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a mathematical model of the indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus (rv) infections progressively confer natural immunity against subsequent infection. similarly to natural infection, vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine potentially reduces rv transmission and induces herd protection. a mathematical transmission model was developed to project the impact of a vaccination programme on the incidence of rv infection and disease for five countries in the european union. with vaccination coverage rates of 70%, 90% and 95% the model predicted that, in a ...201020028612
healthcare-associated viral gastroenteritis among children in a large pediatric hospital, united kingdom.viruses are the major pathogens of community-acquired (ca) acute gastroenteritis (age) in children, but their role in healthcare-associated (ha) age is poorly understood. children with age hospitalized at alder hey children's hospital, liverpool, uk, were enrolled over a 2-year period. age was classified as ha if diarrhea developed > or =48 hours after admission. rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus 40/41, astrovirus, and sapovirus were detected by pcr. a total of 225 children with ha-age and 351 wi ...201020031043
identification of a rotavirus g12 strain, indonesia. 201020031072
sequestration of free tubulin molecules by the viral protein nsp2 induces microtubule depolymerization during rotavirus infection.microtubules, components of the cell cytoskeleton, play a central role in cellular trafficking. here we show that rotavirus infection leads to a remodeling of the microtubule network together with the formation of tubulin granules. while most microtubules surrounding the nucleus depolymerize, others appear packed at the cell periphery. in microtubule depolymerization areas, tubulin granules are observed; they colocalize with viroplasms, viral compartments formed by interactions between rotavirus ...201020032187
kawasaki disease patients with redness or crust formation at the bacille calmette-guérin inoculation site.a specific diagnostic test for kawasaki disease (kd) is currently unavailable. redness or crust formation at the bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) inoculation site is listed as a positive sign in the diagnostic guidelines of kd. the purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic features of kd patients with such changes at the bcg inoculation site and to evaluate the specificity of this sign in kd diagnosis.201020032807
surveillance and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children in a southern city of china in the fall-winter seasons of 2003-2006.noroviruses (novs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis but knowledge on the disease burden and epidemiology in children in the developing countries remains limited. in this study, we performed a surveillance of nov gastroenteritis in children of china to address some of the questions.201019943862
viral load and genotypes of noroviruses in symptomatic and asymptomatic children in southeastern brazil.noroviruses (novs) are a major etiological agent of sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide.201020004146
rotavirus infection activates dendritic cells from peyer's patches in adult mice.this study used an in vivo mouse model to analyze the response of dendritic cells (dcs) in peyer's patches (pps) within the first 48 h of infection with the wild-type murine rotavirus edim (edim(wt)). after the infection, the absolute number of dcs was increased by 2-fold in the pps without a modification of their relative percentage of the total cell number. also, the dcs from pps of infected mice showed a time-dependent migration to the subepithelial dome (sed) and an increase of the surface a ...201020007263
a rotavirus spike protein conformational intermediate binds lipid bilayers.during rotavirus entry, a virion penetrates a host cell membrane, sheds its outer capsid proteins, and releases a transcriptionally active subviral particle into the cytoplasm. vp5, the rotavirus protein believed to interact with the membrane bilayer, is a tryptic cleavage product of the outer capsid spike protein, vp4. when a rotavirus particle uncoats, vp5 folds back, in a rearrangement that resembles the fusogenic conformational changes in enveloped-virus fusion proteins. we present direct ex ...201020007281
molecular characterization of human rotavirus vaccine strain cdc-9 during sequential passages in vero cells.we have developed several candidate human rotavirus vaccine strains with common serotypes via adaptation in vero cells, adhering to the good laboratory practice (glp) guidelines. we sequenced the entire genome of a g1p[8] strain cdc-9 in original stool and passaged materials from vero cells and examined its genetic relatedness to the prototype human rotavirus ku and other strains. with the exception of vp3 gene which was closely related to that of strain ds-1, the culture-adapted cdc-9 strain sh ...201020009519
rotavirus disease burden, nicaragua 2001-2005: defining the potential impact of a rotavirus vaccination program.in october 2006, a rotavirus vaccine was introduced in nicaragua for routine immunization of all children. we document the baseline diarrheal disease burden in nicaragua prior to the vaccine program to facilitate future studies to measure vaccine impact.201020022778
molecular characterization of group a human rotavirus among hospitalized children and adults in bangladesh: finding of emerging g12 strain.between july 2004 and june 2006, a total of 1438 fecal samples were collected from hospitalized children and adults with diarrhea at an infectious disease hospital (sk hospital) in mymensingh, bangladesh. the diversity of rotavirus strains were investigated using electropherotyping and reverse transcription-pcr amplification of the vp7 and vp4 genes. group a rotavirus was detected in 171 of 1438(11.9%) specimens: 13.3%(72/543) from children 6 months to </=15 years of age and 11.0%(99/895) from i ...201020046166
effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rotarix) against severe diarrhea caused by serotypically unrelated g2p[4] strains in brazil.background. in a latin american trial, a monovalent g1p[8] rotavirus vaccine showed high efficacy against severe rotavirus diarrhea. protection was lower against serotypically unrelated g2p[4] strains, which circulated infrequently. this case-control study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of this monovalent g1p[8] rotavirus vaccine against g2p[4] strains in brazil. methods. case patients were children with severe g2p[4] rotavirus diarrhea who presented at a hospital in recife, brazil, ...201020047501
immune thrombocytopenic purpura in a 5-month-old female with rotavirus infection. 201020054872
analysis of rotavirus non-structural protein nsp5 by mass spectrometry reveals a complex phosphorylation pattern.genomic replication and partial assembly of rotavirus takes place in cytoplasmic viral structures called viroplasms. nsp5 is a viral phosphoprotein localized in viroplasms and its expression is imperative for viral cycle progress. during infection three isoforms of nsp5 can be observed by sds-page (26, 28 and 33-35kda) and previous reports suggested that they differ in their phosphorylation patterns. in this study we obtained nsp5 from infected cells and by mass spectrometry we were able to iden ...201020036292
genetic analysis of the porcine group b rotavirus nsp2 gene from wild-type brazilian strains.group b rotaviruses (rv-b) were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. in human beings, the virus was only described in china, india, and bangladesh, especially infecting adults. only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the rv-b nsp2 gene have been conducted, and porcine rv-b has not been characterized. in the present study, three porcine wild-type rv-b strains from piglet stool samples collected from brazilian pig he ...201020069262
detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys.this study was conducted to detect and characterize enteric viruses [rotavirus, turkey astrovirus-2 (tastv-2), reovirus, and turkey coronavirus] from cases of poult enteritis syndrome (pes) in minnesota turkeys. of the intestinal contents collected from 43 pes cases, 25 were positive for rotavirus and 13 for small round viruses by electron microscopy (em). of the enteric virus-positive cases by em (n=27), 16 cases had rotavirus or small round viruses alone and the remaining 11 cases had both vir ...201020075272
effect of warming moxibustion on shenque acupoint for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children with infantile cerebral palsy.to observe the effect of warming moxibustion on shenque acupoint (rn8) for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children with infantile cerebral palsy (icp).201020082252
surveillance and molecular characterization of rotavirus strains circulating in manipur, north-eastern india: increasing prevalence of emerging g12 strains.to determine the frequency and genotypes of rotavirus strains, samples were collected from children hospitalized with acute diarrhea at the regional institute of medical sciences, manipur. the globally common genotypes g1p[8] and g2p[4] constituted 58% of the total positive strains, while 3% and 8% strains were emerging genotypes, g9p[6] and g12p[6]. this is the first report of genotype g12 in manipur. the g12 strains clustered with lineage iii strains and had >98% identity with corresponding ro ...201020083233
effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a large urban population in the united states.the goal was to assess the effectiveness of complete (3-dose) or partial (1- or 2-dose) immunization with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age) in us clinical practice.201020083525
evidence for molecular mimicry between human t cell epitopes in rotavirus and pancreatic islet autoantigens.in type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of the pancreas are destroyed by autoreactive t cells. rotavirus (rv) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. peptides in vp7, a major immunogenic protein of rv, have high sequence similarity to t cell epitope peptides in the islet autoantigens tyrosine phosphatase-like insulinoma ag 2 (ia2) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (gad65). we aimed to educe evidence for the hypothesis that molecular mimicry with rv pro ...201020083660
association of viral infection and appendicitis.what causes appendicitis is not known; however, studies have suggested a relationship between viral diseases and appendicitis. building on evidence of cyclic patterns of appendicitis with apparent outbreaks consistent with an infectious etiology, we hypothesized that there is a relationship between population rates of appendicitis and several infectious diseases.201020083756
characterization of group a rotavirus infections in adolescents and adults from pune, india: 1993-1996 and 2004-2007.a total of 1,591 fecal specimens were collected in 1993-1996 and 2004-2007 from adolescents and adults with acute gastroenteritis in pune, india for detection and characterization of rotavirus. at the two time points, group a rotavirus was detected in 8.6% and 16.2% of the adolescents and 5.2% and 17.2% of the adults, respectively. reverse transcription-pcr with consensus primers followed by multiplex genotyping pcr detected common strains g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], and g4p[8] in a total of 53.1% o ...201020087938
detection and molecular characterization of human rotaviruses isolated in italy and albania.rotaviruses are one of the most important causes of gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old. analysis of g and p rotavirus genotypes in circulation is crucial in evaluating the appropriacy of mass vaccination of children worldwide. overall, 592 stool samples were collected in tirana (albania), the salento peninsula (south italy), and three different hospitals in rome (central italy). of the total samples, 31.3% were rotavirus positive in albania, 78.3% in the salento, and 40.3% in rome. th ...201020087942
mixed viral infections causing acute gastroenteritis in children in a waterborne outbreak.we examined stool specimens for viral pathogens from 50 children referred to hospital due to acute gastroenteritis (age) resulting from consuming drinking water contaminated with sewage in a finnish community using pcr methods. rotavirus was detected in 33 (66%), human calicivirus in 31 (62%), and both in 40% of cases. of the caliciviruses, 20/31 (65%) were noroviruses and 11 (35%) sapoviruses. furthermore, aichi virus was detected in 25 (50%), adenovirus in six (12%) and bocavirus in four (8%) ...201020092670
development of one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid detection of porcine group c rotaviruses.although the widespread occurrence of porcine group c rotaviruses (gcrv) is assumed, precise prevalence remains largely unknown because of the absence of reliable, specific, and rapid diagnostic methods. to detect and quantify porcine gcrv, the authors evaluated and optimized sybr green and taqman real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays and applied them to 108 piglet fecal samples. using serially diluted standard rna transcripts of porcine gcrv vp6 gene, both sy ...201020093687
spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus disease in europe: can climate or demographic variability explain the patterns observed.we found a south to north movement of rotavirus activity across europe. lower birth rates, higher winter temperatures, and higher winter rainfall were associated with variations in timing of rotavirus activity between european countries but not with temporal variations within countries. patterns of rotavirus activity are likely to be driven by a complex interaction of population, virus, and environmental factors.201020094004
reduction in hospitalizations for diarrhea and rotavirus infections in new york state following introduction of rotavirus vaccine.to monitor trends and costs of diarrhea and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in new york before and after rotavirus vaccine implementation in 2006. to examine rotavirus test results from sentinel hospital-associated laboratories.201019896451
viral infections: new and emerging.viral gastrointestinal diseases are a leading cause of childhood death worldwide. recognition of specific causes as they pertain to epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention is necessary for the clinician as scientific advances allow for greater understanding of the diseases. the present review summarizes these advances for commonly encountered causes of viral gastroenteritis.201019907323
real-time surveillance to assess risk of intussusception and other adverse events after pentavalent, bovine-derived rotavirus vaccine.a pentavalent, bovine-derived rotavirus vaccine (rotateq, merck) was licensed in 2006 for use in infants. a previously licensed rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn due to elevated risk of intussusception. we prospectively evaluated the risk of intussusception and other pre-specified adverse events among rotateq recipients in the vaccine safety datalink.201019907356
health-related quality of life lost to rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in children and their parents: a canadian prospective study.we estimated the impact of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis (rge) on health-related quality of life of children and parents as background for economic evaluation of rotavirus vaccines. a total of 186 new cases of rge in children <36 months old were recruited from physician and pediatric clinics and followed up for 2 weeks. our results show that rge impacts the health-related quality of life of children and parents adversely.201019907361
gastrointestinal infections in the pediatric population.to summarize the literature concerning gastrointestinal infections in the pediatric population, primarily in developed countries. searches of medline and the cochrane library databases were performed in august 2009 to locate studies published in the last 18 months.201019887936
clinical and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in children with community-acquired and hospital-acquired diarrhea in shanghai, china.a hospital-based investigation was conducted to understand the epidemiologic profile of rotavirus diarrhea due to community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection among children >28 days of age, between november 2006 and january 2008 in shanghai. rotavirus infection was related to 37.2% of clinic visit and 48.1% of ward admission attributable to community-acquired noninvasive bacterial diarrhea among shanghainese children. rotavirus was responsible for 54.8% of nosocomial diarrhea. g3p[8] (56. ...201019915511
rotaviruses require basolateral molecules for efficient infection of polarized mdckii cells.in this work we evaluated the ability of rotavirus strains with different receptor requirements to infect the apical and basolateral surfaces of polarized mdckii cells. we used neuraminidase (na)-sensitive (rrv and tfr-1) and neuraminidase-resistant (wa and uk) viruses that differ in their use of integrins. regardless of their receptor requirements, all virus strains tested were found to efficiently infect cells from both membrane surface domains, with preference for the basolateral domain, sinc ...201019932141
universal mass vaccination against rotavirus gastroenteritis: impact on hospitalization rates in austrian children.since july 2007, rotavirus vaccinations have been subsidized in austria for all children from the seventh week up to the sixth month of life. vaccination coverage over the whole period was 72% with an increase to 87% in 2008.201019935446
characterisation of g8 human rotaviruses in australian children with gastroenteritis.this study describes the characterisation of g8 rotavirus strains isolated from humans with acute gastroenteritis. six g8 strains were detected in australia between 2002 and 2008. four were g8p[14] strains, one was g8p[8]+[14] and one was g8 p non-typeable. by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme immunoassay analysis, four g8 strains with visible rna exhibited a long electropherotype and five g8 strains displayed subgroup i specificity. sequence analysis of the vp7 gene indicated that t ...201019948195
efficacy and safety of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine when administered with greater than 10 weeks between doses.the pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine is indicated as a 3-dose series with first dose administered orally at 6 to 12 weeks with subsequent doses at 4 to 10 week intervals. in pre-licensure phase iii trials, the majority followed this schedule, but there were 2956 instances where infants received a dose of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine/placebo >10 weeks after the previous dose. among this subset, the efficacy against any severity of disease, the reduc ...201019949360
a long-term survey on the distribution of the human rotavirus g type in thailand.the distribution of the g type of human rotavirus was surveyed in thailand between july 1993 and june 2007. a significant yearly change in the distribution of the g type distribution was found. from 1993-1994 to 1998-1999, the g1 type was the most dominant. in 1999-2000, g9 began to appear at a high frequency. in 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003, g9 was very common. in 2003-2004, g1 became the most prevalent type again, and since then it has been detected at the highest frequency. g12 strains ...201019950228
high prevalence of species d human adenoviruses in fecal specimens from urban kenyan children with diarrhea.human adenoviruses (hadvs) cause a wide range of clinical syndromes and are classified in seven species, a-g, comprising 52 serotypes. hadv-a31, -f40, and -f41 have been associated with diarrhea in infants and young children. in developing countries gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and, in comparison to rotaviruses, there are no data on the hadvs associated with diarrhea in pediatric patients in kenya. this study investigates the prevalence and genotypes of ...201019950234
detection of gii-4/2006b variant and recombinant noroviruses in children with acute gastroenteritis, south korea.norovirus (nov), a single-stranded, positive rna virus, is an important etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. in this study, a total of 434 fecal samples collected from 434 children with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, between september 2007 and july 2008 were tested to determine the molecular epidemiology of novs and characterize recombinant strains by using rt-pcr followed by sequencing. of the 434 specimens, nov, rotavirus, and adenovirus were detected in 155 (35.8%) ...201019950237
molecular characterization of the vp1, vp2, vp4, vp6, nsp1 and nsp2 genes of bovine group b rotaviruses: identification of a novel vp4 genotype.studies on bovine group b rotaviruses (gbrs) are limited. to date, only the vp6 gene of a single bovine gbr strain and the vp7 and nsp5 genes of a few bovine gbr strains have been sequenced and analyzed. in the present study, using a single-primer amplification method, we have determined the full-length nucleotide sequences of the vp1, vp2, vp4, vp6, nsp1 and nsp2 genes of three bovine gbr strains from eastern india. in all six of these genes, the bovine gbr strains shared high genetic relatedne ...201019936611
[survey about the perception of the gastroenteritis and the infection due to rotavirus by the mothers in france].to describe the perception of the acute gastroenteritis (age) and the interest for the vaccination of the age due to rotavirus.201019939583
temperature-dependent transmission of rotavirus in great britain and the netherlands.in europe, rotavirus gastroenteritis peaks in late winter or early spring suggesting a role for weather factors in transmission of the virus. in this study, multivariate regression models adapted for time-series data were used to investigate effects of temperature, humidity and rainfall on reported rotavirus infections and the infection-rate parameter, a derived measure of infection transmission that takes into account population immunity, in england, wales, scotland and the netherlands. delayed ...201019939844
simian rotaviruses possess divergent gene constellations that originated from interspecies transmission and reassortment.although few simian rotaviruses (rvs) have been isolated, such strains have been important for basic research and vaccine development. to explore the origins of simian rvs, the complete genome sequences of strains ptrv (g8p[1]), rrv (g3p[3]), and tuch (g3p[24]) were determined. these data allowed the genotype constellations of each virus to be determined and the phylogenetic relationships of the simian strains with each other and with nonsimian rvs to be elucidated. the results indicate that ptr ...201019939934
aichi virus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in finland.aichi virus has been proposed as a novel causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. in addition to several asian countries, south america and africa, aichi virus has also recently been found in europe. our objective was to study the causative role of aichi virus in children with acute gastroenteritis in finland. we analysed 595 stool specimens from infants in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine and 468 stool specimens from children in a hospital-based epidemiological and aetiological study of ...201019961643
genomic diversity of group a rotavirus strains in patients aged 1-36 months admitted for acute watery diarrhoea in northern india: a hospital-based study.the diversity and capacity of human rotaviruses for rapid evolution and genetic reassortment suggests that rotavirus vaccine should be designed to provide heterotypic protection. the objective of the present study was to provide information on the circulating genotypes of rotavirus and allied baseline epidemiology in lucknow, india. in a cross-sectional study, the prevalence of rotavirus g-p types was studied in patients aged 1-36 months with acute watery diarrhoea. various sociodemographic, env ...201019456832
response surface methodology-based optimisation of agarose gel electrophoresis for screening and electropherotyping of rotavirus.management of rotavirus diarrhoea cases and prevention of nosocomial infection require rapid diagnostic method at the patient care level. diagnostic tests currently available are not routinely used due to economic or sensitivity/specificity constraints. agarose-based sieving media and running conditions were modulated by using central composite design and response surface methodology for screening and electropherotyping of rotaviruses. the electrophoretic resolution of rotavirus genome was calcu ...201019575153
dancing eye syndrome associated with spontaneous recovery and normal neurodevelopment.five patients with spontaneously recovering dancing eye syndrome/opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome are described. age at presentation ranged from 4 to 19 months. four had symptoms of fever and a coryzal illness within days to a few weeks prior to the onset. one of the 4 also had varicella zoster 4 weeks before presentation. all had opsoclonus, myoclonus/ataxia and irritability. associated infective agents identified were coxsackie virus and rotavirus. spontaneous improvement of symptoms started with ...201019541513
vp7 and vp4 sequence analyses of rotavirus strains from italian children with viraemia and acute diarrhoea.information on genotypes or variants associated with systemic rotavirus infection is lacking. seven viraemic children with acute rotavirus diarrhoea were evaluated. all faecal strains were genotyped (5 g1p[8] type, 1 g9p[8], 1 g1-g4p[8]). only 3 of 7 blood strains were typeable (g1p[8], g4p8, and g1p[nd]). a discrepancy between faecal and blood vp7 amino acid sequences (ser-->asp at position 94) was found in the first child. two amino acid substitutions (ile-->val and asn-->ser at position 106 a ...201019644393
disease burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to 5 years of age in two swiss cantons: paediatrician- and hospital-based surveillance.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rv ge) is a leading cause of diarrhoea in young children. the purpose of this epidemiological surveillance was to measure the disease burden of rv ge among children <5 years of age in two regions of switzerland, geneva and lucerne. one hospital and four paediatricians participated per region. the surveillance lasted from december 2006 to june 2007. the population denominator for calculation of the rv ge incidence rate was the average of the overall study population <5 ...201019649782
diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known hiv status in kisumu, kenya.to compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known hiv status.201019664950
detection and analysis of bovine rotavirus strains circulating in australian calves during 2004 and 2005.bovine rotavirus (brv) has been detected in both dairy and beef cattle herds worldwide. stool samples collected from calves in the gippsland region of victoria, australia were screened to determine the presence of brv. a total of 100 faecal samples were collected from calves with and without diarrhoea across three farms during 2004 and 2005. group a brv was detected in 26% of faecal samples (22 from diarrheic calves and four from asymptomatic calves). genotyping analysis of rotavirus positive sa ...201019713055
anti-vp6 igg antibodies against group a and group c rotaviruses in south india.in an epidemiological survey from south india, 936 serum samples were tested for igg against recombinant baculovirus-expressed vp6 proteins from human group a and group c rotaviruses. the overall seroprevalence for group a was 100% and for group c was 25.32% (95% ci 22.64-28.21). the lowest seroprevalence for group c was in children aged <10 years (16.79%). an age-related rise in seroprevalence in group c, but not group a, suggests different patterns of exposure. seroprevalence was similar in ru ...201019723364
rotavirus genotype g4p[8] and enteric adenovirus in hiv-positive patients with and without diarrhoea in são paulo state, brazil.the present study was carried out in order to identify rotavirus and enteric adenovirus in hiv-positive patients with and without diarrhoea, collected in a pre- and early highly active antiretroviral therapy era. rotavirus was detected in 2.5% (3/118) and adenovirus in 14.4% (17/118) of the samples from patients without diarrhoea. in the patients with diarrhoea, rotavirus was identified in 1.5% (2/133) and adenovirus in 7.5% (10/133). these findings suggest no increased frequency of virus excret ...201019729177
[predominance of g9 rotavirus in valencia and castellón between 2005 and 2007].rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. effective vaccines to prevent rotavirus infections are currently available, although their clinical use is still limited, and rotavirus still causes many episodes of infantile gastroenteritis, mainly during the winter seasons.201019811963
use of static quantitative microbial risk assessment to determine pathogen risks in an unconfined carbonate aquifer used for managed aquifer recharge.managed aquifer recharge (mar) is becoming a mechanism used for recycling treated wastewater and captured urban stormwater and is being used as a treatment barrier to remove contaminants such as pathogens from the recharged water. there is still a need, however, to demonstrate the effectiveness of mar to reduce any residual risk of pathogens in the recovered water. a mar research site recharging secondary treated wastewater in an unconfined carbonate aquifer was used in conjunction with a static ...201019762063
prevalence, prediction and risk factors of enteropathogens in normal and non-normal faeces of young dutch dairy calves.between january and april 2007, 424 calves under 22 days of age from 108 dutch dairy herds were sampled to estimate the prevalence of non-normal faeces ('custard-like'-yellowish-coloured with custard consistency or diarrhoea: watery-like faeces) and the shedding of enteropathogens escherichia coli k99 (e. coli), coronavirus, cryptosporidium parvum (c. parvum), rotavirus and clostridium perfringens (cl. perfringens). in addition, information was collected on animal characteristics and herd-manage ...201019819574
prevalence of rotavirus in acute diarrhea and its association with clinical signs and symptoms.rotaviruses are the main etiological agents of acute infectious diarrhea in children. thus, the objective of this study is to contribute to the information about the rotavirus variants circulating in brazil. a cross-sectional study was conducted on 124 fecal samples collected from children up to the age of 5 years, with acute gastroenteritis. thirty-one samples were positive for rotavirus a. regarding the g genotyping, 16 (80%) were classified as g1 and regarding p genotyping all strains were cl ...201019793895
enteric calicivirus and rotavirus infections in domestic pigs.we report the prevalence of rotavirus and calicivirus infections, along with their respective association with diarrhoea in the porcine population of the region of northern spain. a total of 221 samples were collected at random from different farms in the region and from the main slaughterhouse facility in the city of zaragoza. faecal samples were scored as diarrhoeic or normal and grouped into five groups to match general farm management and age criteria: group i (suckling 0-4 weeks), group ii ...201019781118
zoonotic aspects of rotaviruses.rotaviruses are important enteric pathogens of humans and animals. group a rotaviruses (garvs) account for up to 1 million children deaths each year, chiefly in developing countries and human vaccines are now available in many countries. rotavirus-associated enteritis is a major problem in livestock animals, notably in young calves and piglets. early in the epidemiological garv studies in humans, either sporadic cases or epidemics by atypical, animal-like garv strains were described. complete ge ...201019781872
evidence of the co-circulation of enteric viruses in sewage and in the population of greater cairo.to characterize major enteric viruses (enterovirus, rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus) in the sewage of greater cairo and to compare the results with clinical data collected during the same period.201019840175
nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in spain: a multicenter prospective study.the objective of this study was to assess the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis among children <2 years of age.201019841606
distribution of g (vp7) and p (vp4) genotypes of group a bovine rotaviruses from turkish calves with diarrhea, 1997-2008.group a rotaviruses are major enteric pathogens of calves. in order to investigate the genetic diversity of bovine rotaviruses (brvs), a collection of 53 brvs, detected from diarrheic calves from several turkish geographical areas, between 1997 and 2008 was analyzed by rt-pcr for specificities of the outer capsid proteins vp7 (g type) and vp4 (p type), for the first time. overall, g6 was the predominant g type, detected in 40/53 samples (75.4%), while p[11] was the predominant p type, detected i ...201019854003
diversity of human parechoviruses isolated from stool samples collected from thai children with acute gastroenteritis.a total of 82 fecal specimens which were known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in chiang mai, thailand, from january to december 2005 were screened for human parechovirus (hpev). hpev was detected by reverse transcription-pcr with a primer pair that amplified the 5' untranslated region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the vp1 region. hpev was detected in 12 ...201019864477
susceptibility to experimental biliary atresia linked to different hepatic gene expression profiles in two mouse strains.aim: to compare hepatic gene expression during the development of experimental biliary atresia (ba) in two different mouse strains. methods: balb/c mice and c57black/6 (black/6) mice were infected with rhesus rotavirus (rrv) postpartum, clinical signs of ba and survival were noted. liver sections were assessed for cluster of differentiation antigen (cd) 3, cd4 and cd8 expression, and the hepatic virus load was determined. second, mice of both strains were sacrificed three days after infection. i ...201019788687
hepatitis e virus-based evaluation of a virion concentration method and detection of enteric viruses in environmental samples by multiplex nested rt-pcr.the prevalence of enteric viruses in drinking and river water samples collected from pune, india was assessed. during an outbreak of hev in a small town near pune, water samples were screened for enteric viruses.201019878363
age distribution of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis cases in europe: the reveal study.rotavirus is the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged <5 y. a prospective, multicentre, observational study was conducted in europe during the 2004-2005 rotavirus season. the study was undertaken in areas of belgium, france, germany, italy, spain, sweden, and the uk, to estimate the incidence of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis (age) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in children under 5 y of age seeking medical care in 3 settings: primary care, emergency department ...201019916900
rotavirus infections with multiple emerging genotypes in sri lanka.rotavirus diarrhea is an important cause of child mortality in developing countries, but studies on this diarrhea are scarce in sri lanka. a prospective study conducted in sri lanka on rotavirus infection among children in a hospital setting (n = 611) versus children residing in tsunami camps (n = 52) showed that prevalence of rotavirus infection was comparable, 21.9 and 20%, respectively. the hospital and camps were located in different districts. analysis of the genotypes of 122 rotaviruses fr ...201019921392
[clinical observation on treatment of infantile rotavirus enteritis by umbilical application of lunxieting paste].to observe the clinical effect of umbilical application with lunxieting paste (lxt) for the treatment of infantile rotavirus enteritis (ire).201021302490
incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 6 years referred to the pediatric emergency and clinic of ghaem hospital, mashhad, iran.rotavirus is the most important pathogen responsible for acute diarrhea in infants and young children. the incidence of rotavirus infection was studied in 156 children less than six years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis, between february 22, 2006 and february 21, 2007 in mashhad. rotavirus antigen was detected by latex agglutination test (rotascreen) in 28.8% of the stool samples examined. the frequency of rotavirus infection was significantly higher among patients under 24 ...201021279942
retrospective detection by negative contrast electron microscopy of faecal viral particles in free-living wild red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) with suspected enteropathy in great britain.transmission electron microscopy identified adenovirus particles in 10 of 70 (14.3 per cent) samples of large intestinal content collected at postmortem examination from free-living wild red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) across great britain between 2000 and 2009. examination was limited to cases in which an enteropathy was suspected on the basis of predetermined macroscopic criteria such as semi-solid or diarrhoeic faeces, suspected enteritis or the presence of intussusception. in most cases, me ...201021262731
faecal bifidobacteria in indian neonates & the effect of asymptomatic rotavirus infection during the first month of life.bifidobacteria colonize the gut after the first week of life and remain an important component of the gut microbiota in infancy. this study was carried out to characterize the diversity and number of bifidobacteria colonizing the gut in indian neonates and to investigate whether asymptomatic infection with rotavirus in the first month of life affected gut colonization by bifidobacteria.201021245621
rotavirus gastroenteritis among children aged under 5 years in al karak, jordan.the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine makes it important to determine the need for vaccination n a population. this study in jordan in 2007-08 determined the incidence and clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children aged under 5 years admitted to hospital with diarrhoea. of 148 children, 59 (39.9%) were elisa-positive for rotavirus in stool samples, predominantly in the age group < 2 years. there was a marginally higher rate of fever in the rotavirus cases than the non-rotavi ...201021222424
rotavirus infection: an unrecognised disease in nepal.rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis in young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. the global rotavirus disease burden has prompted study on their basic research, molecular epidemiology and vaccine development. little is known about rotavirus infection among health professionals in nepal. this article summarises basic and clinical features, treatment and prevention, epidemiological pattern ...201021209522
novel group a rotavirus g8 p[1] as primary cause of an ovine diarrheic syndrome outbreak in weaned lambs.rotavirus is a worldwide major cause of diarrhea outbreaks in neonatal ruminants. an outbreak of ovine diarrheic syndrome (ods) in 50-75 days-old lambs (weaned lambs) is described. fecal immunochromatography and intestinal immunohistochemistry for rotavirus group a were performed. in addition, semi-nested multiplex rt-pcr for g and p rotavirus genotyping in combination with sequencing were performed, to support the diagnosis and identify the viral strain. a novel ovine rotavirus group a g8 p[1] ...201021216110
assortment and packaging of the segmented rotavirus genome.the rotavirus (rv) genome comprises 11 segments of double-stranded rna (dsrna) and is contained within a non-enveloped, icosahedral particle. during assembly, a highly coordinated selective packaging mechanism ensures that progeny rv virions contain one of each genome segment. cis-acting signals thought to mediate assortment and packaging are associated with putative panhandle structures formed by base-pairing of the ends of rv plus-strand rnas (+rnas). viral polymerases within assembling core p ...201021195621
development and evaluation of novel one-step taqman realtime rt-pcr assays for the detection and direct genotyping of genogroup i and ii noroviruses.current detection and genotyping methods of genogroup (g) i and ii noroviruses (novs) consist of a 2-step approach including detection of viral rna by taqman realtime rt-pcr (rt-qpcr) followed by conventional rt-pcr and sequencing of partial regions of orf1 or orf2.201021195660
epidemiology and clinical peculiarities of norovirus and rotavirus infection in hospitalized young children with acute diarrhea in taiwan, 2009.acute diarrhea is one of the most common morbidities in pediatrics worldwide. we conducted a study to investigate the incidence of norovirus in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in taiwan and its clinical peculiarity compared with rotavirus gastroenteritis.201021195978
antiviral activity of alpinia katsumadai extracts against rotaviruses.in vitro anti-rotavirus activity of alpinia katsumadai (ak) extracts were evaluated against bovine g8p[7] and porcine g5p[7] rotaviruses in two different assay strategies, a mixed treatment assay and a post treatment assay. in the mixed treatment assay, six ak extracts [ak-1 (etoh extract), ak-3 (h(2)o layer), ak-5 (40% methanol fraction), and ak-9-11 (h(2)o extract, polysaccharide fraction, supernatant fraction)] exhibited inhibitory activities against g5p[7] rotavirus with the ec(50) values ra ...201021196021
impact of rotavirus vaccination on childhood deaths from diarrhea in brazil.rotavirus vaccination was introduced in brazil in march 2006, targeting an annual birth cohort of approximately 3.5 million. we analyzed trends in all-cause gastroenteritis-related deaths in children <5 years of age during the pre- and post-vaccination periods.201021193339
diversity of interferon antagonist activities mediated by nsp1 proteins of different rotavirus strains.studies involving limited numbers of rotavirus (rv) strains have shown that the viral gene 5 product, nsp1, can antagonize beta interferon (ifn-β) expression by inducing the degradation of ifn-regulatory factors (irfs) (irf3, irf5, and irf7) or a component of the e3 ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for activating nf-κb (β-transducin repeat-containing protein [β-trcp]). to gain a broader perspective of nsp1 activities, we examined various rv strains for the ability to inhibit ifn-β expression ...201021177809
comment on: the cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: comparative analyses for five european countries and transferability in europe. 201021184859
increased sensitivity for various rotavirus genotypes in stool specimens by amending three mismatched nucleotides in the forward primer of a real-time rt-pcr assay.the real-time taqman rt-pcr assay (pang et al., 2004) did not detect 14 clinical samples with rotavirus g2 genotype. three to five nucleotides (nt) were found to be mismatched between the published forward primer when compared to g2p[4], g2p[8], g3p[4], g9p[4], g8 and g12 sequences. an additional forward primer was designed and included in a modified assay to test the 14 clinical samples and 12 samples with known rotavirus g and p genotypes. the modified assay has improved significantly the sens ...201021185331
rig-i/mda5/mavs are required to signal a protective ifn response in rotavirus-infected intestinal epithelium.rotavirus is a dsrna virus that infects epithelial cells that line the surface of the small intestine. it causes severe diarrheal illness in children and ∼500,000 deaths per year worldwide. we studied the mechanisms by which intestinal epithelial cells (iecs) sense rotavirus infection and signal ifn-β production, and investigated the importance of ifn-β production by iecs for controlling rotavirus production by intestinal epithelium and virus excretion in the feces. in contrast with most rna vir ...201021187438
transient splenial lesion of the corpus callosum in a case of benign convulsion associated with rotaviral gastroenteritis.transient magnetic resonance (mr) signal changes in the splenium of the corpus callosum (scc) arise from many different conditions, including encephalopathy or encephalitis caused by infection, seizures, metabolic derangements, and asphyxia. few case reports exist on reversible scc lesions associated with rotavirus infection. a benign convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (cwg) is frequently associated with rotaviral infections. this entity is characterized by normal laboratory findings, electroe ...201021189973
rhesus rotavirus entry into a polarized epithelium is endocytosis dependent and involves sequential vp4 conformational changes.rotavirus (rv) cell entry is an incompletely understood process, involving vp4 and vp7, the viral proteins composing the outermost layer of the nonenveloped rv triple-layered icosahedral particle (tlp), encasing vp6. vp4 can exist in three conformational states: soluble, cleaved spike, and folded back. in order to better understand the events leading to rv entry, we established a detection system to image input virus by monitoring the rhesus rv (rrv) antigens vp4, vp6, and vp7 at very early time ...201021191022
roles of vp4 and nsp1 in determining the distinctive replication capacities of simian rotavirus rrv and bovine rotavirus uk in the mouse biliary tract.rotavirus replication and virulence are strongly influenced by virus strain and host species. the rotavirus proteins vp3, vp4, vp7, nsp1, and nsp4 have all been implicated in strain and species restriction of replication; however, the mechanisms have not been fully determined. simian (rrv) and bovine (uk) rotaviruses have distinctive replication capacities in mouse extraintestinal organs such as the biliary tract. using reassortants between uk and rrv, we previously demonstrated that the differe ...201021191030
rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 using a taqman-based real-time pcr.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and the associated disease postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) have caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades. rapid detection of pcv2 is very important for the effective prophylaxis and treatment of pmws. to establish a sensitive, specific assay for the detection and quantitation of pcv2, we designed and synthesized specific primers and a probe in the open reading frame 2. the assay had a wide dynamic range with excellent linearit ...201021192832
plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibody response after influenza vaccination.conventional measurement of antibody responses to vaccines largely relies on serum antibodies, which are primarily produced by bone marrow plasma cells and may not represent the entire vaccine-induced b cell repertoire, including important functional components such as those targeted to mucosal sites. after immunization or infection, activated b cells differentiate into plasmablasts in local lymphoid organs, then traffic through circulation to the target sites where they further develop into pla ...201021182843
clinical presentation and molecular characterization of group b rotaviruses in diarrhoea patients in bangladesh.a total of 1106 stool samples collected from diarrhoea patients admitted to dhaka hospital of the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh, during january-december 2008 were analysed for the presence of rotavirus-specific rna by page. the group b-specific rna migration pattern was detected in 26 patients (2.4%) and group a-specific pattern in 259 patients (23.4%). clinical data from group a and group b rotavirus-infected patients indicated that episodes did not differ muc ...201021183601
[efficacy of novalac ad in the treatment of infantile rotavirus enteritis].to observe clinical efficacy of novalac ad in infantile rotavirus enteritis.201021110440
rotavirus infection in adult small intestine allografts: a clinicopathological study of a cohort of 23 patients.rotavirus enteritis (rve) is increasingly recognized as a cause of small bowel allograft dysfunction but its significance in adult patients is unknown. we have studied 23 adult small bowel transplant patients aged 19.8-59 years (mean = 38.2 years), who were presented with diarrhea and tested positive for rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. serial follow-up biopsies, as well as clinical data, are documented and analyzed. these patients were followed up for an average of 168 da ...201021114645
characterization of viroplasm formation during the early stages of rotavirus infection.during rotavirus replication cycle, electron-dense cytoplasmic inclusions named viroplasms are formed, and two non-structural proteins, nsp2 and nsp5, have been shown to localize in these membrane-free structures. in these inclusions, replication of dsrna and packaging of pre-virion particles occur. despite the importance of viroplasms in the replication cycle of rotavirus, the information regarding their formation, and the possible sites of their nucleation during the early stages of infection ...201021114853
pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: safety and health care resource utilization.in the international, placebo-controlled, rotavirus efficacy and safety trial, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine reduced the rate of rotavirus-attributable hospitalizations and emergency department visits by 95%. this study investigated the effect in jamaica.201021115586
rotavirus disrupts calcium homeostasis by nsp4 viroporin activity.many viruses alter intracellular calcium homeostasis. the rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4), an endoplasmic reticulum (er) transmembrane glycoprotein, increases intracellular levels of cytoplasmic ca(2+) ([ca(2+)]cyto) through a phospholipase c-independent pathway, which is required for virus replication and morphogenesis. however, the nsp4 domain and mechanism that increases [ca(2+)]cyto are unknown. we identified an nsp4 domain (amino acids [aa] 47 to 90) that inserts into membranes and ...201021151776
estimating the rotavirus hospitalization disease burden and trends, using capture-recapture methods.rotavirus surveillance is needed to provide estimates of disease burden and to evaluate the effect of vaccination programs. our objective was to use capture-recapture methods to estimate rotavirus hospitalization rates and to examine trends over time.201021155173
outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by adenovirus type 41 in a kindergarten.summaryin response to an alert due to epidemic gastroenteritis in children in a kindergarten, an outbreak investigation was carried out in a portuguese municipality. the objectives were to establish an aetiological diagnosis, assess vaccine efficacy if possible, and to take corrective measures if necessary. the warden at the kindergarten was interviewed, and we visited the premises. the overall attack rate was 11·4% and most cases were mild. stool samples from three symptomatic children were col ...201021156097
atomic model of an infectious rotavirus particle.non-enveloped viruses of different types have evolved distinct mechanisms for penetrating a cellular membrane during infection. rotavirus penetration appears to occur by a process resembling enveloped-virus fusion: membrane distortion linked to conformational changes in a viral protein. evidence for such a mechanism comes from crystallographic analyses of fragments of vp4, the rotavirus-penetration protein, and infectivity analyses of structure-based vp4 mutants. we describe here the structure o ...201021157433
the london position statement of the world congress of gastroenterology on biological therapy for ibd with the european crohn's and colitis organisation: pregnancy and pediatrics.women with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) have similar rates of fertility to the general population, but have an increased rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with the general population, which may be worsened by disease activity. infertility is increased in those undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in pregnancy is considered to be low risk and compatible with use during conception in men and women and during pregnancy in at least the first two t ...201021157441
porcine kobuvirus from pig stool in korea.to survey for porcine kobuvirus infection, a total of 119 pig fecal samples in korea were collected from three pig farms with good breeding facilities in three provinces. forty-three (36.1%) of the fecal samples tested were positive for porcine kobuvirus. in addition, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) infections were not identified in any of the fecal samples, but porcine group a rotavirus (gar) infection was identified in 11.8% (14/119) of the ...201021161358
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