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transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev)-based vectors with engineered murine tropism express the rotavirus vp7 protein and immunize mice against rotavirus.a coronavirus vector based on the genome of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) expressing the rotavirus vp7 protein was constructed to immunize and protect against rotavirus infections in a murine model. the tropism of this tgev-derived vector was modified by replacing the spike s protein with the homologous protein from mouse hepatitis virus (mhv). the rotavirus gene encoding the vp7 protein was cloned into the coronavirus cdna. balb/c and stat1-deficient mice were inoculate ...201021094967
molecular epidemiological study of rotavirus and norovirus infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in nha trang, vietnam, december 2005-june 2006.a molecular epidemiological study of rotavirus (rv) and norovirus (nov) infections was carried out in nha trang city in vietnam between december 2005 and june 2006. rv and nov were detected in 87 (47.5%) and 12 (6.6%) of the 183 fecal specimens from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis, respectively. the majority of patients with rv and nov were children younger than 2 years of age. the most frequent rv genotypes detected were g3 (n=37, 42.5%) and g1 (n=28, 32.2%) for g type, p[8] (n ...201021099090
genetically diverse group c rotaviruses cause sporadic infection in korean calves.this study examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of the bovine group c rotaviruses (gcrvs) in a total of 127 diarrhea fecal samples of calves from 52 korean native beef calf herds using rt-pcr and nested pcr. overall, seven of the 127 fecal samples (5.5%) from seven of the 52 herds (13.5%) tested positive for bovine gcrvs only by nested pcr. sequence and phylogenetic analyses of a partial vp6 gene showed that korean bovine gcrvs had marked genetic diversity; two korean strains belonged t ...201021099189
new molecular approaches in the diagnosis of acute diarrhea? advantages for clinicians and researchers.purpose of review: to provide an update of the advantages of new-generation molecular diagnostics as regards acute diarrhea, and to evaluate how they can help clinicians and researchers diagnose this condition. recent findings: thanks to real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques, many enteropathogens can now be identified simultaneously within hours. most techniques are based on amplification of specific nucleotide sequences. with high-resolution melting analyses, microarrays, and metagenom ...201021099430
update on rotavirus trends and the importance of surveillance. 201021099653
immunogenicity and virus-like particle formation of rotavirus capsid proteins produced in transgenic plants.the human pathogen, group a rotavirus, is the most prevalent cause of acute infantile and pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, especially in developing countries. there is an urgent demand for safer, more effective and cheaper vaccines against rotavirus infection. plant-derived antigens may provide an exclusive way to produce economical subunit vaccines. virus-like particles, constituting viral capsid proteins without viral nucleic acids, are considered a far safer candidate compared with live a ...201021104033
enteric campylobacteria and rna viruses associated with healthy and diarrheic humans in the chinook health region of southwestern alberta, canada.the presence of campylobacter species and enteric rna viruses in stools from diarrheic (n = 442) and healthy (n = 58) humans living in southwestern alberta was examined (may to october 2005). a large number of diarrheic individuals who were culture negative for c. jejuni (n = 54) or c. coli (n = 19) were pcr positive for these taxa. overall detection rates for c. jejuni and c. coli in diarrheic stools were 29% and 5%, respectively. in contrast, 3% and 0% of stools from healthy humans were positi ...201021106791
wide range of cns manifestations of rotavirus infection. 201021051161
[epidemiological surveillance of norovirus and rotavirus diarrhea among outpatient children in five metropolitan cities].to survey the clinical epidemiological features of norovirus and rotavirus diarrhea among children living in 5 cities.201021055297
[clinical relevance of human bocavirus with acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea in children: a prospective case-control study].to explore the causative role of human bocavirus (hbov) played in acute respiratory infection and diarrhea in children, a case-control study was prospectively conducted to investigate hbov detection in symptomatic children with acute respiratory tract infection, diarrhea and asymptomatic children.201021055300
vaccines provided by family physicians.this study was conducted to document current immunization practices by family physicians.201021060120
[perspectives of development of immunoprophylaxis in russia].analytic materials on prevention of controlled infections in russia and perspectives for extension of immunoprophylaxis field are presented. it was determined that immunization against pertussis should be expanded. necessity to include vaccines against hepatitis a, hib, pneumococcal infection, varicella as well as rotavirus and human papillomavirus infection in national immunization schedule is substantiated. it was noted that introduction of new vaccines will require both increase of funding fo ...201021061585
study of the kinetics of antibodies titres against viral pathogens and detection of rotavirus and parainfluenza 3 infections in captive crias of guanacos (lama guanicoe).a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bohv-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv-1) and bluetongue virus (btv) in eleven guanaco's crias (chulengos) relocated from rio negro to buenos aires province (argentina) and reared in captivity for a year in an experimental field. serum samples were collected periodically to detect the evidence of viral infections. faecal samples were collec ...201021062425
rotavirus gastroenteritis and strain diversity in saudi arabia. current status and future prospects. 201021063667
[investigation of rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus frequencies in children with acute gastroenteritis and evaluation of epidemiological features].viral agents are the most common causes of childhood gastroenteritis over the world. rotaviruses, the main causative agents of viral gastroenteritis in infant and young children, are followed by other viruses, namely adenoviruses, astroviruses, noroviruses and caliciviruses. the aims of this study were to determine the frequencies of rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in our region, and to evaluate these frequencies according to age, gender and ...201021063969
norovirus p particle, a novel platform for vaccine development and antibody production.the norovirus p particle is an octahedral nanoparticle formed by 24 copies of the protrusion (p) domain of the norovirus capsid protein. this p particle is easily produced in escherichia coli, extremely stable, and highly immunogenic. there are three surface loops per p domain, making a total of 72 loops per particle, and these are potential sites for foreign antigen presentation for immune enhancement. to prove this concept, a small peptide (his tag, 7 amino acids [aa]) and a large antigen (rot ...201021068235
distribution of human rotavirus g and p genotypes in a hospital setting from northern india.rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. rotavirus g and p genotyping is essential for epidemiological surveillance and for better formulation of candidate rotavirus vaccines. out of 862 diarrheal stool samples collected from hospitalized children aged < 2 years during february 2005 - march 2007, 318 (36.9%) were positive for rotavirus by elisa. g and p genotyping was performed on 100 randomly selected positive samples using a seminested mu ...201021073035
a hospital based study on inter- and intragenotypic diversity of human rotavirus a vp4 and vp7 gene segments, germany.efforts to reduce the impact of group a rotaviruses on human morbidity and mortality rely on oral immunisation with live attenuated or recombinant vaccines. a major challenge in immunisation is the vast inter- and intragenotypic diversity accomplished by circulating rotaviruses.201021074491
[recurrence of transient splenial lesions in a child with "benign convulsions with gastroenteritis"].we report a 2-year-old girl who demonstrated "benign convulsions with gastroenteritis (cwg)" with transient splenial lesions twice during the winter. the first episode was associated with noro-virus and the second with rota-virus. during each episode, seizures occurred in clusters without clinical signs of dehydration, hypoglycemia, electrolyte derangement or cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities, and her consciousness was clear during the interictal period. those findings were consistent with cwg. ...201021077356
widespread microbiological groundwater contamination in the south-eastern salento (puglia-italy).in the salento peninsula (puglia region, south-east italy), underground waters are a fundamental resource for the population because they constitute the principal reservoir for drinking water and irrigation. they are, however, affected by overexploitation. the risk factors in the salento arise mainly from anthropic activities, especially tourism and agriculture (leaking wells, sewage and inadequate waste disposal procedures). the southern salento is recognized to be at high risk of pathologies c ...201021079865
predominance of porcine p[23] genotype rotaviruses in piglets with diarrhea in northern thailand.of 131 stool samples collected from piglets with diarrhea in northern thailand between july 2006 and august 2008, 14 (10.7%) were positive for group a rotavirus. sequence analysis showed that 13 strains (92.9%) belonged to the rare p[23] genotype combination with g9 or g3 genotypes.201021084504
[rotavirus prevalence in infants and children in the public healthcare system of the state of pernambuco].rotaviruses are considered important etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis and a common cause of the hospitalization of children aged zero to four years-old. in brazil, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children is 12 to 42% and the distribution of infection is related to seasonality, which apparently occurs in different periods and intensity according to each region. the study investigated group a rotavirus in fecal samples of suspected children attended by the public health s ...201021085867
[benign afebrile seizures in rotavirus gastroenteritis].benign afebrile seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis and normal serum electrolytes are often described in asian infants under the name of convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (cwg). herein, we report 3 cases of cwg that occurred in caucasian children. clinical features and outcomes are described and the cases reported in the literature are reviewed. the cwg syndrome is now recognized as a distinct entity characterized by the following criteria: (1) it occurs in previously healthy 6-mon ...201020884185
[verotoxin as a major laboratory criterion for escherichia coli o157-induced enteric infection complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome in infants in the omsk region].the paper presents the results of etiological interpretation of the outbreak of escherichia coli o157-induced enteric infection complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome in omsk in spring 2009. seventeen infants aged 5 months to 2.5 years were examined; of them 9 patients were on hemodialysis. the diagnosis was verified in 7 children, by isolating verotoxin after fecal enrichment on the concentrating nutrient rida enrichment bouillon medium containing bile salts and mitomycin c, e. coli o157:h7 c ...201020886723
handling uncertainty in dynamic transmission models. 201020888874
adenovirus infection mimics the cerebellitis caused by rotavirus infection. 201020931229
dynamic model of rotavirus transmission and the impact of rotavirus vaccination in kyrgyzstan.new rotavirus vaccines show promise to reduce the burden of severe diarrhea among children in developing countries. we present an age-specific dynamic rotavirus model to assess the effect of rotavirus vaccination in kyrgyzstan, a country in central asia that is eligible for funds from the gavi alliance. a routine rotavirus vaccination program at 95% coverage and 54% effectiveness against severe infection is estimated to lead to a 56% reduction in rotavirus-associated deaths and a 50% reduction i ...201020933563
genomic characterization of human rotavirus g10 strains from the african rotavirus network: relationship to animal rotaviruses.global rotavirus surveillance has led to the detection of many unusual human rotavirus (hrv) genotypes. the aim of this study was to elucidate the genetic and evolutionary relationships of short fragments of all 11 gene segments of g10 hrv strains identified in west africa through the african rotavirus network (arn) system. during 1998-2004 surveillance within the arn, we identified 5 g10 p[8] hrv strains. fragments of all 11 gene segments of these g10 strains were sequenced. phylogenetic and se ...201020934537
rapid generation of rotavirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies from small-intestinal mucosa.the gut mucosal surface is efficiently protected by abs, and this site represents one of the richest compartments of ab-secreting cells in the body. a simple and effective method to generate ag-specific human monoclonal abs (hmabs) from such cells is lacking. in this paper, we describe a method to generate hmabs from single ag-specific iga- or igm-secreting cells of the intestinal mucosa. we found that cd138-positive plasma cells from the duodenum expressed surface iga or igm. using egfp-labeled ...201020935207
improvement of recombinant protein production by an anti-apoptotic protein from hemolymph of lonomia obliqua.apoptosis is a major problem in animal cell culture during production of biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant proteins or viral particles. in the present work baculovirus-insect cell expression system (bevs/ic) is used as model to produce rotavirus like-particles, composed by three layers of three different viral proteins (vp2, vp6 and vp7). in this model baculovirus infection also induces host cell death. herein a new strategy to enhance cell life span and to increase recombinant rotavirus p ...201020936342
dual selection mechanisms drive efficient single-gene reverse genetics for rotavirus.current methods for engineering the segmented double-stranded rna genome of rotavirus (rv) are limited by inefficient recovery of the recombinant virus. in an effort to expand the utility of rv reverse genetics, we developed a method to recover recombinant viruses in which independent selection strategies are used to engineer single-gene replacements. we coupled a mutant sa11 rv encoding a temperature-sensitive (ts) defect in the nsp2 protein with rnai-mediated degradation of nsp2 mrnas to isola ...201020937889
diarrhea in children: etiology and clinical aspects.the aim of this paper was to determine the etiology of diarrhea in children with an age <5 years hospitalised for acute enteritis and to evidence the prevalent clinical aspects in correlation of different etiology agents.201020940668
[rotavirus]. 201020942079
molecular characterization of equine rotaviruses circulating in argentinean foals during a 17-year surveillance period (1992-2008).p[12]g3 and p[12]g14 equine rotaviruses (ervs) are epidemiologically important in horses. in argentina, the prevalent erv strains have been historically p[12]g3. the aim of this study was the detection and characterization of erv strains circulating in foals in argentina during a 17-year study (1992-2008). additionally, the gene sequences of vp7, vp4 and nsp4 encoding genes of representative argentinean erv strains were determined and phylogenetic analyses were performed to elucidate the evoluti ...201020943330
nitazoxanide use in rota viral diarrhea. cure or controversy? 201020949335
rotavirus-associated colitis in a six-month-old baby. 201020958865
hydrophobic polycationic coatings disinfect poliovirus and rotavirus solutions.coating surfaces with n-alkylated polyethylenimines (peis), namely branched n,n-hexyl,methyl-pei via covalent attachment to glass or linear n,n-dodecyl,methyl-pei by physical deposition ("painting") onto polyethylene, enables the resultant materials to quickly and efficiently disinfect aqueous solutions of (non-enveloped) poliovirus and rotavirus.201020967804
hospitalisation for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the paediatric population in the veneto region, italy.this study evaluates the epidemiological impact of rvge hospitalisation in the veneto region during the period spanning from 2000-2007 along with the associated costs. the analysis was conducted in an area where rotavirus vaccination is not included into immunization programmes and is an attempt to assess the potential benefits of such introduction.201020969755
the uptake of rotavirus vaccine and its effectiveness in preventing acute gastroenteritis in the community.we examined the uptake of rotavirus vaccine and its effectiveness in preventing acute gastroenteritis (age) in the community. data on rotavirus vaccines purchases and age were extracted from the computerized database of a large health maintenance organization in israel. the incidence of age requiring a physician visit during 2008-09 rotavirus season among vaccinated and non-vaccinated children were compared, and vaccine effectiveness was calculated as: (1-relative risk)×100. during the study per ...201020969927
variable doses of vaccines according to age. 201020972293
computational identification of post-translational modification sites and functional families reveal possible moonlighting role of rotaviral proteins.rotavirus (rv) diarrhoea causes huge number deaths in children less than 5 years of age. in spite of available vaccines, it has been difficult to combat rv due to large number of antigenically distinct genotypes, high mutation rates, generation of reassortant viruses due to segmented genome. rv is an eukaryotic virus which utilizes host cell machinery for its propagation. since rv only encodes 12 proteins, post-translational modification (ptm) is important mechanism for modification, which conse ...201020975908
effectiveness of lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized gastroenteritis: further analysis and update. 201020980802
molecular epidemiology of human astrovirus infections in saudi arabia pediatric patients.earlier work tayeb et al. [tayeb et al. (2008): j med virol 80: 1919-1929] set out to study the epidemiology of diarrhea viruses in pediatric populations. the study addressed initially rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, and astrovirus but was later expanded to include norovirus (nov). viruses were sought in fecal specimens and characterized for genotype using molecular methods (pcr, rt-pcr, and rflp) for the first time in ksa. the survey focused on three locations; jeddah, makkah, and riyadh. during ...201020981791
characterization of genotype g8 strains from malawi, kenya, and south africa.reviews of the global distribution of rotavirus genotypes have revealed the continuous circulation of g8 strains in africa, often responsible for more cases of rotavirus disease than the more common g1-g4 rotavirus strains. during the study, genotype g8 strains from malawi, kenya, and south africa were detected and the vp7 and vp4 genes of selected specimens were sequenced. results indicated that g8 strains appeared to reassort frequently and were associated with p[6], p[4], and p[8] specificity ...201020981795
enteric viruses in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens. 201021029560
comparison of the rapid methods for screening of group a rotavirus in stool samples.in this study, the sensitivity and specificity of three immunochromatography (ic) test kits for rapid detection of group a rotavirus were compared and evaluated with stool samples collected from children, who suffered from acute gastroenteritis during february to june, 2009 in japan. a total of 86 stool samples were tested and compared with a reference rt-pcr method. the sensitivity among ip-rota v, dipstick eiken rota and rota-adeno test kits were 97.2, 95.8 and 88.7%, while the specificity wer ...201021030457
global routine vaccination coverage, 2009.the widespread use of vaccines has greatly improved global public health, preventing millions of childhood hospitalizations and deaths each year. vaccination of children also is projected to avert adult deaths through the prevention of hepatitis b (hepb) virus--related chronic liver disease and liver cancer and human papilloma virus--related cervical cancer. when the world health organization (who) began the expanded programme on immunization in 1974, <5% of the world's children had been fully v ...201021030941
full genomic analysis of a simian sa11-like g3p[2] rotavirus strain isolated from an asymptomatic infant: identification of novel vp1, vp6 and nsp4 genotypes.we report here the full genomic analysis of a simian sa11-like g3p[2] group a rotavirus (gar) strain, b10, isolated from an asymptomatic infant in kenya in 1987. by nucleotide sequence identities and phylogenetic analyses, the vp7-vp4-vp2-vp3-nsp1-nsp2-nsp3-nsp5 genes of strain b10 exhibited maximum genetic relatedness to those of the different isolates of simian strain sa11, and were assigned to the g3-p[2]-c5-m5-a5-n5-t5-h5 genotypes, respectively. on the other hand, the vp1, vp6 and nsp4 gene ...201021035567
case-control study of diarrheal disease etiology in a remote rural area in western thailand.the objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in thailand. stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, giardia, and cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. campylobacter, plesiomonas, salmonella, and ent ...201021036846
[considerations in an outbreak of viral acute gastroenteritis, cisnădie 2009].frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the whole world, viral gastroenteritis represent about 80% of infectious gastroenteritis. in non-industrialised countries it mostly affects small children,while in those industrialised it represents a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. during 30.04--17.06.2009 we registered 315 cases of gastroenteritis in cisnădie. all age groups were concerned, but 78.9% of cases were children less than 14 years old. we registered cases belonging to th ...201021038704
rotavirus antigenemia in indian children with rotavirus gastroenteritis and asymptomatic infections.rotavirus gastroenteritis results in significant morbidity and mortality in indian children. although there are numerous studies on rotavirus diarrhea, there are few reports on antigenemia and extraintestinal presentations in these populations.201021039217
on-site reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of rotaviruses concentrated from environmental water samples using methacrylate monolithic supports.rotaviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in children and they exist widely in water environments. ingestion of 10-100 viral particles is enough to initiate disease, what calls for extremely sensitive detection methods. in this study we have confirmed the validity of a recently published method for rotavirus concentration and detection based on the combination of methacrylate monoliths and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr). the method was used to concentrate r ...201021040925
quantification and molecular characterization of enteric viruses detected in effluents from two hospital wastewater treatment plants.hospital wastewater has been described as an important source of spreading pathogenic microorganisms in the environment. however, there are few studies reporting the presence and concentrations of gastroenteric viruses and hepatitis a viruses in these environmental matrices. the aim of this study was to assess the contamination by viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis derived from hospital wastewater treatment plants (wwtps). rotavirus a (rv-a), human adenoviruses (hadv), n ...201021040941
benign infantile seizures associated with gastroenteritis and benign infantile seizures alone in the same patients: related syndromes or coincidental entities?we report two patients, the first one had benign infantile seizures (bis) associated with gastroenteritis (bisg), followed by bis without gastroenteritis, in the second patient bis was followed by bisg related to anti-rotavirus vaccine. after 12 and 6 months of follow-up, both patients had normal psychomotor development. bisg may be a situation-related seizure, a coincidental entity associated with bis. however the case evolutions suggested that both bis and bisg are related syndromes.201021041066
epidemiology and burden of rotavirus infection among children in hangzhou, china.rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years worldwide. however, few data have been collected on children with rotavirus diarrhea basing on outpatient department surveillance.201021041114
[detection of bovine rotavirus g10p[11] in a diary farm in daqing, china].group a rotavirus are the most frequently detected viral agent associated with the acute diarrhea in calves. in order to investigate the situation of rotavirus strains circulating in diary farms, a total of 117 fecal specimens were collected from diarrhea calves under 4 weeks-age on yinluo diary farm in daqing region in china from 2008 to 2009. ten specimens were detected to be positive by a rotavirus group a diagnostic kit, which confirmed that the rotavirus was important viral agent associated ...201021043143
spotlight on pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rotateq) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in europe.in europe, rotavirus gastroenteritis is associated with a significant health, economic, and social burden, as it is responsible for large numbers of hospitalizations and other healthcare encounters among infants and children, as well as numerous days of work lost by parents and caregivers. rotateq is a three-dose, orally administered, live, pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine used for the active immunization of infants for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. the protectiv ...201021043548
characterising aquifer treatment for pathogens in managed aquifer recharge.in this study the value of subsurface treatment of urban stormwater during aquifer storage transfer recovery (astr) is characterised using quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) methodology. the astr project utilizes a multi-barrier treatment train to treat urban stormwater but to date the role of the aquifer has not been quantified. in this study it was estimated that the aquifer barrier provided 1.4, 2.6, >6.0 log(10) removals for rotavirus, cryptosporidium and campylobacter respectivel ...201021045325
high level of gastrointestinal nosocomial infections in the german surveillance system, 2002-2008.surveillance of nosocomial infections (nis) is well established in many countries but often does not include gastrointestinal infections. we sought to determine the proportion of nis among all hospitalized cases for the 4 most prevalent types of gastrointestinal infections in germany.201021047180
whole-genome characterization of human group c rotaviruses: identification of two lineages in the vp3 gene.group c rotavirus (gcrv) is distributed worldwide as an enteric pathogen in humans and animals. however, to date, whole-genome sequences are available only for a human strain (bristol) and a porcine strain (cowden). to investigate the genetic diversity of human gcrvs, nearly full-length sequences of all 11 rna segments were determined for human gcrvs detected recently in india (v508), bangladesh (bs347), china (wu82 and ynr001) and japan (oh567 and bk0830) and analysed phylogenetically with sequ ...201021048036
outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in young children with death due to rotavirus genotype g9 in rio branco, brazilian amazon region, 2005.an epidemic of acute gastroenteritis occurred in rio branco city, acre state, in brazil's amazon region in 2005. an investigation was conducted to confirm the etiology and identify possible risk factors for death.201020843719
an update to "the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: comparative analyses for five european countries and transferability in europe".a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in belgium, england and wales, finland, france and the netherlands published in 2009 was updated based on recent studies on rotavirus burden of disease and vaccine efficacy. all the qualitative conclusions in the previous study were found to remain valid. vaccination remains cost-effective in finland only when using plausible tender prices.201020846529
national, state, and local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months --- united states, 2009.since 1994, the national immunization survey (nis) has been collecting data to monitor childhood immunization coverage. this report describes the 2009 nis coverage estimates for children born during january 2006--july 2008 and focuses on the more recently recommended vaccines (i.e., hepatitis b [hepb] vaccine birth dose, hepatitis a vaccine [hepa], pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [pcv], and rotavirus vaccine) for children aged 19--35 months. the most recent nis data indicate that vaccination cove ...201020847720
[study on the epidemiological of rotavirus diarrhea in lulong in 2008-2009].to analyze the feature of epidemiological of rotavirus diarrhea in lulong county, hebei province.201020848835
[analysis on epidemiologic characteristics of viral diarrhea among infants in taiyuan, shanxi province, 2007-2008].to study the epidemiologic characteristics of virus-induced acute diarrhea in children under 5 years old in taiyuan, shanxi province.201020848837
[sequence the complete sequence of bocavirus i with sispa-pcr].to sequence the complete sequence of bocavirus i with sequence independent single primer amplification (sispa-pcr).201020848839
[toward the elimination of rotavirus gastroenteritis by universal vaccination].rotavirus is the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide, and is most effectively controlled by vaccines. the strategic advisory group of experts (sage) of the world health organization (who) recommended, in 2009, the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination of infants into all national immunization programs. two, live, orally-administrable vaccines are licensed globally. they are rotarix, a g1p[8] monovalent, human rotavirus-based vaccine (glaxosmithkline), and rotateq, a ...201020848863
in vitro anti-rotavirus activity of polyphenol compounds isolated from the roots of glycyrrhiza uralensis.we evaluated the ability of six polyphenols isolated from the roots of glycyrrhiza uralensis to inactivate rotaviruses, specially g5p[7] and g8p[7]. upon finding that all polyphenols possessed anti-rotavirus activity, we evaluated whether these properties were attributable to direct inhibition of the binding of rotavirus to cells and/or to inhibition of viral replication. using the virucidal assay, we found that all six compounds directly inhibited rotavirus binding, with activity being dependen ...201020850329
rotavirus incidence and genotype distribution before and after national rotavirus vaccine introduction in belgium.rotarix™ was introduced into the belgian market in 2006 and rotateq™ in 2007, quickly reaching more than 85% vaccine coverage of all newborns in belgium. the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has been monitored in the gasthuisberg university hospital (guh), belgium since 1986, and since 1999 the genotypes of circulating rotavirus strains have been determined. the average percentage of rotavirus positive cases out of all hospitalized gastro-enteritis cases tested (>95% of these cases are you ...201020851085
effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in young children in connecticut, usa.rotavirus vaccine was recommended for use in us infants to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in february 2006. this matched case control study assessed the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalization of young. cases were vaccine-eligible children 8 weeks-3 years of age, hospitalized due to laboratory-confirmed rge. cases (n=42) were matched to 2 control groups: (a) hospitalized controls (n=80): children hospitalized for reasons other than rge, matched to the cases by a ...201020851087
[sybr green i real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of norovirus ii in the shellfish].we set up an sybr green i real-time rt-pcr method for the detection of genogroup ii norovirus, and this method's primers were encompassed the conservative region of norovirus ii. the limit of the detection was 10(2) copies. the standard curve's linear range was 10(2)-10(6) copies, correlation coefficient was 0.9952, the slope was -2.982, and the intercept was 35.84. this method possessed specificity for genogroup ii norovirus, without any cross-reaction with rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis a vi ...201020815263
pathogen inactivation during passage of stormwater through a constructed reedbed and aquifer transfer, storage and recovery.a study was undertaken to determine the potential inactivation rates of selected enteric microorganisms in captured urban stormwater within a constructed reedbed and in tertiary carbonated aquifer during an aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (astr) scheme. the study was undertaken in-situ in the constructed reedbed and aquifer using diffusion chambers. the results showed that all tested bacteria had one log(10) reduction time of less than 6 and 2.5 days respectively in constructed reedbeds a ...201020818064
burden on uk secondary care of rotavirus disease and seasonal infections in children.rotavirus is a common infection affecting children under 5 years, which leads to a significant disease burden. this burden is potentially exacerbated by the seasonality of rotavirus, particularly in the context of the seasonality of other common childhood infections. the primary study objective was to describe the pattern and burden of seasonal infections amongst children under 5 years of age with particular attention placed on rotavirus and other gastrointestinal infections.201020818925
development of a bacillus subtilis-based rotavirus vaccine.bacillus subtilis vaccine strains engineered to express either group a bovine or murine rotavirus vp6 were tested in adult mice for their ability to induce immune responses and provide protection against rotavirus challenge. mice were inoculated intranasally with spores or vegetative cells of the recombinant strains of b. subtilis. to enhance mucosal immunity, whole cholera toxin (ct) or a mutant form (r192g) of escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (mlt) were included as adjuvants. to evaluate vac ...201020810679
outbreak of neonatal gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 at a hospital in inner mongolia, china.this report describes for the first time an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis among neonates associated with human astrovirus (hastv) serotype 1b at a maternity hospital in inner mongolia, china. of 40 specimens, 28 were astrovirus positive and rotavirus, calicivirus, and adenovirus negative. poor hygiene likely contributed to the spread and persistence of hastv in the neonatal care room.201020810774
prevention of rotavirus infections in vitro with aqueous extracts of quillaja saponaria molina.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the us fda for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. the addition of saponins to existing water suppli ...201020725585
acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (sweet's syndrome) in a child, associated with a rotavirus infection: a case report.abstract:201020727148
estimating the primary etiologic agents in recreational freshwaters impacted by human sources of faecal contamination.epidemiology studies of recreational waters have demonstrated that swimmers exposed to faecally-contaminated recreational waters are at risk of excess gastrointestinal illness. epidemiology studies provide valuable information on the nature and extent of health effects, the magnitude of risks, and how these risks are modified or associated with levels of faecal contamination and other measures of pollution. however, such studies have not provided information about the specific microbial agents t ...201020728915
exploring model uncertainty in economic evaluation of health interventions: the example of rotavirus vaccination in vietnam.motivated by observed discrepancies between 2 published studies on the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in vietnam, the authors' objectives were to illustrate a specific, systematic approach to assessing model (structure and process) uncertainty and to quantify explicitly the contributions of different sources of variation in the outputs of different studies that share the same research question.201020729510
pentavalent rotavirus vaccine and prevention of gastroenteritis hospitalizations in australia.a publicly funded, universal infant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) program was implemented in queensland, australia, in mid-2007. we sought to assess vaccine effectiveness (ve) of 3 doses of rv5 at preventing rotavirus and nonrotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age) hospitalizations in the first birth cohort and impact on hospitalizations in all age groups.201020732946
plasmon-induced inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms with ag-agi/al2o3 under visible-light irradiation.the plasmon-induced photocatalytic inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms in water using ag-agi/al(2)o(3) under visible-light irradiation was investigated. the catalyst was found to be highly effective at killing shigella dysenteriae (s. dysenteriae), escherichia coli (e. coli), and human rotavirus type 2 wa (hrv-wa). its bactericidal efficiency was significantly enhanced by hco(3)(-) and so(4)(2-) ions, which are common in water, while phosphate had a slightly positive effect on the ...201020734989
probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea. a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in bolivian children.evidence suggests that probiotics reduce rotavirus diarrhoea duration. although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, daily practice is often limited by the type and number of products locally available. in general, information about combined products is scarce. in this study we compare the effect of two probiotic products in the treatment of diarrhoea in children less than 2 years of age.201020735858
the american society for virology--29th annual meeting.the american society for virology 29th annual meeting, held in bozeman, mt, usa, included topics covering new vaccine technologies, delivery methods and treatments in the field of virology. this conference report highlights selected presentations on human norovirus (hunov), sars coronavirus and rift valley fever virus vaccine technologies; programmed cell death-1 (pd1) blockade and hyperacute alpha-gal platform technology methods; aerosol vaccination delivery; novel technologies to produce influ ...201020799142
sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests for vaccine safety evaluation.the evaluation of vaccine safety involves pre-clinical animal studies, pre-licensure randomized clinical trials, and post-licensure safety studies. sequential design and analysis are of particular interest because they allow early termination of the trial or quick detection that the vaccine exceeds a prescribed bound on the adverse event rate. after a review of the recent developments in this area, we propose a new class of sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests for evaluating adverse eve ...201020799244
detection of rotavirus a in sewage samples using multiplex qpcr and an evaluation of the ultracentrifugation and adsorption-elution methods for virus concentration.group a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the most common agents of viral gastroenteritis in children worldwide. the goal of this study was to compare two different methods to concentrate rv-a from sewage samples and to improve the detection and quantification of rv-a using a multiplex quantitative pcr assay with an internal control. both rv-a and the internal control virus, bacteriophage pp7, were seeded into wastewater and then concentrated using either an ultrafiltration-based adsorption-elution protoco ...201020804786
evaluation of the prevalence of enterotoxigenic bacteroides fragilis and the distribution bft gene subtypes in patients with diarrhea.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic bacteroides fragilis (etbf) in the patients with diarrhea in our region and to assess the association between diarrhea and bft gene subtypes. the presence of etbf and bft gene subtypes were investigated in 200 stool samples from patients with diarrhea, diagnosed as gastroenteritis, which were sent to clinical microbiology laboratory at zonguldak karaelmas university, training and research hospital and in 200 stool samples f ...201020709181
prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children: rotavirus vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential impact of vaccines.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. there are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the united states and prequalified by the world health organization. rv1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. rv5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. a third rotavirus vaccine, llv, is ...201020714358
rotavirus and coeliac autoimmunity among adults with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms.to determine celiac disease (cd) serology and rotavirus (rv) by polymerase reaction (pcr) in adults with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints.201020714687
cryptosporidium infection in herds with and without calf diarrhoeal problems.a case-control study was designed to investigate the role of different cryptosporidium spp. in swedish dairy herds with and without calf diarrhoeal problems. faecal samples were collected from preweaned calves, young stock and cows. cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by sodium chloride flotation and epifluorescence microscopy. molecular diagnostics were used to identify cryptosporidium species. samples containing c. parvum were further analysed to determine subtypes. calf faecal samples were ...201020714750
an inside job: subversion of the host secretory pathway by intestinal pathogens.the cellular secretory pathway, composed of the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and cellular vesicles, mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins and lipids. gastrointestinal pathogens frequently affect the functions of enterocytes, the differentiated cells involved in secretion and absorption of extracellular molecules. microbial pathogenesis can be enhanced by altering the trafficking of key molecules such as brush border enzymes, soluble immune mediators such as cytokines and ...201020717028
improving the performance of enteric vaccines in the developing world.vaccines against important enteric pathogens such as rotavirus and poliovirus have shown lower efficacy in some populations. the application of new technologies and diverse scientific disciplines are needed to realize the promise of truly universal and effective solutions to combat those and other enteric diseases.201020720580
cholera toxin b subunit modulation of mucosal vaccines for infectious and autoimmune diseases.parenteral vaccination is generally considered to be the most effective form of therapy for protection against infectious diseases. in recent years, vaccination at mucosal surfaces and combinatorial vaccination strategies that link immunostimulatory molecules to antigens have been developed to enhance vaccine efficacy. prominent among immunological enhancement strategies are the bacterial a and b toxins, which include the cholera toxin (ct)a and ctb subunits. in contrast to the toxic cta subunit ...201020721834
multiplex semi-nested rt-pcr with exogenous internal control for simultaneous detection of bovine coronavirus and group a rotavirus.neonatal calf diarrhea is a multi-etiology syndrome of cattle and direct detection of the two major agents of the syndrome, group a rotavirus and bovine coronavirus (bcov) is hampered by their fastidious growth in cell culture. this study aimed at developing a multiplex semi-nested rt-pcr for simultaneous detection of bcov (n gene) and group a rotavirus (vp1 gene) with the addition of an internal control (mrna nd5). the assay was tested in 75 bovine feces samples tested previously for rotavirus ...201020723564
reversible cytotoxic oedema in the splenium of the corpus callosum related to tetracycline therapy.we report a symptomatic girl with reversible circumscribed cytotoxic oedema in the splenium of the corpus callosum (cc) that occurred, to our knowledge, for the first time in relation to tetracycline treatment. after stopping tetracycline therapy the girl recovered completely and the cc lesion, clearly visible on diffusion-weighted mr imaging (dwi), disappeared. reversible circumscribed cytotoxic oedema (cco) of the splenium of the cc is a well-defined entity that is found to be associated with ...201020689948
a novel rt-multiplex pcr for detection of aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus among infants and children with acute gastroenteritis.a novel reverse transcription-multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus. a mixture of four pairs of published specific primers, 6261 and 6779, ev22(+) and ev22(-), f1 and r1, 188f and 542r, was used to amplify the viral genomes and specifically generate four different amplicon sizes of 519, 270, 440, and 354 bp for aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus, respectively. a total ...201020691209
efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-saharan africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.rotavirus gastroenteritis causes many deaths in infants in sub-saharan africa. because rotavirus vaccines have proven effective in developed countries but had not been tested in developing countries, we assessed efficacy of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe disease in ghana, kenya, and mali between april, 2007, and march, 2009.201020692030
efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in asia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.rotavirus vaccine has proved effective for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developed countries, but no efficacy studies have been done in developing countries in asia. we assessed the clinical efficacy of live oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in bangladesh and vietnam.201020692031
rotavirus: realising the potential of a promising vaccine. 201020692032
acute pancreatitis due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in a child.serum amylase can be elevated in various pathological conditions, but its primary application is as a biochemical test for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. acute gastroenteritis has not been widely recognized as a cause for hyperamylasemia and pancreatitis.201020693860
nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in pediatric patients: a multi-center prospective cohort study.few data are available on the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus infections (nrvi) in pediatric hospitals and on their economic impact. the goals of this study were: to evaluate the incidence of nrvi in various italian pediatric wards during the course of two peak rv seasons; to investigate possible risk factors for nrvi; to estimate the costs caused by nrvi.201020696065
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