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analysis of rotavirus nsp4 genotypes and age-dependent antibody response against nsp4 in shanghai, china.this study aimed to determine the genotypes of nsp4 in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea and evaluate serum antibody titers to nsp4 in different age groups in shanghai, china. a total of 171 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized patients < or =5 years of age who had acute rotavirus diarrhea between january 2003 and december 2006. serum samples were collected from healthy individuals, including 200 for 0-60 months of age and 30 for over 5 years of age. nsp4-b type was the single p ...201020657070
α-enolase autoantibodies cross-reactive to viral proteins in a mouse model of biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a neonatal cholangiopathy of unknown etiology. the bile duct injury that occurs in patients with ba might result from a hepatobiliary viral infection followed by an autoimmune response against the bile duct epithelia. we aimed to identify autoantigens recognized by serum antibodies in the rhesus rotavirus (rrv)-induced mouse model of ba; findings were correlated with ba in humans.201020659472
molecular analysis of human group a rotavirus g10p[14] genotype in slovenia.rotavirus g10 genotype is one of the main rotaviruses circulating in cattle throughout the world but is also found in asymptomatic and symptomatic infections in children, and thought to be acquired through zoonotic transmission.201020675186
re: "age dependence of the risk of intussusception following tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus tetravalent vaccine: is it beyond doubt?". 201020682522
review of rotavirus studies in africa: 1976-2006.rotavirus is a common cause of severe diarrheal disease in children worldwide. ninety percent of the associated deaths occur in sub-saharan africa and south east asia. our aim was to review the prevalence of rotavirus infection in africa over the past 30 years.201020684708
detection of rotavirus antigenemia in routinely obtained serum specimens to augment surveillance and vaccine effectiveness evaluations.: antigenemia is common among children with rotavirus disease. because obtaining stool specimens is cumbersome, we evaluated whether detection of antigenemia in sera obtained during routine clinical practice could augment rotavirus surveillance to assess the effect of vaccination.201020526226
gastroenteric virus detection in fecal samples from women in goiânia, state of goiás, brazil.this was a prospective study that included women seen in the obstetrics and gynecology sector of hospital das clínicas, federal university of goiás, in goiânia, state of goiás, with the aim of detecting rotaviruses, adenoviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses. eighty-four women participated in the study and from these, 314 fecal samples were collected. out of all of the women, 29 were seropositive for hiv and 55 were seronegative, and 45 and 39 were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively.201020563488
detection and characterisation of group a rotavirus in asymptomatic piglets in southern ireland.porcine group a rotaviruses (garv) are causative agents of enteritis in piglets and are a large reservoir of genetic material for the diversification of human garvs. accumulation of information on the genetic heterogeneity of porcine viruses is pivotal for readily characterising unusual human strains. screening of 292 fecal samples, collected from 4-5- to 8-9-week-old asymptomatic pigs from four herds in ireland between 2005 and 2007 resulted in 19 (6.5%) samples testing positive by reverse-tran ...201020526785
viral gastroenteritis in charleston, west virginia, in 2007: from birth to 99 years of age.to describe factors associated with a rectal swab or stool sample positive for norovirus, rotavirus, or adenovirus.201020565260
addition of severe combined immunodeficiency as a contraindication for administration of rotavirus vaccine.in response to reported cases of vaccine-acquired rotavirus infection in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) following rotavirus vaccine administration, both merck & co. and glaxosmithkline biologicals have revised the prescribing information and patient labeling for their respective rotavirus vaccine products, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rv1), with approval from the food and drug administration. merck revised the prescribing information ...201020535093
immunogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine rotarix co-administered with routine infant vaccines following the vaccination schedules in europe.this study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a human rotavirus vaccine rix4414; the effect of co-administration of childhood vaccines on the immune responses was also assessed. healthy infants aged 6-14 weeks received two doses of rix4414/placebo concomitantly with the primary childhood vaccination (infanrix hexa, infanrix quinta,meningitec and/or prevnar), respecting the vaccination schedule of each country. anti-rotavirus iga seroconversion rate (elisa cut-off 20 u/ml) was measured pre ...201020538094
robustness of the healthcare utilization results from the rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (rest) evaluating the human-bovine (wc3) reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5).the rotavirus efficacy and safety trial was a placebo-controlled phase iii study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a three-dose pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) including its effect on healthcare utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge). the per-protocol (pp) analyses, which counted events occurring 14 days after dose 3 among infants without protocol violations, have already been published. this paper evaluates the consistency of the healthcare utilization results based on the ...201020540778
increased mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression and lowered production of reactive oxygen species during rotavirus infection.rotaviruses are responsible for severe diarrhea in infants and substantial economic losses in animal husbandry worldwide. we investigated the oxidant/antioxidant status in rotavirus-infected human colon adenocarcinoma (caco-2) cell line. our results show that within the initial 48 h of infection the expression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (mnsod) is significantly increased, which correlates with a decrease in reactive oxygen species production, and with a lack of cellular glutathion ...201020538313
concentration of acrylamide in a polyacrylamide gel affects vp4 gene coding assignment of group a equine rotavirus strains with p[12] specificity.it is universally acknowledged that genome segment 4 of group a rotavirus, the major etiologic agent of severe diarrhea in infants and neonatal farm animals, encodes outer capsid neutralization and protective antigen vp4.201020573245
who policy development processes for a new vaccine: case study of malaria vaccines.recommendations from the world health organization (who) are crucial to inform developing country decisions to use, or not, a new intervention. this article analysed the who policy development process to predict its course for a malaria vaccine.201020576114
unexpectedly high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in very young infants.the highest incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has generally been reported in children 6-24 months of age. young infants are thought to be partially protected by maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally or via breast milk. the purpose of our study was to assess the age distribution of children with confirmed community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to an urban referral hospital.201020540748
changing profile of the bovine rotavirus g6 population in the south of ireland from 2002 to 2009.bovine group a rotavirus is one of the main causes of neonatal diarrhoea in calves. this study examined the different g and p genotypes circulating in the bovine population, from 2002-2009, in the south of ireland. rotavirus positive bovine faecal samples (n=332) were collected from the cork regional veterinary laboratory, between 2002 and 2009 and subjected to rna extraction, page analysis, and g and p genotyping. genotyping analysis identified g6, g10, p[5], and p[11] to be the predominant g a ...201020541335
rotavirus genotypes in children in the basque country (northern spain) over a 13-year period (july 1996-june 2009).to describe the circulation dynamics of human rotavirus genotypes in a region of southern europe over a 13-year period. the g- and p-types of rotavirus isolates of patients aged less than 5 years were analyzed using multiplex, reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction. of 1,538 isolates investigated, a combination of individual g- and p-types was obtained in 1,368. the most prevalent combination was g1[p8] (57.5% of the genotyped strains), which circulated in all seasons and predominated i ...201020490883
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the vp6 and nsp4 genes of human rotavirus strains: evidence of discordance in their genetic linkage.nsp4 and vp6 genes of a total of 118 rotavirus strains detected in adolescent and adult cases of acute gastroenteritis (age) in 1993-1996 and 2004-2007 were characterized to determine their diversity and genetic linkage. eighty-two percent and 89% of the strains showed amplification of nsp4 and vp6 genes respectively in rt-pcr. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the vp6 genes showed distribution of genogroups in the lineages i-1 (1.4%), i-2 (50.7%) and ii-4 (47.9%) in the 1990s and i-2 (73. ...201020542145
infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the republic of korea.to understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the republic of korea. a total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. the positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. especially, cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed ...201020585526
reduction in gastroenteritis with the use of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a primary practice.pentavalent rotavirus (rv) vaccine (rv5) was licensed in 2006 and recommended for routine childhood immunization. a significant decrease in the number of rv hospitalizations has been described. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rv5 on acute gastroenteritis (age) seen in a primary practice.201020587671
influence of zinc supplementation in acute diarrhea differs by the isolated organism.zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. we aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. we used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (isrctn85071383) of zinc and copper supplementation. using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, ...201020592753
identification of p[8]b subtype in op354-like human rotavirus strains by a modified rt-pcr method.in our previous study, a novel p[8] subtype, i.e., p[8]b was identified for human rotavirus strains mmc38 and mmc71 detected in bangladesh, of which the p types could not be determined by conventional rt-pcr genotyping methods. in the present study, a modified multiplex rt-pcr method was developed to detect p[8]b as well as common human rotavirus p types. with this method, p[8]b was detected in three strains among the 26 rotavirus specimens which had been judged as mixed p types in the previous ...201020495277
a novel multiplex rt-pcr for identification of vp6 subgroups of human and porcine rotaviruses.vp6 protein antigens allow classification of rotaviruses into at least four subgroups, depending on the presence or absence of sg-specific epitopes: sg i, sg ii, sg (i+ii), and sg non-(i+ii). however, mabs against epitopes on the vp6 protein of human and porcine rotaviruses, sometimes, do not recognize sg-specific epitopes or recognize irrelevant-sg epitopes and therefore result in the incorrect assignment of subgroups. in order to solve this problem, a novel multiplex rt-pcr was developed as an ...201020546787
evaluation of a bovine rotavirus vp6 vaccine efficacy in the calf model of infection and disease.group a bovine rotavirus (brv) is the major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in neonatal calves worldwide. due to the early susceptibility to the infection prevention strategies are based on the improvement of passive immunity levels through cow vaccination in the last third of gestation. the major capsid antigen (vp6) of brv is the most immunogenic viral protein and it is highly conserved among group a brv. in this work, vp6 protein from brv c-486 strain (p[1]g6) was expressed in insect cel ...201020546933
effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against childhood diarrhoea in el salvador: case-control study.to evaluate the effectiveness of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus disease and to assess its impact on diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years after national introduction in el salvador, a low-middle income country in central america.201020551120
chemical and microbiological parameters as possible indicators for human enteric viruses in surface water.there are still conflicting results on the suitability of chemical and microbiological parameters as indicators for the viral contamination of surface waters. in this study, conducted over 20 months, the abundance of human adenovirus, human polyomavirus, enterovirus, group a rotavirus and norovirus was determined in ruhr and rhine rivers, germany. additionally, prevalence of different possible indicators such as somatic coliphages, e. coli, intestinal enterococci, and total coliforms was also co ...201020556879
pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rotateq): a review of its use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in europe.in europe, rotavirus gastroenteritis is associated with a significant health, economic and social burden, as it is responsible for large numbers of hospitalizations and other healthcare encounters among infants and children, as well as numerous days of work lost by parents and caregivers. rotateq is a three-dose, orally administered, live, pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine used for the active immunization of infants for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. the protective ...201020518582
a graphene oxide based immuno-biosensor for pathogen detection. 201020602383
rotavirus structural proteins and dsrna are required for the human primary plasmacytoid dendritic cell ifnalpha response.rotaviruses are the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. rotavirus-induced immune responses, especially the t and b cell responses, have been extensively characterized; however, little is known about innate immune mechanisms involved in the control of rotavirus infection. although increased levels of systemic type i interferon (ifnalpha and beta) correlate with accelerated resolution of rotavirus disease, multiple rotavirus strains, including rhesus rotavirus (rrv) ...201020532161
fda: benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh potential contamination risk. 201020606142
rotavirus genotypes in costa rica, nicaragua, honduras and the dominican republic.in this study, 574 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis were obtained from different hospitals in costa rica, honduras, nicaragua and the dominican republic during 2005-2006. diarrhea stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus by elisa and typed by the rt-pcr-based method. unusual strains were detected: g1p6, g2p8, g3p6, g9p4 and mixed infections. recent studies have indicated that unusual human rotavirus strains are emerging as global strains, which has important implications for eff ...201020606460
biophysical characterization of rotavirus serotypes g1, g3 and g4.the stability of attenuated virus vaccines has traditionally been assessed by a plaque assay to measure the virus's loss of replication competency in response to a variety of environmental perturbations. although this method provides information regarding the impact of the vaccine formulation, it involves an empirical approach to evaluate stability. biophysical studies on the other hand have the potential to provide insight into the mechanisms of inactivation of a viral vaccine in response to a ...201020534978
rotavirus vaccines for global use: what are the remaining issues and challenges? 201020534979
[shrna against nsp4 gene inhibits the proliferation of bovine rotavirus in vitro].based on the nsp4 sequence of bovine rotavirus (brv), the shrna was designed and synthesized, and a shrna recombinant lenti-virus vector rnai-h1-89 was constructed. the recombinant rnai-h1-89 lenti-virus was packaged by transfecting the 293t cell with the recombinant vector rnai-h1-89 and two helper plasmids using lipofectamine, and then used to infect ma104 cells. the ma104 cells were further infected with brv strain g6 24h post-infection, with the lacz shrna recombinant lenti-virus as control. ...201020572348
molecular characterization of human group a rotavirus from stool samples in young children with diarrhea in indonesia.detection and genotyping of group a rotavirus strains from stool samples in young children with diarrhea in indonesia were examined using reverse transcription-nested multiplex pcr. of 421 stool specimens, 257 samples was rotavirus positive. g1 type was the most common g-type (54%), followed by g2 (6%) and g9 (3%). p[8] was the most common p-type (39%), followed by p[6] (19%), p[4] (10%) and p[11] 1%. eighteen percent of the samples had mixed g genotype infection and 5% had mixed p genotype infe ...201020578517
hospital-based surveillance to evaluate the impact of rotavirus vaccination in são paulo, brazil.brazil implemented routine immunization with the human rotavirus vaccine, rotarix, in 2006 and vaccination coverage reached 81% in 2008 in são paulo. our aim was to assess the impact of immunization on the incidence of severe rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age).201020543761
detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses in environmental samples in monastir, tunisia between january 2003 and april 2007.a prospective study was performed to characterize the main human enteric viruses able to persist in sewage samples and in shellfish tissues, and to establish the correlation between environmental strains and viral infantile diarrhoea observed in the same area during the same period.201020553345
direct costs associated with a hospital-acquired outbreak of rotaviral gastroenteritis infection in a long term care institution.in january 2008, 63 patients were infected during an outbreak of rotaviral gastroenteritis in a long term care facility for elderly patients. the aim of this study was to evaluate the direct financial costs of this outbreak to the hospital. data on costs were gathered from both medical records and the hospital finance department. the total hospital cost of the outbreak was euro17,959, or euro285.1 per case, comprising: euro4,948 for medical investigation and treatment costs, euro4,400 for isolat ...201020557977
efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, rotateq®, in finnish infants up to 3 years of age: the finnish extension study.rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (rest) enrolled nearly 70,000 infants, of whom more than 23,000 were from finland. rest determined the efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and emergency department (ed) visits in the first year after vaccination. finnish infants initially in rest transitioned into the finnish extension study (fes), where they were followed for rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ed visits through their second year o ...201020559656
sociodemographic and dietary risk factors for natural infant intussusception in the united states.in 1999, a us case-control study demonstrated a strong association between intussusception and a rotavirus vaccine (rotashield). however, because most (87%) cases were not temporally associated with vaccination, we reanalyzed these data to assess risk factors for intussusception cases unrelated to rotashield.201020562726
clinical characteristics of viral intestinal infection in preterm and term neonates.the clinical presentation of the viral enteric pathogens in newborn infants has not been adequately examined. the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of viral intestinal infections in newborn infants. clinical data of all term and preterm infants admitted to our tertiary neonatal intensive care unit from 1998 to 2007 with clinical signs of gastroenteritis (ge) or necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) were retrospectively reviewed and compared between infants with different v ...201020563830
[infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis: epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcome].to analyse the epidemiological, clinical and developmental characteristics of a group of children with seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis in order to facilitate the diagnostic suspicion of the condition in daily clinical practice.201020568063
modeling seasonal variation in rotavirus hospitalizations for use in evaluating the effect of rotavirus vaccine.every year rotavirus epidemic repeats in cooler months of the year in temperate countries, but the size of the epidemic may often vary. such seasonal variation needs to be considered when the effect of rotavirus vaccine is predicted before vaccine introduction or it is evaluated after vaccine introduction. a computer program based on a stochastic decision tree model was developed to produce stochastic variation, which was used as a proxy for seasonal variation, in the number of rotavirus hospita ...201020572073
surveillance of norovirus infections in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil 2005-2008.a 4-year (2005-2008) norovirus (nov) surveillance study was conducted in the state of rio janeiro, brazil, to demonstrate the role of these viruses in outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis. a cohort of 1,687 fecal samples was obtained from patients with gastroenteritis; 324 were rotavirus-positive. of the remainder 1,363 rotavirus-negative samples, 1,087 samples were tested for nov rna in this study. the study enrolled 267 outpatients from municipal public health centers and 820 ...201020572088
inactivated rotavirus vaccine induces protective immunity in gnotobiotic piglets.live oral rotavirus vaccines that are effective in middle and high income countries have been much less immunogenic and effective among infants in resource-limited settings. several hypotheses might explain this difference, including neutralization of the vaccine by high levels of maternal antibody in serum and breast milk, severe malnutrition, and interference by other flora and viruses in the gut. we have pursued development of an alternative parenteral rotavirus vaccine with the goal of induc ...201020558244
protein kinase r is responsible for the phosphorylation of eif2alpha in rotavirus infection.the eukaryotic initiation translation factor 2 (eif2) represents a key point in the regulation of protein synthesis. this factor delivers the initiator met-trna to the ribosome, a process that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. many types of stress reduce global translation by triggering the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eif2, which reduces the formation of the preinitiation translation complexes. early during rotavirus infection, eif2α becomes phosphorylated, and even under these condi ...201020631127
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination as part of the national immunization program for thai children.rotavirus infection is a common cause of gastroenteritis in infants and thus, presents an economic burden. currently, there are effective vaccines against rotavirus licensed for use in thailand. we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination as part of the national immunization program for thai children based on information derived from studies of disease burden of rotavirus infection, vaccine effectiveness, expenditure for care according to the who choice; average gnp per capita p ...201020578490
complete genome sequence analysis of candidate human rotavirus vaccine strains rv3 and 116e.rotaviruses (rvs) cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children; yet, several strains have been isolated from newborns showing no signs of clinical illness. two of these neonatal strains, rv3 (g3p[6]) and 116e (g9p[11]), are currently being developed as live-attenuated vaccines. in this study, we sequenced the eleven-segmented double-stranded rna genomes of cell culture-adapted rv3 and 116e and compared their genes and protein products to those of other rvs. using amino acid alignme ...201020580391
molecular characterization of rotaviruses in a japanese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) and a masked palm civet (paguma larvata) in japan.group a rotaviruses infect and cause diarrhea in humans and a wide range of mammals. previous studies have suggested that some strains can cross the species barrier to infect humans (martella et al., 2010). however, there are few reports on infection and characterization of rotaviruses in wild animals. to estimate what types of rotaviruses infect wild animals, we investigated infection of rotaviruses in wild animals living in urban areas in japan between 2003 and 2008. of 145 fecal specimens obt ...201020605380
rotavirus infections and vaccines: burden of illness and potential impact of vaccination.rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. by 5 years of age virtually every child worldwide will have experienced at least one rotavirus infection. this leads to an enormous disease burden, where every minute a child dies because of rotavirus infection and another four are hospitalized, at an annual societal cost in 2007 of $us2 billion. most of the annual 527 000 deaths are in malnourished infants living in rural regions of low and middle income countries. in ...201020593908
presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in the netherlands.the quality of drinking water in the netherlands has to comply with the dutch drinking water directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. in ...201020622124
pectic polysaccharides from panax ginseng as the antirotavirus principals in ginseng.to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ginseng, the active principals of ginseng were studied in vitro model of rotavirus infection, the leading cause of severe diarrhea. two pectic polysaccharides, named as gp50-dhr (56.0 kda) and gp50-ehr (77.0 kda), were purified from hot water extract of ginseng by bioassay-linked fractionation. both polysaccharides rescued cell viability from rotavirus infection dose-dependently (ic50 are 15 and 10 microg/ml, respectively). both polysaccharides had common ...201020597500
[outbreak of diarrhea by rotavirus in bom jesus city, piauí state].this study focused a diarrhea outbreak caused by rotavirus in a city of piauí state aiming to identify the etiology, protocol of assistance to cases. a case series was carried out with 22 children assisted for acute diarrhea in 2006 in health units of bom jesus city. the data were collected by means of interviews utilizing forms that were with the help of the children's parents and analysis of the appointment files was performed. most of the families (59.1%) had a monthly income inferior to the ...201020640260
acute renal failure due to obstructive urate stones associated with norovirus gastroenteritis. 201020640904
development of a panel of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for simultaneous detection of major agents causing calf diarrhea in feces.calf diarrhea is a major economic burden to the bovine industry. since multiple infectious agents can be involved in calf diarrhea, and the detection of each of the causative agents by traditional methods is laborious and expensive, a panel of 2 multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays was developed for rapid and simultaneous detection of the 5 major bovine enteric pathogens (i.e., bovine coronavirus [bcov; formally known as betacoronavirus 1], group a bovine rotavirus [brv], s ...201020622219
rotavirus vaccine could save millions of children worldwide. 201020595806
the bovine lactophorin c-terminal fragment and pas6/7 were both potent in the inhibition of human rotavirus replication in cultured epithelial cells and the prevention of experimental gastroenteritis.rotaviruses are the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. we have found that high-m(r) glycoprotein fraction (f1) from cow's milk whey has potent inhibitory activity against human rotavirus (hrv) in cell culture. the present study was undertaken to identify and characterize the components responsible for this inhibitory activity. f1 was initially heated at 95 degrees c for 30 min, rendering milk antibodies inert, subjected to ammonium sulfate fractionation, and then ...201020622446
progress and barriers for the control of diarrhoeal disease.discovery of intestinal sodium-glucose transport was the basis for development of oral rehydration solution, and was hailed as potentially the most important medical advance of the 20th century. before widespread use of oral rehydration solution, treatment for diarrhoea was restricted to intravenous fluid replacement, for which patients had to go to a health-care facility to access appropriate equipment. these facilities were usually neither available nor reasonable to use in the resource-poor s ...201020609988
detecting food- and waterborne viruses by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy.food- and waterborne viruses pose serious health risks to humans and were associated with many outbreaks worldwide. rapid, accurate, and nondestructive methods for detection of viruses are of great importance to protect public health. in this study, surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy (sers) coupled with gold sers-active substrates was used to detect and discriminate 7 food- and waterborne viruses, including norovirus, adenovirus, parvovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, and herpersvir ...201020629888
different rotavirus strains enter ma104 cells through different endocytic pathways: the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.rotaviruses, the single most important agents of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, are nonenveloped viruses formed by a three-layered capsid that encloses a genome formed by 11 segments of double-stranded rna. the mechanism of entry of these viruses into the host cell is not well understood. the best-studied strain, rrv, which is sensitive to neuraminidase (na) treatment of the cells, uses integrins alpha2 beta1 and alphav beta3 and the heat shock protein hsc70 as receptors and enters ma ...201020631149
detection of uncommon rotavirus a strains p[8]g8 and p[4]g8 in the city of rio de janeiro, 2002.group a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the major cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children around the world. each year rv-a causes approximately 11 million episodes of severe diarrhea, with an estimated of 611,000 deaths. epidemiologic surveys have identified p[8]g1, p[4]g2, p[8]g3, p[8]g4, and p[8]g9 as the most common global genotypes associated with diarrhea in children up to 5-year old. surveillance studies and documentation of rv-a g and p genotypes is necessary for a comprehensive eva ...201020513095
correlation between rotavirus a genotypes detected in hospitalized children and sewage samples in 2006, córdoba, argentina.routine rotavirus a (rv-a) surveillance is based on clinical cases, so only symptomatic infections are reported. the objective of this study was to determine whether the rv-a genotypes and cold seasonal pattern described in patients with diarrhea is reflected by sewage surveillance, which could be representative of the rv-a genotypes circulating in the population. the genotype distribution of rv-a in effluent samples from a local sewage treatment plant was compared to those from local clinical c ...201020513096
rotaviruses from canadian farm samples.animal rotavirus (rov) strains detected in canadian swine and dairy cattle farms were characterized by sequence analysis of viral protein 4 (vp4), vp6, vp7 and non-structural protein 4 segments from 15 rov strains. some porcine strains were found to contain a mixture of segments typical of human and animal viruses. one strain represented a novel vp6 genotype "i14", g2-p[27]-i14. other strains detected in porcine samples represented multiple different segment types. these results illustrate the a ...201020517624
benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis: is it associated with sodium channel gene scn1a mutation?benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis were afebrile seizures associated with gastroenteritis in previously healthy infants or young children. it has been thought to be a continual spectrum of benign infantile convulsions because of overlapping clinical pictures. recently, molecular genetic studies have suggested a channelopathy in benign infantile convulsions. the authors prospectively studied the clinical features of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis in taiwanese children and ...201020519669
an update on management of severe acute infectious gastroenteritis in children.this article focuses on clinical and diagnostic aspects relevant to severe acute infectious gastroenteritis in children and will update treatment strategies focused on, although not limited to, anti-infective therapy. for the purposes of this article we will consider severe acute infectious gastroenteritis as follows: watery diarrhea accompanied by, or at high risk for, moderate to severe dehydration due to abrupt onset of vomiting that reduces oral intake, and/or frequent emission of liquid sto ...201020521895
phylodynamic analyses of rotavirus genotypes g9 and g12 underscore their potential for swift global spread.rotaviruses (rvs) are responsible for more than 600,000 child deaths each year. the worldwide introduction of two life oral vaccines rotateq and rotarix is believed to reduce this number significantly. before the licensing of both vaccines, two new genotypes, g9 and g12, emerged in the human population and were able to spread across the entire globe in a very short time span. to quantify the vp7 mutation rates of these g9 and g12 genotypes and to estimate their most recent common ancestors, we u ...201020522727
frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among young children with acute diarrhoea in saudi arabia.the frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among 270 paediatric patients (< 5 years of age) in various hospitals of makkah and jeddah cities of saudi arabia were investigated.201020527643
vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use.rotavirus results in higher diarrhoea-related death in children less than five years of age than any other single agent, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. the world health organization has recommended the use of rotavirus vaccines in childhood immunization schedules.201020464766
substantial morbidity for hospitalized children with community-acquired rotavirus infections: 2005-2007 impact surveillance in canadian hospitals.we describe community-acquired rotavirus illness in 1359 children hospitalized at 12 centers in canada between january 2005 and december 2007. the median age was 1.5 years. almost half (48.6%) had significant dehydration, almost one-fifth (19%) had clinical sepsis and 7% had seizures at presentation. the median hospital stay was 3.4 days. severe clinical presentations are less commonly described in surveillance programs.201020467353
clinical characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in a medical center.rotavirus is one of the major causes of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide.201020417462
whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a zoonotic human g8p[14] rotavirus strain.the full-length genome of a rare human g8p[14] rotavirus strain, bp1062/04, identified during a surveillance study in hungary was determined and analyzed. this strain showed a g8-p[14]-i2-r2-c2-m2-a11-n2-t6-e2-h3 genomic constellation. phylogenetic analysis of each genome segment revealed common origins with selected animal and zoonotic human strains. the closest relatedness was seen with suspect zoonotic hungarian g6p[14] strains in the nsp1 and nsp3 gene phylogeny, with ovine strains in the vp ...201020471499
deposition and aggregation kinetics of rotavirus in divalent cation solutions.aggregation kinetics of rotavirus in aqueous solutions and its deposition kinetics on silica surface in the presence of divalent (ca(2+), mg(2+)) cations were studied using complementary techniques of time-resolved dynamic light scattering (tr-dls) and quartz crystal microbalance (qcm). within a reasonable temporal window of 4 h, aggregation could be observed at levels as low as 10 mm of ca(2+) and 20 mm of mg(2+). attachment efficiencies were always greater in ca(2+) solutions of the same conce ...201020481597
four cases of postrenal renal failure induced by renal stone associated with rotavirus infection.rotavirus (rv) is a common pathogen that causes acute gastroenteritis in childhood. some cases with rv infection also have prerenal renal failure induced by dehydration associated with vomiting and diarrhea. here, we report 4 patients with rv infection who developed postrenal renal failure induced by urinary tract obstruction with uroammoniac calculi or crystals. the patients did not have metabolic disorders or abnormalities of the urinary tract, and increased urinary excretion of uric acid was ...201020420802
klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia complicating rotavirus gastroenteritis in two infants with glucocorticoid deficiency.rotavirus gastroenteritis was complicated by klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia in two infants with glucocorticoid deficient conditions who were treated with 'stress dose' hydrocortisone during their illness. delayed healing in the context of glucocorticoid administration combined with damage from rotavirus infection may result in increased risk of mucosal invasion by gastrointestinal bacteria and subsequent enteric gram-negative bacteraemia.201020480730
ovine rotavirus strain llr-85-based bovine rotavirus candidate vaccines: construction, characterization and immunogenicity evaluation.group a bovine rotaviruses (brvs) are the most important cause of diarrheal diseases in neonatal calves and cause significant morbidity and mortality in the young animals, and epidemiologic surveillance of bovine rotavirus g genotypes conducted in various cattle populations throughout the world has shown that approximately 90% of the bovine rotavirus isolates belong to g6 and g10. based on the modified jennerian approach to immunization, we constructed and characterized a reassortant rotavirus s ...201020488633
rearranged genomic rna segments offer a new approach to the reverse genetics of rotaviruses.group a rotaviruses (rv), members of the reoviridae family, are a major cause of infantile acute gastroenteritis. the rv genome consists of 11 double-stranded rna segments. in some cases, an rna segment is replaced by a rearranged rna segment, which is derived from its standard counterpart by partial sequence duplication. we report here a reverse genetics system for rv based on the preferential packaging of rearranged rna segments. using this system, wild-type or in vitro-engineered forms of rea ...201020427539
[nestle should recall resorb junior plus from all markets]. 201020476697
rapid and sensitive detection of rotavirus molecular signatures using surface enhanced raman spectroscopy.human enteric virus infections range from gastroenteritis to life threatening diseases such as myocarditis and aseptic meningitis. rotavirus is one of the most common enteric agents and mortality associated with infection can be very significant in developing countries. most enteric viruses produce diseases that are not distinct from other pathogens, and current diagnostics is limited in breadth and sensitivity required to advance virus detection schemes for disease intervention strategies. a sp ...201020419101
genetic characterization of norovirus gii.4 2006b variants from jeju island, south korea.ninety-seven fecal specimens collected from children with acute gastroenteritis between 2007 and 2008 that were found to be negative for group a rotavirus in prescreening by elisa with vp6-specific antibody were re-screened for viruses by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr. forty (41.2%) samples were found to be positive for virus by rt-pcr; of these, norovirus (32.5%, n = 13) and rotavirus (32.5%, n = 13) were the most common, followed by astrovirus (5.0%, n = 2) and enterovirus (2.5%, n = 1). co-i ...201020419823
surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children aged less than 3 years attending day care centers in paris, france.between december 2006-may 2007, 371 children aged <3 years attending 15 day care centers (dccs) in paris, france were actively followed for acute gastroenteritis [ge; diarrhea (≥3 loose stools/24 hours with or without vomiting) for <14 days] and outbreaks of acute ge (≥3 cases in a dcc with onset within 11 days). demographic, clinical and cost-related information was collected for all acute ge episodes. all children with acute ge and all participating attendees at affected dcc s during an outbre ...201020431346
[noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. norovirus infection is gene ...201020486340
generating and confirming hypotheses.dr. walker asserts that a hypothesis always can be tested using the same data source that generated the data if the test data are independent of the data generating the hypothesis. one way to do this is to use part of the totality of data to generate the hypothesis and the other to test the hypothesis. the validity of this assertion depends on what one means by 'independent'. this note addresses the logical and statistical implications of dr. walker's assertion. the key conclusion is that what c ...201020437460
recommendations for rotavirus vaccination: a worldwide perspective.official guidelines are crucial for new vaccines to be accepted by physicians and policy makers, and for reimbursement decisions, particularly for vaccines against diseases with an under-appreciated burden, such as rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge). evidence-based guidelines, which take into account the best available data, ensure that new vaccine introductions achieve the greatest sustainable impact. for rotavirus vaccination, guidelines are specific to the locality for which they are developed, ...201020472032
rotavirus vaccine and severe diarrhea in african infants. 201020437625
molecular epidemiology of group a rotavirus in buenos aires, argentina 2004-2007: reemergence of g2p[4] and emergence of g9p[8] strains.detection and characterization of group a rotavirus in buenos aires, argentina, was conducted on 710 fecal samples from children 0-15 years old collected between 2004 and 2007. rotavirus was detected in 140 (19.7%) samples with g9p[8] (30.0%) and g2p[4] (21.4%) as the most common genotypes. mixed (g and/or p) infections accounted for 17.9% of the samples and the emerging g12 strain was detected during 2004 (3.5%) and 2007 (2.5%). genotype g2 was the most prevalent during 2004 (43.9%) and 2007 (5 ...201020419826
rotavirus gastroenteritis and seizures in young children.in this retrospective cohort study, a clinical and administrative database of children hospitalized at primary children's medical center, salt lake city, utah, between january 1, 2002, and december 31, 2006, was used to identify those with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections and at least one seizure. in all, 59 children were identified, 34 of whom (58%) had no other potential medical explanation for their seizures. of these 34 children, 23 (68%) were afebrile at seizure onset and 11 were f ...201020472191
[pathogens of high incidence of other infectious diarrhea in guangdong province, from november 2008 to january 2009].from november 2008 to january 2009, a sharp increase of diarrhea in children in guangdong province appeared, we randomly collected 53 stool specimens from out-patient children with dirrhea in 3 major hospitals (guangzhou city children's hospital, shenzhen baoan district maternal and child health hospital, first affiliated hospital of shantou university). rotavirus and calicivirus were screened by elisa and rt-pcr. we found 29 cases of rotavirus infection with diverse serotypes. only four cases w ...201020480645
clinical and radiological features of rotavirus cerebellitis.neurological manifestations, such as benign convulsions and encephalitis/encephalopathy have been reported in patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis. however, cerebellitis has not attracted much attention. the purpose of this study was to identify and report the clinical and radiologic features of rotavirus cerebellitis.201020507935
[difficulties in diagnosing febrile states in 3-month-old infant].wide spectrum of infectious causes should be considered while diagnosing febrile states in infants.the aim of study is to present the case of 3-month-old infant with febrile states. boy was admitted to department of pediatrics to infant unit because of the febrile states lasting for 4 weeks. perinatal history: first pregnancy, cesarean section in 39 weeks of gestation due to mother's pointed condyloma, birth weight 3140 g, apgar score 10 in first minute. there was no information about the course ...201020509567
complete genomic analysis of a bangladeshi g1p[8] rotavirus strain detected in 2003 reveals a close evolutionary relationship with contemporary human wa-like strains.more than 120 variants of rotavirus strains with different vp7 (g type) and vp4 (p type) combinations are reported thus far. among them wa-like g1p[8] rotaviruses are the most common human strains worldwide. however, characterization of their entire genome complement is limited to a few old prototype strains, and no complete genome data for any g1p[8] strain isolated in the last decade are available. both the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines rotarix and rotateq possess the g1 and p[8] speci ...201020441801
asymptomatic rotavirus infections in england: prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors.rotavirus is a major cause of infectious intestinal disease in young children; a substantial prevalence of asymptomatic infection has been reported across all age groups. in this study, the authors determined characteristics of asymptomatic rotavirus infection and potential risk factors for infection. healthy persons were recruited at random from the general population of england during the study of infectious intestinal disease in england (1993-1996). rotavirus infection was identified using re ...201020392863
death mechanisms in epithelial cells following rotavirus infection, exposure to inactivated rotavirus or genome transfection.intestinal epithelial cell death following rotavirus infection is associated with villus atrophy and gastroenteritis. roles for both apoptosis and necrosis in cytocidal activity within rotavirus-infected epithelial cells have been proposed. additionally, inactivated rotavirus has been reported to induce diarrhoea in infant mice. we further examined the death mechanisms induced in epithelial cell lines following rotavirus infection or inactivated rotavirus exposure. monolayer integrity changes in ...201020392902
sustained efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, rv5, up to 3.1 years following the last dose of vaccine.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is a common cause of childhood hospitalizations and emergency department (ed) visits. in the rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (rest), the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) significantly reduced rvge-associated hospitalizations and ed visits for up to 2 years following the last vaccine dose. this study evaluated whether rv5 remained efficacious beyond 2 years.201020442684
full genomic analysis of a porcine-bovine reassortant g4p[6] rotavirus strain r479 isolated from an infant in china.during the 2004 surveillance of rotaviruses in wuhan, china, a g4p[6] rotavirus strain r479 was isolated from a stool specimen collected from a 2-year-old child with diarrhea. the strain r479 had an uncommon subgroup specificity i + ii, and analysis of the vp6 gene suggested that it was related to porcine rotaviruses. in the present study, full-length nucleotide sequences of all the rna segments of r479 were determined and analyzed phylogenetically to identify the origin of individual rna segmen ...201020419827
inhibitory effect of breast milk on infectivity of live oral rotavirus vaccines.live oral rotavirus vaccines have been less immunogenic and efficacious among children in poor developing countries compared with middle income and industrialized countries for reasons that are not yet completely understood. we assessed whether the neutralizing activity of breast milk could lower the titer of vaccine virus and explain this difference in vitro.201020442687
effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in israel: a case-control study.the association between rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge)-associated hospitalization and rotavirus vaccine receipt was examined, and vaccine effectiveness was estimated in a case-control study conducted between 11/2007 and 12/2009 among israeli children age eligible for rotavirus vaccination. cases (n=111) were hospitalized children with diarrhea testing positive for rotavirus by immunochromatography. controls (n=216) were hospitalized children with diarrhea testing negative for rotavirus. among ...201020448471
rotavirus vaccination coverage among infants aged 5 months - immunization information system sentinel sites, united states, june 2006-june 2009.in february 2006, the advisory committee on immunization practices (acip) recommended routine vaccination of all u.s. infants with 3 doses of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine administered at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. in june 2008, acip updated its recommendations to include use of a second rotavirus vaccine, a 2-dose monovalent vaccine, administered at ages 2 and 4 months. the maximum age for the first dose of either rotavirus vaccine (rv) is 14 weeks and 6 days. cdc recently analyzed data from im ...201020448529
[vaccination schedule of the spanish association of paediatrics: recommendations 2010].the vaccine advisory committee of the spanish association of paediatrics updates annually, the immunization schedule, taking into account epidemiological data, as well as evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. this vaccination schedule includes grades of recommendation. the committee has graded as universal vaccines those that all children should receive, as recommended those with a profile of universal vaccination in childhood and which are desirable that all children receive ...201020457016
norovirus gastroenteritis in young children receiving human rotavirus vaccine.we explored whether human rotavirus vaccine had any efficacy against norovirus (nv)-associated gastroenteritis in young children. in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine, 405 infants were immunized with a human rotavirus vaccine or placebo at a ratio of 2:1, and prospectively followed for acute gastroenteritis (age) from approximately 2 months to 2 y of age. multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mrt rt-pcr) assays were used for detection and quantitation of nvs o ...201020524782
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