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[Clinical epidemiological study of acute gastro-enteritis outbreak recorded in a children community, in Iasi, during May, 2009].Acute diarrheal disease affect all demographic structures and it is considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality for young age groups; underreporting is due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, everywhere, including the developed countries.201122046808
Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study.The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE) in Spain.201121917176
impact of introducing the pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines into the routine immunization program in niger.objectives. we investigated whether introducing the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines, which are greatly needed in west africa, would overwhelm existing supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from the manufacturers to the target population) in niger. methods. as part of the bill and melinda gates foundation funded vaccine modeling initiative, we developed a computational model to determine the impact of introducing these new vaccines to niger's expanded programs on ...201121940923
Molecular epidemiology and clinical characterization of group A rotavirus infections in Tunisian children with acute gastroenteritis.Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine the molecular epidemiology and the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tunisia. Between January 2003 and April 2007, a prospective study was conducted on 788 stool samples collected from children under 12 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 27% (n = 213) of sample ...201121942357
Full genomic analyses of human rotavirus G4P[4], G4P[6], G9P[19] and G10P[6] strains from North-eastern India: evidence for interspecies transmission and complex reassortment events.In hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis in Manipur, India, four rotavirus strains were found to possess VP7 and/or VP4 genes with porcine or bovine characteristics. Considering the animal-like nature of these strains, the remaining eight gene segments were analysed to decipher their exact origin. Analyses of full genome of these strains exhibited their origin from porcine/bovine rotaviruses. This study suggests single or multiple events of reassortment involving multiple gene segment ...201121884295
Respiratory syncytial virus--the unrecognised cause of health and economic burden among young children in Australia.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) presents very similar to influenza and is the principle cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children worldwide. Yet, there is no systematic monitoring of RSV activity in Australia. This study uses existing published data sources to estimate incidence, hospitalisation rates, and associated costs of RSV among young children in Australia. Published reports from the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme, a passive voluntary surveillance system, a ...201122010512
immunization schedule of the spanish association of pediatrics: 2012 recommendations.the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish association of pediatrics (cav-aep) updates the immunization schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. the present schedule includes grades of recommendation. we have graded as routine vaccinations those that the cav-aep believes all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunization and would ideally be gi ...201122177960
an assay for detecting neutralization of rotavirus infection by quantitative determination of vp6 protein fluorescence intensity.previous rotavirus infection studies used the focus reduction assay extensively to evaluate cellular responses to viral infection, but this technique has a number of limitations. in this study, we developed a simplified, accurate rotavirus infection assay to evaluate the effects of inhibitory substances on rotavirus infection in vitro by measurement of the fluorescence intensities of stained cells.201121979094
early observations in the use of oral rotavirus vaccination in infants with functional short gut syndrome.aim:  universal vaccination with an oral live-attenuated rotavirus vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age was introduced in australia in july 2007. there are no data on the short-term effects of vaccination for those infants most at risk of severe complications from rotavirus infection. the aim of this study was to describe the effects of rotavirus vaccination on weight gain and gastrointestinal losses in infants with functional short gut syndrome secondary to an ileostomy. methods:  a retrospectiv ...201122107074
Rapid and sensitive detection of PRRSV by a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.A real-time monitoring reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the sensitive and specific detection of prototypic, prevalent North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains. As a higher sensitivity and specificity method than reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the RT-LAMP method only used a turbidimeter, exhibited a detection limit corresponding to a 10(-4) dilution of template RNA ex ...201121847756
vaccine campaign to target deadly childhood diarrhoea. 201121956306
Distribution of rotavirus genotypes causing nosocomial and community-acquired acute gastroenteritis at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in the new rotavirus vaccine era.Background: Introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the United States beginning in 2006 led to a rapid decline in the frequency of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis necessitating medical attention. We examined whether serotype replacement was occurring as a result of vaccine use. Methods: Children with gastroenteritis presenting to CHOP have been tested for rotavirus antigen in the stool. Commencing with the 1999-2000 season, positive specimens were genotyped to establish the G (VP7) and P (VP4) typ ...201122048265
Novel pentameric structure of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxigenic protein NSP4.A novel pentameric structure which differs from the previously reported tetrameric form of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 is reported here. A significant feature of this pentameric form is the absence of the calcium ion located in the core region of the tetrameric structures. The lysis of cells, the crystallization of the region spanning residues 95 to 146 of NSP4 (NSP4(95-146)) of strain ST3 (ST3:NSP4(95-146)) at acidic pH, and comparative studies of the recombin ...201121917949
replication of the rotavirus genome requires an active ubiquitin-proteasome system.here we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is required for the efficient replication of rotavirus rrv in ma104 cells. the proteasome inhibitor mg132 decreased the yield of infectious virus under conditions where it severely reduces the synthesis of not only viral but also cellular proteins. addition of nonessential amino acids to the cell medium restored both viral protein synthesis and cellular protein synthesis, but the production of progeny viruses was still inhibited. in medium supple ...201121900156
Nanobodies®: new ammunition to battle viruses.In 1989, a new type of antibody was identified, first in the sera of dromedaries and later also in all other species of the Camelidae family. These antibodies do not contain a light chain and also lack the first constant heavy domain. Today it is still unclear what the evolutionary advantage of such heavy chain-only antibodies could be. In sharp contrast, the broad applicability of the isolated variable antigen-binding domains (VHH) was rapidly recognized, especially for the development of thera ...201121939690
intussusception risk of rotavirus vaccination. 201122129261
[treatment perspectives.]celiac disease (cd) is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten. a safe and efficient but unpleasant treatment exists for cd in form of a strict gluten-free diet. thus, there is a need for new treatment strategies, which are based on the improved and advanced understanding of the pathophysiology of cd. the first strategy consists in reducing or even eliminating major antigenic motifs in gluten, responsible for the inflammatory reaction. the use of less immunogenic whe ...201122037405
biofilms in drinking water and their role as reservoir for pathogens.most microorganisms on earth live in various aggregates which are generally termed "biofilms". they are ubiquitous and represent the most successful form of life. they are the active agent in biofiltration and the carriers of the self-cleaning potential in soils, sediments and water. they are also common on surfaces in technical systems where they sometimes cause biofouling. in recent years it has become evident that biofilms in drinking water distribution networks can become transient or long-t ...201121697011
identification of an antibody binding epitope on the rotavirus non-structural protein nsp2 using phage display analysis.the nsp2 of rotavirus has important roles in rotavirus replication associated with rna binding, hydrolysis of ntps and rna, and helix destabilising properties. a cell culture assay using a nsp2 specific monoclonal antibody (mab) and polyclonal antiserum to block viral replication showed a 73% and a 96% reduction in the amount of virus produced during replication respectively. phage display technology was used to identify the antibody binding region on the nsp2 protein with the motif (244)t-(y/f) ...201121697352
rotavirus in a wild english red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) identified by electron microscopy. 201121821691
intra-genotypic diversity of archival g4p[8] human rotaviruses from washington, dc.group a human rotaviruses (rvs) remain the most frequently detected viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. despite their medical importance, relatively few complete genome sequences have been determined for commonly circulating g/p-type strains (i.e., g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8], and g9p[8]). in the current study, we sequenced the genomes of 11 g4p[8] isolates from stool specimens that were collected in washington, dc during the years of 1974-1991. w ...201121712102
osteopontin upregulation in rotavirus-induced murine biliary atresia requires replicating virus but is not necessary for development of biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory pediatric liver disease in which osteopontin (opn), a glycoprotein with inflammatory and fibrogenic activity, may play a pathogenic role. the current studies were conducted in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced ba to test the hypotheses that live but not inactivated rotavirus causes antigenemia, upregulation of hepatic opn expression, and induction of ba and fibrosis; and that opn is necessary for development of ba. prolonged or transient ...201121742364
rotavirus-induced ifn-{beta} promotes anti-viral signaling and apoptosis that modulate viral replication in intestinal epithelial cells.rotavirus (rv), a leading cause of diarrhea, primarily infects intestinal epithelial cells (iec). rotavirus-infected iec produce ifn-+¦ and express hundreds of ifn-dependent genes. we thus hypothesized that type 1 ifn plays a key role in helping iec limit rv replication and/or protect against cell death. to test this hypothesis, we examined iec (ht29 cells) infected with rv (moi 1) -¦ neutralizing antibodies to ifn-+¦/+¦ via microscopy and sds-page immunoblotting. we hypothesized that neutraliza ...201121733977
investigations of porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) in vaccine-related and other cell lines.porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) is highly prevalent in swine and was recently reported in u.s. licensed rotavirus vaccines. since animal-derived raw materials, such as cells, trypsin, and serum, can be a major source of introducing virus contamination in biological products, we have investigated pcv1 in several cell lines obtained from atcc that have broad use in research, diagnostics, or vaccine development. it is expected that these cell lines have been exposed to bovine and porcine viruses d ...201121835219
clinical features and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections in libyan children.rotaviruses and noroviruses are leading viral causes of diarrhoea in children. a cross-sectional study was undertaken among children aged <5 years with acute gastroenteritis at al-jala children's hospital, tripoli, libya, from october 2007 to september 2008. of 1,090 fecal samples collected, 260 from inpatients and 830 from outpatients, all inpatients and approximately a third of outpatients, selected systematically, were investigated for rotavirus and norovirus infection by elisa and real-time ...201121837804
the incidence and direct medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, as estimated from a retrospective hospital study.anticipating imminent licensure of rotavirus vaccine for use in japan, we estimated the incidence of rotavirus hospitalization and calculated the direct medical cost associated with rotavirus hospitalization in a hospital that provided virtually exclusive pediatric beds to the local community adjacent to the northern outskirts of metropolitan kyoto, japan. for a 2 year period between september, 2008 and august, 2010, there were 103 hospitalizations due to acute gastroenteritis among children les ...201121821087
identification of a novel biomarker candidate, a 4.8-kda peptide fragment from a neurosecretory protein vgf precursor, by proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from children with acute encephalopathy using seldi-tof-ms.abstract: background: acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. however, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. the purpose of this study was to identify a novel ...201121838886
randomized, open-label, multicentre pharmacokinetic studies of two dose levels of pantoprazole granules in infants and children aged 1 month through <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.the primary objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of pantoprazole delayed-release granules in infants and children aged 1 month to <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord). the studies described in this manuscript were conducted to fulfil the requirements of the paediatric written request for pantoprazole by the us fda.201121740077
case report: detection of rotavirus rna in the cerebrospinal fluid of a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis and meningism.although case reports have described detection of rotavirus (rv) in extraintestinal sites such as the liver, kidney, and central nervous system (cns) of children with rv gastroenteritis, cns localization in rv infection seems to be rare. rt-pcr and nucleotide sequencing detected a g1p[8] strain in the stool and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples of a patient with concurrent rv-associated enteritis and cns signs. upon sequence analysis, the viruses detected in the csf was identical to the virus de ...201121739456
impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical ecuador: the ecuavida birth cohort study.geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. there is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. further, the low prevalence of allergic d ...201121714922
genetic divergence and classification of nonstructural protein 1 among porcine rotaviruses of species b.porcine rotavirus b (rvb) has been often detected in diarrhea of suckling and weaned pigs. moreover, epidemiological studies using elisa demonstrated high antibody prevalence in sera from sows, indicating that rvb infections are widespread. because it is difficult to serially propagate rvbs in cell culture, genetic analysis of rna segments of porcine rvbs other than those encoding vp7 and nsp2 has been scarcely performed. we conducted sequence and phylogenetic analyses focusing on nonstructural ...201121832005
the occurrence of amino acid substitutions d96n and s242n in vp7 of emergent g2p[4] rotaviruses in nepal in 2004-2005: a global and evolutionary perspective.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. strains with g2p[4] have captured recent attention because of its abrupt increase or re-emergence in many locations in the world. in nepal, g2p[4] strains were detected at a rate of 1% in 2003-2004, but increased to 33% in 2004-2005. thus, the vp7 genes of 45 emergent g2 strains from nepal were sequenced and analyzed together with a total of 339 g2vp7 sequences detected over the last 34-áyears that were compiled from the ...201121842161
molecular characterization of rotavirus strains from children with diarrhea in italy, 2007-2009.the surveillance network rotanet-italia was established in 2007 in order to investigate the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in italy, and to provide a baseline for future assessment of possible effects of vaccine implementation in selecting novel versus common rotavirus strains. a total of 2,645 rotavirus strains from pediatric patients with acute diarrhea were collected over three consecutive seasons from september 2006 through august 2009, and partially characterized by standardi ...201121739459
phylogenetic analysis of rotavirus a nsp2 gene sequences and evidence of intragenic recombination.the rotavirus non-structural protein nsp2 is one of the earliest and most abundant viral proteins produced during infection. this protein has multiple essential roles in the replication cycle involving rna binding, viroplasm formation, helicase and can hydrolyse the +¦-phosphate of rna and ntps acting as an rtpase and ntpase. in studying sequences from rotavirus strains isolated in australia between 1984 and 2009, the nsp2 gene was seen to be highly conserved and clustered with defined nsp2 geno ...201121689784
baseline estimates of diarrhea-associated mortality among united states children before rotavirus vaccine introduction.objectives:: deaths due to diarrhea among us children declined substantially from the 1960s through the 1980s, but have not been recently assessed. we examined diarrhea-associated mortality among young us children from 1992 to 2006 to establish baseline estimates through which the effect of rotavirus vaccines, introduced in 2006, can be assessed. methods:: national center for health statistics multiple cause-of-death mortality data were used to examine diarrhea-associated deaths and death rates ...201121691244
hospital-based study of the economic burden associated with rotavirus diarrhea in eastern china.rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea in china. to evaluate the economic burden associated with rotavirus infection of children in china, we combined data on the disease burden of rotavirus-associated costs for samples comprising 832 outpatients and 604 inpatients from five seaside cities. the average social costs and direct medical costs for rotavirus-associated admissions were calculated to be us $61.64 and us $40.73 for outpatients, and us $684.15 and us $559 ...201121843578
incidence of intussusception in early infancy: a capture-recapture estimate for germany.background: rotavirus (rv) vaccination with the first generation vaccine (rotashield) has been associated with intussusception (is). reliable age specific baseline incidence data for children ôëñ6 months of age in particular is fundamental for further post marketing monitoring of potential effects of recently introduced new rv vaccines. methods: is incidence was estimated by a 2-source capture-recapture calculation (crc) based on esped (german paediatric surveillance unit) reports and on hospita ...201121698555
effects of viscogens on rna transcription inside reovirus particles.the dsrna genome of mammalian reovirus (mrv), like the dsdna genomes of herpesviruses and many bacteriophages, is packed inside its icosahedral capsid in liquid-crystalline form, with concentrations near or more than 400 mg/ml. viscosity in such environments must be high, but the relevance of viscosity for the macromolecular processes occurring there remains poorly characterized. here, we describe the use of simple viscogens, glycerol and sucrose, to examine their effects on rna transcription in ...201121719697
genotype diversity of group a rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhea in urban burkina faso, 2008-2010.in this study, the diversity of g and p genotypes of rotavirus strains in burkinabe children were examined. between november 2008 and february 2010, 447 stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea visiting hospital in ouagadougou. group a rotavirus was previously detected in 151/447 (33.8%) of the samples tested by an immunochromatographic test and these samples were now tested further for rotavirus g and p genotypes by rt-pcr. of these, the rotavirus type gene ...201121678452
cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus vaccination in reducing rotavirus gastroenteritis in ireland.we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal infant rotavirus (rv) vaccination compared to current standard of care of "no vaccination". two rv vaccines are currently licensed in ireland: rotarixôäó and rotateqôäó. a cohort model used in several european countries was adapted using irish epidemiological, resource utilisation and cost data. the base case model considers the impact of rotarix vaccination on health-related quality of life of children under five years old from a healthcare payer ...201121821085
circovirus and impact of temporary withdrawal of rotavirus vaccines in spain.at the beginning of 2010 dna fragments of a porcine circovirus 1 (pcv-1) were detected in the monovalent rotavirus vaccine, rotarix-« (glaxosmithkline), and later also of pcv-1 and pcv-2 in the rotateq-« (msd) vaccine. these viruses are frequently found in meat and other products for normal human consumption and have not been shown to cause disease in humans. although the world health organization (who) and the european medicines agency (ema) did not recommended discontinuation of vaccination ag ...201121715979
complications in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus: a retrospective analysis.acute gastroenteritis (age) caused by rotavirus (rv) is a common disease among infants and toddlers, often leading to hospitalization and, in resource-poor countries, to death. however, little is known on specific complications of severe rv-positive (rv+) age and on the clinical course in chronically ill children. this was a retrospective analysis of data for children <5-áyears of age hospitalized due to age during six rotavirus seasons in three large german pediatric hospitals. the primary stud ...201121833497
astrovirus infections in humans and animals - molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions.astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded rna viruses first identified in 1975 in children suffering from diarrhea and then described in a wide variety of animals. to date, the list of animal species susceptible to astrovirus infection has expanded to 22 animal species or families, including domestic, synantropic and wild animals, avian, and mammalian species in the terrestrial and aquatic environments. astrovirus infections are considered among the most common cause ...201121843659
infection: preventing 5 million child deaths from diarrhea in the next 5 years. 201121725348
enteric vaccines for resource-limited countries: current status and future prospects. 201121736257
comparative review of three cost-effectiveness models for rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs; a generic approach applied to various regions in the world.abstract:201121740545
intussusception risk and health benefits of rotavirus vaccination in mexico and brazil.because postlicensure surveillance determined that a previous rotavirus vaccine, rotashield, caused intussusception in 1 of every 10,000 recipients, we assessed the association of the new monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rv1) with intussusception after routine immunization of infants in mexico and brazil.201121675888
nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in a canadian paediatric hospital: incidence, disease burden and patients affected.rotavirus is a well-recognised nosocomial pathogen in paediatric settings. although rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease, there is currently no publicly funded programme in canada. the objective of this study was to inform rotavirus vaccination strategy by determining the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (nrvge), estimating the burden of disease and characterising the patients affected. we performed a retrospective cohort study of all nrvge cases over a per ...201121723643
viruses exploiting peroxisomes.viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including hiv, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (hiv's nef and influenza's ns1) or use the peroxisomal mem ...201121824805
comparative evaluation of the potential impact of rotavirus versus hpv vaccination in gavi-eligible countries: a preliminary analysis focused on the relative disease burden.immunization policymakers at global and local levels need to establish priorities among new vaccines competing for limited resources. however, comparison of the potential impact of single vaccination programs is challenging, primarily due to the limited number of vaccine analyses as well as their differing analytic approaches and reporting formats. the purpose of this study is to provide early insight into how the comparative impact of different new vaccines could be assessed in resource-poor se ...201121679420
iron oxide amended biosand filters for virus removal.laboratory studies were performed to determine if the addition of iron oxides throughout biosand filter (bsf) media would increase virus removal due to adsorption. the proposed mechanism is electrostatic adsorption of negatively charged virion particles to positively charged iron oxides formed during the corrosion of zerovalent iron. initial tests conducted using continuous flow, small-scale glass columns showed high ms2 bacteriophage removal in an iron-amended sand column (5log10) compared to a ...201121708394
characterization of human rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in children under five with acute gastroenteritis in a saudi hospital.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children. currently, there is no published data on the prevalence of subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the eastern province of saudi arabia. the objectives of the present study were to assess the rotavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis and to assess the subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the children and maternity hospital in dammam, eastern saudi arabia.201121694956
direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination upon childhood hospitalizations in 3 us counties, 2006-2009.routine rotavirus vaccination of us infants began in 2006. we conducted active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in 3 us counties to assess vaccine impact.201121705316
experimental infection of pigs with group a rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in india: gross, histopathological and immunopathological study.the authors describe a detailed study conducted in assam, india, of gross, histopathological and immunopathological alterations in pigs experimentally infected with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) expressing k88 pili. a total of 30 caesarean derived piglets were infected experimentally with rotavirus alone or in combination with etec to study the gross and histopathological alterations and the distribution pattern of different b- and t cell subsets in the gut. villus atroph ...201121706463
one-step rt-qpcr with an internal control system for the detection of turkey rotaviruses in faecal samples.turkey rotaviruses are one of the major pathogens responsible for the poult enteritis syndrome (pes). in this study a one step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) assay targeting the rotaviral non-structural protein 4 (nsp4) was developed. the nsp4 is a highly conserved gene inside the turkey rotavirus genome and contains an internal control system to monitor any potential rt-qpcr inhibitors. the detection limit of the optimized nsp4-rt-qpcr assay ranged from 8.15 ...201121816176
use of the state immunization information system to assess rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in connecticut, 2006-2008.immunization information systems (iis) contain individual vaccination records and have potential use for evaluating post-licensure vaccine effectiveness (ve). a matched case-control study was performed by using the connecticut state iis to calculate rotavirus ve against hospitalization; results were compared with pre-licensure efficacy and with estimates previously obtained by traditional case-control methods using matched controls from medical sources and medical chart abstracted data. case-pat ...201121723356
etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children requiring hospitalization in the netherlands.infectious gastroenteritis causes a considerable burden of disease worldwide. costs due to gastroenteritis are dominated by the hospitalized cases. effective control of gastroenteritis should be targeted at the diseases with the highest burden and costs. for that, an accurate understanding of the relative importance of the different bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens is needed. the objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and etiology of gastroenteritis requiring hosp ...201121725865
Noroviruses as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children in Finland, 2009-2010.Abstract Noroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. In a prospective study conducted in 2009-2010 at the Tampere University Hospital, 195 stool specimens were collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis in children and examined for noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses, using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Noroviruses were found in 49 (25%) of the cases and sapoviruses in 12 (6%). The norovirus g ...201121696253
Productive infection of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by porcine circovirus type 1.Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), a small DNA virus in pigs, recently gained its notoriety when commercial human rotavirus vaccines were discovered to be contaminated by infectious PCV1. Here we report, for the first time, definitive evidence of productive PCV1 infection in a subclone of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh-7, subclone 10-3). Infectious virus was detected in the lysates of infected Huh-7 cells by immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and can be serially passaged in Huh-7-S10-3 ...201121742002
Treatment of Acute Diarrhea With Saccharomyces Boulardii in Infants: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.OBJECTIVES:: To determine if an oral treatment with a commercial pharmaceutical product containing Saccharomyces boulardii would reduce the duration of diarrhea in infants with acute diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS:: In this double-bind, placebo controlled study, 186 infants, 6 to 48 months old and hospitalized within 72ÔÇèhours after the onset of acute diarrhea in two hospitals in Goi+ónia, Goi+ís, Brazil, were randomly assigned to receive twice a day during five days 200ÔÇèmg of a commercial ph ...201121734600
extraction of food-borne viruses from food samples: a review.detection of food-borne viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses and hepatitis a virus in food products differs from detection of most food-borne bacteria, as most of these viruses cannot be cultivated in cell culture to date. therefore, detection of food-borne viruses in food products requires multiple steps: first, virus extraction; second, purification of the viral genomic material (rna for the majority of food-borne viruses); and last, molecular detection. this review is focused on the first ...201122137685
genotypes of the circulating rotavirus strains in the seven prevaccine seasons from september 2000 to august 2007 in south korea.a korean nationwide surveillance on circulating rotavirus strains was conducted from september 2000 to august 2007 aiming to obtain prevaccine data for predicting vaccine effectiveness. the predominant strains among the 2779 strains analyzed varied annually and only approximately 50% had either a g or a p antigen present in both rotateq (merck & co. inc., whitehouse station, nj, usa) and rotarix (glaxosmithkline, brentford, uk).201120384698
first detection of group c rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in south korea.group c rotavirus (gpc rv) causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute diarrhoea in humans worldwide, but has not been detected among children in south korea. the present study aimed to detect gpc rv among children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in south korea and to perform a molecular characterization of gpc rv strains. from november 2003 to january 2006, 434 faecal samples were collected from children <10 years of age who were hospitalized for treatment of acute diarrhoea and screened for ...201120491826
chronological diffusion-weighted imaging changes and mutism in the course of rotavirus-associated acute cerebellitis/cerebellopathy concurrent with encephalitis/encephalopathy.rotavirus is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in children and is known to accompany some neurological disorders such as encephalitis/encephalopathy and seizures. although cerebellar disorders sometime occur as a complication of rotavirus gastroenteritis in japan, few reports have addressed these issues. here, we report three cases of insulted cerebellums in addition to encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with rotavirus. similar to posterior fossa syndrome after surgery, mutism ...201120510558
infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis: a retrospective study of 25 patients.the aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic, clinical, and evolutional characteristics in patients who presented convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (cwg) to facilitate the diagnosis in daily clinical practice.201120618844
rotavirus genotypes in costa rica, nicaragua, honduras and the dominican republic.in this study, 574 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis were obtained from different hospitals in costa rica, honduras, nicaragua and the dominican republic during 2005-2006. diarrhea stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus (rv) by elisa and typed by the rt-pcr-based method. unusual strains were detected: g1p6, g2p8, g3p6, g9p4, and mixed infections. recent studies have indicated that unusual human rv strains are emerging as global strains, which has important implications for effe ...201120689317
rotavirus genotypes co-circulating in europe between 2006 and 2009 as determined by eurorotanet, a pan-european collaborative strain surveillance network.summaryeurorotanet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. this report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the european population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmiss ...201120707941
molecular and clinical characterization of rotavirus from diarrheal infants admitted to pediatric emergency units in france.rotaviruses are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide, and require careful surveillance, especially in the context of vaccination programs. prospective surveillance is required to monitor and characterize rotavirus infections, including viral and clinical data, and to detect the emergence of potentially epidemic strains.201120686439
safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 in human immunodeficiency virus-positive infants in south africa.rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infections are a cause of great public health concern in developing countries. the current study evaluated the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of rix4414 vaccine in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (clinical stages i and ii according to who classification) hiv-infected south african infants.201120842070
production of human rotavirus and salmonella antigens in plants and elicitation of fljb-specific humoral responses in mice.a nicotiana benthamiana transient expression system was used to express single antigen and dimeric combinations of the human rotavirus (hrv) vp7 and a truncated vp4 (vp4δ) proteins fused with salmonella typhimurium's flagellin fljb subunit. immunoblot analyses using rabbit antibodies generated against these proteins demonstrated that the constructs were successfully expressed with yields ranging from 0.85 to 31.97 μg of recombinant protein per gram of fresh leaf tissue. expressing the single and ...201120725806
epidemiology of rotavirus infections in children less than 5 years of age: germany, 2001-2008.rotavirus (rv) infection is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. in 2006, 2 live-attenuated rv-vaccines became available for use in infants ≤ 6 months of age. in germany, a statutory notification system for rv infection has been in place since 2001 to monitor rv epidemiology. our objective was to assess rv disease burden in german children <5 years of age.201120724954
modeling nosocomial transmission of rotavirus in pediatric wards.nosocomial transmission of viral and bacterial infections is a major problem worldwide, affecting millions of patients (and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths) per year. rotavirus infections affect most children worldwide at least once before age five. we present here deterministic and stochastic models for the transmission of rotavirus in a pediatric hospital ward and draw on published data to compare the efficacy of several possible control measures in reducing the number of infections du ...201120811781
feasibility study of 21-day-on/7-day-off temozolomide in children with brain tumors.temozolomide (tmz) is an oral alkylating agent with proven antitumoral activity in preclinical and clinical studies in adults with high-grade glioma (hgg). however, only limited efficacy has been reported in children with hgg using the 5-day schedule. this study investigated the safety of administering tmz to children and adolescents with brain tumors over an extended period. extended schedules have been proven to overcome chemoresistance without any major toxicity. the toxicity of tmz, administ ...201120811928
synthesis of double-layered rotavirus-like particles using internal ribosome entry site vector system in stably-transformed drosophila melanogaster.we established a bicistronic expression system using an encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv)-derived internal ribosomal entry site (ires) element to generate stably transformed drosophila melanogaster schneider 2 (s2) cells expressing human rotavirus wa capsid proteins, vp2 and vp6, for the synthesis of vp2/6 double-layered virus-like particle (dvlp). the emcv-derived ires permitted bicistronic translation of recombinant vp6. recombinant vp2 and vp6 were detected in extracellular fractions of stabl ...201120820877
rotavirus gastroenteritis in finnish children in 2006-2008, at the introduction of rotavirus vaccination.rotaviruses (rv) are major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (age) requiring hospitalization in children; rv hospitalizations may be largely eliminated by universal mass vaccination with rv vaccine. we conducted a hospital-based prospective survey of age in children over 2 rv epidemic seasons, from 2006 to 2008, when the coverage of rv vaccination in finland increased to 35% of the birth cohort. rvs were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). in the first s ...201120807022
primary care-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children aged less than 5 years in six european countries.this observational, prospective study was undertaken to estimate the burden of rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis (ge) leading to general practitioner (gp)/family paediatrician (fp) visits among children aged <5 years in czech republic, germany, italy, poland, spain and the uk. children aged <5 years presenting with acute ge provided stool samples for rapid rv testing. rv+ samples were confirmed and typed by rt-pcr. demographic and clinical data were collected for all rvge episodes. transmission pat ...201120842379
the percentage of nosocomial-related out of total hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and its association with hand hygiene compliance.because the absolute numbers of both community-acquired and nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) vary, we studied the percentage of hospitalizations for rvge that were transmitted nosocomially as an indicator of in-hospital acquisition of the infection. in a 4-year prospective study, the percentage of nosocomial rvge declined steadily, from 20.3% in 2003 to 12.7% in 2006 (p = .001). concomitantly, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene increased from 33.7% to 49% (p = .012), with a sign ...201120864220
changes in childhood diarrhea incidence in nicaragua following 3 years of universal infant rotavirus immunization.although the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the effectiveness of vaccine under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. in october 2006, nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. to assess the effect of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of león ...201120881511
frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in greece (2007-2008).rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. a prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five pediatric hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in greece. faecal samples were examined for the presence of group a rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. rotavirus strains were subjected to g and p genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ...201121108355
laboratory-based rotavirus surveillance during the introduction of a vaccination program, brazil, 2005-2009.: brazil introduced universal antirotavirus vaccination in march 2006. this article reports the results of rotavirus a (rv-a) surveillance from january 2005 to december 2009.201121048523
decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in el salvador.a recent postlicensure study from el salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. we further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination.201121048524
rotaviruses.rotaviruses can be detected easily, and methods have been developed to visualise their characteristic morphology, to detect rotavirus proteins through immunological methods or the virus genome, either directly by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or after reverse transcription of the viral rna and amplification by pcr. the abundance of virus particles found in clinical samples during an acute infection makes the detection of rotavirus proteins, mainly vp6, the method of choice for virus detecti ...201121116809
norovirus: a possible cause of pneumatosis intestinalis.pneumatosis intestinalis (pi) in children is associated with immunosuppression, mucosal disruption from trauma, obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, and gastrointestinal infections. our study is the first report of norovirus infection-associated pi.201121150655
effectiveness of the monovalent g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for severe g2p[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis in belém, brazil.brazil initiated universal immunization of infants with the g1p[8] human rotavirus (rv) vaccine in march 2006. this study evaluated vaccine effectiveness (ve) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) hospitalizations.201121150692
[first detection of human astrovirus in gastroenteritis outbreak in hungary].human astroviruses are one of the known pathogens of gastroenteritis in infants, children and rarely in elderly. it causes 4.2-7.3% of the sporadic gastroenteritis cases with diarrhea and vomiting in children. the etiological role of astrovirus has not been confirmed yet in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in hungary.201121177230
genetic characterization of bulgarian rotavirus isolates and detection of rotavirus variants: challenges for the rotavirus vaccine program?annually 20-70% of all hospital admissions and 20% of fatal diarrhea cases among children less than 5 years of age occur due to severe rotavirus diarrhea. universal immunization is the major strategy aimed at controlling rotavirus infection. the main objective of the present study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the most common rotavirus strains co-circulating in bulgaria. the sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed strain diversity and circulation of different rotavirus v ...201121181933
vp7 gene of human rotavirus a genotype g5: phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of three different lineages worldwide.group a rotavirus (rv-a) genotype g5, which is common in pigs, was also detected in children with severe diarrhea in brazil, argentina, paraguay, cameroon, china, thailand, and vietnam. to evaluate the evolutionary relationship among rv-a g5 strains, the vp7 and vp4 genes of 28 brazilian rv-a g5 human strains, sampled between 1986 and 2005, were sequenced and compared with other rv-a g5 strains currently circulating worldwide in animals and humans. the phylogenetic analysis of rv-a g5 vp7 gene s ...201121181934
full genomic analysis of a g8p[1] rotavirus strain isolated from an asymptomatic infant in kenya provides evidence for an artiodactyl-to-human interspecies transmission event.group a rotavirus (gar) g8p[1] strains, found sometimes in cattle, have been reported rarely from humans. therefore, analysis of the full genomes of human g8p[1] strains are of significance in the context of studies on interspecies transmission of rotaviruses. however, to date, only partial-length nucleotide sequences are available for the 11 genes of a single human g8p[1] strain, while the partial sequences of two other strains have been reported. the present study reports the first complete ge ...201121181935
real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination. 201121183833
immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. in industrialized country populations, l ...201121198669
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhea-related hospitalizations among children < 5 years of age in mexico.single-strain rotavirus vaccine was added to the national immunization program in mexico in may 2007. we assessed the impact of vaccination on the number of diarrhea-related hospitalizations in mexican children in 2008 and 2009.201121183834
reduction of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among children aged < 5 years in panama following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine.in march 2006, rotavirus vaccine (rotarix, rv1) was introduced into the panamanian national immunization program. we assessed the effect of vaccine on diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among young panamanian children.201121183835
rotavirus vaccines in belgium: policy and impact.: the current belgian experience with rotavirus vaccination provides a unique perspective to look at the effect of vaccination. shortly after introduction, a nation-wide recommendation was issued and despite the fact that both rotavirus vaccines are offered through partial reimbursement, vaccine uptake has already reached a high level (at least 90%).201121183836
reduction in rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis following introduction of rotavirus vaccine into australia's national childhood vaccine schedule.: rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the funded australian national immunization program (nip) in july 2007. due to purchasing arrangements, individual states and territories chose either a 2-dose rv1 (rotarix, gsk) regimen or 3-dose rv5 (rotateq, merck/csl) regimen. this allowed comparison of both vaccines in similar populations with high infant vaccination coverage.201121183837
sustained decline in rotavirus detections in the united states following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006.following implementation of the rotavirus vaccination program in 2006, rotavirus activity in the united states declined dramatically in 2007-2008 but increased slightly in 2008-2009, despite greater vaccine uptake. to further evaluate impact of the vaccine program, we assessed trends in rotavirus testing and detection during 2009-2010.201121183838
united states rotavirus strain surveillance from 2005 to 2008: genotype prevalence before and after vaccine introduction.a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine, rotateq®, was approved in 2006 for immunization of infants in the united states. to monitor the distribution of rotavirus genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, the centers for disease control and prevention conducted strain surveillance with the national rotavirus strain surveillance system.201121183839
distribution of rotavirus genotypes after introduction of rotavirus vaccines, rotarix® and rotateq®, into the national immunization program of australia.rotavirus vaccines, rotateq and rotarix, were introduced into the australian national immunization program on july 1, 2007. the simultaneous introduction in different australian states and territories provides a unique opportunity to compare the affect of each vaccine on the types of circulating rotavirus strains. this report describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalization of children during the first 2-year period after vaccine introduction.201121183840
remarkable postvaccination spatiotemporal changes in united states rotavirus activity.analyses of us laboratory surveillance data during 1991 to 2004 established annual peak rotavirus activity occurred first in the southwest and last in the northeast. we compared spatiotemporal patterns during the 2 years preceding vaccine introduction in 2006 with the first 2 years following introduction. the postvaccine introduction years failed to demonstrate the typical southwest to northeast spread of rotavirus activity.201121183841
uptake, impact, and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the united states: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data.rotavirus vaccine was recommended for routine use in us infants in 2006. before the introduction of vaccine, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in the united states.201121183842
progress in the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in latin america and the caribbean: four years of accumulated experience.two effective and safe rotavirus vaccines became available in 2006 and have been recommended for use in all countries by the world health organization. this article provides an update on the use of rotavirus vaccine in latin american and caribbean (lac) countries.201121183843
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