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immune mediators of rotavirus antigenemia clearance in mice.the immunological mediators that clear rotavirus antigenemia or viremia remain undefined. immunodeficient mice and antibody-transfer were used to test whether lymphocytes or rotavirus-specific serum antibodies are essential for resolving antigenemia. clearance of antigenemia required lymphocytes but neither t or b lymphocytes was absolutely required. transfer of convalescent or non-neutralizing rotavirus-specific serum antibodies to the systemic compartment of severe combined immunodeficient (sc ...201121593155
use of fluoroscopy to study in vivo motility in mouse pups.objectives:: few methods exist to noninvasively study in vivo gastrointestinal motility in animal models of enteric infections. none have been used on mouse pups, which often display more severe symptoms during enteric infections than adult mice. this study sought to determine whether digital fluoroscopy could be used to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in mouse pups as well as adult mice. materials and methods:: fluoroscopic imaging studies were performed on normal 6- to 8-week-old adult mice ...201121593642
uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg).in april 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group a rotaviruses (rvs). this system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular rv strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. using this approach, the genome of individual rv strains are given the complete descriptor of gx-p[x]-ix-rx-cx-mx-ax-nx-tx-ex-hx. the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg) was formed by scientists in the fi ...201121597953
molecular and immunohistochemical detection of rotavirus in urinary sediment cells of children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.clin microbiol infect abstract: this is the first report showing that rotavirus infects the urinary sediment cells in immunocompetent children with rotavirus gastroenteritis. we found that inclusion-bearing cells were frequently detected in the urine samples of patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis. these cells were positive for cytokeratin, which was sometimes coexpressed with rotavirus antigen, in our immunohistochemical analysis. moreover, in nested rt-pcr experiments, we detected rotavirus ...201121599796
determination of the whole-genome consensus sequence of the prototype ds-1 rotavirus using sequence-independent genome amplification and 454(®) pyrosequencing.the prototype ds-1 rotavirus strain, is characterised by a short electropherotype and g2p[4] serotype specificity. following sequence-independent genome amplification and 454(®) pyrosequencing of genomic cdna, differences between the newly determined consensus sequence and genbank sequences were observed in 10 of the 11 genome segments. only the consensus sequence of genome segment 1 was identical to sequences deposited in genbank. a novel isoleucine at position 397 in a hydrophobic region of vp ...201121600242
rotavirus surveillance worldwide – 2009. 201121608199
multiple reassortment and interspecies transmission events contribute to the diversity of feline, canine and feline/canine-like human group a rotavirus strains.rna-rna hybridization assays and complete genome sequence analyses have shown that feline rotavirus (frv) and canine rotavirus (crv) strains display at least two distinct genotype constellations (genogroups), represented by the frv strain rva/cat-tc/aus/cat97/1984/g3p[3] and the human rotavirus (hrv) strain rva/human-tc/jpn/au-1/1982/g3p3[9], respectively. g3p[3] and g3p[9] strains have been detected sporadically in humans. the complete genomes of two crv strains (rva/dog-tc/ita/rv198-95/1995/g3 ...201121609783
rotavirus rearranged genomic rna segments are preferentially packaged into viruses despite not conferring selective growth advantage to viruses.the rotavirus (rv) genome consists of 11 double-stranded rna segments. sometimes, partial sequence duplication of an rna segment leads to a rearranged rna segment. to specify the impact of rearrangement, the replication efficiencies of human rv with rearranged segments 7, 11 or both were compared to these of the homologous human wild-type rv (wt-rv) and of the bovine wt-rv strain rf. as judged by viral growth curves, rotaviruses with a rearranged genome (r-rv) had no selective growth advantage o ...201121611152
scope for rotavirus vaccination in india: revisiting the scientific evidence.rotavirus vaccines have been developed to prevent deaths resulting from severe diarrhea of rotavirus origin. the use of vaccines as an intervention at scale to prevent and control the burden of rotavirus diarrhea is supported by the argument that prevailing public health measures such as hygiene and sanitation, breast feeding and use of ors have failed to prevent severe dehydration resulting from diarrhea. the article reviews the existing evidence on the rationale of using rotavirus vaccine as a ...201121611712
babies and bearded dragons: sudden increase in reptile-associated salmonella enterica serovar tennessee infections, germany 2008.abstract introduction: in 2008 a marked increase in salmonella enterica serovar tennessee infections in infants occurred in germany. in march and april 2008, eight cases were notified compared to a median of 0-1 cases in 2001-2006. materials and methods: we carried out an investigation including a case-control study to identify the source of infection. a patient was a child <3 years of age with salmonella tennessee isolated from stool from september 1, 2007, through december 31, 2008, identified ...201121612527
standardized positive controls for detection of norovirus by reverse transcription pcr.abstract: background: norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. rapid spread by contaminated food and person-to-person transmission through the fecal-oral route are characteristics of norovirus and result in high morbidity in vulnerable patient populations. therefore, detection of norovirus is a major public health concern. currently, the most common method for detecting and differentiating among noroviruses in clinical and environmental samples is rev ...201121612660
re: four cases of postrenal renal failure induced by renal stones associated with rotavirus infection. 201121612763
viroplasm matrix protein pns9 from rice gall dwarf virus forms an octameric cylindrical structure.the nonstructural pns9 protein of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) accumulates in viroplasm (vp) inclusions, which are structures that appear to play an important role in viral morphogenesis and are commonly found in host cells infected by viruses in the family reoviridae. immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy of rgdv-infected vector cells in monolayers (vcms), using antibodies against pns9 of rgdv and expression of pns9 in spodoptera frugiperda cells demonstrated that pns9 is the minimal ...201121613445
whole genomic analysis reveals the complex evolutionary dynamics of kenyan g2p[4] human rotavirus strains.although g2p[4] rotaviruses are common causes of acute childhood diarrhoea in africa, to date, there are no reports on whole genomic analysis of african g2p[4] strains. in this study, the nearly complete genome sequences of two kenyan g2p[4] strains, ak26 and d205, detected in 1982 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed. strain d205 exhibited a ds-1-like genotype constellation, whilst strain ak26 appeared to be an intergenogroup reassortant with a wa-like nsp2 genotype on the ds-1-like genotype c ...201121613446
genotypes of rotavirus strains circulating in amman, jordan, in 2006/07 and their significance for the potential effectiveness of future rotavirus vaccination.the prevalence, seasonality and genotypes of rotavirus circulating in jordan were determined to provide data useful for the implementation of a rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood vaccination program. during 2006/07, rotavirus was detected in 35% of hospitalized children, and 88% of the cases occurred in children aged between 6 and 23 months. rotavirus infection persisted throughout the year and peaked in winter. seven genotypes were identified by rt-pcr and sequencing: g1p[8], g9p[8], g ...201121614437
detection of group a rotavirus rna and antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from two children with clinically mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion.we report on two children with mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion associated with group a rotavirus (garv) infection. we examined stool, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples to determine the presence of the garv vp7 gene and garv antigen by reverse-transcription pcr and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. garv antigen was detected in stool samples from both patients. the garv g genotype was g9 in one child and g3 in the other. garv antigens were also found in bo ...201121617303
symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus among hospitalized children in xi'an, china.rotavirus (rv), norovirus (nov), and adenovirus (adv) have been reported as the common viral pathogens of acute gastroenteritis in children. to determine the prevalence of rv, nov, and adv infections among hospitalized children with and without symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, fecal specimens, and data on clinical symptoms were collected from 201 children with diarrhea and 53 children without diarrhea admitted to the xi'an children's hospital in xi'an, china between march 2009 and may 2010. rv ...201121618552
infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis: a retrospective study of 25 patients.the aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic, clinical, and evolutional characteristics in patients who presented convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (cwg) to facilitate the diagnosis in daily clinical practice.201120618844
first detection of group c rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in south korea.group c rotavirus (gpc rv) causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute diarrhoea in humans worldwide, but has not been detected among children in south korea. the present study aimed to detect gpc rv among children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in south korea and to perform a molecular characterization of gpc rv strains. from november 2003 to january 2006, 434 faecal samples were collected from children <10 years of age who were hospitalized for treatment of acute diarrhoea and screened for ...201120491826
chronological diffusion-weighted imaging changes and mutism in the course of rotavirus-associated acute cerebellitis/cerebellopathy concurrent with encephalitis/encephalopathy.rotavirus is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in children and is known to accompany some neurological disorders such as encephalitis/encephalopathy and seizures. although cerebellar disorders sometime occur as a complication of rotavirus gastroenteritis in japan, few reports have addressed these issues. here, we report three cases of insulted cerebellums in addition to encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with rotavirus. similar to posterior fossa syndrome after surgery, mutism ...201120510558
molecular and clinical characterization of rotavirus from diarrheal infants admitted to pediatric emergency units in france.rotaviruses are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide, and require careful surveillance, especially in the context of vaccination programs. prospective surveillance is required to monitor and characterize rotavirus infections, including viral and clinical data, and to detect the emergence of potentially epidemic strains.201120686439
rotavirus genotypes in costa rica, nicaragua, honduras and the dominican republic.in this study, 574 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis were obtained from different hospitals in costa rica, honduras, nicaragua and the dominican republic during 2005-2006. diarrhea stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus (rv) by elisa and typed by the rt-pcr-based method. unusual strains were detected: g1p6, g2p8, g3p6, g9p4, and mixed infections. recent studies have indicated that unusual human rv strains are emerging as global strains, which has important implications for effe ...201120689317
rotavirus genotypes co-circulating in europe between 2006 and 2009 as determined by eurorotanet, a pan-european collaborative strain surveillance network.summaryeurorotanet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. this report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the european population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmiss ...201120707941
production of human rotavirus and salmonella antigens in plants and elicitation of fljb-specific humoral responses in mice.a nicotiana benthamiana transient expression system was used to express single antigen and dimeric combinations of the human rotavirus (hrv) vp7 and a truncated vp4 (vp4δ) proteins fused with salmonella typhimurium's flagellin fljb subunit. immunoblot analyses using rabbit antibodies generated against these proteins demonstrated that the constructs were successfully expressed with yields ranging from 0.85 to 31.97 μg of recombinant protein per gram of fresh leaf tissue. expressing the single and ...201120725806
epidemiology of rotavirus infections in children less than 5 years of age: germany, 2001-2008.rotavirus (rv) infection is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. in 2006, 2 live-attenuated rv-vaccines became available for use in infants ≤ 6 months of age. in germany, a statutory notification system for rv infection has been in place since 2001 to monitor rv epidemiology. our objective was to assess rv disease burden in german children <5 years of age.201120724954
rotavirus gastroenteritis in finnish children in 2006-2008, at the introduction of rotavirus vaccination.rotaviruses (rv) are major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (age) requiring hospitalization in children; rv hospitalizations may be largely eliminated by universal mass vaccination with rv vaccine. we conducted a hospital-based prospective survey of age in children over 2 rv epidemic seasons, from 2006 to 2008, when the coverage of rv vaccination in finland increased to 35% of the birth cohort. rvs were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). in the first s ...201120807022
modeling nosocomial transmission of rotavirus in pediatric wards.nosocomial transmission of viral and bacterial infections is a major problem worldwide, affecting millions of patients (and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths) per year. rotavirus infections affect most children worldwide at least once before age five. we present here deterministic and stochastic models for the transmission of rotavirus in a pediatric hospital ward and draw on published data to compare the efficacy of several possible control measures in reducing the number of infections du ...201120811781
feasibility study of 21-day-on/7-day-off temozolomide in children with brain tumors.temozolomide (tmz) is an oral alkylating agent with proven antitumoral activity in preclinical and clinical studies in adults with high-grade glioma (hgg). however, only limited efficacy has been reported in children with hgg using the 5-day schedule. this study investigated the safety of administering tmz to children and adolescents with brain tumors over an extended period. extended schedules have been proven to overcome chemoresistance without any major toxicity. the toxicity of tmz, administ ...201120811928
safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 in human immunodeficiency virus-positive infants in south africa.rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infections are a cause of great public health concern in developing countries. the current study evaluated the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of rix4414 vaccine in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (clinical stages i and ii according to who classification) hiv-infected south african infants.201120842070
primary care-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children aged less than 5 years in six european countries.this observational, prospective study was undertaken to estimate the burden of rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis (ge) leading to general practitioner (gp)/family paediatrician (fp) visits among children aged <5 years in czech republic, germany, italy, poland, spain and the uk. children aged <5 years presenting with acute ge provided stool samples for rapid rv testing. rv+ samples were confirmed and typed by rt-pcr. demographic and clinical data were collected for all rvge episodes. transmission pat ...201120842379
changes in childhood diarrhea incidence in nicaragua following 3 years of universal infant rotavirus immunization.although the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the effectiveness of vaccine under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. in october 2006, nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. to assess the effect of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of león ...201120881511
laboratory-based rotavirus surveillance during the introduction of a vaccination program, brazil, 2005-2009.: brazil introduced universal antirotavirus vaccination in march 2006. this article reports the results of rotavirus a (rv-a) surveillance from january 2005 to december 2009.201121048523
decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in el salvador.a recent postlicensure study from el salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. we further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination.201121048524
synthesis of double-layered rotavirus-like particles using internal ribosome entry site vector system in stably-transformed drosophila melanogaster.we established a bicistronic expression system using an encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv)-derived internal ribosomal entry site (ires) element to generate stably transformed drosophila melanogaster schneider 2 (s2) cells expressing human rotavirus wa capsid proteins, vp2 and vp6, for the synthesis of vp2/6 double-layered virus-like particle (dvlp). the emcv-derived ires permitted bicistronic translation of recombinant vp6. recombinant vp2 and vp6 were detected in extracellular fractions of stabl ...201120820877
the percentage of nosocomial-related out of total hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and its association with hand hygiene compliance.because the absolute numbers of both community-acquired and nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) vary, we studied the percentage of hospitalizations for rvge that were transmitted nosocomially as an indicator of in-hospital acquisition of the infection. in a 4-year prospective study, the percentage of nosocomial rvge declined steadily, from 20.3% in 2003 to 12.7% in 2006 (p = .001). concomitantly, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene increased from 33.7% to 49% (p = .012), with a sign ...201120864220
rotaviruses.rotaviruses can be detected easily, and methods have been developed to visualise their characteristic morphology, to detect rotavirus proteins through immunological methods or the virus genome, either directly by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or after reverse transcription of the viral rna and amplification by pcr. the abundance of virus particles found in clinical samples during an acute infection makes the detection of rotavirus proteins, mainly vp6, the method of choice for virus detecti ...201121116809
norovirus: a possible cause of pneumatosis intestinalis.pneumatosis intestinalis (pi) in children is associated with immunosuppression, mucosal disruption from trauma, obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, and gastrointestinal infections. our study is the first report of norovirus infection-associated pi.201121150655
effectiveness of the monovalent g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for severe g2p[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis in belém, brazil.brazil initiated universal immunization of infants with the g1p[8] human rotavirus (rv) vaccine in march 2006. this study evaluated vaccine effectiveness (ve) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) hospitalizations.201121150692
frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in greece (2007-2008).rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. a prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five pediatric hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in greece. faecal samples were examined for the presence of group a rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. rotavirus strains were subjected to g and p genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ...201121108355
human bocavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand.a total of 329 fecal specimens, which had been known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand during 2005-2008 were screened for human bocavirus (hbov). hbov was detected by pcr with a primer pair that amplified the np1 region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the vp1/vp2 region. of the 329 samples tested, 6 (1.8%) were positive for hbov. of th ...201121181924
detection of human parechovirus in stool samples collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in japan during 2007-2008.of 477 stool specimens, which had been screened for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus, collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in pediatric clinics encompassing five localities (sapporo, tokyo, maizuru, osaka, and saga) in japan from july 2007 to june 2008, 247 negative samples (51.7%) were subjected to screening for human parechovirus. human parechovirus (hpev) was detected by rt-pcr using a primer pair to amplify 5'utr region of its genome and wa ...201121181931
genetic characterization of bulgarian rotavirus isolates and detection of rotavirus variants: challenges for the rotavirus vaccine program?annually 20-70% of all hospital admissions and 20% of fatal diarrhea cases among children less than 5 years of age occur due to severe rotavirus diarrhea. universal immunization is the major strategy aimed at controlling rotavirus infection. the main objective of the present study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the most common rotavirus strains co-circulating in bulgaria. the sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed strain diversity and circulation of different rotavirus v ...201121181933
vp7 gene of human rotavirus a genotype g5: phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of three different lineages worldwide.group a rotavirus (rv-a) genotype g5, which is common in pigs, was also detected in children with severe diarrhea in brazil, argentina, paraguay, cameroon, china, thailand, and vietnam. to evaluate the evolutionary relationship among rv-a g5 strains, the vp7 and vp4 genes of 28 brazilian rv-a g5 human strains, sampled between 1986 and 2005, were sequenced and compared with other rv-a g5 strains currently circulating worldwide in animals and humans. the phylogenetic analysis of rv-a g5 vp7 gene s ...201121181934
full genomic analysis of a g8p[1] rotavirus strain isolated from an asymptomatic infant in kenya provides evidence for an artiodactyl-to-human interspecies transmission event.group a rotavirus (gar) g8p[1] strains, found sometimes in cattle, have been reported rarely from humans. therefore, analysis of the full genomes of human g8p[1] strains are of significance in the context of studies on interspecies transmission of rotaviruses. however, to date, only partial-length nucleotide sequences are available for the 11 genes of a single human g8p[1] strain, while the partial sequences of two other strains have been reported. the present study reports the first complete ge ...201121181935
real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination. 201121183833
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhea-related hospitalizations among children < 5 years of age in mexico.single-strain rotavirus vaccine was added to the national immunization program in mexico in may 2007. we assessed the impact of vaccination on the number of diarrhea-related hospitalizations in mexican children in 2008 and 2009.201121183834
reduction of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among children aged < 5 years in panama following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine.in march 2006, rotavirus vaccine (rotarix, rv1) was introduced into the panamanian national immunization program. we assessed the effect of vaccine on diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among young panamanian children.201121183835
rotavirus vaccines in belgium: policy and impact.: the current belgian experience with rotavirus vaccination provides a unique perspective to look at the effect of vaccination. shortly after introduction, a nation-wide recommendation was issued and despite the fact that both rotavirus vaccines are offered through partial reimbursement, vaccine uptake has already reached a high level (at least 90%).201121183836
reduction in rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis following introduction of rotavirus vaccine into australia's national childhood vaccine schedule.: rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the funded australian national immunization program (nip) in july 2007. due to purchasing arrangements, individual states and territories chose either a 2-dose rv1 (rotarix, gsk) regimen or 3-dose rv5 (rotateq, merck/csl) regimen. this allowed comparison of both vaccines in similar populations with high infant vaccination coverage.201121183837
sustained decline in rotavirus detections in the united states following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006.following implementation of the rotavirus vaccination program in 2006, rotavirus activity in the united states declined dramatically in 2007-2008 but increased slightly in 2008-2009, despite greater vaccine uptake. to further evaluate impact of the vaccine program, we assessed trends in rotavirus testing and detection during 2009-2010.201121183838
united states rotavirus strain surveillance from 2005 to 2008: genotype prevalence before and after vaccine introduction.a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine, rotateq®, was approved in 2006 for immunization of infants in the united states. to monitor the distribution of rotavirus genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, the centers for disease control and prevention conducted strain surveillance with the national rotavirus strain surveillance system.201121183839
distribution of rotavirus genotypes after introduction of rotavirus vaccines, rotarix® and rotateq®, into the national immunization program of australia.rotavirus vaccines, rotateq and rotarix, were introduced into the australian national immunization program on july 1, 2007. the simultaneous introduction in different australian states and territories provides a unique opportunity to compare the affect of each vaccine on the types of circulating rotavirus strains. this report describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalization of children during the first 2-year period after vaccine introduction.201121183840
remarkable postvaccination spatiotemporal changes in united states rotavirus activity.analyses of us laboratory surveillance data during 1991 to 2004 established annual peak rotavirus activity occurred first in the southwest and last in the northeast. we compared spatiotemporal patterns during the 2 years preceding vaccine introduction in 2006 with the first 2 years following introduction. the postvaccine introduction years failed to demonstrate the typical southwest to northeast spread of rotavirus activity.201121183841
uptake, impact, and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the united states: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data.rotavirus vaccine was recommended for routine use in us infants in 2006. before the introduction of vaccine, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in the united states.201121183842
progress in the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in latin america and the caribbean: four years of accumulated experience.two effective and safe rotavirus vaccines became available in 2006 and have been recommended for use in all countries by the world health organization. this article provides an update on the use of rotavirus vaccine in latin american and caribbean (lac) countries.201121183843
[first detection of human astrovirus in gastroenteritis outbreak in hungary].human astroviruses are one of the known pathogens of gastroenteritis in infants, children and rarely in elderly. it causes 4.2-7.3% of the sporadic gastroenteritis cases with diarrhea and vomiting in children. the etiological role of astrovirus has not been confirmed yet in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in hungary.201121177230
genotyping rotavirus rna from archived rotavirus-positive rapid test strips.genotyping circulating rotaviruses before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine is useful for evaluating vaccine-associated changes in genotype distribution. we determined frequency of rotavirus genotypes among 61 rotavirus-positive children hospitalized in israel during the 2005-06 rotavirus season. accurate molecular epidemiologic data were recovered from affinity-concentrated rotavirus immobilized in rotavirus-positive bands from air-dried, diagnostic rotavirus rapid test strips (dipsti ...201121192853
human rotavirus genotypes detection among hospitalized children, a study in tehran, iran.human rotavirus genotypes g1-g4, g9, p[4] and p[8] are major worldwide causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. rotavirus genotype g1p[8] is predominant in many countries. in this study, the genotypic diversity of group a rotaviruses were detected in children <5 years of age who were treated for dehydration and diarrhea in tehran, iran from october 2004 to september 2008.201121194260
viral gastroenteritis in adults.viral gastroenteritis presents a major public health concern worldwide. it is mostly a disease of young children. however, acquired immunity may wane and symptomatic infection can also occur in adults. furthermore, asymptomatic adults may promote the spread of infections by shedding virus in their stools. this review covers the four most common causes of adult viral gastroenteritis, calicivirirdae (predominantly noroviruses), astroviruses, enteric adenoviruses and rotaviruses focussing on their ...201121210762
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the middle eastern and north african pediatric population.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. objectives were to estimate the burden of rvge among children less than five years old in the middle east (bahrain, iran, iraq, israel, jordan, kuwait, oman, qatar, saudi arabia, syria, uae, yemen), north africa (algeria, egypt, libya, morocco, tunisia) and turkey.201121214934
[vaccination schedule of the spanish association of paediatrics: recommendations 2011].the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish paediatric association updates annually the immunization schedule, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. this vaccination schedule includes grades of recommendation. the committee has graded as universal vaccines those that all children should receive, as recommended, those with a profile of universal vaccines of childhood and as are desirable those that all children may rece ...201121215719
immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. in industrialized country populations, l ...201121198669
prime immunization with rotavirus vlp 2/6 followed by boosting with an adenovirus expressing vp6 induces protective immunization against rotavirus in mice.rotavirus (rv) is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. an effective vaccination regime against rv can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virus-like particles formed by rv vp2 and vp6 (vlp2/6), as well as that of recombinant adenovirus expressing rv vp6 (rad), in eliciting protective immunities against rv. however, the efficacy of such prime-boost strategy, which incorporates vlp and rad in inducing protective immuniti ...201121205330
rotavirus enteric infection in children of northwest iran.this is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study of 511 children less than 36 months of age who were admitted to tabriz children's hospital with acute gastroenteritis during a period of 2 years (from october 2007 to october 2009). rotavirus was found in stool specimens of 284 (55.6%) of 511 children with diarrhea. two-thirds of them were admitted during autumn and winter for a mean hospital stay of 3.1 ± 1.8 days.201121217537
the use of bovine serum albumin to improve the rt-qpcr detection of foodborne viruses rinsed from vegetable surfaces.to demonstrate that produce rinsates used for rt-qpcr detection of foodborne viruses may cause significant pcr inhibition and propose a means to reduce its impact on sensitivity.201121219370
comparing electron microscopy and a competitive blocking elisa in the detection of rotaviruses in porcine faeces.analysis of 476 faecal samples from diarrhoeic piglets was performed using electron microscopy (em) and a competitive blocking (cb)-elisa based on monoclonal antibodies to the vp6 protein of group a rotavirus. rotavirus was detected by em and/or cb-elisa in 111 (23.3%) samples. of these, all groups of rotavirus were identified in 83 (74.8%) samples by em (em+), while group a rotavirus was identified in 90 (81.1%) samples by cb-elisa (elisa+). however, only 62 (55.9%) of samples were positive usi ...201120036588
improvement of intractable childhood epilepsy following acute viral infection.in this study, we report 11 patients with intractable childhood epilepsy that improved following acute viral infection. the patients were 8 boys and 3 girls. six of the 11 children were diagnosed as west syndrome (5 of the symptomatic type and 1 of the cryptogenic type). the remaining 5 children were myoclonic seizures. the patients became seizure free within 6 days following acute viral infections without an exchange or addition of antiepileptic drugs (aeds). the types of acute viral infections ...201120144516
improved immunogenicity of biodegradable polymer particles entrapped rotavirus vaccine.rotavirus (rv) entrapped in polylactide (pla) and polylactide-coglycolide (plga) polymer particles were formulated and evaluated in mice for improved immunogenicity using oral, intranasal (in), and intramuscular (im) routes of administration. microparticles of size ranges between 1 and 8 µm were prepared using double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. stabilizers like mouse serum albumin, sucrose, and sodium bicarbonate that were used during particle formulation helped in minimizing the den ...201120207774
genotypes of the circulating rotavirus strains in the seven prevaccine seasons from september 2000 to august 2007 in south korea.a korean nationwide surveillance on circulating rotavirus strains was conducted from september 2000 to august 2007 aiming to obtain prevaccine data for predicting vaccine effectiveness. the predominant strains among the 2779 strains analyzed varied annually and only approximately 50% had either a g or a p antigen present in both rotateq (merck & co. inc., whitehouse station, nj, usa) and rotarix (glaxosmithkline, brentford, uk).201120384698
rounding up rotavirus. 201020386406
preconceptional oral vaccination prevents experimental biliary atresia in newborn mice.biliary atresia (ba) in humans resembles ba induced in balb/c-mice by rhesus rotavirus (rrv). in mice, susceptibility to ba is ascribed to the lack of maternally derived immune protection. this study investigated whether vaccination of dams against rrv protected their offspring from developing ba.201020387202
probiotics.the pharmacology, uses, dosages, safety, drug interactions, and contraindications of probiotics are reviewed.201020208051
in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the efficacy of bovine colostrum against human rotavirus infection.we found that skimmed and concentrated bovine late colostrum (scblc) obtained from normal cows at 6-7 d after parturition exhibited high potency in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus (hrv) in vitro. furthermore, prophylactic oral administration of scblc once before inoculation of hrv prevented the development of diarrhea in suckling mice in vivo. scblc from normal cows might be useful in the prevention of hrv-induced severe gastroenteritis in immunocompromised hosts.201020208370
predominance of rotavirus g2p[4] and emergence of g12p[9] strains in asunción, paraguay, 2006-2007.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. monitoring the diversity of rotavirus strains is of great importance for current and future vaccination programs. to determine the diversity of rotavirus circulating in asuncion, paraguay, between 2006 and 2007, we carried out a molecular characterization of rotaviruses detected in children <5 years old and adults (>18 years old). we found that the most common circulating strain was g2p[4] (69/143), followed by g9p[8] ( ...201020213281
detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses in breeder turkeys.the present study was undertaken to detect and characterize enteric viruses (rotavirus, astrovirus, reovirus, and coronavirus) in breeder poults. five turkey breeder flocks were selected. faecal samples were collected from all flocks at 1 week of age and then every other week until the poults reached 9 weeks of age. the faecal samples were pooled in groups of five. of the 193 pools ("samples") tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 47.2%, 30.6%, and 10.4% samples were positiv ...201020390537
vp6 gene diversity in brazilian strains of porcine group c rotavirus.group c rotavirus (rv-c) has been found in brazilian pig herds; however, wild-type strains have not yet been characterized. we made a molecular analysis of a region of gene 5 in brazilian rv-c strains. stool samples from 11 piglets (diarrheic and with normal consistency) positive for the rv-c vp6 gene in an rt-pcr assay were sequenced. a 270-bp amplicon of nine sequences was analyzed. all sequences showed high identity to the cowden strain of the porcine rv-c prototype and 81.3 to 94.3% to each ...201020391334
rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 suppresses virus-induced cellular apoptosis to facilitate viral growth by activating the cell survival pathways during early stages of infection.following virus infection, one of the cellular responses to limit the virus spread is induction of apoptosis. in the present study, we report role of rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in regulating apoptosis by activating prosurvival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pi3k)/akt and nf-kappab (nuclear factor kappab) during early hours of infections (2 to 8 hpi). the nsp1 mutant strain a5-16 induces weak and transient activation of akt (protein kinase b) and p65 nf-kappab compa ...201020392855
asymptomatic rotavirus infections in england: prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors.rotavirus is a major cause of infectious intestinal disease in young children; a substantial prevalence of asymptomatic infection has been reported across all age groups. in this study, the authors determined characteristics of asymptomatic rotavirus infection and potential risk factors for infection. healthy persons were recruited at random from the general population of england during the study of infectious intestinal disease in england (1993-1996). rotavirus infection was identified using re ...201020392863
death mechanisms in epithelial cells following rotavirus infection, exposure to inactivated rotavirus or genome transfection.intestinal epithelial cell death following rotavirus infection is associated with villus atrophy and gastroenteritis. roles for both apoptosis and necrosis in cytocidal activity within rotavirus-infected epithelial cells have been proposed. additionally, inactivated rotavirus has been reported to induce diarrhoea in infant mice. we further examined the death mechanisms induced in epithelial cell lines following rotavirus infection or inactivated rotavirus exposure. monolayer integrity changes in ...201020392902
bile tolerant lactobacillus reuteri isolated from pig feces inhibits enteric bacterial pathogens and porcine rotavirus.lactic acid producing bacterial strain probio-16 was isolated from the swine excrements under anaerobic conditions and characterized by morphology and biochemical characteristics. the strain was further identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing and phylogeneitc analysis. the antimicrobial activity of the strain was assayed by testing for growth inhibition of thirteen pathogenic microorganisms. the strain was tested for antiviral activity against porcine rotavirus in vitro in african green monkey ep ...201020396947
rotavirus cell entry.infecting nearly every child by age five, rotaviruses are the major causative agents of severe gastroenteritis in young children. while much is known about the structure of these nonenveloped viruses and their components, the exact mechanism of viral cell entry is still poorly understood. a consensus opinion that appears to be emerging from recent studies is that rotavirus cell entry involves a series of complex and coordinated events following proteolytic priming of the virus. rotaviruses attac ...201020397068
an integrated cell culture and reverse transcription quantitative pcr assay for detection of infectious rotaviruses in environmental waters.rotaviruses exist widely in water environments and are the major cause to the gastroenteritis in children. to overcome the limitations associated with the current methods for detecting rotaviruses in environmental samples, such as long duration with the traditional cell culture-based plaque assay, inability to detect infectivity with rt-pcr-based molecular methods and lower sensitivity with elisa tests, we developed an integrated cell culture and reverse transcription quantitative pcr (icc-rt-qp ...201020399813
age dependence of the risk of intussusception following [corrected] rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus tetravalent vaccine: is it beyond doubt?the relation between the risk of intussusception and age at the time of receipt of the first dose of rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus tetravalent vaccine (rrv-tv) has been studied extensively on the basis of centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) matched case-control study data, using various statistical methods, including conditional logistic regression and quadratic smoothing splines. however, different conclusions have been reported in published analyses regarding the dependence o ...201020400464
efficacy of lactobacillus gg in aboriginal children with acute diarrhoeal disease: a randomised clinical trial.the effectiveness of probiotic therapy for acute rotavirus infectious diarrhoea in an indigenous setting with bacterial/parasitic diarrhoea is unclear. in the present study, we assessed the efficacy of probiotics in australian aboriginal children in the northern territory admitted to hospital with diarrhoeal disease.201020400916
potential epidemiological and economical impact of two rotavirus vaccines in colombia.a complete economic study was carried out to assess the economical impact of two rotavirus vaccine in colombia. a markov decision model was built to assess the health outcomes from birth to 24 months of age for three hypothetical cohorts: one unvaccinated, one vaccinated with 2 doses of rotarix and the third, with 3 doses of rotateq. without vaccination, the annual number of medical visits by diarrhea in children under 2 years would be 1,293,159 cases, with 105,378 medical visits and 470 deaths ...201020347057
post-natal paucity of regulatory t cells and control of nk cell activation in experimental biliary atresia.although recent studies have identified important roles for t and nk cells in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (ba), the mechanisms by which susceptibility to bile duct injury is restricted to the neonatal period are unknown.201020347178
the effect of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhoea mortality.approximately 39% of the global diarrhoea deaths in children aged 5 years may be attributable to rotavirus infection. two rotavirus vaccines were recently introduced to the market, with evidence of efficacy in the usa, europe and latin america. we sought to estimate the effectiveness of these vaccines against rotavirus morbidity and mortality.201020348127
fate and transport of zoonotic, bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens during swine manure treatment, storage, and land application.members of the public are always somewhat aware of foodborne and other zoonotic pathogens; however, recent illnesses traced to produce and the emergence of pandemic h1n1 influenza virus have increased the scrutiny on all areas of food production. the council for agricultural science and technology has recently published a comprehensive review of the fate and transport of zoonotic pathogens that can be associated with swine manure. the majority of microbes in swine manure are not zoonotic, but se ...201020348375
identification of norovirus as the top enteric viruses detected in adult cases with acute gastroenteritis.to elucidate the importance of the norovirus and other enteric viruses, and the difference of the genetic relatedness on norovirus between the outbreak and sporadic cases, a total of 557 stool samples, consisting of 503 sporadic cases and 54 samples of 4 outbreaks were collected and tested for norovirus and other enteric viruses in beijing, china, july 2007-june 2008. the data showed norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus, were detected in 26.6%, 6.1%, 1.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. noro ...201020348525
reassortment of human rotavirus gene segments into g11 rotavirus strains.g11 rotaviruses are believed to be of porcine origin. however, a limited number of g11 rotaviruses have been recently isolated from humans in combination with p[25], p[8], p[6], and p[4]. to investigate the evolutionary relationships of these strains, we analyzed the complete genomes of 2 human g11p[25] strains, 2 human g11p[8] strains, and 3 porcine reference strains. most of the 11 gene segments of these 7 strains belonged to genotype 1 (wa-like). however, phylogenetic clustering patterns sugg ...201020350376
mechanism of intraparticle synthesis of the rotavirus double-stranded rna genome.rotaviruses perform the remarkable tasks of transcribing and replicating 11 distinct double-stranded rna genome segments within the confines of a subviral particle. multiple viral polymerases are tethered to the interior of a particle, each dedicated to a solitary genome segment but acting in synchrony to synthesize rna. although the rotavirus polymerase specifically recognizes rna templates in the absence of other proteins, its enzymatic activity is contingent upon interaction with the viral ca ...201020351108
reduction in gastroenteritis in united states children and correlation with early rotavirus vaccine uptake from national medical claims databases.we sought to estimate rotavirus disease reduction among children in hospital and office settings in the 4 us regions following rotavirus vaccine introduction and to estimate vaccine uptake.201020354464
detection and genotyping of korean porcine rotaviruses.porcine group a rotavirus (garv) is considered to be an important animal pathogen due to their economic impact in the swine industry and its potential to cause heterologous infections in humans. this study examined 475 fecal samples from 143 farms located in 6 provinces across south korea. rt-pcr and nested pcr utilizing primer pairs specific for the garv vp6 gene detected garv-positive reactions in 182 (38.3%) diarrheic fecal samples. a total of 98 porcine garv strains isolated from the garv-po ...201020359834
community incidence of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in england: improved estimates using viral load for norovirus diagnosis.existing estimates of the incidence of infectious intestinal disease (iid) caused by norovirus are based on electron microscopy or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). neither method accurately represents norovirus disease burden: electron microscopy has poor diagnostic sensitivity, and rt-pcr has poor diagnostic specificity. in this study, viral load measurements were used to identify cases of norovirus-associated iid and to produce new incidence estimates for england. iid ...201020360244
characterization of rotavirus strains from day care centers: pre- and post-rotavirus vaccine era.in 2006 the rotavirus vaccine was included in the brazilian immunization program. the aim of this study was to report the results of a 5-year surveillance study of rotavirus strains in children < 5 years with acute gastroenteritis from day care centers in the state of são paulo, brazil.201020361122
isolation and characterization of the first chinese strain of porcine teschovirus-8.investigations were carried out to identify the causal agent of acute diarrhea, respiratory distress, and death of pigs on a swine farm in jilin province, northern china. only porcine teschovirus (ptv, designated as ptv-8 jilin/2003) was isolated from samples of organs. the presence of ptv was confirmed by the production of a specific cytopathic effect on susceptible cells and by the results of the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (ipma), polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy. other ...201020362007
[the rotavirus vaccine is effective]. 201020369429
global impact of rotavirus vaccines.the who has recently recommended the inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization programs of all countries. in countries in the americas, europe and australia that have adopted routine childhood immunization against rotavirus, significant reductions in the burden of severe childhood diarrhea have been observed. besides protecting vaccinated children, disease rates also appear to be reduced in unvaccinated children, suggesting indirect benefits from vaccination (i.e., herd protect ...201020370550
porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (ipec-j2) of rotavirus infection as a new model for the study of innate immune responses to rotaviruses and probiotics.previous studies of epithelial immune responses to rotavirus infection have been conducted in transformed cell lines. in this study, we evaluated a non-transformed porcine jejunum epithelial cell line (ipec-j2) as an in-vitro model of rotavirus infection and probiotic treatment. cell-culture-adapted porcine rotavirus (prv) osu strain, or human rotavirus (hrv) wa strain, along with lactobacillus acidophilus (la) or lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (lgg) were used to inoculate ipec-j2 cells. la or lgg t ...201020373994
effect of mutations in vp5 hydrophobic loops on rotavirus cell entry.experiments in cell-free systems have demonstrated that the vp5 cleavage fragment of the rotavirus spike protein, vp4, undergoes a foldback rearrangement that translocates three clustered hydrophobic loops from one end of the molecule to the other. this conformational change resembles the foldback rearrangements of enveloped virus fusion proteins. by recoating rotavirus subviral particles with recombinant vp4 and vp7, we tested the effects on cell entry of substituting hydrophilic for hydrophobi ...201020375171
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