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solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detecting bovine (neonatal calf diarrhea) rotavirus antibody.an indirect solid-phase microradioimmunoassay is described for detecting antibodies against rotaviruses. the test involved ethanol fixation of microcultures of bovine rotavirus-infected bsc-1 cells and reacetion with bovine antirotavirus serum, followed by 125i-labeled rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin g. the technique was shown to be virus specific and highly sensitive. the fixed microcultures could be stored at 4 degrees c for at least 2 months without affecting the sensitivity of the test. th ...1977195982
[rotavirus infections]. 1977201913
[duovirus (rotavirus) in belém, state of para, brazil (preliminary report)]. 1977202009
[acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. a summary of danish studies]. 1977202050
[clinical significance of rotavirus infections in children with acute diarrhea. a preliminary study]. 1977202051
[acute diarrhea in childhood--new aspects]. 1977202052
[infantile diarrhea and rotavirus (author's transl)].the acute and convalescent sera of 328 children with acute enteritis were checked with the bovine diarrhea virus as antigen in complement fixation test. 13% had a seroconversion. some cases were associated with skin rashes or signs of respiratory infection.1977191779
rotavirus epidemic in adults. 1977193006
human rotavirus in lambs: infection and passive protection.a human stool filtrate containing rotavirus which was administered orally to gnotobiotic lambs caused diarrhea, virus excretion, development of antibodies to rotavirus, and pathological changes in the villi of the small intestine. thus, lambs may serve as experimental animals for the study of human rotavirus infections. this model system was used to study passive protection. human immunoglobulin g (igg) containing antibody to rotavirus was fed to lambs 24 to 78 h after birth, and the lambs were ...1977194837
enteropathogens associated with pediatric diarrhea in mexico city.enteropathogens were investigated as possible agents in pediatric diarrhea occurring in mexico city during the summer of 1975. pathogens were identified in 47 (76%) of 62 cases. rotavirus particles were detected in 16 cases. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli was detected in 29 cases; 11 were positive for heat-labile enterotoxin and 18 were positive for only the heat-stable form of enterotoxin. multiple pathogens were found simultaneously in 15 (24%) of the study population. this study indicates t ...1977195030
[gastroenteritis due to rotavirus and spreading of the infection through the hospital]. 1977195230
intestinal damage in rotavirus and adenovirus gastroenteritis assessed by d-xylose malabsorption.the absorption of d-xylose infused into the duodenum was assessed in infants with acute gastroenteritis. 1-hour blood-xylose levels were low in 6 patients found to harbour rotavirus in the small intestinal aspirate. normal levels (greater than 1-26 mmol/l) were obtained in the absence of virus particles in the small intestine in a further 6 patients: in 3 of these adenovirus or rotavirus was recovered from the stools. three patients with adenovirus in the small intestinal juice and ill with acut ...1977195541
plaque assay of neonatal calf diarrhea virus and the neutralizing antibody in human sera.neonatal calf diarrhea virus (a bovine rotavirus) formed distinct plaques in monolayers of ma-104 cells, an established macacus rhesus monkey kidney cell line, when diethylaminoethyl dextran and trypsin were included in the overlay medium. by using this plaque assay method, titration of neutralizing antibody to neonatal calf diarrhea virus was made feasible. it was demonstrated that some human sera contained neutralizing antibody to this agent.1977188863
viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in young children.conventional virologic investigations generally failed to implicate viruses as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. when negative-contrast stain electron microscopy was used for the examination of stool samples from affected patients, several candidate etiologic agents were discovered. rotavirus (otherwise known as orbivirus, reo-like agent, and infantile gastroenteritis virus) emerged as an important causative agent. in a considerable number of patients, however, no causative age ...1977195461
immune electron microscopy of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus (reovirus-like agent) of swine.immune electron microscopy (iem) was developed as a diagnostic aid for detecting and identifying transmissible gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus (reovirus-like agent) in fecal and intestinal contents from cases of gastroenteritis in young pigs. variables involved in use of direct iem and its sensitivity were determined. aggregates of virus coated with specific antibody were seen in virus samples mixed with homologous convalescent antiserum, but not in control samples containing preexposure ser ...1977189646
detection of rotavirus in experimentally infected piglets.scouring and vomiting was induced in piglets by experimental infection with a field strain of rotavirus. virus or viral antigen was detected in the small intestine by the fluorescent antibody technique and virus could also be demonstrated in infected tissue culture cells by immuno-fluorescence. progeny particles in the epithelial layer of the small intestine were identified by electron microscopy. three morphological types could be distinguished, often associated with electron-dense inclusion, a ...1977190658
[rotavirus: a frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in children]. 1977189452
diarrhea in calves: diagnosis and incidence in the north central states. 1977220632
review of rotavirus infections of man and animals. 1977220639
epidemic gastroenteritis in children associated with rotavirus infection. 1977204575
diarrhea with rotaviruses in a pediatric surgery in brussels. 1977205070
[seroepidemiological investigations on the epidemiology of human rotavirus infections (author's transl)].263 sera of infants and children up to 10 years of age were tested for antibodies (cf-test) against nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (ncdv) which is antigenically related to the rotavirus of man; in addition the mean antibody titers in different age groups were investigated. antibodies of maternal origin were eliminated during the first year of life. most of the infections occurred during the second year of life and at the end of this year 40-50% of the investigated children demonstrated antibodies ...1977899370
aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in infancy and early childhood in southern india.the aetiology of acute gastroenteritis was studied in 50 infants and young children. bacterial pathogens were isolated in 33, enteropathogenic e. coli (epec), salmonella, and shigella being the commonest isolates. rotaviruses were detected in the stools of 13 of the cases. all children with gastroenteritis in whom rotavirus was detected were seen during the months july to december. in 30 children who served as controls, epec were isolated in 6, but rotavirus was detected in none. it is concluded ...1977406857
demonstration of size variation of rna segments between different isolates of calf rotavirus.polyacrylamide gel electrophosesis of rna extracted from wild rotavirus isolates and cell culture adapted virus revealed a significant variation in the molecular weight of individual rna segments. the major differences were observed between wild isolates on the one hand and the adapted strain on the other hand. the slight variations that were observed between different wild isolates were found regularly and appeared to be related to the origin of the samples.1977407327
[rotavirus and gastroenteritis in the newborn infant. initial observations].a simplified method for the diagnosis of rotavirus by electron microscopy is presented. the incidence of these viruses is observed in new-born infants and the relationship with acute gastroenteritis is recalled.1977408044
clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic features of a viral gastroenteritis in infants and children.we studied 27 infants admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhea caused by human rotavirus (hrv) and obtained additional data on fecal excretion from ten outpatients with the same infection. the disease was characterized by watery diarrhea with fever and vomiting at the onset, isotonic dehydration, compensated metabolic acidosis, and increased concentrations of sodium and chloride but low concentrations of sugar in stools. diarrhea usually ceased in three to four days when oral feedings were r ...1977887336
[infectious agents in diarrhea of hospitalized children in costa rica].shigella, toxigenic escherichia coli (stable toxin) and rotaviruses were frequently found among 50 children hospitalized with diarrhea studied during one year. these agents were less common among 45 controls without diarrhea, of comparable age and from the same wards as the cases reported. there was a greater frequency of respiratory symptoms in the diarrhea associated with rotaviruses. these were characterized by frequent bowel movements and vomiting and often fever. the bacterial diarrheas sho ...1977911458
rotavirus infections in calves. ii. experimental infections with a dutch isolate.rotaviruses were observed electron microscopically in clarified faecal samples from calves with diarrhoea. several herds with a history of scouring among neonatal calves were shown to be infected with rotaviruses. a bacteria-free faecal filtrate from a rotavirus positive sample administered orally induced diarrhoea in one out of two colostrum-deprived calves. both calves excreted rotaviruses in their faeces and serum antibody responses were demonstrated by complement-fixation and indirect immuno ...1977857337
propagation of the rotavirus of neonatal calf diarrhea in fetal intestinal cell cultures.bovine fetal intestinal cells were successfully propagated in monolayer cultures for up to 21 passages. infection of these cells with the rotavirus of neonatal calf diarrhea resulted in a cytopathic effect that was more obvious than in infected bovine fetal kidney cells.1977861843
a survey of rotaviruses in sheep in scotland. 1977867760
rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infections: comparison of electron microscopy and immunoelectroosmophoresis for the detection of rotavirus in human infantile gastroenteritis.eighty-seven faecal samples from infants and children suffering from acute gastroenteritis were investigated for the presence of rotavirus by immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) and electron microscopy (em). sixty-one % of the samples contained rotavirus antigens when examined by ieop whereas only 50% were diagnosed as positive em. however, where it was possible to perform em within the same day that the sample was received it took 24 h to establish the diagnosis by ieop. the high sensitivity of th ...1977406356
gastroenteritis in children: a two-year review in manitoba. i. etiology.during two years, 1,217 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis at the children's centre in winnipeg, manitoba, canada were studied. bacterial pathogens were present in 25% of these children: enteropathogenic escherichia coli in 120, shigella in 139, salmonella in 24, and multiple pathogens in 18. rotavirus was detected in 54 (11%) of 472 patients examined. rotavirus and enteropathogenic e. coli were the most common pathogens in infants, and shigella was the most common in older children. bac ...1977330769
reovirus-like agent in acute epidemic gastroenteritis in japanese infants: fecal shedding and serologic response.the reovirus-like agent, sometimes referred to as duovirus or rotavirus, was visualized by electron microscopy in stool extracts from japanese infants and young children with acute epidemic gastroenteritis. the virus particles measured 70 nm in diameter and had double-shelled capsids. one hundred ten (89%) of 124 patients with the gastroenteritis had such virus particles in stools obtained during the acute phase. the virus particles were excreted in the stools usually during the first eight days ...1977402427
solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of rotavirus.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay method has been developed for the detection of rotavirus in the form of a purified antigen and in stool. the parameters of the radioimmunoassay were examined and optimized to give high sensitivity and same-day results. compared with electron microscopy, the assay is up to 10 times as sensitive for detection of the virus in stool and up to 128 times as sensitive for detection of a purified virus antigen. in a field study on stool specimens it was at least as effici ...1977863510
diagnosis of rotavirus infection by cell culture.rotaviruses were detected by electronmicroscopy in 35 of 84 specimens of faeces from infants with diarrhoea, and in 31 by fluorescent staining of tissue cultures infected with help of centrifugation. llc-mk2 cells were found to be the most sensitive, although primary and secondary human-embryo-kidney and primary calf-kidney cells could also be used. a micromodification of the tissue-culture method provides a relatively simple technique for the diagnosis of rotavirus infection, for the titration ...1977402472
complement-fixing antibody response to rotavirus infection.a human rotavirus complement-fixing (cf) antigen, prepared by purification of large volumes of fluid feces collected from children with winter diarrhea, was used to study the development and persistence of antibody in children with diarrhea and the prevalence of rotavirus antibody in melbourne. in children with diarrhea, antibody rises were detectable within 4 to 6 weeks of the onset of illness, and the titers usually remained elevated for the next 1 to 2 years. cf antibody did not develop in tw ...1977403196
stool viruses in babies in glasgow. i. hospital admissions with diarrhoea.stools from 183 babies under 2 years of age admitted to ruchill hospital with diarrhoea were examined by electron microscopy, virus culture, bacterial culture and light microscopy. as far as possible, several stools were examined from each patient and the results showed rotaviruses, astroviruses and other viruses in association with symptoms, as well as the expected bacterial pathogens. examination of several stools from the same patient also showed that in this age group the viral flora of the ...1977403233
[diarrhea outbreak and bacterial resistance to ampicillin in newborns].twenty-eight healthy neonates from the san juan de dios hospital were studied to determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance of indigenous intestinal bacteria. sixty-eight per cent of infants had enterobacteriaceae resistant to several wide-spectrum antibiotics, including ampicillin; 28 per cent of the cultures had plasmid-mediated ampicillin resistance. in the course of the study, an outbreak of 10 acute cases of diarrhea occurred, not associated to any of the commonly known agents, includin ...1977242927
a microbiological investigation of acute summer gastroenteritis in black south african infants.a microbiological investigation of black infants suffering from severe acute summer gastroenteritis revealed enteropathogenic agents in 30 out of 37 patients (81%). enterotoxigenic bacteria were isolated from 15 patients (41%). a total of 16 enterotoxigenic strains were isolated, comprising 9 enterotoxigenic escherichia coli strains secreting labile and stable toxin on their own and in combination, and labile-toxin secreting strains of klebsiella pneumoniae (4), enterobacter cloacae (2) and prot ...1977325127
a microbiological study of gastro-enteritis in black infants.a survey was carried out to determine the aetiological agents responsible for acute gastro-enteritis in black infants. bacteriological examination of 191 patients and 178 age-matched controls showed that salmonellae and shigellae together accounted for only 15% of cases and were harboured by almost 7% of controls. seropositive 'enteropathogenic' escherichia coli was an important cause of diarrhoea, especially in the summer months. enterotoxin-producing e. coli was not a significant cause of gast ...1977331509
rotaviruses in venezuelan children with gastroenteritis.rotaviruses were identified by electron microscopy in 19 of 26 (73%) venezuelan children with gastroenteritis. noncultivable adenoviruses and small (29-30 nm), spherical viruses were also observed in a few cases. bacterial pathogens were isolated from five children (19%), all of whom were also carrying rotaviruses.1977842776
biochemical studies on a reovirus-like agent (rotovirus) from lambs.ten polypeptides were detected in double-capsid lamb rotavirus; four of these appeared to be associated with the outer capsid. lamb rotavirus rna, which consisted of 11 or 12 segments, differed from pig rotavirus rna in the electrophoretic mibility of one of the genome segments.1977850308
viruses and diarrhea--a review.a critical analysis of the literature shows that only a few viral agents have been proved by accepted criteria to cause acute gastroenteritis. rotavirus, of the rna family reoviridae, is the cause of most childhood gastroenteritis. the parvovirus-like agents (norwalk, hawaii, mc, and w) are proved agents of epidemic gastroenteritis. there is good evidence that the marcy, fs, and niigata agents were the causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks. thirty percent of all acute gastroenteritis episodes in l ...1978343580
a prospective study of enteropathogenic escherichia coli in endemic diarrheal disease.the rate of isolation of escherichia coli belonging to the traditional serotypes enteropathogenic for infants was studied prospectively in two groups. group 1 consisted of children with diarrhea and of controls without gastrointestinal disease who were matched for age and inpatient or outpatient status. group 2 consisted of families entered in a prospective study of rotavirus infections. in group 1 enteropathogenic escherichia coli were found in 13 (6%) of 220 children younger than 12 months of ...1978344810
interventions in diarrheas of infants and young children.to prevent diarrhea, efforts must be directed toward decreasing environmental contamination of enteropathogens, altering exposure of persons to naturally occurring agents, or to increasing host tolerance to prevalent enteropathogens. a vaccine is feasible in the control of certain enteric infections among high risk groups: typhoid fever and cholera, in areas of hyperendemicity or during an epidemic, shigellosis in institutionalized populations that are at risk to develop illness due to known pre ...1978359524
breast-feeding: main promoter of infant health.unique immunological factors in breast milk are responsible for the protection it affords infants against pathogenic agents. this protection is particularly effective against the infectious agents which invade or colonize the small and large intestine. factors interfering with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive bacteria, and with entero- and rotaviruses, have already been detected in colostrum and mature human milk. moreover, the biochemical composition of human milk makes it the best infant foo ...1978362883
scanning electron microscopy of abomasium and intestine of gnotoxenic calves infected either with rotavirus, coronarivus or enteropathogenic escherichia coli or with rotavirus and e. coli.neonatal calf diarrhoea induced with several agents of infection was studied by scanning electron microscopy. in a gnotoxenic calf infected with e. coli k99+ ent+, slight lesions of the small intestine were observed and desquamation or puffiness of microvilli occurred. in rotavirus-infected calves, the abomasum was covered with abudant mucous film and appeared to be desquamated. in the small intestine, no desquamation of epithelium was observed. inoculation of the rotavirus and e. coli induced s ...1978219752
[corona- and rotavirus enteritis in newborn calves in bulgaria].in the course of investigations into enteritis enzootics in newly-born calves, 55 fecal samples have been studied through direct electron microscopy by the negative contrast method. rota viruses were found in eight of them, corona viruses in 38.2 per cent of the cases, and both rota- and corona viruses in 49.1 per cent of the cases. two types of rota-viral particles were observed: with and without supercapsids. also two types of corona-viral particles were established. the first type was relativ ...1978223276
the rate of development of postmortem artefact in the small intestine of neonatal calves.the rate of development of postmortem artefacts was investigated in the mucosa of the small intestine of a calf dually infected with an enteropathogenic strain of esch. coli and rotavirus, and an uninfected control calf. samples were removed under general anaesthesia from the proximal, middle and distal small intestine and compared with those taken from adjacent sites 1-30 min after severing the major blood vessels of the neck. in the challenged calf, changes occurred in the villous mucosa by 3 ...1978656317
the experimental production of diarrhoea in colostrum deprived axenic and gnotoxenic calves with enteropathogenic escherichia coli, rotavirus, coronavirus and in a combined infection of rotavirus and e. coli.we attempted to produce diarrhoea experimentally in the newborn calf by orally injecting 17 colostrum-deprived calves with two serotypes of escherichia coli ent+ k99+, a rotavirus and a coronavirus. with e. coli alone, a dose of 2 x 10(8) bacteria administered 24 hours after birth causes a mild attack of diarrhoea, whereas 1 x 10(10) bacteria leads to dehydration and death. an inoculation of rotavirus is followed by diarrhoea which always contains large quantities of rotavirus. these animals wer ...1978219751
rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in mexico city. 1978228369
isolation of rotavirus from calves in the federal republic of germany. 1978207058
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for identification of rotaviruses from different animal species.rotaviruses cause gastroenteritis in man and a wide variety of animal species. they cross-react in many immunologic tests and have a similar appearance by electron microscopy, making differentiation among them difficult. rotaviruses derived from different host species were distinguished by postinfection serum blocking virus activity in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). thirty-three rotavirus isolates from children living in three different parts of the world could not be differentiat ...1978208150
comparison of human and animal rotavirus strains by gel electrophoresis of viral rna. 1978208274
prevalence of antibodies to a rotavirus in black and white populations in south africa.a serological survey of antibodies to a rotavirus in 252 sera from black and white south africans was performed by means of an immunofluorescence test using cells infected with simian rotavirus, sa 11, as antigen. the results indicate widespread presence of this agent in south africa and also that the black population is exposed to a greater extent than the white population.1978206980
diagnosis of viral agents associated with neonatal calf diarrhea.during this study, 134 samples have been examined for the detection of the viruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. the presence of nebraska viruses (rotavirus and coronavirus) has been demonstrated by using the electron microscope and the fluorescent antibody techniques while the presence of other viruses has been detected by the observation of a cytopathic effect on monolayer cells of calf testis. the nebraska viruses have been demonstrated in 107 (80%) out of 134 field case specimens. ...1978208735
panel report on the colloquium on selected diarrheal diseases of the young. 1978211109
human rotavirus and its antibody: their coexistence in feces of infants.rotavirus and its antibody were detected by paper disk solid-phase radioimmunoassay or electron microscopy in feces of infants and young children with acute diarrhea. the fecal specimens in which rotavirus was detectable often contained a high titer of antibodies, which were shown by radioimmunoassay to belong mainly to the immunoglobulin g class. rotavirus was rarely detected in the specimens containing immunoglobulin a antibodies. by dissociation tests carried out by radioimmunoassay, it was s ...1978207717
rna polymerase associated with human rotaviruses in diarrhea stools.rna polymerase activity was detected in six stools which were partially purified by high-speed centrifugation from infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis, but was not detected in five stools which were negative for rotavirus by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and radioimmunoassay. the polymerase activity was associated with the 1.38-g/ml rotavirus band after purification in a cscl gradient.1978207902
a survey of rotavirus associated with gastroenteritis in aboriginal children in western australia.in a year-long survey which was carried out between april, 1975, and march, 1976, faecal specimens from aboriginal and some non-aboriginal children who suffered from gastroenteritis were examined by electron microscopy for rotavirus, and also tested for bacteria and parasites. the children were under six years of age and came from all parts of western australia, except perth. rotaviruses, "astroviruses" and adenoviruses were detected as well as the usual potentially pathogenic bacteria and paras ...1978207954
pathological changes in the small intestine of neonatal calves naturally infected with reo-like virus (rotavirus).nine calves, of which six had been challenged with an enteropathogenic strain of escherichia coli, were found to be naturally infected with rotavirus. rotavirus was recovered from the faeces of six calves and rotavirus antigen was detected in the intestinal mucosa of all calves. stunting and fusion of villi were seen principally in the proximal and middle small intestine, where rotavirus antigen was detected by immunofluorescence. typical lesions of enteric colibacillosis were found in the dista ...1978208222
rotavirus (reovirus-like) infection of neonatal ruminants in a zoo nursery.an outbreak of a pneumoenteric disease occurred in neonates in a zoo nursery. four of seven affected animals died. rotaviruses were observed in the feces of an affected 4-day old impala (aepyceros melampus), a thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsonii) and an addax (addax nasomaculatus). encapsulated escherichia coli also were isolated from the feces. the recovered rotaviruses was antigenically related to bovine rotavirus. a bovine rotavirus vaccine was given orally and no adverse effects were noted.1978211273
antibody to rotavirus in dogs and cats. 1978209605
[role of bacteria and viruses in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children]. 1978211023
epidemiological aspects of rotavirus infection in hospitalized venezuelan children with gastroenteritis.the prevalence of rotavirus infection in hospitalized venezuelan children with gastroenteritis was studied during the period november 1975 to december 1976. rotaviruses were the pathogens most frequently associated with gastroenteritis, being found in 121 of 293 (41.3%) patients and in only 3 of 66 (4.5%) controls. other viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and small icosahedrical viruses) were detected at a lower frequency both in cases and controls. rotaviruses were detected at a lower freque ...1978209696
[rotavirus infections]. 1978210442
studies on cross protection induced in calves by rotaviruses of calves, children and foals.inoculation at birth with a live attenuated strain of a bovine rotavirus isolated in the usa (scourvax-reo) induced protection in five gnotobiotic calves seven to 21 days later against a uk isolate of pathogenic bovine rotavirus. however, no protection was induced in three calves challenged three to five days after vaccination. there was a close antigenic relationship demonstrated between the two bovine rotavirus isolates. in contrast only one of three gnotobiotic calves inoculated with foal rot ...1978210557
prospective study of enteropathogens in children with diarrhea in houston and mexico.during a 22-month period, 595 children with diarrhea and 210 age-matched controls attending clinics in houston (367 children) and mexico (438) were prospectively evaluated for enteric pathogens. enteropathogens associated with disease were shigella (18%), rotavirus (14%), salmonella (9%), toxigenic escherichia coli (6%), and others (12%), including 14 proteus isolates that caused rounding of adrenal cells. enteropathogens were isolated from a greater (p less than 0.001) number of children with d ...1978211215
a clinical study of rotavirus gastroenteritis. 1978211217
[identification of rotavirus by counter-immunoelectrophoresis in cases of infantile diarrhea]. 1978209531
comparison of human rotavirus disease in tropical and temperate settings.human rotaviruses (hrv) are a common cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in pediatric patients. a prospective study of hrv disease in a temperate (dallas) and a tropical (san jose, costa rica) setting demonstrated differences in seasonal distribution. in both locales, hrv accounted for 50% to 60% of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis episodes from december through february; this period corresponded to the cooler months of winter in dallas and to the dry season in san jose. during the res ...1978210656
diarrhoea in piglets inoculated with rotavirus.a rotavirus isolated from a field outbreak of diarrhoea in artificially reared piglets was purified, filtered and administered orally to gnotobiotic and conventional piglets. four successive passages of the virus in gnotobiotic piglets produced severe diarrhoea within 20 to 24 hours of administration. the diarrhoea lasted several days causing dehydration, emaciation, loss of body weight and some deaths. virus was demonstrated in the faeces of the infected piglets by electron microscopy. conventi ...1978210755
effect of serum albumin on hemagglutination with nebraska calf diarrhea virus. 1978209292
[viruses and children's diarrhoea]. 1978211647
epizootiology of bovine rotavirus infection.published information on rotaviruses as pathogens, the source of virus infection and the method of transmission of infection under normal conditions are reviewed. the antigenic differences between rotavirus isolates from children, calves, pigs, foals and mice are discussed. bovine rotaviruses isolated in the usa and the uk were shown to be closely related antigenically and the us vaccine strain protected calves from challenge with the uk rotavirus. nineteen normally reared calves, with 20 or mor ...1978211696
antibody titres to lamb rotavirus in colostrum and milk of vaccinated ewes.ewes were vaccinated two to three weeks prior to mating with a formalin-treated preparation of lamb rotavirus. the colostrum and milk produced by vaccinated ewes after the subsequent pregnancy were shown to contain significantly higher titres of antibody to the virus than did mammary secretions from non-vaccinates. the virus neutralising antibody activity was associated with igg in both colostrum and milk. however, igg concentrations in the mammary secretions of vaccinates and non-vaccinates did ...1978211697
rotavirus in goats. 1978211701
the effect of trypsin on the growth of rotavirus.it has been found that 1000-fold more bovine rotavirus is obtained when trypsin is incorporated in the maintenance medium and allowed to remain throughout the growth cycle. this holds true for primary calf kidney (ck) cells and also for several continuous and semi-continuous cell lines. in the presence of trypsin it has been possible to pass the virus serially on continuous cell lines seven times. concentrations of 1 to 10 microgram/ml of trypsin are found to be effective. preliminary results su ...1978211180
immune response to rotaviral infection--measurement by enzyme immunoassay. 1978212390
comments on the pathogenesis of rotaviral infections. 1978212397
rotavirus gastroenteritis. 1978208471
techniques for rotaviral propagation. 1978212398
nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in a neonatal nursery. 1978206997
panel report on the colloquium on selected diarrheal diseases of the young. 1978212391
noncultivable viruses and neonatal diarrhea: fifteen-month survey in a newborn special care nursery.during a 15-month period of surveillance, diarrhea developed in 257 of 913 babies (28%) admitted within 2 hours of birth to a special care nursery in melbourne, australia. diarrhea was seasonal, affecting a maximum of 43% of babies admitted during one winter month (july) and a minimum of 13% of babies admitted during one summer month (december). diarrhea was no more frequent nor more severe in babies of very low birth weight or of very early gestational age. two noncultivable viruses were locate ...1978209058
oral hydration rotavirus diarrhoea: a double blind comparison of sucrose with glucose electrolyte solution.of 57 male children, aged 5 months to 2 1/2 years with rotavirus diarrhoea, 28 were given oral therapy with sucrose electrolyte solution and 29 were given glucose electrolyte solution in a randomised double-blind trial. all were rehydrated and remained so on oral therapy alone. these patients were compared with 44 children, also with rotavirus, who were treated only with intravenous hydration. the oral therapy and intravenous therapy groups did not differ clinically in the rate of rehydration or ...1978209263
immunization of infants and young children against rotaviral gastroenteritis--prospects and problems. 1978212402
studies on rotaviral antibody in bovine serum and lacteal secretions, using radioimmunoassay. 1978212399
intestinal damage in rotavirus infected calves assessed by d-xylose malabsorption. 1978207007
naturally occurring and experimentally induced rotaviral infections of domestic and laboratory animals. 1978212392
rotaviral infections in human neonates.between may 1, 1976 through may 14, 1977, feces from 1,056 five-day-old babies in newborn nurseries were examined by electron microscopy, of which 343 (32.5%) contained rotavirus. rotaviruses were prevalent throughout the study period, but infection reached its peak during the winter months of december 1976 and january 1977, at which time 46% and 49% of babies, respectively, were excreting rotaviruses. infection occurred substantially less frequently among breast-fed babies. further, infected br ...1978212393
detection of differences among human and animal rotaviruses, using analysis of viral rna. 1978212394
rotavirus infections in adults in association with acute gastroenteritis.during an epidemic of acute gastroenteritis in helsinki, in march--may 1976, 18 out of 40 adult patients showed electron microscopic and/or serologic evidence for rotavirus infection. rotavirus was most frequently seen in the fecal suspensions from 2 to 6 days after the onset of the symptoms but persisted in one patient for as long as 10 days. an increase in the complement-fixing (cf) serum antibody titers against the related nebraska calf diarrhea virus (ncdv), or an initially high titer and su ...1978210251
electron microscopy in the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea. 1978212395
pathogenesis of rotaviral infection. 1978212396
passive immunity in rotaviral infections. 1978212400
comments on passive immunity in rotaviral infections. 1978212401
economic impact of rotavirus and other neonatal disease agents of animals.methods for estimating the economic impact of disease agents were developed and utilized to assess the relative economic importance of rotavirus and other disease agents in calves. based on incidence data from 2 sources, escherichia coli was responsible for the most devastating economic losses (50.9% and 74.6%). coronaviral (17.5% and 29.7% loss) and rotaviral (3.2% and 9.1% loss) infections ranked 2nd and 3rd, respectively. in one study, cryptosporidial infections (6.5% loss) were estimated to ...1978212403
pathogenic relationships of rotavirus, escherichia coli, and other agents in mixed infections in calves.infection with agents interpreted as causing or contributing to diarrhea (rotavirus, coronavirus, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, and cryptosporidia) were demonstrated in 24 of 32 newborn calves that had naturally occurring diarrheal disease. the calves were from 12 herds in iowa. infections as well as enteric lesions and hypoglobulinemia occurred more frequently among diarrheal calves than among nondiarrheal calves from these same herds. in most calves, infections were mixed; ie, both viruses ...1978212404
serial studies of virus multiplication and intestinal damage in gnotobiotic piglets infected with rotavirus.a serial study of rotavirus infection in gnotobiotic piglets is described. they were infected when 7 days old and the course of infection was followed for 21 days, by immunofluorescence and histological examinations of the intestinal epithelium and by titration of the virus content of the gut lumen. there appeared to be two stages of recovery of the intestinal wall, the earlier stage involving non-immune mechanisms and the later invloving antibody.1978210280
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