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concomitant use of the oral pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine and oral poliovirus vaccine.the live oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (prv) is well tolerated and highly efficacious against rotavirus gastroenteritis. this open-label, multicenter study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of coadministering oral poliovirus vaccine (opv) with prv.200818756184
severe clostridium difficile-associated disease in children.three cases of clostridium difficile-associated disease in children were detected within a short time interval. intensive therapy was required in 2 cases with colectomy in one of them. one of the severe cases was community-acquired. two patients had underlying diseases (hirschprung disease, down syndrome) and also tested positive for enteric viruses (rotavirus, calicivirus).200818756189
[rotaviruses "target" infants, noroviruses for seniors]. 200818757038
electrophoretic rna genomic profiles of rotavirus strains prevailing among hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in tehran, iran.human rotavirus has now been established as the most important cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. the rna genomic electrophoretic diversity of group a rotavirus strains in tehran, iran, during april 2002 through march 2005, was investigated in 1250 stool specimens.200818759520
survey of rotavirus surveillance, laboratory capacity and disease burden in the eastern part of the who european region.following the licensure of two rotavirus vaccines in europe, we aimed to assess factors, such as surveillance, disease burden and laboratory capacity, which will be relevant for making decisions about rotavirus vaccine introduction in the different countries. we conducted an email-based survey of the national public health bodies in the world health organization (who) european region in 2006 and report here the results from the 23 countries in the eastern part of the region. the survey included ...200818761887
one-step quantitative rt-pcr for the detection of rotavirus in acute gastroenteritis.the standard diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis is based on the demonstration of rotavirus antigen in stools using an enzyme immunoassay (eia). in this study, a one-step quantitative rt-pcr (q-pcr) was used for sensitive detection of rotavirus in diarrheal stools. the primers and taqman probe for the q-pcr were selected from a highly conserved region of the non-structural protein 3 (nsp3) of rotavirus. after validation, the test was applied to study rotavirus eia positive (n=25) and eia nega ...200818765254
issues with reducing the rotavirus-associated mortality by vaccination in developing countries.more than 65% of the global rotavirus deaths were estimated to occur in 11 countries in asia and africa, claiming 345,000 children less than 5 years of age in 2004. while efficacious rotavirus vaccines are at hand, inequity in health delivery system within and between these countries was found to be the major hurdle against achieving the goal of rotavirus vaccine. when the coverage of currently used vaccines was applied to a rotavirus vaccine, a maximum of 202,550 deaths would be averted. even i ...200818472196
rotavirus vaccines.two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines were licensed in 2006 for prevention of severe acute gastroenteritis in children: rotarixtrade mark (gsk), a human rotavirus vaccine with g1p[8] serotype characteristics and rotateqtrade mark (merck), a bovine-human reassortant vaccine expressing human g 1-4 and p[8] antigens. in prelicensure trials both vaccines showed high efficacy against severe rv gastroenteritis, low reactogenicity and no increased risk for intussusception (is) (ruiz-palacios et a ...200818609225
[construction of external standard for detection of rotavirus in water using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction].to construct external standard for detection of rotavirus in water using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, rotavirus cdna standard for real-time pcr assay was prepared by cell culture, pcr and t-a clone methods with primers specific for the viral structure protein vp7 gene, and this cdna standard was confirmed by enzyme cleavage and dna sequencing. specificity, stability and reproducibility of the cdna standard quantified were detected by common polymerase chain reaction (pcr ...200818613509
contamination of the hospital environment with gastroenteric viruses: comparison of two pediatric wards over a winter season.the aims of this study were to examine the extent of gastroenteric virus contamination in a pediatric primary immunodeficiency (ppi) ward and a general pediatric ward over a winter season and to determine whether changes to hospital infection control interventions would have an impact on environmental contamination levels within pediatric units. environmental swabs were collected weekly from 11 sites in both wards from 15 december 2005 to 3 march 2006 and examined for the presence of norovirus ( ...200818614656
importance of vaccinations for close contacts and caregivers. 200818619074
[rotavirus and its indirect costs]. 200818620683
assessment of reporting bias for clostridium difficile hospitalizations, united states. 200818680680
vp6 capsid protein of chicken rotavirus strain ch2: sequence, phylogeny and in silico antigenic analyses.the inner capsid protein vp6 of group a rotavirus possesses group and subgroup epitope specificities. avian rotaviruses have a unique vp6 that is antigenically different from its mammalian counterpart. the lack of information on the vp6 protein of chicken rotavirus strain, ch2, at the genetic and antigenic level was a major motivation for this work. sequencing of the complete cdna of the vp6 gene of ch2, revealed a nucleotide (amino acid) identity that varied from 78.3 to 98.5% (86.4-98.2%) when ...200818680770
[living with animals and rotavirus]. 200818680878
a brief account of experiences leading to rotateq vaccine. 200818682692
partial genome sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease in poultry.poult enteritis mortality syndrome (pems) of turkeys and runting-stunting syndrome (rss) of chickens are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. although a number of different viruses, including avian reoviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses and coronaviruses, have been isolated from the intestinal contents of birds in affected poultry flocks, their role in pems and rss is not yet understood. here, we report the application of a molecular screening method to detection of novel viruses in int ...200818622862
host defense against salmonella and rotaviral gastroenteritis: a serial study of transcriptional factors and cytokines.common etiologies of acute enterocolitis in childhood include the intracellular pathogens salmonella and rotavirus, along with extracellular pathogens. in order to elucidate differentiating immunologic parameters in patients with acute gastroenteritis of different etiologies, we investigated interferon (ifn)-gamma, interleukin (il)-12, and t-bet of t-helper type 1 subsets, and il-4 and gata-3 of t-helper type 2 subsets.200818629423
llama-derived single-chain antibody fragments directed to rotavirus vp6 protein possess broad neutralizing activity in vitro and confer protection against diarrhea in mice.group a rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea in human infants and newborn animals. rotavirus virions are triple-layered particles. the outer capsid proteins vp4 and vp7 are highly variable and represent the major neutralizing antigens. the inner capsid protein vp6 is conserved among group a rotaviruses, is highly immunogenic, and is the target antigen of most immunodiagnosis tests. llama-derived single-chain antibody fragments (vhh) are the smallest molecules with antige ...200818632867
detection and characterization of group c rotaviruses in asymptomatic piglets in ireland.group c rotaviruses are important human enteric pathogens that have also been detected in a variety of mammalian species, including pigs. group c rotaviruses have been identified in piglets with diarrhea, but their ecology remains to be elucidated. by screening of 292 fecal samples collected from 4- to 5-week-old asymptomatic pigs from four herds in ireland between 2005 and 2007, 13 (4.4%) samples tested positive by reverse transcription-pcr for group c rotavirus. group a rotaviruses were also d ...200818632912
prospective study of the burden of acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age, in padova, italy.data on the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in europe are needed to help understand the potential impact of introducing new rotavirus vaccines.200818633575
cerebrospinal fluid diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite levels in pediatric patients with central nervous system diseases.this study assessed the validity of cerebrospinal fluid oxidative status of pediatric patients with central nervous system diseases, using the diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites test (d-roms; diacron international s.r.l.; grosseto, italy). eighty-seven pediatric patients (8 with bacterial meningitis, 18 with aseptic meningitis, 23 with febrile seizures, 6 with rotavirus gastroenteritis-induced convulsions, 16 with epilepsy, 2 with adrenoleukodystrophy, 2 with multiple sclerosis, and 12 control ...200818639749
electron microscopic identification of viruses associated with poult enteritis in turkeys grown in california 1993-2003.poult enteritis (pe) is one of the most common diseases seen in young turkey flocks. since 1993, more than 1800 cases of suspected pe have been submitted for examination by negative stain electron microscopy; this has involved more than 2400 individual results, because in many cases more than one virus was identified; at least 1500 individual results were positive for viruses. viruses have been identified in poults as young as 3 days and up to 9 wk of age. the most commonly found viruses are rot ...200818646448
enteric viruses detected by molecular methods in commercial chicken and turkey flocks in the united states between 2005 and 2006.intestinal samples collected from 43 commercial broiler and 33 commercial turkey flocks from all regions of the united states during 2005 and 2006 were examined for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus, and coronavirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and for the presence of groups 1 and 2 adenovirus by pcr. phylogenetic analysis was performed to further characterize the viruses and to evaluate species association and geographic patterns. astroviruses were ide ...200818646452
outbreak of rotavirus variant p[8] in seoul, south korea.an epidemiologic study was performed to determine the genetic variability of rotaviruses in seoul, south korea. in 3,174 stool specimens from children with acute diarrhea at five referral hospitals, 571 (18%) possessed the antigen of group a rotavirus detectable by elisa--10.8% in 2004 and 28.1% in 2005. vp7 genotyping revealed that the g3 type was found in 25.6% of all typed isolates, g4 in 23.8%, g2 in 21.6%, and g1 in 17.6%. vp4 genotyping showed that the p[8] type was detected in 66.7%, p[6] ...200818649327
evidence for zoonotic transmission of group c rotaviruses among children in belém, brazil.the prevalence and potential zoonotic transmission of group c rotavirus (rvc) were examined by testing fecal samples collected from children during a longitudinal study that was carried out in the outskirts of belém, brazil, from december 1982 to march 1986. the study involved a group of 30 children who were followed from birth to 3 years. of the 77 samples tested from 29 children, 5 (6.5%) were positive for human and 3 (4%) for porcine rvc by using nested pcr assay with primers specific for vp6 ...200818649333
incidence and clinical characteristics of group a rotavirus infections among children admitted to hospital in kilifi, kenya.rotavirus, predominantly of group a, is a major cause of severe diarrhoea worldwide, with the greatest burden falling on young children living in less-developed countries. vaccines directed against this virus have shown promise in recent trials, and are undergoing effectiveness evaluation in sub-saharan africa. in this region limited childhood data are available on the incidence and clinical characteristics of severe group a rotavirus disease. advocacy for vaccine intervention and interpretation ...200818651787
genomic characterization of a novel group a lamb rotavirus isolated in zaragoza, spain.an ovine rotavirus (ovr) strain, 762, was isolated from a 30-day-old lamb affected with severe gastroenteritis, in zaragoza, spain, and the vp4, vp7, vp6, nsp4, and nsp5/nsp6 genes were subsequently characterized molecularly. strain ovr762 was classified as a p[14] rotavirus, as the vp4 and vp8* trypsin-cleavage product of the vp4 protein revealed the highest amino acid (aa) identity (94% and 97%, respectively) with that of the p11[14] human rotavirus (hrv) strain pa169, isolated in italy. analy ...200818661221
the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus infection in the salento peninsula, italy.the aim of this study was to delineate the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the salento peninsula, italy. the study lasted a year and included the gathering of data on hospitalizations for enteritis caused by rotaviruses in the pediatric wards of seven hospitals in the province of lecce. during 2004, 7,938 children were hospitalized; 973 of them had gastroenteric symptoms and 202 were positive for rotavirus. the percentage of admissions to hospital was high in autumn and at the begin ...200818664076
cost-effectiveness of introducing a rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: the case of mexico.in developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. the objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in mexico's national im ...200818664280
11th annual conference on vaccine research.the 11th annual conference on vaccine research, hosted by the national foundation for infectious disease, attracted approximately 450 leaders in the fields of epidemiology, health economics, immunology and vaccinology, making it the largest scientific meeting devoted exclusively to vaccine research and technology. the conference highlighted recent advancements in vaccine design, including the discovery of new adjuvants, cytokines and regulatory pathways. other topics included a comprehensive ove ...200818665770
determination of human rotavirus vp6 genogroups i and ii by reverse transcription-pcr.based on nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the partial vp6 genes, group a rotaviruses can be mainly differentiated into two genogroups. in this study, a method employing reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) and degenerate primers was established to assign the vp6 genogroup. vp6 genogroup i and genogroup ii could be determined according to the sizes of the amplicons: 380 and 780 bp, respectively. the vp6 genogroup of human reference strains of g1 to g4 and g9 types and rotateq vaccin ...200818667595
emerging g9 rotavirus strains in the northwest of china.although g9 rotaviruses have become one of the important rotavirus genotypes worldwide, they have been uncommon in china. recently, we reported g9 rotaviruses as a highly prevalent genotype in xinjiang, the northwest part of china [yang, x., matthijnssens, j., sun, h., muhamaiti, j., zhang, b., nahar, s., van ranst, m., rahman, m., 2008. temporal changes of rotavirus strain distribution in a northwest city of china, 1996-2005. int. j. infect. dis., june (epub ahead of print)]. here we report the ...200818674575
molecular characterization of vp4, vp6 and vp7 genes of a rare g8p[14] rotavirus strain detected in an infant with gastroenteritis in italy.in this study, the molecular characterization of a rare g8p[14] group a rotavirus (garv) strain detected in northern italy during the 2004-2005 epidemiological rotavirus season is described. two hundred and seventy three rotavirus-like particle positive stools out of 856 stools from children (31.9%) hospitalized with gastroenteritis were analyzed using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis and 271 garvs were genotyped by vp7 and vp4 specific rt-pcrs. one strain (pr/1300/04) with a long electrophero ...200818674577
a critique of criteria for evaluating vaccines for inclusion in mandatory school immunization programs.several new vaccines for children and young adults have been introduced recently and now appear on the advisory committee on immunization practices' recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedule (meningococcal, rotavirus, human papillomavirus). as new vaccines are introduced, states face complex decisions regarding which vaccines to fund and which vaccines to require for school or child care entry. this complexity is evidenced by the current debate surrounding the human papillomavir ...200818676536
analysis of rotavirus antigenemia and extraintestinal manifestations in children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.this study was conducted to examine the association between rotavirus antigenemia and clinical features, particularly extraintestinal manifestations, and the association between serum cytokine levels and rotavirus antigen quantity.200818676558
molecular characterization of rare bovine group a rotavirus g15p[11] and g15p[21] strains from eastern india: identification of simian sa11-like vp6 genes in g15p[21] strains.during a surveillance study (november 2001-march 2005), one rare g15p[11] and two rare g15p[21] bovine group a rotavirus strains were detected in diarrhoeic calves in eastern india. sequence analysis of the vp8*, vp6, nsp4 and nsp5 genes of the g15p[11] strain confirmed its bovine origin. although the nsp4 and nsp5 genes of the two g15p[21] strains were of bovine origin, their vp6 genes shared higher nucleotide and amino acid identities with simian strain sa11 (92.5-93.1% and 98.5-98.7%) than bo ...200818679786
diarrhea among children admitted to a private tertiary-care hospital, bangkok, thailand: a case series.we report here a case series of pediatric diarrhea cases admitted to a private tertiary-care hospital in bangkok, thailand. retrospective data were collected from computerized medical records of 2,001 children with diarrhea (80.9% thai), ages birth to 14 years, admitted to our facility during 2000-2005. the most common symptom leading to admission was vomiting (34.6%), while the most common sign was dehydration (63.6%). the largest proportion was comprised of toddlers (45.4%), followed by infant ...200818564682
temporal changes of rotavirus strain distribution in a city in the northwest of china, 1996-2005.very little is known about human rotaviruses in the northwest of china. to investigate the genomic diversity, we evaluated the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in this region covering a 10-year period (1996-2005).200818565780
rotavirus genotypes circulating in brazil before national rotavirus vaccination: a review.rotavirus vaccine was recently introduced in brazil, which has the potential to greatly reduce childhood deaths from diarrhoea. to provide baseline data to assess the effect of mass rotavirus vaccination on the ecology of circulating rotavirus strains, we systematically analysed published studies in the pre-vaccine era.200818567534
implementation of rotavirus immunization in philadelphia, pennsylvania: high levels of vaccine ineligibility and off-label use.our goal was to predict, using delayed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination as an indicator, whether the current narrowly defined age limits for pentavalent rotavirus vaccine exclude a substantial proportion of children from complete immunization against rotavirus and to assess adherence of providers to recommended age limits by examining the first 6 months of use of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in philadelphia, pennsylvania.200818595974
molecular detection of human enteric viruses in urban rivers in korea.we performed rt-nested pcr to study the distribution of human enteric viruses in urban rivers in korea. during 2002-2003, water samples were collected from four rivers in gyeonggi province, south korea. among 58 samples, 45 (77.6%), 32 (55.2%), 12 (20.7%), 2 (3.4%), 4 (6.9%), and 4 (6.9%) showed positive results with adenoviruses (advs), enteroviruses (evs), reoviruses (revs), hepatitis a viruses (havs), rotaviruses (rovs), and sapoviruses (svs), respectively. according to the binary logistic re ...200818600062
rotavirus infection in the neonatal nurseries of a tertiary care hospital in india.the majority of neonatal rotavirus infections are believed to be asymptomatic, and protection from subsequent infection and disease has been reported in neonatally infected children. in this study, we present the results of a 4-year prospective surveillance in the neonatal nurseries of a tertiary care hospital in south india.200818600189
vaccine research--11th annual conference: cutaneous formulations, universal vaccinations and recently licensed vaccines. 200818600589
recommendations for the classification of group a rotaviruses using all 11 genomic rna segments.recently, a classification system was proposed for rotaviruses in which all the 11 genomic rna segments are used (matthijnssens et al. in j virol 82:3204-3219, 2008). based on nucleotide identity cut-off percentages, different genotypes were defined for each genome segment. a nomenclature for the comparison of complete rotavirus genomes was considered in which the notations gx-p[x]-ix-rx-cx-mx-ax-nx-tx-ex-hx are used for the vp7-vp4-vp6-vp1-vp2-vp3-nsp1-nsp2-nsp3-nsp4-nsp5/6 encoding genes, resp ...200818604469
[a research on rotaviral diarrhea outbreak in guangxi province].to analyze epidemiological characters of an outbreak of rotavirus diarrhea in daxing county, guangxi province.200818574528
[use of poct (point of care tests) in the diagnosis of infectious diseases].poct have a great potential in ambulatory infectious diseases diagnosis, due to their impact on antibiotic administration and on communicable diseases prevention. some are in use for long (s. pyogenes antigen, hiv antibodies) or short time (s. pneumoniae antigen, p. falciparum). the additional major indications will be community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections, infectious diarrhoea in children (rotavirus, enterotoxigenic e. coli), and hopefully sexually transmitted infections. easy t ...200818578431
update on immunizations in children and adolescents.over the past few years, there have been many changes to the recommendations for children and adolescents by the advisory committee on immunization practices. these include dividing the immunization schedule into two parts (i.e., ages birth to six years and seven to 18 years, with catch-up schedules for each group); expanding the recommendations for influenza vaccine to children ages six months to 18 years without risk factors; expanding coverage for hepatitis a vaccine to include all children a ...200818581836
[ethics and immunization]. 200818582745
setting priorities for new vaccination programs by using public health officers and immunization managers opinions.the objective of this work was to assess the opinions of public health professionals (phps) about routinely recommended and new vaccines, and to evaluate the feasibility of using a modified basic priority rating system (bprs) approach to prioritize new immunization programs. one hundred and thirty six phps were invited to participate in the survey and 101 responded. ninty-eight percent of respondents agreed that "recommended vaccines are very useful" (mean score=9.5 out of 10). between 47% and 1 ...200818582998
delayed onset and diminished magnitude of rotavirus activity--united states, november 2007-may 2008.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children, accounting for an estimated 527,000 deaths among children aged <5 years worldwide in 2004 (1,2). in the united states, rotavirus causes few deaths (20-60) each year, but remains a substantial cause of morbidity among children, resulting in approximately 55,000--70,000 hospitalizations, 205,000-272,000 emergency department (ed) visits, and 410,000 physician office visits. in the continental united sta ...200818583958
improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the united states, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. this study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. when tested in suspension, the test product r ...200818586970
integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for the rotavirus enterotoxin.rotavirus nsp4 is a viral enterotoxin capable of causing diarrhea in neonatal mice. this process is initiated by the binding of extracellular nsp4 to target molecule(s) on the cell surface that triggers a signaling cascade leading to diarrhea. we now report that the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for nsp4. nsp4 specifically binds to the alpha1 and alpha2 i domains with apparent k(d) = 1-2.7 mum. binding is mediated by the i domain metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif, req ...200818587047
parenteral administration of rf 8-2/6/7 rotavirus-like particles in a one-dose regimen induce protective immunity in mice.rotavirus virus-like particles (rv-vlps) represent a novel strategy for development of a rotavirus subunit vaccine. in this study, rf 8-2/6/7-vlps with rotavirus vp8 protein (amino acid 1-241 of vp4) fused to the amino terminal end of a truncated vp2, were evaluated for their immunogenic and protective properties. a single intramuscular dose of, either 2 or 20 microg, rf 8-2/6/7-vlps alone or combined with a potent adjuvant poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)]phosphazene] (pcpp) induced rotavirus-specif ...200818588935
chronic rejection after combined liver and small bowel transplantation in a child with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a case report.an 11-year-old boy with irreversible intestinal failure secondary to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (cipo) and intestinal failure-associated liver disease (ifald) underwent a combined en bloc reduced liver and small bowel transplantation. he was discharged home after 9 weeks on full oral intake without requiring intravenous nutritional or fluid supplementation. the first episode of mild acute rejection, which occurred 18 months after transplantation, was successfully treated with steroids ...200818589190
[new vaccines to be considered in pediatrics and school health services]. 200818590007
molecular characterization of the nsp4 gene of human group a rotavirus samples from the west central region of brazil.nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4), encoded by group a rotavirus genome segment 10, is a multifunctional protein and the first recognized virus-encoded enterotoxin. the nsp4 gene has been sequenced, and five distinct genetic groups have been described: genotypes a-e. nsp4 genotypes a, b, and c have been detected in humans. in this study, the nsp4-encoding gene of human rotavirus strains of different g and p genotypes collected from children between 1987 and 2003 in three cities of west central regio ...200818592101
the epidemiology of human rotavirus associated with diarrhoea in kenyan children: a review.rotavirus gastroenteritis still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries, with approximately 150,000-200,000 deaths occurring annually in sub-saharan africa. we reviewed papers published over the last 30 years on the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea among the hospitalized and out-patient children in kenya. the analysis shows rotavirus prevalence of 6-56% with diarrhoea occurring throughout the year and generally exhibiting distinct peaks du ...200818593738
comparison of clinical features of childhood norovirus and rotavirus gastroenteritis in taiwan.viral gastroenteritis is a common acute infectious disease in infants and young children. this study compared the incidence and clinical features of childhood norovirus (nv) and rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis in taiwan.200819015054
molecular characterisation of a bovine-like rotavirus detected from a giraffe.rotavirus (rv), is a member of the reoviridae family and an important etiological agent of acute viral gastroenteritis in the young. rotaviruses have a wide host range infecting a broad range of animal species, however little is known about rotavirus infection in exotic animals. in this paper we report the first characterisation of a rv strain from a giraffe calf.200819014526
epidemiological shifts in severe acute gastroenteritis in us children: will rotavirus vaccination change the picture? 200819014813
inactivated rotavirus vaccines: a priority for accelerated vaccine development.live oral rotavirus vaccines have proven to be generally safe and effective to prevent severe dehydrating diarrhea among children in high and some middle income countries. however, concerns linger about rare but severe adverse events, such as intussusception and their efficacy against the full range of rotavirus serotypes. more importantly, live oral vaccines have been less immunogenic and results of trials to assess their efficacy in poor children of both africa and asia will not be available f ...200818951937
immunizations. making progress against rotavirus. 200818953698
evaluating clinical trial data and guiding future research for rotavirus vaccines. 200818949859
coadministration of rix4414 oral human rotavirus vaccine does not impact the immune response to antigens contained in routine infant vaccines in the united states.this study was conducted to confirm the absence of immune interference of 2 doses of rix4414 (rotarix) on routine infant vaccinations in the united states.200818977955
burden of rotavirus disease among children visiting pediatric emergency departments in cincinnati, ohio, and oakland, california, in 1999-2000.we assessed the incidence of rotavirus disease requiring an emergency department visit among children <5 years of age.200818977975
importance of on-time rotateq vaccination and long-term active surveillance. 200818977997
novel vaccines: bridging research, development and production.vaccines are among the greatest achievements of modern medicine, leading to the eradication of naturally occurring smallpox, the near elimination of polio and the control of diseases such as rotavirus and hepatitis a and b in industrialized countries. conventional vaccines, however, protect against a limited number of infectious diseases and, in some cases, provide incomplete protection. effective vaccines against common infections such as hiv, hepatitis c and malaria remain an unmet medical nee ...200818980535
shifting prevalence of major diarrheal pathogens in patients seeking hospital care during floods in 1998, 2004, and 2007 in dhaka, bangladesh.bangladesh experienced severe flooding and diarrheal epidemics in 2007. we compared flood data from 2007 with 2004 and 1998 for diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b hospital in dhaka. in 2007, vibrio cholerae o1 (33%), rotavirus (12%), and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (12%) were most prevalent. more severe dehydration was seen in 2007 compared with 2004 and 1998 (p < 0.001). in 2007, v. cholerae o1 inaba (52%) and ogawa (48%) were seen, whereas in 2004 and 1998 it was primarily in ...200818981509
funding of drugs: do vaccines warrant a different approach?vaccines have features that require special consideration when assessing their cost-effectiveness. these features are related to herd immunity, quality-of-life losses in young children, parental care and work loss, time preference, uncertainty, eradication, macroeconomics, and tiered pricing. advisory committees on public funding for vaccines, or for pharmaceuticals in general, should be knowledgable about these special features. we discuss key issues and difficulties in decision making for vacc ...200818992409
3d jigsaw puzzle in rotavirus assembly.in this issue of structure, lu et al. (2008) report results of structural and functional analysis of rotavirus rna-dependent rna polymerase, vp1. based on their analyses of vp1 in rna free and bound forms, the authors propose a mechanism for coordinated genome packaging and replication.200819000811
mechanism for coordinated rna packaging and genome replication by rotavirus polymerase vp1.rotavirus rna-dependent rna polymerase vp1 catalyzes rna synthesis within a subviral particle. this activity depends on core shell protein vp2. a conserved sequence at the 3' end of plus-strand rna templates is important for polymerase association and genome replication. we have determined the structure of vp1 at 2.9 a resolution, as apoenzyme and in complex with rna. the cage-like enzyme is similar to reovirus lambda3, with four tunnels leading to or from a central, catalytic cavity. a distingu ...200819000820
biometric fingerprinting for visa application: device and procedure are risk factors for infection transmission.biometric fingerprint identity verification is currently introduced in visa application and entry screening at border control. the system implies physical contact between the skin and the surface of the fingerprint-capturing and reading devices.200819006507
rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission.rotavirus causes gastroenteritis in almost all children by 5 years of age. immunity to rotavirus is incomplete, with potential for recurrent infections occurring throughout life. live rotavirus vaccines have been developed for the protection of children from severe wildtype rotavirus infections. transmission of vaccine virus strains from vaccinated children to unvaccinated contacts harbours the potential for herd immunity, but also the risk of vaccine-derived disease in immunocompromised contact ...200818922486
clinical characteristics of nosocomial rotavirus infection in children in taiwan.the aim of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of nosocomial rotavirus infection (nri) among hospitalized children.200818926946
closing the diarrhoea diagnostic gap in indian children by the application of molecular techniques.a large proportion of diarrhoeal illnesses in children in developing countries are ascribed to an unknown aetiology because the only available methods, such as microscopy and culture, have low sensitivity. this study was aimed at decreasing the diagnostic gap in diarrhoeal disease by the application of molecular techniques. faecal samples from 158 children with and 99 children without diarrhoea in a hospital in south india were tested for enteric pathogens using conventional diagnostic methods ( ...200818927413
[afebrile convulsions associated to rotavirus]. 200818928714
[incorporation of varicella-zoster virus vaccination in childhood immunization schedules].varicella is a highly infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (vzv). usually chickenpox is a self-limiting and relatively mild disease of childhood, although it is frequently more severe with significant complications, and less often, is responsible for case fatalities. varicella disease is more severe and its complications are more frequent and severe amongst high risk groups (neonates, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients). after the initial infection, the vzv remains ...200818935757
[virus removal in conventional wastewater treatment process].little has been published in the scientific literature on the distribution of pathogenic viruses and on their removal in the different treatment phases in wastewater treatment plants in italy. recent advances in molecular biology have reduced analytic costs and allowed the detection of virus directly in the environment. this study evaluates the presence of enteric viruses and their removal in three treatment plants of different sizes and which use different treatment methods. overall 92 samples ...200818936796
effect of rotavirus on serum tacrolimus level in pediatric liver transplant recipients. 200818937762
[rotavirus vaccine].rotavirus gastroenteritis is one of the most important diseases in young children. there are 400,000 to 600,000 deaths annually among children under 5 years old in the world, especially in developing countries. rotavirus vaccine has been developed since 1980s. however vaccine development and trial took a long time before the commercial available. one reason is the genetic variability of rotavirus, there are more than 10 serotypes (g types) in group a rotavirus. another reason is side reaction su ...200818939500
aetiology of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in hospitalised adults: a prospective cohort study.the aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalisation in adults frequently remains unclear. our objective was to study the causes and characteristics of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult hospitalized patients to support the clinical management of these patients.200818940017
mathematical models of cervical cancer prevention in latin america and the caribbean.using population and epidemiologic data for 33 countries in latin america and the caribbean (lac), a model-based approach estimated averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (dalys) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (i$/daly averted) for human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccination of young adolescent girls. absolute reduction in lifetime cancer risk varied between countries, depending on incidence, proportion attributable to hpv-16 and 18, and population age-str ...200818945403
human papillomavirus vaccine policy and delivery in latin america and the caribbean.cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (hpv) is a major preventable public health problem. two vaccines are now available for primary prevention of hpv infection and their introduction offers new opportunities to enhance comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control. currently, hpv vaccine price is a significant barrier to rapid vaccine introduction and access. therefore, making evidence-based decisions about whether and how to introduce hpv vaccine into the immunization schedule ...200818945405
phylogenetic analysis of rotaviruses with genotypes g1, g2, g9 and g12 in bangladesh: evidence for a close relationship between rotaviruses from children and adults.to clarify the phylogenetic relatedness of rotaviruses causing gastroenteritis in children and adults, an epidemiologic investigation was conducted in mymensingh, bangladesh, during the period between july 2004 and june 2006. a total of 2,540 stool specimens from diarrheal patients from three hospitals were analyzed. overall, rotavirus-positive rates in children and adults were 26.4 and 10.1%, respectively. among the 155 rotavirus specimens examined genetically from both children and adults, the ...200818839059
functional mx protein does not prevent experimental biliary atresia in balb/c mice.biliary atresia (ba) is a rare cholestatic disease, which manifests itself in the form of inflammation of the liver and bile ducts in newborns, with an unknown etiology and a poor outcome. mx proteins, which are mediators of innate, antiviral resistance induced by type i interferon, were recently detected in the livers of children with ba. therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether the expression of mx protein could affect the course of experimental ba in mice. a total of 185 newbor ...200818841540
aichi virus, norovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, and rotavirus involved in clinical cases from a french oyster-related gastroenteritis outbreak.following a flooding event close to a shellfish production lagoon, 205 cases of gastroenteritis were linked to oyster consumption. twelve stool samples from different individuals were collected. analysis showed that eight samples were positive for multiple enteric viruses, and one stool sample had seven different enteric viruses. analysis of shellfish implicated in the outbreak allowed detection of the same diversity of enteric viruses, with some viral genomic sequences being identical to those ...200818842942
epidemiology, clinical presentations and burden of rotavirus diarrhea in children under five seen at ramathibodi hospital, thailand.to be able to monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccines in the future, the authors designed the present study along with the rotavirus surveillance project-thailand.200818843863
microbiological and epidemiological aspects of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus infections in hospitalized children in italy.rotaviruses and enteric adenoviruses are the most important causative agents of acute infantile gastroenteritis worldwide. from july 2005 to june 2007, 445 stool specimens from pediatric patients hospitalized with acute diarrhea were collected and tested for the presence of rotaviruses and enteric adenoviruses using an immunochromatographic assay. rotavirus infection was detected in 123 cases (27.6%, ranging from 31.7% in 2005-2006 to 24.2% in 2006-2007); adenovirus infection occurred in 17 case ...200818843886
[outbreak of rotavirus diarrhea among children in funing county]. 200818844005
[molecular detection of shiga toxin-producing (stx1) escherichia coli and rotavirus in stools of children with diarrhea].the presence of e. coli producer of shiga toxin and rotavirus was investigated in 90 stool samples from children less than 3 years old with diarrhea. three aliquots were separated from each sample: the first one underwent previous enrichment for e. coli o157, the second one was plated on agar macconkey-sorbitol and red eosine with mug, and the last one was frozen at -70 degrees c for the later analysis of rotavirus. the search of the antigen o157 of e. coli was carried out by immunochromatograph ...200818846778
next generation of human vaccines: what does the future hold?the world vaccine congress was held in arlington, va april 21st-24th, 2008. tevi troy, the deputy secretary of the us department of health and human services, set the tone of the meeting during his keynote address. he discussed the government's plan to deliver a strategic outlook and follow a road map for vaccine development. he also emphasized the importance of ongoing cooperation between industry and the government's many departments. in an electrifying keynote address gregory poland, professo ...200818849649
protein profile and morphometry of cultured human blastocystis hominis from children with gastroenteritis and healthy ones.a total of 180 children of age group 5-12 years old in both sexes, of whom 90 were symptomatic and negative for other parasites, rotavirus or pathogenic bacteria. another 90 children were asymptomatic, but with b. hominis in stools. direct smear, formaline-ethyl acetate sedimentation concentration, kinyon carbol-fuchin stain, stool culture, enzyme immunoassay, culturing, morphometric study, gel electrophoresis and experimental infection of mice were done. the results showed that the central body ...200818853619
enteric viruses in pediatric diarrhea in saudi arabia.between september 1st, 2002 and august 31st, 2003, a panel of 1,000 stool samples was collected from patients presenting with diarrhea in the three major urban centers of saudi arabia; riyadh, mecca, and jeddah. each sample was tested for rotavirus, and astrovirus by elisa, g and p type was determined for all rotaviruses. adenoviruses were sought by hexon-specific pcr and identified by rflp. a subset of 253 samples was also tested for norovirus by elisa. data were analyzed for seasonality of inf ...200818814232
emergence of the gii4/2006b variant and recombinant noroviruses in china.noroviruses are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis. increasing data showed that the gii-4 strains are predominant worldwide and new gii-4 variants emerge every 1-2 years causing major epidemics. surveillance of gastroenteritis in hospitalized children under 5 years of age in china is described. among 1,110 specimens, 114 (10.3%) were positive for noroviruses, which was higher than adenoviruses (7.6%), astroviruses (3.5%), and sapoviruses (0.9%) and only lower than group a rotaviruses (4 ...200818814250
whole genomic characterization of a human rotavirus strain b219 belonging to a novel group of the genus rotavirus.novel rotavirus strains b219 and adrv-n derived from adult diarrheal cases in bangladesh and china, respectively, are considered to belong to a novel rotavirus group (species) distinct from groups a, b, and c, by genetic analysis of five viral genes encoding vp6, vp7, nsp1, nsp2, and nsp3. in this study, the nucleotide sequences of the remaining six b219 gene segments encoding vp1, vp2, vp3, vp4, nsp4, and nsp5 were determined. the nucleotide sequences of the group b human rotavirus vp1 and vp3 ...200818814255
molecular characterization of vp6-encoding gene of group a human rotavirus samples from central west region of brazil.group a rotaviruses are the main cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. the intermediate capsid protein vp6 encoded by segment 6 of the dsrna genome is the major structural component of the virus and it is highly antigenic and immunogenic. vp6 is responsible for group and subgroup (sg) specificities, allowing classification of group a rotavirus into sg i, sg ii, sg i + ii, and sg non-i-non-ii. vp6-encoding gene of 154 group a human rotavirus samples of different g and p genotypes ...200818814260
[rotaviruses in younger children in novosibirsk in 2005-2007: detection and genotyping].examination of 1898 patients with acute enteric infection from march 2005 to february 2007 showed that group a rotaviruses were the most frequent cause (35%) of acute gastroenteritis among children under 3 years of age. majority of cases of rotavirus infection was detected in infants under 1 year of age (71.8%). the peak of sporadic incidence was observed between february and may. high rate of mixed infection (45.6%) was observed - associations of rotaviruses with other viruses (noroviruses, ast ...200818819400
molecular epidemic features and variation of rotavirus among children with diarrhea in lanzhou, china, 2001-2006.human rotavirus (hrv) is the most common pathogen causing severe diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide. this study aims to understand rotavirus epidemiology and its variation in the period of 2001-2006 in lanzhou, gansu province, china, and to provide an epidemiological basis for the development of rotavirus vaccine.200818822928
infectious diseases and vaccine sciences: strategic directions.despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in bangladesh. bangladesh has experienced a > 90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zin ...200818831226
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