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monitoring infectious diseases using routine microbiology data. ii. an example of regression analysis used to study infectious gastroenteritis.routine data used to study infectious diseases may contain biases which obscure trends. a 16-year series (up to 1968) of routine laboratory data was used to study patterns of incidence of infective gastroenteritis for which no laboratory diagnosis could be made. an artificial pattern was detected. this arose because gps tended to refer a greater proportion of their patients during dysentery epidemics. multiple regression analysis was used to separate out this effect so that the underlying trends ...19817007491
travelers' diarrhea among american peace corps volunteers in rural thailand.diarrheal disease was studied prospectively in 35 peace corps volunteers during their first five weeks in rural thailand. twenty (57%) developed the syndrome of travelers' diarrhea. recognized bacterial enteric pathogens were isolated from stools during 47% of 39 episodes of travelers' diarrhea. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli was isolated during 26% and shigella during 13% of the episodes. of the 20 volunteers, 50% had bacteriologic and/or serologic evidence of infection with enterotoxigenic e ...19817019355
escherichia coli in gastroenteritis of children in auckland, new zealand.a study of stool escherichia coli in 60 children with gastroenteritis and 18 control children was carried out in auckland, new zealand in 1977. toxigenic strains, heat labile and heat stable, predominated in the stools of only three children, all of whom had concomitant rotavirus. classical enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) were found in patients and controls. only one patient had many epec in the stool (086.h2), they were variably toxigenic and rotavirus was also present. no toxigenic serotype wa ...19817031126
effects of antibodies, trypsin, and trypsin inhibitors on susceptibility of neonates to rotavirus infection.levels of antirotaviral secretory immunoglobulin a were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colostrum and milk samples collected daily for the first 5 days postpartum from 49 mothers breast-feeding their infants. the trypsin-inhibitory capacity of these lacteal secretion samples was assessed by their ability to inhibit the hydrolysis of alpha-n-benzoyl-dl-arginine-p-nitroanilide by trypsin. stools passed by these breast-fed infants and by an additional 43 bottle-fed infants were poo ...19816257755
the 30- to 54-nm rotavirus-like particles in gastroenteritis: incidence and antigenic relationship to rotavirus.the 30- to 54-nm rotavirus-like particles were observed in the stool specimens of 17 children with gastroenteritis. these small rotavirus-like particles were shown to be antigenically related to the commonly described 68-nm rotavirus using the techniques of immune electron microscopy and elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). four specimens containing the small rotavirus-like particles were shown to contain an antigen of a common human rotavirus serotype (type 2). the findings of small rotav ...19816278067
failure to isolate rotavirus from bovine meconium. 19816262991
diagnosis of human rotavirus infections: comparison of an electrophoretic method, a modified complement fixation test and electron microscopy for rotavirus detection.a modified complement fixation test and a counter-immuno-electrophoresis on cellulose acetate were compared to electron microscopy, in detecting rotavirus from stool specimens. out of 75 samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, 40 per cent yielded positive results. the main advantages of the above two methods in routine diagnosis are discussed.19816263229
further studies on the etiology of autumn infant gastroenteritis. 19816263557
the influence of divalent cations on the stability of human rotavirus.the influence of divalent cations on the stability of human rotavirus was investigated using the indirect immunofluorescence (fa) technique in llc-mk2 cells to titrate infectivity. rotavirus infectivity was stabilized by calcium and strontium ions in solution but not by magnesium ions. rotavirus isolates were found to be much less stable at 37 degrees c than at + 4 degrees c or 20 degrees. a study of virus morphology at intervals during the course of the experiment and treatment with the chelati ...19816263223
[use of immunofluorescence technic for the diagnosis of rotavirus infection in the calf].a methodical account is given of possible applications of the immuno-fluorescence technique in the diagnosis of rotavirus infection of calf. the technique has proved suitable for routine checks for both its low input in terms of method and hardware and its potential of diagnostic information. the two latter methods are best applicable under routine conditions to testing of faeces-inoculated cell cultures as well as to the detection of rotavirus from faecal smears and frozen intestinal sections. ...19816264881
morphogenesis of human rotavirus type 2 wa strain in ma 104 cells.morphogenesis of human rotavirus type 2 wa strain in ma 104 cells was observed. the virus antigen in the cytoplasm was detected by indirect immunofluorescence twelve hours after infection. the cytopathic effect occurred 24 hours after infection when virus particles were detected by em in the culture fluid as well as in thin sections of the infected cells. virus particles were observed in the dilated rer, nuclear envelope (perinuclear space), viroplasm, and a lysosome-like body. three types of vi ...19816277282
comparisons of rotavirus polypeptides by limited proteolysis: close similarity of certain polypeptides of different strains.the polypeptides of sa11 rotavirus produced in virus-infected cells were analyzed by limited proteolysis, using staphylococcus aureus v8 protease. this clearly distinguished between all the known primary gene products of the virus and allowed relationships between other infected-cell proteins, and between infected-cell and virus structural proteins, to be ascertained. a comparison of the proteolysis cleavage patterns between sa11 rotavirus and the human rotavirus wa was also performed which demo ...19816275113
[rotavirus and acute diarrhea in infancy: comparison of hospitalized and outpatient cases (author's transl)]. 19816275480
quantitative aspects of rotavirus excretion in childhood diarrhoea.the amount of rotavirus (antigen) in diarrhoeal stools was determined from serially diluted faecal specimens using a solid phase radioimmunoassay (ria) method. the acute stage ria titres for rotavirus antigen ranged from 1:200 to 1:200 000 with a mean titre of 1:2 936 in a group of 16 infants with age range 2 to 14 months and 1:4 703 in a group of 12 children aged 25 to 94 months. in the younger age-group the diarrhoea lasted longer (mean 7.8 days) than in the older children (mean 5.4 days) desp ...19816275655
new enteric viruses in the dog. 19816275684
viral diarrhea of young animals: a review. 19816277556
[evolution of anti-rota virus antibodies in the milk of cows treated in the last month of pregnancy either by adjuvated rotavirus vaccine or by the adjuvant fraction of the vaccine (author's transl)]. 19816277557
lymphocytotoxic and microbial antibodies in crohn's disease and matched controls.patients with crohn's disease and age, sex and seasonally matched healthy controls were studied for cold lymphocytotoxic and a variety of microbial antibodies. lymphocytotoxic antibody titers were increased significantly in the crohn's patients compared to controls, but did not correlate with any of the microbial titers. antibodies to a pseudomonas-like bacterium and bacteroides vulgatus were also increased in the patients, but titers to chlamydia trachomatis, rotavirus and norwalk virus were no ...19816275790
an epidemic of rotavirus diarrhoea in manipur, india.recurrent epidemics of acute diarrhoeal disease in young children have occurred during the winter months in manipur (india) for many years. during november 1979, children admitted to hospital for acute diarrhoea were investigated and, in addition to pathogenic escherichia coli and shigella rotovirus was detected by elisa in a number of stool samples, especially of those less than one year old. the importance of this finding and the need for further study are discussed.19816275578
[electron microscopy of parvoviruses and rotaviruses in canine enteritis]. 19816275597
propagation of bovine rotavirus by dogs. 19816275602
[rotaviruses as a cause of an epidemic of acute gastroenteritis]. 19816275605
[relative effectiveness of disinfectants against rotaviruses (author's transl)]. 19816275633
[water-borne outbreaks of rotavirus infections].the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of group rotavirus infection observed in one settlement in march-april is presented. 173 cases of infection were registered in all age groups (children under 7 years constituted only 10.4% of the patients). in most of the apartments found to be the foci of infection only one patient was registered. the virological study of fecal samples from 24 patients showed the presence of human rotaviruses in the feces of 10 patients (41.7%). neutralizing antibodie ...19816275639
viruses and bacteria in pediatric diarrhea in thailand: a study of multiple antibiotic-resistant enteric pathogens.children with diarrhea admitted to a rehydration ward of a children's hospital in bangkok were investigated to determine the prevalence of enteric pathogens, the extent of children's previous antibiotic therapy, and the frequency of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance among infecting bacteria. rotavirus (36%), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (18%), shigella (9%), salmonella (6%), campylobacter jejuni/coli (4%), and vibrio cholerae (2%) infections were among 105 children with diarrhea. antibi ...19816275727
a sensitive method for the production of diagnostic fingerprints of the genome segments of field isolates of rotavirus.the 3'-terminal labelling procedure for analyzing the genome segment profile of field isolates of rotavirus (clarke and mccrae, 1981, j. virol. methods 2, 203) has been further developed to produce a rapid and sensitive method for generating diagnostic fingerprints from individual species of double-stranded rna. the fingerprints were obtained by a one-dimensional resolution of overlapping terminally labelled oligonucleotides produced by partial nuclease digestion with a base-specific nuclease. t ...19816277973
detection of rotavirus immune complexes: relationship between rotavirus antibodies and rotavirus antigens in faeces.an elisa was developed for the identification of rotavirus immune complexes in pig faeces. the relationship between rotavirus antigens, rotavirus immune complexes and rotavirus antibodies of iga class was examined.19816277974
incidence of rotavirus, adenovirus and herpesvirus infection in pigeons. 19816278694
[isolation of human rotavirus in cell cultures and its antigenic and physicochemical properties (author's transl)]. 19816278754
[variation of diarrhea viruses detected in japan with special reference to spherical viruses other than rotaviruses (author's transl)]. 19816278755
[rotavirus gastroenteritis. laboratory diagnosis and study methods]. 19816278777
comparison of direct electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of gastroenteritis viruses in children.an approximate 10% suspension in water of the first available stool sample from 411 infants and young children with acute gastroenteritis was examined by electron microscopy (em) after 2 min of negative staining. this procedure enabled the detection of 88% of the 199 rotavirus infections, all of the 22 adenovirus infections, and 47% of the 15 approximately 27-nm virus infections ultimately detected by a combination of techniques, including immune electron microscopy (iem) and rotavirus enzyme-li ...19816263947
frequency of preclumped virus in routine fecal specimens from patients with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis.a low-speed centrifugation technique for the preparation of grids after minimal purification of fecal extracts is described for examination of viruses by direct electron microscopy using negative staining. results showed that adenovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, and "small round" viruses were frequently shed into the gastrointestinal tract in clumps of variable size. differential centrifugation study showed that a substantial proportion of the virus in the sample was lost in the initial pellet at ...19816263948
optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of human and bovine rotavirus in stools: comparison with electron-microscopy, immunoelectro-osmophoresis, and fluorescent antibody techniques.detection of human and bovine rotavirus in stools is described using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with poly-styrene microtest plates as solid phase, immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit antiserum to rotavirus (human) as catching antibody, and the same reagent labelled with horseradish peroxidase as conjugate. the elisa has been optimized with regard to simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity. in a comparative study, stool specimens from 81 infants ...19816264024
gene-coding assignments of rotavirus double-stranded rna segments 10 and 11.the gene-coding assignments for genome segments 10 and 11 of a simian virus and two human rotaviruses were determined. for those viruses having a "long" rna gel pattern (electropherotype), segments 10 and 11 encoded proteins ns(3) and o(4), respectively. the human virus with a "short" electropherotype had the opposite assignments and also differed in (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) serotype from the human virus with a long electropherotype.19816264154
exanthem subitum not associated with rotavirus. 19816264296
glucose vs sucrose in oral rehydration solutions for infants and young children with rotavirus-associated diarrhea.the use of oral rehydration solutions containing essential electrolytes and either glucose or sucrose of equal osmolality was compared in a double-blind sequential trial of 784 children with rotavirus-associated diarrhea treated at a center in rural bangladesh. the oral fluid failure rate was 11.5% for the sucrose-containing solution group and 7.3% for the glucose-containing group (p = ns). vomiting was a significantly more common cause of failure for the group treated with sucrose-containing or ...19816264376
[gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. an epidemiologic survey in lyons. diagnostic value of the elisa method]. 19816264380
rescue of noncultivatable human rotavirus by gene reassortment during mixed infection with ts mutants of a cultivatable bovine rotavirus.fastidious human rotaviruses that did not undergo productive infection in tissue culture were rescued by genetic reassortment during mixed infection with a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of a cultivatable bovine rotavirus. in this manner, the genes of the fastidious rotavirus that restricted growth in vitro were replaced by the corresponding genes from a tissue culture-adapted rotavirus. we recovered genetically reassorted viruses that grew to high titer and were neutralized specifically by h ...19816264442
[detection of rotavirus antigens and antibodies by immunoelectro-osmophoresis]. 19816264663
rotavirus. ii. viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in children.rotavirus was investigated in the feces of 232 children under five years of age with acute infectious gastroenteritis by means of viral rna electrophoretic technique. 15.1 per cent of cases were positive and no predominance was observed regarding age or seasonal period. approximately 50 per cent corresponded to one of the two rotavirus types, byt type 2 (2 l) was predominant in the first six months of the year and type 1 (2 s) in the other six. results are consistent with those obtained by other ...19816264879
rotavirus, adenovirus, and non-viral enteropathogens in diarrhoea.the aetiology of rotavirus and adenovirus in acute gastroenteritis was studied in a prospective series that comprised 283 children admitted consecutively with diarrhoea during a 1-year period. rotavirus was associated in 49% of the cases by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and electron microscopical examination of stool specimens, or by serology. adenovirus was detected by radioimmunoassay in the stool specimens of 29 (11%) patients, including 8 cases of possible dual infection with rotavirus. rotav ...19816264863
characterization of rna polymerase products of nebraska calf diarrhea virus and sa11 rotavirus.the endogenous rna polymerase of the calf rotavirus was shown to synthesize single-stranded rna transcripts of one polarity which were identical in size to the denatured parental double-stranded rna segments. the transcripts were notable in their absence of polyadenylate sequences. the polymerase activity associated with the cores of calf rotavirus was minimally altered by the reaction, since calf rotavirus cores could be reused after purification, whereas the rna polymerase products appeared to ...19816262526
an outbreak of rotavirus diarrhea among a nonimmune, isolated south american indian community.during july-august 1977, an outbreak of acute diarrhea occurred in an unusually isolated population, the tiriyó indians, who live in the north of pará, brazil, near the border with surinam. diarrhea was reported by 157 (70%) of the 224 indians living in the village during the epidemic. there was one fatal case in a one year old child. rotavirus was detected by electron microscopy in one fecal specimen collected from an acute case of diarrhea. seroconversions were noted in 127 out of 168 (75.6%) ...19816263087
stool electrolyte content and purging rates in diarrhea caused by rotavirus, enterotoxigenic e. coli, and v. cholerae in children.one hundred twenty children below 5 years of age with diarrhea caused by vibrio cholerae, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, or rotavirus were studied for stool electrolyte composition and purging rates. the mean purging rate in cholera was 60.1 ml, in etec 39.2 ml, and in rotavirus infection 31.4 ml/kg/8 hour. the mean stool sodium concentration in cholera was 88.9 mmol/l, in etec 53.7 mmol/l, and in rotavirus infection 37.2 mmol/l. stool potassium concentration did not show much variation, mean ...19816262471
[use of staphylococcus aureus protein "a" to detect rotavirus in the stools (author's transl)].the authors have used an anti-rotavirus immunserum fixed to the staphylococcus aureus protein a to detect this virus in the stools. a study on animal faeces showed a very good agreement in results with elisa technique. the study on human stools shows a good agreement with elisa technique and identical results to this technique in comparison with electronical microscopy. the agglutination reaction appears as a quick, simple and specific technique to find out rotavirus in the stools.19816262701
[indirect elisa technic for detection of human rotavirus in faeces (author's transl)].a relatively simple indirect elisa technic is described for detection of human rotavirus in faeces. 329 faeces from children diarrhoea had been tested and rotavirus were found in 30% cases.19816262703
development of immunity to porcine rotavirus in piglets protected from disease by bovine colostrum.bovine colostrum with rotavirus-neutralizing activity was fed for 10 days to two groups of piglets, one of which was inoculated intranasally with a rotavirus of porcine origin. a third group, which did not receive colostrum, was also inoculated with the virus, and these piglets developed diarrhea, excreted rotavirus in the feces, and died 6 days after infection. in contrast, the infected piglets fed with bovine colostrum remained healthy, although they developed antibody to rotavirus. twenty-sev ...19816262251
a prospective clinical study of rotavirus diarrhoea in young children.the clinical and laboratory features of 96 children aged 6 to 36 months with acute rotavirus diarrhoea were compared to findings on 63 children of the same age with acute non-rotavirus diarrhoea. of the rotavirus-associated cases 80% occurred between january and june. in general, the diarrhoea was more severe in these patients than in the others, but no difference was seen in duration of symptoms. clinical features characteristic of rotavirus-associated cases included: dehydration and acidosis u ...19816259882
rotavirus infection in elderly patients.in the course of an outbreak of non-bacterial diarrhoea in a group of elderly patients in a rehabilitation ward, rotavirus was detected by electron-microscopy in five of 11 stool specimens (45.5%) from symptomatic elderly patients. this suggests that although rotavirus is usually thought of as a cause of gastro-enteritis in children it should also be considered as a cause of non-bacterial diarrhoea in elderly patients and stool specimens examined for its presence. rotavirus gastro-enteritis appe ...19816259912
a rapid and sensitive method for analysing the genome profiles of field isolates of rotavirus. 19816262345
detection of rotavirus in faeces by latex agglutination.human rotavirus (hrv) in faeces of patients may be readily detected with high sensitivity and specificity using latex agglutination (la) on a glass slide by making use of the cross-reactivity of anti-calf rotavirus (crv) antibody. latex particles were coated with anti-crv immunoglobin. the antibody coated particles (ac-l) are specifically agglutinated by both crv and hrv, and the agglutination is evident macroscopically within a minute. to examine the sensitivity and reliability of the la method ...19816262411
rotavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in ecuador.electron microscopic examination of stools of 702 infants and young children hospitalized in the emergency service of the alejandro mann children's hospital in guayaquil, ecuador, between august 1978 and october 1979 showed rotavirus to be present in 148 (21.1%). during the study period rotavirus was detected throughout the year, with no distinct seasonal variation. in addition to rotavirus, adenovirus was detected in stools of five (0.7%) of the patients and unidentified small round virus parti ...19816259959
[replication of an isolate of human rotavirus on human cells cultured in vitro: observation by electron microscopy].replication of human rotaviruses on cultured human cells obtained from an intestinal carcinoid tumor was observed by electron microscopy. no enzymatic pretreatment of either the cell monolayers or the inoculum was needed. the characteristics of the vital progeny are discussed.19816260395
lactose tolerance in lambs with rotavirus diarrhoea.it has been suggested that lactose malabsorption is an important factor in producing the diarrhoea of acute rotavirus infection. accordingly, the lactose tolerance of gnotobiotic newborn lambs, infected with lamb rotavirus, has been investigated by clinical studies and tissue enzyme assays. although lactase activity is low in affected areas of the small intestine, rotavirus infected lambs are not lactose intolerant as assessed by the measurement of reducing substances in the faeces, or by the cl ...19816260597
traveler's diarrhea associated with rotavirus infection: analysis of virus-specific immunoglobulin classes.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin g (igg), igm, and iga antibodies was used in a serological study of traveler's diarrhea. the antigenically related simian rotavirus (sa-11) was used as antigen in this study. serum was obtained from two groups of volunteers before travel (pre-travel) and at various times after arrival at their destination (post-travel). one group consisted of 47 american peace corps volunteers who traveled to honduras, an ...19816260664
uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, callinectes sapidus.uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. the highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. the concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. changes in salinity did not subs ...19816261683
nosocomial viral infections: iii. guidelines for prevention and control of exanthematous viruses, gastroenteritis viruses, picornaviruses, and uncommonly seen viruses.this communication is the third in a four-part series on nosocomial viral infections from the strong memorial hospital. this third article discusses guidelines for prevention and control of exanthematous viruses, gastroenteritis, viruses, adenoviruses and the picornaviruses other than rhinoviruses. several uncommonly seen viruses, such as the virus of creutzfeldt-jakob disease and marburg, ebola, and lassa fever viruses, also are reviewed briefly.19816260699
extraction of rotavirus from human feces by treatment with lithium dodecyl sulfate.a procedure has been developed for the isolation of rotavirus from human fecal specimens based on the resistance of the virus to treatment with cold 1% lithium dodecyl sulfate at neutral ph. a single detergent treatment of fecal material followed by low- and high-speed centrifugations yielded a virus suspension of sufficient purity for viral ribonucleic acid to be analyzed directly by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels.19816261684
[rotavirus infection among a newborns and young infants institution. a study of the clinical, epidemiological and virologic characters (author's transl)]. 19816261666
inactivation of a rotavirus by disinfectants.rotavirus sa 11, clarified and in human faeces, was exposed to eight commonly used hospital and laboratory disinfectants for periods between 15 seconds and two hours. of the three hard disinfectants tested, 0.95 by volume (95% v/v) ethanol and 0.05 by volume (5% v/v) biogram were more effective in inactivating sa 11 than 4% (w/v) or 10% (w/v) formaldehyde, with 0.95 by volume ethanol being the most effective of all of the disinfectants tested. none of the skin disinfectants tested, betadine, hex ...19816259500
detection of antirotavirus immunoglobulins a, g, and m in swine colostrum, milk, and feces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to allow direct detection of class-specific antirotavirus antibodies. in colostrum and in milk, antirotavirus antibodies were found in the three immunoglobulin classes. antirotavirus immunoglobulins g and m were predominant in colostrum, whereas antirotavirus immunoglobulin a was predominant in milk and feces.19816260678
rotavirus. i. hemagglutination and complement fixation inhibitor antibodies in individuals of mexico city.hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies were studied in 1,278 sera of individuals of different ages in mexico city representative of four different socioeconomic levels. it was found that 1,261 (98.7 per cent) had antibodies against the nebraska strain (calf rotavirus). an unusual finding was that more than 95 per cent of children from one to four years of age, had antibodies. for this reason five year old children were studied utilizing two viral strains as antigens in hemagglutination inhibitio ...19816264878
[rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis in childhood: a one-year survey in a department of general pediatrics (author's transl)]. 19816266328
diarrhea caused by shigella, rotavirus, and giardia in day-care centers: prospective study.we conducted a 19-month prospective study of children attending 20-day-care centers to determine the occurrence, causes, and transmission of gastroenteritis among children, staff, and family members. nine centers had 15 outbreaks of diarrhea involving 195 patients. an enteropathogen was identified in all outbreaks. shigella was detected in five outbreaks, rotavirus in two, giardia in one, and in the remaining seven multiple enteropathogens were identified. rotavirus and giardia occurred only in ...19816265616
clinical manifestations of diarrhea in calves infected with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli.the susceptibility of gnotobiotic, colostrum-derived, or suckling calves to four bovine rotavirus isolates was found to be age dependent. calves older than 7 days remained clinically normal, although they excreted virus in their feces and subsequently developed antibody against the virus, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, fed to gnotobiotic, colostrum-deprived, or suckling calves ranging in age from a few hours to 26 days old, only caused diarrhea in animals younger than 24 h old. in contrast, d ...19816265493
[recent findings on the viral etiology of acute gastroenteritis--a review]. 19816265852
experimental escherichia coli and rotavirus infection in lambs.colostrum-deprived lambs were infected with either enteropathogenic escherichia coli(o9:k30:k99) or rotavirus or a mixture of the e coli and rotavirus. e coli doses of 10(6) and above consistently produced diarrhoea, as did experimental rotavirus infection. when both of the agents were administered, the mortality rate was higher, although the duration of diarrhoea was no greater than that observed when either of the two agents was administered alone.19816265999
the aetiology and diagnosis of calf diarrhoea. 19816266122
genes of human (strain wa) and bovine (strain uk) rotaviruses that code for neutralization and subgroup antigens. 19816266134
human rotavirus antigen detection by enzyme-immunoassay with antisera against nebraska calf diarrhoea virus.a four-layer solid phase enzyme-immunoassay (eia) with antisera against nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (ncdv) as immunoreagents was developed to detect human rotavirus antigens from stool specimens of patients with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. polystyrene beads were used as the solid phase, guinea-pig and rabbit anti-ncdv immunoglobulin as the catching and secondary antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated swine anti-rabbit immunoglobulin as the indicator antibody. a comparison of the developed nc ...19816265506
isolation of a rotavirus from a newborn dog with diarrhea.a rotavirus was isolated from a newborn dog that died after having clinical signs of diarrhea. virus particles with rotaviral morphologic features were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the intestinal homogenate collected at necropsy. cytopathic effects were observed, and rotaviral antigens were detected by indirect immunofluorescence in ma-104 monolayer cultures (a fetal rhesus macaque kidney cell) inoculated with intestinal homogenate. this rotavirus isolate, designated lsu 79c-3 ...19816266295
[detection of rotavirus in infants with acute gastroenteritis (author's transl)].throughout 1978, stools of austrian infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for the presence of viruses by means of electron microscopy. rotavirus was found in 131 out of 590 children. adenoviruses were observed in 18 cases. the viruses were detected more often during the cold season, particularly in children up to two years of age.19816266165
detection of porcine rotavirus by em, elisa and ciet. 19816266239
[rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis]. 19816267410
rotavirus detection for the routine laboratory. 19816267531
susceptibility of mice to rotavirus infection: effects of age and administration of corticosteroids.we examined susceptibility to the murine rotavirus, epizootic diarrhea of infant mice virus (edim), in normal suckling and weaned mice and in suckling mice treated with glucocorticoids. normal mice 1 to 40 days old were inoculated by gastrin intubation with high doses of edim and subsequently evaluated for rotavirus infection by solid-phase radioimmunoassay, by electron microscopy of intestinal tissue sections or by both. radioimmunoassay and electron microscopy showed a concordance of 89.5% in ...19816268547
neonatal bovine enteritis: detection of rotavirus by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.counterimmunoelectrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for rotavirus were performed on 253 calf gut and fecal specimens from eastern north dakota. rotavirus antigen was detected in 29 specimens by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and in 52 specimens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. all of the counterimmunoelectrophoresis-positive specimens were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the counterimmunoelectrophoresis and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using a ...19816266620
immuno-electron microscopic study on the antigenicity of tubular structures associated with human rotavirus.tubular structures associated with human rotavirus were antigenically related to the single-capsid layered particles having only an inner capsid of the virus because they were agglutinated by heterologous bovine rotavirus antiserum.19816268548
the use of markers in immune electron microscopy.immune electron microscopy (iem) cannot be used successfully for structures that do not have recognisable morphology. however, at least some of these structures or components are related antigenically to recognisable antigens or viruses. we have therefore mixed unknown antigens with known markers and looked for the presence of mixed aggregates. the present study examined a low molecular weight subunit of rotavirus and a micellar form of hepatitis b surface antigen. in both cases mixed immune agg ...19816268650
comparison of immunosorbent electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassay and counterimmunoelectrophoresis for detection of human rotavirus in stools.the detection of human rotaviruses by routine electron microscopy examination of stool specimens has been compared with the sensitivity of detection obtainable by three different immunoassays. these assays are: 1) immunosorbent electron microscopy (isem), which consists of the serological trapping of viruses on electron microscopy grids coated with protein a and specific viral antiserum; 2) an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), in which the primary antibody is rabbit anti-rotavirus immun ...19816268652
acute diarrhea and rotavirus infection in newborn babies and children in yogyakarta, indonesia, from june 1978 to june 1979.a longitudinal study of acute diarrhea in children in yogyakarta, indonesia (june 1978 to june 1979), showed little variation throughout most months of the year in numbers of children admitted to hospital and in numbers infected with rotaviruses. both decreased during november and december coincidentally with seasonal change from dry to wet conditions. rotavirus particles were identified by electron microscopy in fecal specimens from 126 of 334 (38%) infants and children with acute diarrhea. nos ...19816268656
improved detection of viruses by electron microscopy after direct ultracentrifuge preparation of specimens.we have adapted the beckman airfuge air turbine ultracentrifuge and the new em-90 particle-counting rotor to improve detection by electron microscopy of viruses in clinical specimens. samples were clarified by centrifugation, pelleted in the em-90 rotor directly to formvar-coated copper grids, and strained with 1.5% sodium phosphotungstate. virus counts and endpoint titrations of serial dilutions of partially purified preparations of poliovirus, sa11 rotavirus, herpes simplex virus, and vaccinia ...19816268658
twenty-five years of progress in understanding major infectious diseases of dairy cattle. 19816268673
a prospective study of rotavirus infection in infants and young children.diarrhea in neonates, followed as a cohort, and their families was studied prospectively. the families were followed for an average of 16.3 months. stool and serum specimens were obtained at least every three months. stool specimens were examined for viruses by electron microscopy and cultured for enteropathogens, and serum specimens were tested for antibodies to rotavirus and norwalk virus. during the study, 237 episodes of gastroenteritis were observed in 104 infants and their 62 siblings. rot ...19816268713
rotavirus infection in thai people: a preliminary study. 19816268729
molecular biology of rotaviruses. i. characterization of basic growth parameters and pattern of macromolecular synthesis.the united kingdom tissue-adapted bovine rotavirus growing in african green monkey kidney (bsc-1) cells was selected as a model system with which to study the detailed molecular virology of rotavirus replication. study of the kinetics of infectious virus production revealed a fairly rapid replication cycle, with maximum yield of virus after 10 to 12 h at 37 degrees c. progeny genome synthesis was first detected during the virus latent period at 2 to 3 h postinfection. study of the kinetics of vi ...19816268838
[ultrastructural characteristics of the rotavirus detected in swine with gastroenteritis]. 19816268949
inner structures of some coronaviruses.when treated with formaldehyde, tween 80, sodium oleate and nonidet p-40, avian infectious bronchitis virus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus as well as the human coronavirus show similar inner structures by negative staining. the first one is an inner membranous bag. this structure could be evaginated following treatments used and does not show the characteristic projections of coronaviruses. subseq ...19816266623
seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of enterotoxigenic bacteria and rotavirus in paediatric diarrhoea in addis ababa.this study (march 1977-february 1978) was performed at the ethio-swedish pediatric clinic, addis ababa, to determine whether there were any seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of diarrhoea associated with enterotoxigenic enterobacteria (eteb), rotavirus and two parasites (giardia lamblia and entamoeba histolytica).a total of 1161 children (962 patients and 199 controls) were investigated. eteb were isolated in 12.2% of the patients and 4.5% of the controls, rotavirus in 27.8% and 8%, and par ...19816266682
variation in human rotavirus electropherotypes occurring between rotavirus gastroenteritis epidemics in central australia.the changes in human rotavirus electropherotypes, occurring during a period including two rotavirus gastroenteritis epidemics in 1976 and 1979 in relatively remote central australia, were determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of the rotavirus genome ribonucleic acid. a number of different electropherotypes were present during each of the epidemics, although a single type was predominant in each one. the predominant electropherotype of the first epidemic persisted in the area ...19816266963
rapid identification of viruses by a simple indirect immune electron microscopy technique using ferritin-labelled antibodies. 19816267094
staphylococcal protein a-enzyme immunoglobulin conjugates: versatile tools for enzyme immunoassays.this report describes the use of peroxidase-labeled staphylococcal protein a to prepare conjugates suitable for direct enzyme immunoassays (eias). such conjugates were used to develop direct eia systems for the measurement of two antigens associated with human infections, human rotavirus and haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide. both systems were as sensitive or more sensitive than currently available eias for the measurement of standard antigens. in addition, both systems could be utili ...19816267138
poly(a) polymerase activity in human rotavirus.a poly(a) polymerase enzymic activity was found in partially purified preparations of a human rotavirus. the activity was demonstrated using conditions similar to those utilized for the detection of the poly(a) polymerase previously described in reovirus (incubation at 43 degrees c in 70 mm-tris buffer ph 7.5 containing 12 mm-mn2+). the enzymic activity was associated only with complete, double-shelled particles. characterization of the poly(a)-containing product of the in vitro reaction by gel ...19816267183
protein synthesis in cells infected with bovine rotavirus.bovine rotavirus was found to multiply efficiently in llc-mk2 cells, a continuous line of rhesus monkey kidney, with a growth cycle which was essentially completed within 9 h after infection. the presence of low concentrations of trypsin (10 microgram/ml) in the virus inoculum was essential for infectivity. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of infected cell extracts demonstrated the synthesis of at least eight virus-specific polypeptides 6 h post-infection with mol. wt. ranging from 102 x 10(3) ...19816267184
distribution of antibodies to rotavirus in serum and lacteal secretions of naturally infected swine and their suckling pigs.rotavirus antibodies were demonstrated in lacteal secretions and sera of 20 parturient sows and in sera of their newborn by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blocking technique, using bovine rotavirus cell culture antigen and monospecific antibody to bovine rotavirus. antibodies to rotavirus occur in the 3 immunoglobulin (ig) classes igm, iga, and igg in lacteal secretions. high and long-persisting antibody activity was mainly associated with the iga class. the igm and igg decreased to undete ...19816267967
comparative virulence of different bovine rotavirus isolates.intestinal loops, ligated in colostrum-deprived calves were used to compare the virulence of four isolates of bovine rotavirus. histopathological studies were carried out on infected and control loops and measurements of villous length, crypt depth, villus:crypt ratio and crypt mitotic index were recorded. pathological changes associated with the rotaviruses included villous atrophy, flattening of absorptive epithelium and reduced villus:crypt ratios. the changes were confined to infected intest ...19816268264
diarrhea in lambs: experimental infections with enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, rotavirus, and cryptosporidium sp.thirteen gnotobiotic lambs, aged from a few hours to 8 days, were inoculated orally with single infections of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (four animals), lamb rotavirus (five animals), and cryptosporidium (four animals). six gnotobiotic and two specific-pathogen-free lambs were co-inoculated with either rotavirus and etec (four animals), rotavirus and cryptosporidium (two animals), or etec and cryptosporidium (two animals). lambs 4 days of age and older became only subclinically infe ...19816268543
effect of fractions of ethiopian and norwegian colostrum on rotavirus and escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.samples of colostrum from both ethiopian and norwegian women contained antirotavirus activities of immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin nature. no significant differences in rotavirus immunoglobulin a or in rotavirus-inhibiting activity were found between samples from the two countries. the non-immunoglobulin inhibitory activity was trypsin sensitive and heat stable (100 degrees c for 10 min). escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin antibodies were measured in the colostrum samples by enzyme-l ...19816268544
outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis among premature infants. 19816269687
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