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compatible immuno-nasba loc device for quantitative detection of waterborne pathogens: design and validation.waterborne pathogens usually pose a global threat to animals and human beings. there has been a growing demand for convenient and sensitive tools to detect the potential emerging pathogens in water. in this study, a lab-on-a-chip (loc) device based on the real-time immuno-nasba (immuno-nucleic acid sequence-based amplification) assay was designed, fabricated and verified. the disposable immuno-nasba chip is modelled on a 96-well elisa microplate, which contains 43 reaction chambers inside the bi ...201122146918
outstanding challenges for rotavirus vaccine introduction in low-income countries--a systematic review.rotavirus infections are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide. two internationally licensed rotavirus vaccines have proven to be efficacious in middle and high-income countries and they could potentially be valuable tools for the prevention of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in low-income countries where the disease burden is greatest. however, before the vaccines can be introduced into the national immunisation programmes in these countries, many challenges related to ...201121975154
developing novel antisecretory drugs to treat infectious diarrhea.diarrhea, a disease of poverty and poor sanitation, kills an estimated two million children each year. oral rehydration therapy is a very simple and inexpensive treatment that has significantly reduced mortality from secretory diarrhea caused by rotavirus, cholera and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli. the efficacy and adoption of oral rehydration therapy would be enhanced by a drug that reduces fluid loss associated with these diseases and alleviates disease symptoms. secretion and absorption by ...201121859305
inhibitory effects of bile acids and synthetic farnesoid x receptor agonists on rotavirus replication.rotaviruses (group a rotaviruses) are the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. currently, an antiviral drug is not available and information on therapeutic targets for antiviral development is limited for rotavirus infection. previously, it was shown that lipid homeostasis is important in rotavirus replication. since farnesoid x receptor (fxr) and its natural ligands bile acids (such as chenodeoxycholic acid [cdca]) play major roles in cholesterol and ...201121957312
horizontal transmission of a human rotavirus vaccine strain--a randomized, placebo-controlled study in twins.transmission of excreted vaccine-derived infectious virus from vaccinated to unvaccinated individuals is possible within close contacts. this randomized (1:1), double-blind study evaluated the potential for transmission of human rotavirus vaccine strain, hrv (rotarix™) from vaccine recipients to unvaccinated close contacts (twins). 100 pairs of healthy twins aged 6-14 weeks at the time of dose 1 of hrv vaccine/placebo were enrolled and one randomly selected twin from each pair received two vacci ...201122008819
Healthy-days time equivalents for outcomes of acute rotavirus infections.Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Health-state utility measures used in economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccines do not reflect differences between mild and severe symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis and, therefore, do not adequately capture preferences for non-fatal outcomes associated with rotavirus common in industrialized countries. This paper describes the development and results of a survey specifically designed to dev ...201121864612
unexpected benefits of rotavirus vaccination in the united states. 201121878426
childhood diarrhea deaths after rotavirus vaccination in mexico. 201121864191
gavi rolls out vaccines against child killers to more countries. 201121957215
antigenemia, rnaemia, and innate immunity in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea.antigenemia is commonly detected in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea, but the prevalence of viremia has not been clearly defined. we examined antigenemia in plasma and rnaemia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of children with acute diarrhea by eia, rt-pcr, and southern hybridization, using primers and a probe specific to rotavirus nsp4 gene. we detected the presence of rotavirus antigen in 33.3% and almost full-length nsp4 gene in 70.8% of the acute-phase plasma and pbmc, respe ...201122176605
Tilt-pair analysis of images from a range of different specimens in single-particle electron cryomicroscopy.The comparison of a pair of electron microscope images recorded at different specimen tilt angles provides a powerful approach for evaluating the quality of images, image-processing procedures, or three-dimensional structures. Here, we analyze tilt-pair images recorded from a range of specimens with different symmetries and molecular masses and show how the analysis can produce valuable information not easily obtained otherwise. We show that the accuracy of orientation determination of individua ...201121939668
bluetongue virus vp1 polymerase activity in vitro: template dependency, dinucleotide priming and cap dependency.bluetongue virus (btv) protein, vp1, is known to possess an intrinsic polymerase function, unlike rotavirus vp1, which requires the capsid protein vp2 for its catalytic activity. however, compared with the polymerases of other members of the reoviridae family, btv vp1 has not been characterized in detail.201122110731
Low prevalence of rotavirus and high prevalence of norovirus in hospital and community wastewater after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in nicaragua.Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these ...201122016794
maintaining vaccine delivery following the introduction of the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines in thailand.although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (rv) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (pcv-7) to their national immunization programs (epis), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). we developed detailed computational models of the trang province, thailand, vaccine ...201121931805
Global study of viral diarrhea in hospitalized children in Spain: results of structural surveillance of viral gastroenteritis net work (VIGESS-net) 2006-2008.Detection and characterization of gastroenteritis cases (viruses) was conducted during eleven years through the surveillance VIGESS-net, which was created in an effort to conduct a structured surveillance of rotavirus genotypes co-circulating in Spain.201121963269
intussusception after rotavirus vaccination--spontaneous reports. 201122129263
survey of national immunization programs and vaccine coverage rates in asia pacific countries.children in the asia pacific region are still suffering from certain vaccine-preventable diseases. the current study surveyed the national immunization programs and vaccine uptake of traditional and newly developed vaccines in 12 countries in this area. the results showed children in most countries were well protected from conventional vaccine-preventable diseases, while immunization programs for certain diseases such as poliovirus or measles should be strengthened in certain countries. protecti ...201122075085
Effect of Detection Methods on Risk Estimates of Exposure to Biosolids-Associated Human Enteric Viruses.This study illustrates the effect of virus detection methods on estimates of risks of infection of biosolids-associated viruses for occupational workers and residential population during a hypothetical exposure of biosolids. Five gastroenteritis-associated human enteric viruses-enteroviruses (echovirus-12, enteroviruse types 68-71), adenoviruses, rotaviruses, and noroviruses genotype-I-were considered to represent human enteric viruses for risk estimation purposes. Ingested viral doses were calc ...201122050302
molecular characterization of two strains of porcine group c rotavirus.group c rotaviruses are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals. fecal samples were collected from a porcine herd in july, 2009. group c rotavirus rna was detected using rt-pcr for the vp6 gene. the identified strain was further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial vp4, and complete vp6 and vp7 gene sequences. the partial vp4 and complete vp6 gene sequences of the cuk-5 strain were most closely related to those of the cuk-6 strain of grou ...201122203575
group a rotavirus detection on environmental surfaces in a hospital intensive care unit.background: environmental surfaces can play a role in the spread of pathogens, such as enteric viruses, within a hospital. this study assessed the level of contamination of group a rotavirus (rv-a) on environmental surfaces samples from an adult intensive care unit in a hospital in rio de janeiro, brazil. methods: a total of 504 environmental surface samples were obtained from multiple sites in the intensive care unit, including flushing buttons, telephones, and alcohol gel supports. nested and ...201122018841
Enteroendocrine and Neuronal Mechanisms in Pathophysiology of Acute Infectious Diarrhea.BACKGROUND: While enterocyte secretion is the predominant mechanism considered responsible for secretory diarrhea in response to acute enteric infections, there are several lines of evidence that support alternative mechanisms controlling fluid and electrolyte secretion in diarrhea. AIM: To review enteroendocrine and neuronal mechanisms that participate in the development of acute infectious diarrhea. ...201122001941
vaccines and future global health needs.increased international support for both research into new vaccines and their deployment in developing countries has been evident over the past decade. in particular, the gavi alliance has had a major impact in increasing uptake of the six common infant vaccines as well as those against hepatitis b and yellow fever. it further aims to introduce pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines in the near future and several others, including those against human papillomavirus, meningococcal disease, rubella a ...201121893548
progress in the introduction of rotavirus vaccine - latin america and the caribbean, 2006-2010.rotavirus disease is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea in latin america and the caribbean (lac), where an estimated 8,000 deaths related to rotavirus diarrhea occur annually among children aged <5 years. after two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines became available, the world health organization (who) in 2007 recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization programs of europe and the americas, and in 2009 expanded the recommendation to al ...201122129995
evidence of conserved epitopes in variable region of vp8* subunit of vp4 protein of rotaviruses of p[8]-1 and p[8]-3 lineages.although antibody responses to the human rotavirus vp4 protein have been reported, few studies have analyzed the specificity of these responses to the vp8* subunit. this study investigated antibody responses generated against the variable region of the vp4 protein (vp8* subunit) in children infected with rotavirus genotype p[8]. recombinant vp8* subunit (rvp8*) and truncations corresponding aa 1-102 <br />(peptide a) and 84-180 (peptide b) of rotavirus strains p[8]-1 and p[8]-3 lineages were exp ...201121978162
2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.background: who recommends routine use of rotavirus vaccines in all countries, particularly in those with high mortality attributable to diarrhoeal diseases. to establish the burden of life-threatening rotavirus disease before the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine, we aimed to update the estimated number of deaths worldwide in children younger than 5 years due to diarrhoea attributable to rotavirus infection. methods: we used pubmed to identify studies of at least 100 children younger than 5 y ...201122030330
occurrence of norovirus and other enteric viruses in untreated groundwaters of korea.a total of 39 water samples from 23 different groundwater wells in korea were collected and analyzed in order to monitor the occurrence of norovirus (nov) and other indicator microbes as the first part of a national survey of groundwater. more than 500 l of untreated groundwater were filtered through 1mds filters. following elution and concentration by organic flocculation, pcr and sequence analysis were employed to detect and identify nov, enterovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis a virus and adenoviru ...201121976201
toxic megacolon.toxic megacolon represents a dreaded complication of mainly inflammatory or infectious conditions of the colon. it is most commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), i.e., ulcerative colitis or ileocolonic crohn's disease. lately, the epidemiology has shifted toward infectious causes, specifically due to an increase of clostridium difficile-associated colitis possibly due to the extensive (ab)use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. other important infectious etiologies include salmone ...201122009735
a multi-center, qualitative assessment of pediatrician and maternal perspectives on rotavirus vaccines and the detection of porcine circovirus.in 2010, researchers using novel laboratory techniques found that us-licensed rotavirus vaccines contain dna or dna fragments from porcine circovirus (pcv), a virus common among pigs but not believed to cause illness in humans. we sought to understand pediatricians' and mothers' perspectives on this finding.201121943237
immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable haemophilus influenzae protein d conjugate vaccine (phid-cv) in mexican infants.the immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, phid-cv, have been documented in european and asian studies. in this open study conducted in mexico (nct00489554), 230 healthy infants received three doses of phid-cv and dtpa-hbv-ipv/hib vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age and two doses of oral human rotavirus vaccine at 2 and 4 months. serotype-specific pneumococcal responses and opsonophagocytic activity (opa) were measured one month post-dose 3. phid-cv's primary ...201122048109
impact of rotavirus vaccination on childhood gastroenteritis-related mortality and hospital discharges in panama.background: rotavirus vaccination was introduced in panama in march 2006. this study was carried out in order to describe the trends in gastroenteritis-related (ger) hospitalizations and mortality in children <5 years of age during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. methods: data from the expanded program on immunization (ministry of health) were used to calculate vaccine coverage. ger mortality and hospitalizations were obtained through database review of the contraloría general de la repúb ...201122154592
health economics of rotavirus immunization in vietnam: potentials for favorable cost-effectiveness in developing countries.introduction: rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea worldwide. vietnam is situated in the region of high rotavirus infection incidence and eligible for financial support to introduce rotavirus vaccines into the expanded program of immunization (epi) from the gavi. this study was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in vietnam, explicitly the use of rotateq(®) and to assess the affordability of implementing universal rotavirus immunization based on ...201122119590
antigenemia and cytokine expression in rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.background: antigenemia is commonly found in children with rotavirus infection, although its clinical significance is undetermined. the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of antigenemia with clinical manifestations and cytokine profiles in children infected by rotavirus. methods: in total, 68 children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis were enrolled. serum samples were collected for detection of antigenemia and viremia. clinical, laboratory and demographic data were analy ...201122169122
rotavirus shedding in premature infants following first immunization.there is limited data regarding rotavirus vaccine shedding in premature infants. we describe the natural history of rotavirus shedding in premature infants in the 2-week period following first immunization with rotateq(®), the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5), and the risk for symptomatic transmission to household contacts (hhc).201121856359
sensitivity of poliovirus type 1 chat strain and rotavirus sa-11 to e-beam irradiation on iceberg lettuce and spinach: quantifying the reduction in potential health risks.fresh produce such as lettuce and spinach serve as routes of foodborne illnesses. the u.s. fda has approved the use of ionizing irradiation upto 4 kgy as a pathogen kill step for fresh cut lettuce and spinach. the focus of this study was to determine the inactivation of poliovirus and rotavirus on lettuce and spinach when exposed to varying doses of high energy e-beam irradiation and to calculate the theoretical reduction in infection risks that can be achieved under different contamination scen ...201122179244
co-circulation of g1, g2 and g9 rotaviruses in hospitalized patients in bangladesh during 2006-2009.rotavirus strain diversity in bangladesh has been explored since 1985 and as seen in other parts of the world, rotaviruses have shown tremendous strain diversity overtime. rotavirus antigen was detected in stool specimens using a solid-phase sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay. a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was performed for rotavirus g and p genotypes. this current study was carried out between 2006 and 2009 during which time 1,607 (23%) of 7,058 fecal specim ...201121860255
detection of avian rotaviruses of groups a, d, f and g in diseased chickens and turkeys from europe and bangladesh.avian rotaviruses (avrvs) represent a diverse group of intestinal viruses, which are suspected as the cause of several diseases in poultry with symptoms of diarrhoea, growth retardation or runting and stunting syndrome (rss). to assess the distribution of avrvs in chickens and turkeys, we have developed specific pcr protocols. these protocols were applied in two field studies investigating faecal samples or intestinal contents of diseased birds derived from several european countries and banglad ...201122079218
vaccine-preventable diseases and their impact on latin american children.a joint meeting of the latin american society of pediatric infectious diseases, the dominican society of pediatrics and the dominican society of vaccinology was held in the dominican republic. this report highlights the most relevant issues that were presented and discussed about vaccine-preventable diseases, their epidemiology and impact in latin american children, the need to move forward and expand national immunization programs and the economical and political obstacles to introduce ?new? va ...201122085169
probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea.probiotics have been extensively studied over the past several years in the prevention and, to a larger extent, in the treatment of diarrheal diseases, especially in pediatric populations. diarrhea is a symptom, and not a disease. this review will not address chronic disorders associated with diarrhea, or clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea. rather it will focus on published clinical trials performed on acute-onset, likely infectious diarrhea occurring in the settings of day-care centers, in ...201121992955
lack of correlation between virus barosensitivity and the presence of a viral envelope during inactivation of human rotavirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and avian metapneumovirus by high-pressure processing.high-pressure processing (hpp) is a nonthermal technology that has been shown to effectively inactivate a wide range of microorganisms. however, the effectiveness of hpp on inactivation of viruses is relatively less well understood. we systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (ph) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the pressure inactivation of a nonenveloped virus (human rotavirus [hrv]) and two enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus [vsv] and avian ...201122003028
detection of human g10 rotavirus strains with similarity to bovine and bovine-like equine strains from untypable samples.g10 rotaviruses, which are usually found in cattle, have also been reported in neonatal infections in recent years. during the rotavirus surveillances of children less than 4years of age between 2003 and 2006 in kolkata, eastern india, 60 out of 1153 samples could not be typed. all 60 samples gave usual electropherotype pattern in polyacrylamide gel. thirty-one out of these 60 g and p untypable rotavirus strains were successfully characterized during the study. among 31 samples, g9p[4] (n=8), g1 ...201122155585
identification of lineage iii of g12 rotavirus strains in diarrheic children in the northern region of brazil between 2008 and 2010.this study reports on the surveillance for rotavirus genotypes and the identification of g12 human rotavirus in the northern region of brazil. rotavirus-positive samples were collected from children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea from january 2008 to october 2010. g2p[4] was the most prevalent genotype, accounting for 45.6% (126/303) of cases. five rotavirus strains bearing g12p[6] genotype specificity were detected. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 gene showed that g12 strains clustered in ...201121947565
[rotavirus vaccines: a long and difficult journey].diarrhea is the second cause of death worldwide. the main causative agent in infants and children less than 5 years is rotavirus. consequently, for the world health organization and the global alliance for vaccines and immunization (gavi), rotavirus vaccination is an urgent priority. the global distribution of rotavirus serotypes varies from country to country, but in 80-90% of cases is caused by five types: g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8] and g9p[8]. currently, two rotavirus vaccines are availab ...201122112634
prevalence of human rotavirus genotypes in wuhan, china, during 2008-2011: changing trend of predominant genotypes and emergence of strains with the p[8]b subtype of the vp4 gene.hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus genotypes was conducted in wuhan, china, between march 2008 and may 2011. the detection rates of group a rotavirus were 24.6% (458/1859) and 12.1% (96/795) in children and adults, respectively, with diarrhea. among the 554 positive specimens, the most frequent genotype was g3p[8] (57.9%), followed by g1p[8] (29.4%). compared with previous studies in wuhan (2000-2008), the relative frequency of g3p[8] has been decreasing year by year, while the predominant ...201121986895
glycan-modifying bacteria-derived soluble factors from bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and lactobacillus casei inhibit rotavirus infection in human intestinal cells.rotaviruses attach to intestinal cells in a process that requires glycan recognition. some bacteria from the gut microflora have been shown to modify cell-surface glycans. in this study, human intestinal cultured cells were incubated with bacteria-derived soluble factors and infected with rotavirus. results show that only bacterial soluble factors that increase cell-surface galactose namely, those of bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and lactobacillus casei were able to efficiently block rotavirus in ...201122079149
[hemicerebellitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis.] 201122206883
hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in catalonia, spain, 2003-2008.abstract:201122013948
patient volume and quality of care for young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis.to explore the relationship between the volume of children admitted to the hospital with acute gastroenteritis and adherence to recommended quality indicators.201121893651
[rotavirus vaccine].rotavirus is the single main cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age, resulting in over 527,000 deaths worldwide annually. the majority of rotavirus-related deaths are seen in less-developed countries; in developed countries, rotavirus is an infrequent cause of death but a commom cause of hospitalizations. rotavirus gastroenteritis was also estimated to result in approximately 790,000 doctor visits every year leading to medical intervention among children aged ...201121922762
applications of pcr (real-time and masstag) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed u.s. military personnel during exercise balikatan 2009, philippines.laboratory-based surveillance for diarrheal and respiratory illness was conducted at the 2009 republic of the philippines-united states balikatan exercise to determine the presence of specific pathogens endemic in the locations where the military exercises were conducted. ten stool and 6 respiratory specimens were obtained from individuals meeting case definitions for diarrhea or respiratory illness. stool specimens were frozen in dry ice and remotely tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...201122128641
molecular detection of three gastroenteritis viruses in urban surface waters in beijing and correlation with levels of fecal indicator bacteria.to assess the presence of three gastroenteritis viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in surface water, a 1-year study was carried out in the city of beijing, china. a total of 108 urban surface water samples were collected from nine collection sites which were defined with a global positioning system in rivers or lakes from september 2006 to august 2007. the water samples were subjected to virus concentration using an ha electronegative filter, followed by polymerase chain reactio ...201121915594
analysis of rotavirus antigenemia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.systemic rotavirus infection, such as rotavirus antigenemia, has been found in immunocompetent rotavirus gastroenteritis patients. however, the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in immunocompromised transplant recipients remains unclear. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure rotavirus antigen levels in serially collected serum samples obtained from 62 pediatric patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (hsct). rotavirus antigen was detected in 43 (6.8%) ...201122093089
whole genome analysis of multiple rotavirus strains from a single stool specimen using sequence-independent amplification and 454® pyrosequencing reveals evidence of intergenotype genome segment recombination.infection of a single host cell with two or more different rotavirus strains creates conditions favourable for evolutionary mechanisms like reassortment and recombination that can generate novel strains. despite numerous reports describing mixed rotavirus infections, whole genome characterisation of rotavirus strains in a mixed infection case has not been reported. double-stranded rna, exhibiting a long electropherotype pattern only, was extracted from a single human stool specimen (rva/human-wt ...201122019521
the african vaccine-preventable diseases network: a vaccine advocacy initiative.achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. thus, africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. one such initiative is the african vaccine-preventable diseases network, formed in 2009. this association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious dis ...201122121433
transaminase on rotavirus gastroenteritis.background:  children infected with rotavirus often show increased levels of transaminase, and their symptom is characterized by white stool similar as in biliary atresia. rotavirus infections are also sporadically accompanied with convulsions, encephalopathy and reye syndrome. methods:  we evaluated the results of the liver function tests, mainly the elevation of transaminase and interleukin (il)-6 in rotavirus gastroenteritis with or without convulsions in order to better understand their clin ...201122136601
cost-effectiveness of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine for children ≤5 years of age in taiwan.a markov model was used to assess the impact of rv5, a pentavalent (g1, g2, g3, g4, p1a[8]) human bovine (wc3 strain) reassortant rotavirus vaccine, on reducing the healthcare burden and cost associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in taiwan. other cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccination in industrialized countries have produced varying results depending on the input parameters assumed.201121919673
genetic analyses reveal differences in the vp7 and vp4 antigenic epitopes between human rotaviruses circulating in belgium and rotaviruses in rotarix&trade; and rotateq&trade;two live-attenuated rotavirus group a (rva) vaccines, rotarix™ (g1p[8]) and rotateq™ (g1-g4, p[8]), have been successfully introduced in many countries worldwide, including belgium. the parental rva strains used to generate the vaccines were isolated more than 20 years ago in france (g4 parental strain in rotateq™) and the united states (all other parental strains). at present, little is known about the relationship between currently circulating human rvas and the vaccine strains. in this study, ...201122189107
[Application of clinical pathways in children with Rotavirus enteritis].Clinical pathways are standardized, multidisciplinary, integrated management plans. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of clinical pathways in children with Rotavirus enteritis.201122000440
In situ gastrointestinal protection against anthrax edema toxin by single-chain antibody fragment producing lactobacilli.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anthrax is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is regarded as one of the most prominent bioterrorism threats. Anthrax toxicity is induced by the tripartite toxin complex, composed of the receptor-binding anthrax protective antigen and the two enzymatic subunits, lethal factor and edema factor. Recombinant lactobacilli have previously been used to deliver antibody fragments directed against surface epitopes of a variety of pathogens, including Streptococcus mutan ...201122185669
effects of lactoferrin-containing formula in the prevention of enterovirus and rotavirus infection and impact on serum cytokine levels: a randomized trial.lactoferrin has been shown to exhibit anti-enterovirus 71 (ev71) and antirotavirus properties. this trial was conducted to determine whether a formula containing bovine lactoferrin (blf) exerts a protective effect against ev71 or rotavirus infection among children from 2 to 6 years old.201121880194
detection of enterovirus 71 using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp).reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp), which is a visual assay for nucleic acids, is performed in a single step using one tube at 65°c for 1.5h. in this study, rt-lamp was established as a method for the detection of enterovirus 71 (ev71). the detection limit of the assay was approximately 10 copies, and no cross-reactivity was noted with coxsackievirus a16, echovirus, human rotavirus (hrv) or norovirus. this assay, which offers greater sensitivity at a lower cos ...201122155579
the role of type-2 turkey astrovirus in poult enteritis syndrome.an experimental study was conducted to determine the comparative pathogenicity of type-2 turkey astrovirus (tastv-2) obtained from turkey flocks afflicted with poult enteritis syndrome (pes) and from turkey flocks displaying no apparent signs of infection. in total, ninety 7-d-old poults, which tested negative for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and reovirus by reverse transcriptase (rt) pcr , were divided evenly into 3 groups: a, b, and c. birds in group a were inoculated or ...201122080013
socio-economic modelling of rotavirus vaccination in castilla y leon, spain.rotavirus is one of the main causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. furthermore, rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization and death from acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. although death due to rotavirus is rare in industrialized regions such as spain, the rotavirus disease burden and its economic impact is severe. this study aims to assess systematic vaccination against rotavirus economically and socially in a spanish region. econo ...201122037437
Infant rotavirus vaccination may provide indirect protection to older children and adults in the United States.Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in the United States, rotavirus and cause-unspecified gastroenteritis discharges significantly decreased in 2008 in the 0-4, 5-14, and 15-24-year age groups, with significant reductions observed in March, the historic peak rotavirus month, in all age groups. We estimate that 15% of the total 66 000 averted hospitalizations and 20% of the $204 million in averted direct medical costs attributable to the vaccination program were among unvaccinated ...201121878425
the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in armenia.the cost-effectiveness of introducing infant rotavirus vaccination in armenia in 2012 using rotarix(r) was evaluated using a multiple birth cohort model. the model considered the cost and health implications of hospitalisations, primary health care consultations and episodes not leading to medical care in children under five years old. rotavirus vaccination is expected to cost the ministry of health $220,000 in 2012, rising to $830,000 in 2016 following termination of gavi co-financing, then dec ...201121945959
determination of bovine rotavirus g serotype by polymerase chain reaction.a total of 113 diarrheic samples comprising of 68 buffalo calves and 45 cow calves were screened by rna-page for the detection of presence of rotavirus. rna-page analysis of these samples revealed 11 (9.73%) was found positive for rotavirus. out of 68 faecal samples of buffalo calves tested for viral gastroenteritis, 8 (11.76%) were found positive for rotavirus. similarly, out of 45 faecal samples of cattle calves tested for viral gastroenteritis, 3 (6.66%) was found positive for rotavirus. rota ...201121892766
acute motor-sensory axonal guillain-barré syndrome with unilateral facial nerve paralysis after rotavirus gastroenteritis in a 2-year-old boy.guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) is well known as presenting with acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies, with strong associations with antecedent infections. several variant forms of gbs have been described, including acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, acute motor axonal neuropathy, acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy, and sensory gbs. we present a rare case of 2-year-old boy with acute motor and sensory polyneuropathy and left-sided facial nerve paralysis after rotavirus infection ...201121915637
Decreasing Rate of Biliary Atresia in Taiwan: A Survey, 2004-2009.Objectives: The pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA) is unclear, but epidemiological studies may help to elucidate possible causes. The goals of this study were to identify BA incidence changes in Taiwan in 2004-2009 and to survey the factors that might influence incidence changes to elucidate the possible causes of BA. Methods: A Taiwan national registry system for BA has been established since 2004. By using data from the national registry system for BA, we identified BA incidence changes in 2 ...201121873702
Neutralizing antibodies against rotavirus produced in transgenically labelled purple tomatoes.Edible fruits are inexpensive biofactories for human health-promoting molecules that can be ingested as crude extracts or partially purified formulations. We show here the production of a model human antibody for passive protection against the enteric pathogen rotavirus in transgenically labelled tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a recombinant human immunoglobulin A (hIgA_2A1) selected against the VP8* peptide of rotavirus SA11 strain were obtained. The amount of hIgA_2A1 protei ...201122070155
Oral immunoglobulin for the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in low birth weight infants.Rotavirus infection is the most common neonatal nosocomial viral infection. It is a major health problem worldwide. Epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported in neonatal units globally. These strains can cause severe symptoms in most infected infants. Infection control measures become necessary and the utilization of hospital resources increase. Local mucosal immunity in the intestine to rotavirus is important in the resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infe ...201121975740
[Detection and genotyping of rotavirus in diarrhea infant feces in Chengdu].To study the genotype of rotavirus and the genetic variations of the major neutralization antigen VP4 of group A rotavirus in fecal samples from infants with diarrhea in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China.201121866637
Novel structural insights into rotavirus recognition of ganglioside glycan receptors.Rotaviruses ubiquitously infect children under the age of 5, being responsible for more than half a million diarrhoeal deaths each year worldwide. Host cell oligosaccharides containing sialic acid(s) are critical for attachment by rotaviruses. However, to date, no detailed three-dimensional atomic model showing the exact rotavirus interactions with these glycoconjugate receptors has been reported. Here, we present the first crystallographic structures of the rotavirus carbohydrate-recognizing pr ...201121945555
characterization of norovirus strains in australian children from 2006 to 2008: prevalence of recombinant strains.noroviruses are highly infectious and are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks. genotype ii.4 strains have been the dominant type identified in adults, however the genotype distribution in children is less clearly defined. this study aimed to detect and genotype norovirus strains infecting children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in melbourne, australia from 2006 to 2008. stool samples were collected from 272 children admitted to the royal children's hospital, melbourne, au ...201122012731
Phages bearing affinity peptides to bovine rotavirus differentiate the virus from other viruses.The aim of this study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to pathogenic bovine rotavirus (BRV) using phage display technology. The viruses were used as an immobilized target followed by incubation with a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of biopanning, phages had a specific binding activity to BRV were isolated. DNA sequencing indicated that phage displayed peptides HVHPPLRPHSDK, HATNHLPTPHNR or YPTHHAHTTPVR were potential ligands to ...201122163050
Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience.Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introdu ...201121893547
[Current events in vaccination].The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, an ...201122019286
high prevalence of community-acquired norovirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized children: a prospective study.acute gastroenteritis (age) causes significant morbidity, especially in young children, and frequently requires hospitalization even in developed countries. surveillance studies of age are important to determine the prevalence and variety of bacterial and viral pathogens, to initiate targeted preventive measures, such as vaccine programmes, and to monitor its impact. a prospective study was conducted in children <5 years old, admitted with age between april 2006 and april 2007 to the virgen del ...201121848976
[infectious enteritis].infectious diarrhea belongs to the most frequent infections worldwide and can be elicited by a wide array of microbial pathogens. in developed countries transmission occurs much more frequently from contaminated food as compared to direct person-to-person contact, except for enteric viruses which can also be transmitted by aerosol formation after vomiting. in germany, more than 90% of cases are caused by the four pathogens norovirus, rotavirus, campylobacter and salmonella. therapy of infectious ...201121847579
post marketing evaluation of the short-term safety of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.background: a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) demonstrated efficacy and safety in a large clinical trial before us licensure in 2006. the primary objective of this observational study was to assess the occurrence of intussusception (is) among infants who received rv5 in routine use. secondary objectives assessed the occurrence of kawasaki disease (kd) and general safety. methods: we identified and followed infants with a health insurance claim for rv5 during the first 2 years of rv5 availabi ...201122173146
Silencing of the rotavirus NSP4 protein decreases the incidence of biliary atresia in murine model.Biliary atresia is a common disease in neonates which causes obstructive jaundice and progressive hepatic fibrosis. Our previous studies indicate that rotavirus infection is an initiator in the pathogenesis of experimental biliary atresia (BA) through the induction of increased nuclear factor-kappaB and abnormal activation of the osteopontin inflammation pathway. In the setting of rotavirus infection, rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) serves as an important immunogen, viral protein 7 (VP7 ...201121876759
Sapovirus as a gastrointestinal pathogen in febrile pediatric patients with cancer.Human caliciviruses are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. Unlike norovirus, sapovirus infection is less well characterized and defined in the clinical setting of gastrointestinal disease, and there are no reports of sapovirus infections in pediatric oncology patients receiving chemotherapy treatment. Stool samples from all pediatric oncology patients presenting with fever and diarrhea at one pediatric oncology unit were tested prospectively for sa ...201122012734
First description of group A rotavirus from fecal samples of ostriches (Struthio camelus).This study investigated the occurrence of rotavirus infections in ostriches (Struthio camelus) reared in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Fecal (n=66) and serum (n=182) samples from nine farms located in four different cities were analyzed by silver stained-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE), RT-PCR assay, virus isolation, and counterimmunoelectroosmophoresis (CIE). Rotavirus group A seropositivity occurred in 5.49% (10/182) of serum samples of ostriches originated from two farms. Only 9.09% ( ...201122209018
the rotavirus enterotoxin (nsp4) promotes re-modeling of the intracellular microtubule network.expression of the rotavirus enterotoxin (nsp4) in transfected monkey kidney cells was found to result in a dramatic re-modeling of the microtubule (mt) network. this important centrosome organized cytoskeletal element was dissolved by expression of nsp4 and re-formed in a ring array at the periphery of the cell, similar to that seen following normal virus infection. site directed mutagenesis of the n-linked glycosylation sites in nsp4 was employed to show that glycosylation of nsp4 was not requi ...201122036730
Nanobodies®: new ammunition to battle viruses.In 1989, a new type of antibody was identified, first in the sera of dromedaries and later also in all other species of the Camelidae family. These antibodies do not contain a light chain and also lack the first constant heavy domain. Today it is still unclear what the evolutionary advantage of such heavy chain-only antibodies could be. In sharp contrast, the broad applicability of the isolated variable antigen-binding domains (VHH) was rapidly recognized, especially for the development of thera ...201121939690
Usefulness of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea.To explore the value of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea.201122072854
a frequentist approach to estimating the force of infection for a respiratory disease using repeated measurement data from a birth cohort.this article aims to develop a probability-based model involving the use of direct likelihood formulation and generalised linear modelling (glm) approaches useful in estimating important disease parameters from longitudinal or repeated measurement data. the current application is based on infection with respiratory syncytial virus. the force of infection and the recovery rate or per capita loss of infection are the parameters of interest. however, because of the limitation arising from the study ...201122028340
Changing patterns of rotavirus genotypes in Turkey.To describe the circulation dynamics of human rotavirus genotypes and to understand the epidemiological changes of rotavirus infection in Turkey, one of the countries where the highest mortality rates are seen due to rotavirus in Europe. Stool samples of children under 5 years of age which gave positive results for rotavirus antigen were stored at -20°C and then genotyped using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction. Of the 494 stool samples, 137 (28.1%) were positive for rota ...201121938522
genetic diversity of group a rotaviruses associated with repeated outbreaks of diarrhea in a farrow-to-finish farm: identification of a porcine rotavirus strain bearing a novel vp7 genotype, g26.abstract: group a rotaviruses (gars) are one of the most common causes of diarrhea in suckling pigs. although a number of g and p genotypes have been identified in porcine gars, few attempts have been made to study the molecular epidemiology of these viruses associated with diarrhea outbreaks within a farm over an extended period of time. here, we investigated the molecular characteristics of gars that caused four outbreaks of diarrhea among suckling pigs in a farrow-to-finish farm over the cour ...201122067072
Respiratory syncytial virus--the unrecognised cause of health and economic burden among young children in Australia.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) presents very similar to influenza and is the principle cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children worldwide. Yet, there is no systematic monitoring of RSV activity in Australia. This study uses existing published data sources to estimate incidence, hospitalisation rates, and associated costs of RSV among young children in Australia. Published reports from the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme, a passive voluntary surveillance system, a ...201122010512
Rotavirus-Associated Acute Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations among Japanese Children Aged <5 Years: Active Rotavirus Surveillance in Mie Prefecture, Japan.Two effective vaccines for rotavirus infection will be available near future in Japan and data on the burden of rotavirus disease and the circulating rotavirus strains are urgently needed. To obtain these data, we set up active rotavirus hospitalization surveillance in three cities, Tsu, Matsusaka, and Ise in Mie Prefecture, Japan. From November 1, 2007 through October 31, 2009, we enrolled children <5 years of age who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and co ...201122116326
Enteropathogens in acute diarrhea: a general practice-based study in a Nordic country.The epidemiology of infectious diarrhea influences the microbiological investigation of the disease, and is best elucidated through prospective studies. We undertook such a study in a Nordic country. Patients of all age groups who had acute diarrhea were recruited prospectively from general practice clinics in Iceland. They completed a questionnaire and provided stool samples for the detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Of the 464 recruited patients, 211 (45%) had 224 infect ...201122057365
cross-linking of rotavirus outer capsid protein vp7 by antibodies or disulfides inhibits viral entry.antibodies that neutralize rotavirus infection target outer coat proteins vp4 and vp7 and inhibit viral entry. the structure of a vp7-fab complex (s. t. aoki, et al., science 324:1444-1447, 2009) led us to reclassify epitopes into two binding regions at inter- and intrasubunit boundaries of the calcium-dependent trimer. it further led us to show that antibodies binding at the intersubunit boundary inhibit uncoating of the virion outer layer. we have now tested representative antibodies for each ...201121849465
Regulation of gene expression by the NSP1 and NSP3 non-structural proteins of rotavirus.The role of the rotavirus non-structural proteins NSP1 and NSP3 in regulating cellular and viral mRNA translation has been investigated by examining the effect of added recombinant NSP3 on protein translation in a T7-based in vitro coupled transcription-translation system. Addition of purified NSP3 to assays primed solely with cellular mRNA was found to have no effect on the translation efficiency of the mRNA. However, as expected, the addition of viral mRNA to such assays competitively inhibite ...201121947567
Norovirus prevalence in 'pathogen negative' gastroenteritis in children from periurban areas in Lima, Peru.Norovirus was detected in 17.4% of 224 diarrhoeal samples from children younger than 24 months of age in Lima, in whom all common pathogens had been excluded (pathogen negative). Norovirus was identified more frequently in children older than 12 months of age than in younger children (34% vs 8%, P<0.001). Among norovirus-positive samples, genogroup II was the predominant group (92%). Compared with rotavirus, norovirus episodes tended to be of shorter duration and less severe. The role of norovir ...201121962615
early observations in the use of oral rotavirus vaccination in infants with functional short gut syndrome.aim:  universal vaccination with an oral live-attenuated rotavirus vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age was introduced in australia in july 2007. there are no data on the short-term effects of vaccination for those infants most at risk of severe complications from rotavirus infection. the aim of this study was to describe the effects of rotavirus vaccination on weight gain and gastrointestinal losses in infants with functional short gut syndrome secondary to an ileostomy. methods:  a retrospectiv ...201122107074
characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in israel.diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children.201121845967
report of the second european expert meeting on rotavirus vaccination. 201122178724
Full genomic analyses of human rotavirus G4P[4], G4P[6], G9P[19] and G10P[6] strains from North-eastern India: evidence for interspecies transmission and complex reassortment events.In hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis in Manipur, India, four rotavirus strains were found to possess VP7 and/or VP4 genes with porcine or bovine characteristics. Considering the animal-like nature of these strains, the remaining eight gene segments were analysed to decipher their exact origin. Analyses of full genome of these strains exhibited their origin from porcine/bovine rotaviruses. This study suggests single or multiple events of reassortment involving multiple gene segment ...201121884295
an assay for detecting neutralization of rotavirus infection by quantitative determination of vp6 protein fluorescence intensity.previous rotavirus infection studies used the focus reduction assay extensively to evaluate cellular responses to viral infection, but this technique has a number of limitations. in this study, we developed a simplified, accurate rotavirus infection assay to evaluate the effects of inhibitory substances on rotavirus infection in vitro by measurement of the fluorescence intensities of stained cells.201121979094
vaccine campaign to target deadly childhood diarrhoea. 201121956306
Rapid and sensitive detection of PRRSV by a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.A real-time monitoring reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the sensitive and specific detection of prototypic, prevalent North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains. As a higher sensitivity and specificity method than reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the RT-LAMP method only used a turbidimeter, exhibited a detection limit corresponding to a 10(-4) dilution of template RNA ex ...201121847756
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