up over two rotavirus epidemic seasons (total 28 months). counted from child years in fol ...19911852084
enteropathogens associated with acute diarrheal disease in urban infants in são paulo, determine the prevalence and epidemiology of enteropathogens in acute infantile diarrhea, 500 infants less than or equal to 12 months of age with diarrhea and 500 age-matched control subjects coming to a são paulo emergency room were studied. enteropathogens were identified in 55% of case infants and 10% of controls; enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) of classic epec serotypes producing epec adherence factor (eaf) (26% of case infants), rotavirus (14%), salmonella species (8%), enteroto ...19911856482
pathogenesis of experimental combined infections with isospora suis and rotavirus in conventional and gnotobiotic piglets.51 gnotobiotic and 63 conventional, one-, or two-days-old piglets were divided into five groups and infected orally either with isospora suis or rotavirus alone, or with both agents simultaneously or successively with alternative sequences and various intervals. 15 gnotobiotic and 10 conventional piglets served as controls. the development of small intestinal lesions after infection with i. suis was biphasic. the dominant alteration resulting from rotavirus infection was villus atrophy, consider ...19911858460
high frequency of coinfecting enteropathogens in aeromonas-associated diarrhea of hospitalized peruvian infants.rectal swabs from 391 infants less than 18 months of age who were hospitalized with acute diarrhea and from 138 similarly aged healthy infants were examined for the etiologic agents of diarrhea. aeromonas spp. were recovered from 205 of 391 (52.4%) diarrheic patients, whereas they were recovered from 12 of 138 (8.7%) controls (p less than 10(-11). among the 205 aeromonas-positive diarrheic patients, 118 (57.6%) were found to be coinfected with other common enteropathogens. of the 164 aeromonas-p ...19911864933
alanine-based oral rehydration solution: assessment of efficacy in acute noncholera diarrhea among children.this randomized, double-blind trial determined whether adding 90 mmol/l of alanine with a reduction in glucose to 90 mmol/l (alanine ors) improves the efficacy of the standard oral rehydration solution (who-ors). one hundred twenty-nine males aged 3-48 months with weight for length greater than or equal to 70% of nchs, diarrheal duration less than or equal to 96 h, and clinical signs of mild to moderate dehydration were randomly allocated to either treatment group. during 0-6 h of treatment, ors ...19911865280
survival and vehicular spread of human rotaviruses: possible relation to seasonality of developing countries rotavirus infections account for nearly 6% of all diarrheal episodes and for 20% of diarrhea-associated deaths of young children. even in industrialized countries rotavirus diarrhea in the young is among the leading causes of hospitalization. in temperate regions institutional outbreaks of the disease occur mainly in cold dry weather, whereas in tropical settings the seasonality is less well defined. waterborne outbreaks of rotavirus gastroenteritis have been recorded; ai ...19911866549
[nosocomial virus infections in pediatric departments. rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus].rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus are common causes of acute gastroenteritis and upper and lower respiratory diseases among infants and toddlers. both viruses occur as epidemics during the winter season. the symptoms may be quite severe and often lead to hospitalisation in paediatric wards i.e. about 2,000 children per year. the viruses frequently give rise to nosocomial infections in the infant/toddler wards about one third of the cases being nosocomial. recent studies have revealed tha ...19911866810
a prospective study of acute diarrhoea in finnish children from birth to 2 1/2 years of determine the incidence, clinical significance and etiology of acute diarrhoea in early childhood, a cohort of 336 children were followed from birth to the age of 24-32 (mean 26) months. more than half (55%) of the children had no diarrhoea, 26% had one episode and 19% had two or more episodes of diarrhoea during follow-up; altogether 248 episodes of diarrhoea were detected. rotavirus was by far the most common (26%) identified pathogen; adenoviruses were detected in 4% and bacterial pathogen ...19911872172
cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: 277 cases (1986-1987).from january 1986 through december 1987, 277 cases of cryptosporidiosis in calves were diagnosed by the south dakota state university diagnostic laboratory. cryptosporidium sp was the only pathogen identified in 142 (51.3%) of the calves. concurrent infections with rotavirus, coronavirus, escherichia coli, salmonella sp, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or other pathogens were identified in the remaining 135 calves. after elimination of cases involving autolyzed specimens or calves with chronic diar ...19911874678
the relationship of microbial pathogens to acute infectious diarrhoea of childhood.bacterial, viral and parasitic enteric pathogens were detected in 692 of 916 children below 36 months of age with acute diarrhoea and in 289 of 587 matched controls. the rates of identification of only four groups of pathogens, rotavirus, shigellae, salmonella typhimurium and enterotoxigenic e. coli, were significantly higher in the patients. the prevalence of a variety of other enteric pathogens was similar in controls of patients. shigellosis had a characteristic clinical profile but none of t ...19911880828
gastrointestinal infections in singapore children.acute gastroenteritis is the commonest gastrointestinal disorder in children. it accounted for about 10% of the admissions to a general paediatric unit in singapore. about 5% of total paediatric admissions to all the government hospitals in singapore were due to acute gastroenteritis. some 50% of the cases had no identifiable organism in the stools. most of the remaining cases were due to bacterial or viral infections. the commonest bacteria responsible for acute gastroenteritis nowadays is salm ...19911883188
pathogenesis and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea. 19911889709
pneumatosis intestinalis in two infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis.pneumatosis intestinalis is uncommon in children other than in the premature infant with necrotizing enterocolitis (nec). we recently observed pneumatosis intestinalis in two infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis. both children prior to the onset of acute vomiting and diarrhea were healthy and thriving with no evidence of any underlying illness. the disease and the pneumatosis intestinalis observed in the infants presented in this paper responded well to supportive and conservative medical mana ...19911891264
enterotoxigenic escherichia coli associated with infant diarrhoea in galicia, north-western assess the role of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) in infantile diarrhoea, 482 children with diarrhoea and 103 healthy controls, from three localities of galicia, north-western spain, were investigated between 1985 and 1988. rotavirus (37.3%) and salmonella spp. (12.8%) were the most common causal agents, followed by etec (3.9%), campylobacter jejuni (2.3%), shigella spp. (0.9%) and yersinia enterocolitica (0.5%). etec were significantly more frequently isolated from children with dia ...19911895327
rotavirus surveillance--united states, 1989-1990.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of dehydrating diarrhea in children in the united states. in january 1989, cdc established a national rotavirus surveillance system (nrss) to monitor national patterns in the epidemiology of rotavirus. this report summarizes findings from the nrss from january 1989 through november 1990.19911899128
a human lactobacillus strain (lactobacillus casei sp strain gg) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in determine the effect of a human lactobacillus strain (lactobacillus casei sp strain gg, gefilac) on recovery from acute diarrhea (82% rotavirus), 71 well-nourished children between 4 and 45 months of age were studied. after oral rehydration, the patients randomly received either lactobacillus gg-fermented milk product, 125 g (10(10-11) colony-forming units) twice daily (group 1); lactobacillus gg freeze-dried powder, one dose (10(10-11) colony-forming units) twice daily (group 2); or a placeb ...19911905394
[electron microscopic virus diagnosis in dogs, cats, calves, swine and foals in the year 1989].during 1989 fecal and gut samples of 598 dogs, 189 cats, 496 calves, 100 pigs and 66 foals with diarrhoea were investigated for virus by electron microscopy. in samples of dogs and cats parvovirus was detected in 18.5% and 8.5% of the samples, respectively; coronavirus was found in 14.9% and in 16.4% of the specimens. in samples of calves coronavirus dominated with a detection rate of 37.5%, followed by rotavirus with 10.7% and not clearly identifiable particles resembling coronavirus (4.2%). in ...19911905919
hospital-acquired diarrhea in adults: a prospective case-controlled study in know the incidence, etiology, risk factors, morbidity, and mortality of nosocomial diarrhea in adults.19911906497
enteral immunoglobulins for treatment of protracted rotaviral diarrhea. 19911909781
diarrhoeal diseases control programme. global activities. 19911911161
the three-dimensional structure of reovirus obtained by cryo-electron microscopy.the structures of reovirus serotypes t2j (jones), t3d (dearing) and the t3d core particle have been determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image processing. at a resolution of 30 a the two serotypes have similar features. the core is visible within the virus structure. the outer surface of the virus particles contains 120 holes at t = 13.1 local 6-fold axes. the holes penetrate into the virus as far as the surface of the internal core shell. protrusions extending 4 nm from the virus surface ...19911915287
[plants as a source of research in antiviral activity. example of the haemanthus albiflos bulb].the antiviral potency of an hydroalcoholic extract from haemanthus albiflos (amaryllidaceae) bulb was investigated. experimentations were conducted on continuous cell lines (bgm, ma 104, hep 2) seeded in microplates. three viruses from the rna group (poliovirus type i, vesicular stomatitis virus type 11 and simian rotavirus sa 11) and two from the dna group (adenovirus type 5, herpes simplex virus type 1) were tested. important reduction in yield of viral infectivity was observed with the rna gr ...19911933468
the use of bacteriophages of bacteroides fragilis as indicators of the efficiency of virucidal products.the potential use of bacteriophage b40-8 of bacteroides fragilis for the evaluation of the virucidal activity of antiseptics or disinfectants was investigated. the antiviral activity of two antiseptics and two disinfectants was evaluated according to a standard guideline. the effect of the virucidal agents was assessed on (i) viruses usually spread by direct contact with surfaces with contaminated secretions, i.e. herpes virus 1 and 2, and vaccinia virus, and (ii) viruses transmitted by the feca ...19911936937
increased beta-lactoglobulin absorption during rotavirus enteritis in infants: relationship to sugar permeability.we studied absorption of the potentially allergenic protein beta-lactoglobulin during acute rotavirus diarrhea in infants and assessed the relationship of this macromolecular absorption with intestinal sugar permeability. after oral rehydration, 38 patients with acute gastroenteritis were given orally a 100-ml solution containing 4 g (11.7 mmol/l) of lactulose and 0.8 g (4.4 mmol/l) of mannitol, and their recovery rate as shown in urine passed during the subsequent 5 h was measured. a blood samp ...19911945570
differences in the clinical and radiologic patterns of rotavirus and non-rotavirus necrotizing enterocolitis.we analyzed retrospectively 32 successive infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis (nec), 13 with rotavirus (rv) infection (rv+) and 19 rv-negative (rv-). all patients showed at least pneumatosis intestinalis. all patients except one had risk factors for perinatal asphyxia. our study demonstrated significant differences between rv+ nec and rv- nec cases: rv+ nec infants had a higher birth weight and were born at a later gestational age. oral feeding was started earlier and symptoms develo ...19911945574
cryptosporidiosis among children with acute gastroenteritis in the pediatric ward in the general hospital, penang.stool samples from 836 cases with diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis from the pediatric ward, penang general hospital, were examined for cryptosporidium oocysts. a dimethyl sulfoxide modified acid fast technique was used for the identification of the parasites. 36 samples or 4.3% were found to be positive for cryptosporidium. the prevalence of infection was higher (2.39%) in children with diarrhea and vomiting than in children with acute gastroenteritis alone (0.8%). stool examination and cultur ...19911948280
effect of severe food restriction on the gut following rotavirus infection in mice.the effect of severe food restriction on the histopathology of the gut following infection with epizootic diarrhoea of infant mice (edim) rotavirus was studied in mice. over a period of 12 weeks, weanling mice were fed either 70 or 50% of the diet eaten by a control group on the previous day. after 11 weeks of feeding, animals were given 30 microliters/mouse of edim rotavirus orally and the histopathology of the gut and lymphoid organs examined. the histology of the spleen and thymus of differen ...19911952816
seasonal effects on the reported incidence of acute diarrhoeal disease in northeast thailand.this paper examines the seasonal variation in the reported incidence of acute diarrhoea for selected areas in the northeast of thailand. charts are presented which show rainfall, temperature and reported incidence of acute diarrhoea for the period 1982 to 1987. incidence of diarrhoea appears to be inversely related to a sharp decrease in temperature around january each year. although rainfall does not appear to have a direct effect on the relative incidence of acute diarrhoea, there is always a ...19911955264
would control of childhood infectious diseases reduce malnutrition?infectious diseases and especially diarrheal diseases have been noted to have an adverse effect on the growth of underprivileged children in developing countries. diarrheal diseases have been estimated to account for 10-80% of growth retardation in the first few years of life, with the magnitude of effect possibly modified by other factors, such as the adequacy and source of dietary intake, treatment and feeding practices during and following illness and the opportunity for catch-up growth after ...19911957617
pathogenesis of gut virus summary, the pathogenesis of many gut virus infections remains uncertain. however, human and animal studies indicate that the majority of gut viruses infect villous enterocytes. viruses appear to have different affinities for enterocytes at different sites on the villus. infection of enterocytes leads to cell death, extrusion into the lumen, and villous atrophy when the rate of cell production in the crypts cannot keep pace with the rate of enterocyte loss. this results in a reduced surface a ...19901962725
rotavirus.since their discovery in the 1970s, the human rotaviruses have been recognized as the most important cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis among infants and children worldwide. rotavirus has been found to infect almost all mammalian and avian species tested, and is primarily a disease of the young. in humans, rotavirus is the most frequent gastrointestinal pathogen in infants and children less than 2 years of age. in developing countries, the attack rate peaks at 6 months of age, whereas in ...19901962726
enteric adenoviruses.human adenoviruses are classified into 47 serotypes and six subgenera (a-f) with different tropisms. in recent years adenovirus type 40 (ad40) and 41 (ad41) of subgenus f have been shown to be causative agents in enteric infections, which is second in importance only to rotaviruses as a cause of infantile gastroenteritis. infection with eads occurs worldwide and has been associated with 4-17% of cases of diarrhoea in children. ad40 and ad41 primarily affect young children less than 2 years of ag ...19901962727
vaccines against viral diarrhoea. 19901962729
a survey of chicken sera for antibody to atypical avian rotavirus of duck origin, in japan. 19901962834
[adult diarrhea rotavirus in jilin, china].in may 1986, an outbreak of epidemic acute diarrhea occurred in one city and three counties in yanbian area. the diarrheal cases were seen in all age groups, the majority of the cases were seen in adult age group. no bacterial pathogens were isolated in 22 fecal samples examined, however rotavirus like particles of 52-68 nm in diameter were found in 50% (11/22) of fecal samples by the immunoelectron microscopy using convalescent sera. examination by the adult diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) elisa kit ...19901962974
treatment of rotavirus infection in neonate and weanling pigs using natural human interferon alpha.colostrum-deprived neonate piglets challenged with rotavirus and 3-week-old newly weaned piglets naturally exposed to rotavirus were treated with low doses of natural human interferon alpha (nhuifn alpha) administered into the oral cavity or included in the liquid diet. the colostrum-deprived piglets given the highest dosage of nhuifn alpha (50 iu/kg body weight) had lower viral excretion scores at 3 (p less than 0.11) and 4 days (p less than 0.001) after virus inoculation. average group weights ...19901963065
evaluation of three panels of monoclonal antibodies for the identification of human rotavirus vp7 serotype by elisa.three panels of monoclonal antibodies used for rotavirus serotype identification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were evaluated at the national institutes of health, usa, to identify antibodies suitable for distribution to laboratories involved in who-sponsored trials of rotavirus vaccines. two of the panels were comparably effective in identifying the serotype of each of the human rotavirus reference strains of serotype 1, 2, or 3. in addition, one of the panels included a monoclon ...19901963119
[detection of rotavirus infection chains by electropherotyping].518 fecal specimens were examined by sds-page after rotavirus had been detected by an elisa. the material was collected from 239 patients in three children's hospitals in bremen over a period of one year. seventy-two percent of the children had a nosocomial infection. eight electropherotypes could be distinguished by electrophoresis, one of which (type c) dominated (61.1%). in the neonatal wards of the children's hospitals one main electropherotype (type c) was detected throughout the year. in c ...19901963208
an outbreak of rotavirus infections in newborns--new aspects?in the context of a prospective study for detection of rotavirus infections, an outbreak in neonates was observed in april 1986 at the schweizerische pflegerinnenschule in zurich. altogether, 103 neonates were investigated by means of genome gel electrophoresis for rotaviruses (hrv, human rotavirus) in the feces in the course of april 1986. of these 103 neonates, 51 (49%) were hrv-positive and 52 (51%) were hrv-negative. of the 51 hrv-positive neonates, 42 (82%) showed clinical symptoms, especia ...19901963445
incidence and diagnosis of rotavirus infection in neonates: results of two studies.the present study investigates the incidence of human rotavirus excretion in neonates of two hospitals. from april 1, 1983 to march 31, 1984, rotaviruses were detected with rotazyme in the feces of 57 (15%) of 383 neonates at the department of pediatrics, university of berne, in a total in 71 (5.2%) of the 1369 stool samples tested. of the 57 neonates with rotazyme-positive stool samples, 53 (93%) were asymptomatic. the problems of the specificity of rotazyme in neonatal feces and the possibilit ...19901963446
nosocomial rotavirus infections in neonates: means of prevention and control.fifteen out of 24 risk neonates from the premature baby ward (= 63%) and 36 of 79 healthy neonates from the infant nursery (= 46%) at a zürich hospital were infected within a period of 29 days during a nosocomial epidemic human rotavirus (hrv) outbreak. forty-two out of 51 of all hrv-infected babies (=82%) manifested clinical symptoms, but these could not all be attributed to an hrv infection. on average, rotavirus could be detected in infected risk neonates five days after their admission to th ...19901963447
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