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generation of recombinant rotavirus with an antigenic mosaic of cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on vp4.recombinant rotavirus (rv) with cdna-derived chimeric vp4 was generated using recently developed reverse genetics for rv. the rescued virus, ku//rvp4(sa11)-ii(ds-1), contains sa11 (simian rv strain, g3p[2])-based vp4, in which a cross-reactive neutralization epitope (amino acids 381 to 401) on vp5* is replaced by the corresponding sequence of a different p-type ds-1 (human rv strain, g2p[4]). serological analyses with a panel of anti-vp4- and -vp7-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies revealed that ...200818434390
cholangiocyte expression of alpha2beta1-integrin confers susceptibility to rotavirus-induced experimental biliary atresia.inoculation of balb/c mice with rhesus rotavirus (rrv) in the newborn period results in biliary epithelial cell (cholangiocyte) infection and the murine model of biliary atresia. rotavirus infection of a cell requires attachment, which is governed in part by cell-surface expression of integrins such as alpha2beta1. we hypothesized that cholangiocytes were susceptible to rrv infection because they express alpha2beta1. rrv attachment and replication was measured in cell lines derived from cholangi ...200818436621
rotavirus p[4]g2 in a vaccinated population, brazil. 200818439390
application of bioinformatics-coupled experimental analysis reveals a new transport-competent nuclear localization signal in the nucleoprotein of influenza a virus strain.two nuclear localization sequences (nls) in influenza a virus nucleoprotein (np) have been demonstrated to be critical for nuclear import of np and viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. however, a deletion mutant lacking these two signals was still able to localize to the nucleus suggesting the presence of yet another (a third) potential nls in the np protein. in order to identify the nature of this potential nls signal in the np of a ws/33l influenza virus a strain, we utilized the tools of bioinf ...200818442378
detection of epstein barr virus by chromogenic in situ hybridization in cases of extra-hepatic biliary atresia.extra-hepatic biliary atresia (ehba) is an important cause of neonatal cholestasis. several infectious agents have been proposed as etiologic factors such as rotavirus and reovirus. there is limited data on the role of epstein barr virus (ebv) infection in ehba, so we decided to study the presence of ebv virus in a series of 16 proven ehba cases by chromogenic in situ hybridization (cish) technique.200818442403
rotavirus fecal antigen retrieval in infantile intussusception.this study was designed to assess the plausibility of an association between natural rotavirus infection and intussusception. it was conducted on 21 infants suffering from acute gastroenteritis (ge) complicated by intussusception who were compared to another 40 age- and sex-matched infants suffering from acute ge characterized by watery nonmucoid diarrhea without surgical complications. all enrolled patients were subjected to detailed history documentation, thorough clinical examination and labo ...200818443833
[clinical observation on drug-separated moxibustion at shenque (cv 8) for treatment of infantile autumn diarrhea].to observe therapeutic effect of drug-separated moxibustion at shenque (cv 8) for treatment of infantile autumn diarrhea.200818447219
[infectious acute gastroenteritis in the emergency department of an urban hospital].to examine the etiology, clinical, analytical and evolutionary characteristics of gastroenteritis in the pediatric population in the emergency department of dr. peset university hospital in health care area 10 in valencia, spain, over a 1-year period (2005).200818447986
an optimal vaccination strategy against rotavirus. 200818448212
trends in intussusception hospitalizations among us infants, 1993-2004: implications for monitoring the safety of the new rotavirus vaccination program.in 2006, a new rotavirus vaccine was recommended for routine immunization of us infants. because a previous rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn in 1999 after it was associated with intussusception, monitoring for this adverse event with the new vaccine is important. the objectives of this study were to assess intussusception hospitalizations trends among us infants for 1993 to 2004; provide estimates of hospitalization rates for intussusception for 2002-2004; and assess variations in background rate ...200818450856
characterization of rotavirus strains detected among children and adults with acute gastroenteritis in gizan, saudi arabia. 200818454236
virus-specific intestinal ifn-gamma producing t cell responses induced by human rotavirus infection and vaccines are correlated with protection against rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs.we examined rotavirus-specific ifn-gamma producing cd4+, cd8+ and cd4+cd8+ t cell responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with a virulent human rotavirus (virhrv) or vaccinated with an attenuated (att) hrv vaccine (atthrv3x or atthrv2x) or an atthrv oral priming and 2/6-virus-like particle (vlp) intranasal boosting (atthrv-2/6vlp) regimen. in virhrv infected pigs, hrv-specific ifn-gamma producing t cells reside primarily in ileum. atthrv-2/6vlp induced similar frequencies of intestinal ifn-gamma ...200818456375
[epidemiology and burden of rotavirus diarrhea in day care centers in lyon, france].rotavirus is the main cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children. in industrialized countries, pediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (prge) is responsible for high morbidity, particularly among children under 3 years of age attending day care centers (dccs). the objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence, management and cost of prge in dccs. we also described the nature of group a rotavirus genotypes. this study also compared the performance of different diag ...200818456480
acrylamide concentration affects the relative position of vp7 gene of serotype g2 strains as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.during the course of development and characterization of various rotavirus reassortants, we found that the relative position of the gene encoding neutralization and protective antigen vp7 of certain rotavirus strains in a page gel was influenced by the concentration of acrylamide.200818457989
nosocomial rotaviral gastroenteritis in paediatric departments.the authors present a retrospective analysis of community-acquired and hospital-acquired rotaviral gastroenteritis (rvge) cases in a 5 years period 2001-2005 and prospective analysis in 2006 in the referral area in a population of 7,000 children under 5 years of age. out of 228 patients with rvge, nosocomial rvge accounted for 27.75% of the cases. children with nosocomial rvge were in average 9.8 months younger compared to patients with community-acquired rvge. nosocomial cases were also charact ...200818459473
rotavirus vaccination in europe: the time has finally arrived. 200818460968
rotavirus. 200818460969
options for the prevention of rotavirus disease other than vaccination. 200818460970
european society for paediatric infectious diseases/european society for paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition evidence-based recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in europe. 200818460971
appendix i: methods for the development of evidence-based recommendations. 200818460972
acute diarrhea in children in europe: do we know how to treat it? 200818460973
foreword: espid/espghan evidence-based recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in europe. 200818460975
foreword: espghan/espid evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in europe. 200818460976
probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.according to the german definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. lactobacillus rhamnosus gg, l. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of l. casei or the l. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as escherichia coli strain nissle 1917, certain entero ...200818461293
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the vp4 gene of human rotaviruses isolated in paraguay.nucleotide and amino acid analyzes of the vp4 gene of human rotaviruses isolated both in paraguay and worldwide were carried out in order to increase our knowledge about the complex pattern of evolution of this virus in nature. paraguayan strains bearing the p[8] genotype were grouped in the lineages p[8]-1, p[8]-2, and p[8]-3. regardless of the year of detection, all of the g4 and g9 strains were related to lineage p[8]-3, whereas the g1 strains were related to the three lineages detected in pa ...200818463781
estimates of the economic burden of rotavirus-associated and all-cause diarrhoea in vellore, india.to determine the cost of rotavirus and all-cause diarrhoea in vellore, india.200818466182
norovirus genotype iib associated acute gastroenteritis in india.in india the role of noroviruses in causing gastroenteritis is not well defined.200818467163
characteristics of an ideal rotavirus vaccine.rotavirus gastroenteritis primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age and is the leading cause of diarrhea-related hospitalizations worldwide. the substantial morbidity associated with this disease and the major burden on healthcare resources underscore the need for an effective vaccine. two recently developed vaccines (rotateq [rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent], and rotarix [rotavirus vaccine, live]) share some characteristics of an ideal rotavirus vaccine. high efficacy, e ...200818467670
genetic diversity of the vp4 and vp7 genes affects the genotyping of rotaviruses: analysis of paraguayan strains.the introduction of different multiplex rt-pcr strategies for the characterization of field rotavirus strains has led to improvements of surveillance systems worldwide. nevertheless, the failure or incorrect characterization of rotavirus strains by these pcr strategies, mainly due to accumulation of point mutations in the vp4 and vp7 genes, has been reported. in this work, sequence analyses of the vp4 and vp7 genes from paraguayan g1p[8] and g4p[8] strains revealed that the high degree of simila ...200817913593
rotavirus replication in intestinal cells differentially regulates integrin expression by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway, resulting in increased cell adhesion and virus yield.changes in the interactions between intestinal cells and their surrounding environment during virus infection have not been well documented. the growth and survival of intestinal epithelial cells, the main targets of rotavirus infection, are largely dependent on the interaction of cell surface integrins with the extracellular matrix. in this study, we detected alterations in cellular integrin expression following rotavirus infection, identified the signaling components required, and analyzed the ...200817942548
impact of porcine group a rotavirus co-infection on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus pathogenicity in piglets.porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) and porcine group a rotavirus (pgar) are the main causative agents of acute diarrhea in piglets. in south korea, pgar is prevalent in piglets naturally infected with pedv. piglets naturally co-infected with pedv and pgar appeared to have severe and prolonged diarrhea that was distinct from that commonly observed. the aim of this study was to determine the impact of pgar co-infection on pedv pathogenicity in piglets. thirty-six colostrum-deprived, one-day ol ...200817727905
production of rotavirus-like particles in spodoptera frugiperda larvae.a strategy for the production of virus-like particles (vlps) from simian rotavirus in larvae of the lepidopteran spodoptera frugiperda is described. vp2 and vp6 coding sequences were co-expressed in larvae co-infected with recombinant baculovirus and these structural proteins self-assembled into vlps that were secreted and accumulated in the haemolymph. under electron microscopy, vlps produced in larvae were indistinguishable from those produced in sf9 insect cell cultures. the results showed th ...200817945356
a possible role for clostridium difficile in the etiology of calf enteritis.clostridium difficile was investigated as a possible cause of enteritis in calves. the organism and its toxins (tcda and tcdb), respectively, were found in 25.3% and 22.9% of stool samples from diarrheic calves. culture positive samples were more likely than culture negative samples to be toxin positive. however, toxin positive stools were more common among nondiarrheic calves, but diarrheic calves were nearly twice as likely to be culture positive. ribotype 078 was dominant among isolates. salm ...200817964088
rotavirus infections and climate variability in dhaka, bangladesh: a time-series analysis.attempts to explain the clear seasonality of rotavirus infections have been made by relating disease incidence to climate factors; however, few studies have disentangled the effects of weather from other factors that might cause seasonality. we investigated the relationships between hospital visits for rotavirus diarrhoea and temperature, humidity and river level, in dhaka, bangladesh, using time-series analysis adjusting for other confounding seasonal factors. there was strong evidence for an i ...200817988426
prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced intussusception in mice by the cox2 inhibitor rofecoxib.intussusception (is), an invagination of a portion of the intestine into itself, has recently attracted considerable interest after the withdrawal of a rotavirus vaccine because of reports on increased risk of is shortly after vaccination. the present study was designed to shed further light on the mechanism of is formation and its prevention. intussusception was induced in adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (lps; 8 mg/kg) from salmonella typhimurium. the presence of i ...200817985132
lactic acid bacterial colonization and human rotavirus infection influence distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells in neonatal gnotobiotic pigs.despite accumulating knowledge of porcine macrophages and dendritic cells (dcs) from in vitro studies, information regarding monocytes/macrophages and dcs in lymphoid tissues of enteric pathogen-infected neonatal animals in vivo is limited. in this study we evaluated the influence of commensal bacterial [two strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab), lactobacillus acidophilus and l. reuteri] colonization and rotavirus infection on distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and conventiona ...200818006076
influence of probiotic lactobacilli colonization on neonatal b cell responses in a gnotobiotic pig model of human rotavirus infection and disease.the goal of this study was to define the impact of colonization of gnotobiotic (gn) pigs with lactic acid bacteria (lab) on development of intestinal and systemic b cell responses to human rotavirus (hrv). the lab-specific and total b cell responses were also assessed. gn pigs were inoculated with lab (lactobacillus acidophilus and l. reuteri) and virulent wa strain hrv (lab+hrv+), hrv only (lab-hrv+), lab only (lab+hrv-) or mock (lab-hrv-). the hrv infection induced similar hrv-specific intesti ...200818023882
rotavirus infection induces the phosphorylation of eif2alpha but prevents the formation of stress granules.early during the infection process, rotavirus causes the shutoff of cell protein synthesis, with the nonstructural viral protein nsp3 playing a vital role in the phenomenon. in this work, we have found that the translation initiation factor 2alpha (eif2alpha) in infected cells becomes phosphorylated early after virus infection and remains in this state throughout the virus replication cycle, leading to a further inhibition of cell protein synthesis. under these restrictive conditions, however, t ...200818032499
prevalence, types, and rna concentrations of human parechoviruses, including a sixth parechovirus type, in stool samples from patients with acute enteritis.parechovirus epidemiology and disease association are not fully understood. real-time reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) for all human parechoviruses (hpev) was applied on stool samples from two groups of patients. both groups contained patients with acute enteritis of all age groups, seen during one full year. patients with norovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, astrovirus, or rotavirus infections were excluded. in 118 patients from outbreak and hospital settings, no hpev was detected. in a prospe ...200818057123
development of a microtiter plate hybridization-based pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for identification of clinically relevant human group a rotavirus g and p genotypes.a microtiter plate hybridization-based pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pcr-elisa) has been used for the detection and identification of a variety of microorganisms. here, we report the development of a pcr-elisa for the identification of clinically relevant human rotavirus vp7 (g1 to g6, g8 to g10, and g12) and vp4 (p[4], p[6], p[8], p[9], and p[14]) genotypes. the g and p types of reference human and animal rotavirus strains for which specific probes were available were correctly identif ...200818057127
rotaviral rna found on various surfaces in a hospital laundry.the aim of this investigative study was to determine the presence of rotaviral rna at various control points (cp) of a hospital laundry. one of the possible sources of hospital infections is inappropriately laundered and disinfected hospital textiles. rt-pcr and nested pcr for gene amplification using specific primers following rna isolation were used to determine the presence of rotaviral rna on swabs. in addition, rotavirus suspensions were inoculated on marked surfaces as positive controls fo ...200818061282
rare au-1-like g3p[9] human rotaviruses with a kun-like nsp4 gene detected in children with diarrhea in italy.three g3p[9] rotaviruses, detected in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in palermo, italy, were found to be genetically related to strains of either human or feline origin in the vp7, vp4, and vp6 genes. in contrast, in the nsp4 gene the viruses resembled g2p[4] human strains, suggesting a reassortment between au-1-like and kun-like strains.200818063802
molecular detection and characterization of gastroenteritis viruses occurring naturally in the stream waters of manaus, central amazonia, brazil.to assess the presence of the four main viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in a hydrographic network impacted by a disordered urbanization process, a 1-year study was performed involving water sample collection from streams in the hydrographic basin surrounding the city of manaus, amazonas, brazil. thirteen surface water sample collection sites, including different areas of human settlement characterized as urban, rural, and primary forest, located in the tarumã-açu, são raimund ...200818065620
astrovirus detection in sporadic cases of diarrhea among hospitalized and non-hospitalized children in rio de janeiro, brazil, from 1998 to 2004.we analyzed 379 stool samples collected from january 1998 through december 2004, from hospitalized and non-hospitalized children with diarrhea in rio de janeiro, brazil. these samples had prior negative results for other enteric viruses and bacterial pathogens. the specimens were analyzed for hastv detection by rt-pcr. hastv genotypes were determined by sequence analysis of the rt-pcr products. twenty (5.3%) out of 379 samples were positive for astrovirus. astrovirus was equally common among inp ...200818041001
detection of unusual rotavirus genotypes g8p[8] and g12p[6] in south korea.five hundred four fecal specimens, collected between 2004 and 2006 from young children with acute diarrhea, were screened for rotavirus by elisa with vp6-specific antibody. of these samples, 394 (78.2%) were confirmed as group a rotavirus and they underwent g- and p typing using a combination of elisa, rt-pcr, and sequence analysis methods. the dominant circulating g serotype was g1 (35.6%) followed by g3 (26.4%), g4 (14.7%), and g2 (11.9%). there was a low prevalence of g9 (1.0%) and of unusual ...200818041003
[an oral vaccine against rotavirus-caused gastroenteritis]. 200818081080
identical rearrangement of nsp3 genes found in three independently isolated virus clones derived from mixed infection and multiple passages of rotaviruses.three rotavirus variants with a rearranged rna segment derived from the nsp3 gene were isolated in three independent experiments of coinfection and multiple passages of simian rotavirus strain sa11 and single-vp7-gene- or nsp1-gene-substitution reassortants having genetic background of sa11. sequence analysis indicated that the three rearranged nsp3 genes had almost identical sequences and genomic structures organized by partial duplication of the open reading frame in a head-to-tail orientation ...200818092125
acute gastroenteritis cases associated with noroviruses infection in the state of rio de janeiro.in march 2005, the epidemiological surveillance service of resende, municipality of the middle paraiba valley, state of rio de janeiro, reported a sudden spontaneous occurrence of acute gastroenteritis cases in children in a public day care center. further, between may and june 2005, gastroenteritis outbreaks or sporadic cases of gastroenteritis were reported in two other municipalities, piraí and rio claro, also located in the middle paraiba valley. from march to june 2005, 50 fecal samples wer ...200818098155
infection control in paediatrics.infection control has a particularly important role in paediatric hospitals and must take into account the specificity of the needs and environment of the paediatric patient. children are susceptible to infections that are prevented in older patients by vaccination or previous natural exposure. consequently, the nosocomial pathogens and most common health-care-associated infection sites in children differ from those observed among adults. the immunological naivety of young children, especially n ...200818156087
arginine activates intestinal p70(s6k) and protein synthesis in piglet rotavirus enteritis.we previously showed that phosphorylation of p70 s6 kinase (p70(s6k)) in the intestine is increased during viral enteritis. in this study, we hypothesized that during rotavirus infection, oral arg, which stimulates p70(s6k) activation, will further stimulate intestinal protein synthesis and mucosal recovery, whereas the p70(s6k) inhibitor rapamycin (rapa) will inhibit mucosal recovery. newborn piglets were fed a standard milk replacer diet supplemented with arg (0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), twice dai ...200818156399
synthesis and molecular modelling of unsaturated exomethylene pyranonucleoside analogues with antitumor and antiviral activities.this report describes the total and facile synthesis of the unsaturated keto and exomethylene pyranonucleoside analogues, 1-(2,3,4-trideoxy-4-methylene-6-o-trityl-alpha-d-glycero-hex-2-enopyranosyl)uracil (10), 1-(2,3-dideoxy-alpha-d-glycero-hex-2-enopyranosyl-4-ulose)uracil (17) and 1-(2,3,4-trideoxy-4-methylene-alpha-d-glycero-hex-2-enopyranosyl)uracil (18). commercially available 1,2,3,4,6-penta-o-acetyl-alpha-d-mannopyranose (1) was condensed with silylated uracil, deacetylated and acetalate ...200818037195
immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent human-bovine (wc3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants in korea.we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine in 178 korean healthy infants. seroresponse rate for serum antirotavirus iga titers was 94.7% among 94 vaccine recipients, as compared with 13.5% among 52 placebo recipients. seroresponse rates in serum neutralizing antibody to each human rotavirus serotype in the vaccine were significantly higher in the vaccine group than in the placebo group. this vaccine was generally well tolerated and immuno ...200818174862
apparent extinction of non-g2 rotavirus strains from circulation in recife, brazil, after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine.the introduction of a g1p[8] rotavirus vaccine in recife, brazil, caused a decrease in rotavirus detection from 27% (march-may, 2006) to 5.0% (march-may, 2007), with all strains becoming g2, against which less protection had been predicted.200818175037
characterization of rotavirus strains detected among children and adults with acute gastroenteritis in gizan, saudi arabia.to assess the circulating rotavirus strains among hospitalized children and adults in gizan city.200818176680
development of a method for concentrating and detecting rotavirus in oysters.identification of enteric viruses in outbreak-implicated bivalve shellfish is difficult because of low levels of contamination and natural inhibitors present in shellfish tissue. in this study, the acid adsorption-alkaline elution method developed in our laboratory was proposed for the detection of rotavirus from oyster samples. the acid adsorption-alkaline elution process included the following steps: acid adsorption at ph 4.8, elution with 2.9% tryptose phosphate broth containing 6% glycine, p ...200818177969
targeted antibodies in dairy-based products.bovine colostrum contains immunoglobulins that provide the newborn calf with protection against microbial infections until its own immune system matures. the concentration of antibodies in colostrum against pathogens can be raised by immunizing cows with pathogens or their antigens. bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven efficacy in prophylaxis and treatment against various infectious diseases in humans such as diarrheal diseases caused by various pathogens like e. coli and rota ...200818183936
probiotics, immunomodulation, and health benefits.probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amount, confer a health benefit on the host. amongst the many benefits associated with the consumption of probiotics, modulation of the immune system has received the most attention. several animal and human studies have provided unequivocal evidence that specific strains of probiotics are able to stimulate as well as regulate several aspects of natural and acquired immune responses. there is also evidence that int ...200818183940
geometric mismatches within the concentric layers of rotavirus particles: a potential regulatory switch of viral particle transcription activity.rotaviruses are prototypical double-stranded rna viruses whose triple-layered icosahedral capsid constitutes transcriptional machinery activated by the release of the external layer. to understand the molecular basis of this activation, we studied the structural interplay between the three capsid layers by electron cryo-microscopy and digital image processing. two viral particles and four virus-like particles containing various combinations of inner (vp2)-, middle (vp6)-, and outer (vp7)-layer p ...200818184711
differential requirements for t cells in viruslike particle- and rotavirus-induced protective immunity.correlates of protection from rotavirus infection are controversial. we compared the roles of b and t lymphocytes in protective immunity induced either by intranasally administered nonreplicating viruslike particles or inactivated virus or by orally administered murine rotavirus. we found that protection induced by nonreplicating vaccines requires cd4(+) t cells and cd40/cd40l. in contrast, t cells were not required for short-term protective immunity induced by infection, but both t-cell-depende ...200818184712
establishment of fetal bovine intestinal epithelial cell cultures susceptible to bovine rotavirus infection.mucosal epithelial cells are infected by a wide variety of pathogens and determining their response to infection is critical for understanding disease pathogenesis. a protocol was developed for culturing primary epithelial cells from fetal bovine intestine and the cultured cells were evaluated for susceptibility to an enteric viral infection. immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin confirmed that 60-75% of cultured cells were epithelial cells. furthermore, following infection with bovine ro ...200818187212
use of sequence analysis of the vp4 gene to classify recent vietnamese rotavirus isolates.twenty-eight strains of p(8), four of p(4) and one of p(19) rotavirus, isolated in ho chi minh city, vietnam, during 2002-2003, were investigated by sequence analysis of the vp4 gene. seven of the 28 p(8) rotavirus vp4 sequences clustered in the p(8)-3 lineage, or the rare, so-called op354-like lineage. amino-acid sequence comparison revealed that vietnamese p(8)-3 rotaviruses were generally very similar to malawian strains, including the prototype op354 strain. the numerical severity scores of ...200818190567
amount of maternal rotavirus-specific antibodies influence the outcome of rotavirus vaccination of newborn mice with virus-like particles.in presence of low or high levels of rotavirus-specific maternal antibodies, the ability of newborn mice to respond to immunization with rotavirus rf 8*-2/6/7 vlps, was evaluated. after parenteral vaccination, 100% of offspring born to low-antibody-titer dams developed rotavirus-specific igg antibodies (n=7). in contrast, only 25% of offsprings born to high-antibody-titer dams responded to parenteral immunization (n=12). when comparing parenteral versus oral immunization in offspring to low-anti ...200818191310
molecular characterization of bovine rotavirus strains circulating in northern italy, 2003-2005.a total of 232 stools collected from calves with rotavirus infection in herds located in northern italy from 2003 to 2005 was investigated. determination of the rotavirus g and p types was carried out using nested rt-pcr. g6 was the most prevalent genotype, accounting for 78.5% of samples, g10 accounted for 9.9% of samples and viruses of g8 type were found in 4.7% of samples. in 3% of samples, viruses were not classified due to concomitant infection with more g type strains, whereas viruses in 3 ...200818191347
complete characterisation of the american grass carp reovirus genome (genus aquareovirus: family reoviridae) reveals an evolutionary link between aquareoviruses and coltiviruses.an aquareovirus was isolated from several fish species in the usa (including healthy golden shiners) that is not closely related to members of species aquareovirus a, b and c. the virus, which is atypical (does not cause syncytia in cell cultures at neutral ph), was implicated in a winter die-off of grass carp fingerlings and has therefore been called 'american grass carp reovirus' (agcrv). complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the agcrv genome and comparisons to the other aquareoviruses show ...200818191982
[ten-year retrospective study of rotavirus infection in the province of castellón (spain)].to determine the percentage of rotavirus infection in children aged less than 14 years old and the epidemiology in area 02 of the province of castellón (spain).200818194626
[immunization schedule of the spanish association of pediatrics: recommendations 2008].the vaccine advisory committee of the spanish association of pediatrics provides information on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2007, based on the available evidence, and discusses these developments. certain modifications to the immunization schedule for 2008 are recommended. a second varicella vaccine booster dose, administered together with the booster dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (mmr) vaccine when children start school (3-4 years), is recommended to avoid vacc ...200818194631
the clinical and molecular epidemiology of community- and healthcare-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis.rotavirus is the most common etiologic agent of healthcare-acquired diarrhea in pediatric patients. there has been little published information on healthcare-acquired rotavirus infection.200818162939
epitope mapping and use of epitope-specific antisera to characterize the vp5* binding site in rotavirus sa11 nsp4.rotavirus (rv) is the leading cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide. rv nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4), the first characterized viral enterotoxin, is a 28-kda glycoprotein that has pleiotropic functions in rv infection and pathogenesis. nsp4 has multiple forms enabling it to perform its different functions. dissecting such functions could be facilitated by use of epitope-specific antibodies. this work mapped the epitopes for the monoclonal antibody b4-2/55 and three polyclonal antisera ge ...200818164740
cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood vaccination against rotavirus in france.to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination by new vaccines against rotavirus in france.200818166250
efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in subjects after 1 or 2 doses in the rotavirus efficacy and safety trial. 200818166579
role of escherichia coli in acute diarrhoea in tribal preschool children of central india.five hundred and eighty preschool children belonging to tribal areas of madhya pradesh were followed up daily for the presence of diarrhoea for a period of 1 year. in all, 1236 episodes of diarrhoea were recorded with an average of 2.13 episodes per child per year. stool samples were collected during 780 episodes. they were cultured to isolate escherichia coli as well as non-e. coli enteropathogens. ten different genes were detected to identify all diarrhoeagenic e. coli using multiplex polymera ...200818173783
rotavirus vaccines: an overview.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in infants and young children worldwide and continues to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. vaccination is the only control measure likely to have a significant impact on the incidence of severe dehydrating rotavirus disease. in 1999, a highly efficacious rotavirus vaccine licensed in the united states, rotashield, was withdrawn from the market after 14 months because of its association with int ...200818202442
genetic heterogeneity of porcine enteric caliciviruses identified from diarrhoeic piglets.enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) are responsible for the majority of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans of all age groups. analysis of the polymerase and capsid genes has provided evidence for a huge genetic diversity, but the understanding of their ecology is limited. in this study, we investigated the presence of porcine enteric caliciviruses in the faeces of piglets with diarrhoea. a total of 209 samples from 118 herds were analysed and calicivirus rna was detected by ...200818204823
changing profile of rotavirus in ireland: predominance of p[8] and emergence of p[6] and p[9] in mixed infections.six hundred and thirty three fecal specimens were collected from patients under 6 years, suffering from non-bacterial, putative viral gastroenteritis in the south of ireland, between 2003 and 2006. following laboratory identification of rotavirus as the aetiological agent in 558 specimens, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify the vp7 and vp4 gene segments of 249 and 245 samples, respectively. g and p typing was subsequently carried out on these amplicons. g1 (6 ...200818205218
individuals with selective iga deficiency resolve rotavirus disease and develop higher antibody titers (igg, igg1) than iga competent individuals.while iga is proposed to be essential to control rotavirus disease, no information is available how iga deficient individuals modulate rotavirus disease and immune responses. in this study it was shown that patients (n = 62) with selective iga deficiency (iga-d) (<0.05 g/l) resolve rotavirus disease and show higher total igg and igg1 subclass antibody titers to rotavirus than iga proficient individuals (n = 62) (geometric mean titer, gmt) 18,101 vs. 4,000 (p < 0.005); 8,463 vs. 1691, (p < 0.005) ...200818205219
norovirus gastroenteritis among children in iraqi kurdistan.of 260 children under age 5 years who were hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in kurdistan, iraq, between april and may 2005, 78 (30%) tested positive for norovirus by rt-pcr. these comprised genogroups gi (23%), gii (74%) and gi + gii (3%). among 28 noroviruses sequenced, gii/4 was the predominant genotype.200818205231
the cost-utility of rotavirus vaccination with rotarix (rix4414) in the netherlands.the objective of this study was to estimate the cost-utility of mass vaccination of 0-4-year-old children with rotarix in the netherlands. we used a markov process with dutch data on incidence, resource use and costs (gp, hospitalisation, productivity loss and household costs) to compare vaccination to conventional treatment from a societal perspective. utility loss due to rotavirus-induced diarrhoea was measured using eq5d, with gps and paediatricians serving as proxies to fill out the question ...200818215445
rearrangements of rotavirus genomic segment 11 are generated during acute infection of immunocompetent children and do not occur at random.group a rotaviruses are the main cause of viral gastroenteritis in infants. the viral genome consists of 11 double-stranded rna (dsrna) segments. dysfunction of the viral rna polymerase can lead to gene rearrangements, which most often consist of partial sequence duplication of a dsrna segment. gene rearrangements have been detected in vivo during chronic infection in immunodeficient children or in vitro during passages at a high multiplicity of infection in cell culture, suggesting that these r ...200818216096
full genome-based classification of rotaviruses reveals a common origin between human wa-like and porcine rotavirus strains and human ds-1-like and bovine rotavirus strains.group a rotavirus classification is currently based on the molecular properties of the two outer layer proteins, vp7 and vp4, and the middle layer protein, vp6. as reassortment of all the 11 rotavirus gene segments plays a key role in generating rotavirus diversity in nature, a classification system that is based on all the rotavirus gene segments is desirable for determining which genes influence rotavirus host range restriction, replication, and virulence, as well as for studying rotavirus epi ...200818216098
molecular characterization of a subgroup specificity associated with the rotavirus inner capsid protein vp2.group a rotaviruses are classified into serotypes, based on the reactivity pattern of neutralizing antibodies to vp4 and vp7, as well as into subgroups (sgs), based on non-neutralizing antibodies directed against vp6. the inner capsid protein (vp2) has also been described as a sg antigen; however, little is known regarding the molecular determinants of vp2 sg specificity. in this study, we characterize vp2 sgs by correlating genetic markers with the immunoreactivity of the sg-specific monoclonal ...200818216104
statement on the recommended use of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine. an advisory committee statement (acs). 200818217293
global advisory committee on vaccine safety, 12-13 december 2007. 200818219807
emergence of g12 rotavirus strains in delhi, india, in 2000 to 2007.the prospect that rotavirus diarrhea in children may soon be prevented by vaccines has placed a new priority on understanding the diversity of rotavirus strains and the mechanism by which these strains evolve over time. we have characterized a total of 465 rotavirus strains collected in north india from 2000 to 2007 for g and p types by reverse transcription-pcr and sequencing. the novel g12 rotavirus strains recently detected in other countries were first detected in india in 2001 and have emer ...200818272705
detection and distribution of rotavirus in municipal sewage treatment plants (stps) and surface water in beijing.the aim of this study was to survey on the presence and distribution of rotavirus in sewage treatment plants (stps) and surface water samples in beijing. also, the rotavirus removal efficacies of wastewater treatment processes in three stps were discussed. sio2 was used to concentrate rotavirus particles from environmental water samples. a reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-nested pcr) method was used for detection of rotavirus. rotavirus could be detected from almost all ...200818273749
[italian pediatrician's consensus statement on anti-rotavirus vaccines. presentation]. 200818277358
[italian pediatrician's consensus statement on anti-rotavirus vaccines]. 200818277359
[recommendations of the italian pediatricians on anti-rotavirus vaccine]. 200818277360
intussusception in children in southern israel: disparity between 2 populations.intussusception has been associated with 1 rotavirus vaccine. our objective was to determine intussusception rates in children in southern israel during a 15-year period before the introduction of new rotavirus vaccines.200818277929
monitoring of waterborne pathogens in surface waters in amsterdam, the netherlands, and the potential health risk associated with exposure to cryptosporidium and giardia in these waters.the water in the canals and some recreational lakes in amsterdam is microbiologically contaminated through the discharge of raw sewage from houseboats, sewage effluent, and dog and bird feces. exposure to these waters may have negative health effects. during two successive 1-year study periods, the water quality in two canals (2003 to 2004) and five recreational lakes (2004 to 2005) in amsterdam was tested with regard to the presence of fecal indicators and waterborne pathogens. according to bat ...200818281429
rotaviruses and rotavirus vaccines. 200818281706
projecting vaccine efficacy: accounting for geographic strain variations.researchers must often make assumptions about the efficacy of an intervention in a target population without the benefit of trial data specific to that population. such assumptions may be particularly tenuous with models of vaccination strategies, since the distribution of pathogen strains in target populations may differ substantially from the strain distributions in trial sites. we describe a technique for projecting expected vaccine efficacy in settings where applying unadjusted trial-based e ...200818282014
acute infantile gastroenteritis associated with human enteric viruses in tunisia.this prospective study, conducted from january 2003 to june 2005, investigated the incidence and the clinical role of various enteric viruses responsible for infantile gastroenteritis in 632 tunisian children presenting in dispensaries (380 children) or hospitalized (252 children) for acute diarrhea. at least one enteric virus was found in each of 276 samples (43.7%). a single pathogen was observed in 234 samples, and mixed infections were found in 42 samples. in terms of frequency, rotavirus an ...200818287312
infectivity and genome persistence of rotavirus and astrovirus in groundwater and surface water.in this work, we have characterized the survival of rhesus rotavirus (rrv) and human astrovirus yuc8 in clean groundwater and contaminated surface water, as well as in phosphate-buffered solutions maintained in the same conditions as the environmental waters, and have compared the dynamics of virus inactivation with the persistence of the viral genomes, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr). in addition, we also studied the tolerance of these vir ...200818291437
immunodominance of the vh1-46 antibody gene segment in the primary repertoire of human rotavirus-specific b cells is reduced in the memory compartment through somatic mutation of nondominant clones.detailed characterization of ag-specific naive and memory b cell ab repertoires elucidates the molecular basis for the generation of ab diversity and the optimization of ab structures that bind microbial ags. in this study, we analyzed the immunophenotype and vh gene repertoire of rotavirus (rv) vp6-specific b cells in three circulating naive or memory b cell subsets (cd19+igd+cd27-, cd19+igd+cd27+, or cd19+igd-cd27+) at the single-cell level. we aimed to investigate the influence of antigenic e ...200818292552
effect of rotavirus vaccination on circulating virus strains. 200818294994
diversity of human rotavirus g9 among children in turkey.between september 2004 and december 2005 a prospective study was conducted to understand the epidemiology of rotavirus infection among children with diarrhea attending two hospitals in ankara, turkey. rotavirus was detected in 39.7% of the 322 stool samples and affected mainly children in the age group of 6-23 months. more than 70% and 39% of these cases occurred in children <2 and <1 year of age, respectively. in the temperate climate of ankara rotavirus infection was prevalent throughout the y ...200818297696
[hospitalizations associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in israel--a retrospective study].rotavirus is a major cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and remains a common cause of hospitalizations in developed countries. the study aimed to assess the hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in israel and their characteristics.200818300615
rotateq vaccine adverse events and policy considerations.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years-old worldwide. on february 3, 2006, the us food and drug administration licensed rotateq (merck and co.), a bioengineered combination of five human-bovine hybridized reassortment rotaviruses. in august of 2006, the advisory committee on immunization practices recommended rotateq for routine vaccination of us infants administered orally at the ages 2, 4, and 6 months.200818301365
molecular characterization of unusual human g5p[6] rotaviruses identified in china.we found an unusual human rotavirus, ll36755 of g5p[6] genotype, in a stool sample collected in lulong county, hebei province, china. this is the first detection of rotavirus serotype g5 in asia.200818304868
living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in infants: the impact of unknown etiology.infants with alf occasionally have the most urgent need for a liver transplant. in urgent situations for liver transplantation, ldlt has been advocated. between july 1995 and april 2004, medical records of 15 infants undergoing ldlt for alf of unknown etiology were reviewed and their outcomes were compared with infants undergoing ldlt for other liver diseases. they received lls (n = 9), ms (n = 3), and rms (n = 3) grafts. eight technical complications occurred, with a similar incidence for ldlt ...200818307664
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