equine herpesvirus 1 enters cells by two different pathways, and infection requires the activation of the cellular kinase rock1.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), a member of the alphaherpesviridae, displays a broad host range in vitro, allowing for detailed study of the mechanisms of productive infection, including attachment and entry, in various cell culture systems. previously, we showed that ehv-1 infects chinese hamster ovary (cho-k1) cells even though these cells do not express a known alphaherpesvirus entry receptor. in this report, we show by electron microscopy and an infectious recovery assay that entry into c ...200717670830
low-dose ginseng (panax quinquefolium) modulates the course and magnitude of the antibody response to vaccination against equid herpesvirus i in horses.the purpose of this study was to determine if ginseng fed at low levels enhances a horse's antibody response to vaccination against equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). for 28 d, 5 horses received ground, powdered ginseng (35 mg/kg body weight, 1.7 mg/kg total ginsenosides) in molasses as a carrier, and 5 received molasses only. on day 14, each horse was vaccinated against ehv-1. the time course of the antibody response to vaccination was significantly altered in the horses receiving ginseng, a clinical ...200717695597
prevalence of equine herpesvirus-1 infection among thoroughbreds residing on a farm on which the virus was determine the incidence of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection among thoroughbreds residing on a farm on which the virus was known to be endemic.200717696859
herpesvirus chemokine-binding glycoprotein g (gg) efficiently inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo.glycoprotein g (gg) of alphaherpesviruses has been described to function as a viral chemokine-binding protein (vckbp). more recently, mutant viruses devoid of gg have been shown to result in increased virulence, but it remained unclear whether the potential of gg to serve as a vckbp is responsible for this observation. in this study, we used equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) as a model to study the pathophysiological importance of vckbp activity. first, in vitro chemotaxis assays studying migrat ...200717785855
pharmacokinetics of acyclovir after intravenous infusion of acyclovir and after oral administration of acyclovir and its prodrug valacyclovir in healthy adult horses.the purpose of this study was twofold. the first aim was to evaluate the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (pks) of acyclovir in horses after intravenous (i.v.) administration and after oral administration of acyclovir and its prodrug, valacyclovir. second, we aimed to combine these pk data with pharmacodynamic (pd) information, i.e., 50% effective concentrations (ec(50) values) from in vitro studies, to design an optimal dosage schedule. three treatments were administered to healthy adu ...200717846132
serum concentration of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and the copper/zinc ratio in horses with equine herpesvirus-1.the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and copper/zinc ratio were investigated in horses infected with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). nine horses were naturally infected with the virus and nine healthy horses served as controls. the concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt were determined spectrophotometrically in the blood serum of all horses. the results were (expressed in micrograms per deciliters) copper 2.80 +/- 0.34 vs 1.12 +/- 0.44, zinc 3.05 +/- 0.18 vs 0.83 +/ ...200717848729
establishment of a novel equine cell line for isolation and propagation of equine the present study, an equine-derived cell line was established by transfecting primary fetal horse kidney (fhk) cells with expression plasmid encoding simian virus 40 (sv40) large t antigen and then cloning them by limiting dilution. the cloned cell line, named fhk-tcl3, grew well and could be propagated over 30 times by splitting them 1:3. equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 and ehv-4 replicated well in fhk-tcl3. ehv-2 and ehv-4 were isolated from samples collected from horses in the field using fhk- ...200717917390
a point mutation in a herpesvirus polymerase determines neuropathogenicity.infection with equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) leads to respiratory disease, abortion, and neurologic disorders in horses. molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an amino acid variation of the ehv-1 dna polymerase (n752/d752) is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of naturally occurring strains. to test the hypothesis that this single amino acid exchange by itself influences neuropathogenicity, we generated rec ...200717997600
characterization of viral loads, strain and state of equine herpesvirus-1 using real-time pcr in horses following natural exposure at a racetrack in california.the objective of this study was to determine viral loads, strain (neuropathogenic versus non-neuropathogenic) and state (lytic, non-replicating, latent) of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in the blood and nasopharyngeal secretions of adult horses following natural exposure. the index case, a 4-year-old thoroughbred gelding with confirmed ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy, as well as potentially exposed horses, were sampled over a period of 3 weeks. the study pop ...200918024200
ccl3 and viral chemokine-binding protein gg modulate pulmonary inflammation and virus replication during equine herpesvirus 1 infection.ccl3 is a proinflammatory chemokine that mediates many of the cellular changes occurring in pulmonary disease. here, ccl3(-/-) mice were used to investigate the role of this chemokine during respiratory herpesvirus infection. compared to wild-type mice, ccl3(-/-) mice infected with the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) displayed reduced body weight loss but had higher pulmonary viral loads. lungs from infected ccl3(-/-) mice suffered a milder interstitial pneumonia, and fewer immune ...200818077722
prevalence of latent, neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus-1 in the thoroughbred broodmare population of central emerging problem of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection in horses in the usa is a high-mortality myeloencephalopathy that commonly occurs where large numbers of horses are stabled. ehv-1 isolates recovered from recent neurological outbreaks represent a mutant virus strain that possesses enhanced neuropathogenicity. a central question of ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy is the latency carriage rate for these mutants of ehv-1 in usa horse populations.200818089469
protection of mice by equine herpesvirus type 1 based experimental vaccine against lethal venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in the absence of neutralizing antibodies.a vectored vaccine based on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was generated as an alternative for safe and efficient prophylaxis against venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) infection. two-step (en passant) red mutagenesis was used to insert veev structural genes into an infectious clone of ehv-1 vaccine strain rach. the recombinant virus, rh_veev, efficiently and stably expressed veev structural proteins as detected by various antibodies, including a conformation-dependent monoclonal ant ...200818187789
equine herpesvirus neurological disease. 200818302993
in vitro neutralization of equid herpesvirus 1 mediated by recombinant antibodies.a phage antibody display library of single chain fragment variables (scfv) was applied to develop anti-equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d (gd) neutralizing antibodies. to enrich for specific scfvs, the phage antibody library was panned against epitope derived from the n-terminal part of ehv-1 gd. unique clones were differentiated by bstni fingerprinting and further characterized by sequencing and immunoreactivity. the neutralizing effect of each clone was assessed by plaque reduction ass ...200818329664
clinical, serological and molecular investigations of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in 15 unweaned thoroughbred foals.fifteen unweaned thoroughbred foals, born on a stud farm to vaccinated mares, were clinically monitored during their first six months of life and repeatedly tested for equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4). nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were collected and screened respectively by pcr and seroneutralisation to detect the presence of the virus, explore its role as a possible cause of respiratory disease, and to assess the efficiency of the pcr for the dia ...200818344498
evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine expressing h3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine 2004, canine influenza virus (civ) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and found to be closely related to h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv). we generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses h3 of a recent isolate of eiv using equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) as the delivery vehicle. this ehv-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable eiv h3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or ...200818407383
diagnostic sensitivity of nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs for the molecular detection of ehv-1. 200818424850
an essential role for the proximal but not the distal cytoplasmic tail of glycoprotein m in murid herpesvirus 4 infection.murid herpesvirus-4 (muhv-4) provides a tractable model with which to define common, conserved features of gamma-herpesvirus biology. the multi-membrane spanning glycoprotein m (gm) is one of only 4 glycoproteins that are essential for muhv-4 lytic replication. gm binds to gn and is thought to function mainly secondary envelopment and virion egress, for which several predicted trafficking motifs in its c-terminal cytoplasmic tail could be important. we tested the contribution of the gm cytoplasm ...200818461133
an in-silico study of alphaherpesviruses icp0 genes: positive selection or strong mutational gc-pressure?the purpose of our work was to analyze the case of the strong mutational gc-pressure influence on the ratio between nonsynonymous (dn) and synonymous (ds) distances (dn/ds ratio). we have used as the material the genes coding for icp0 from five completely sequenced genomes of simplexviruses. dn/ds ratio, total gc-content (g + c), and gc-content in first, second, and third codon positions (1gc, 2gc, and 3gc, respectively) have been calculated separately for exon 2, nonconserved part of exon 3, an ...200818465795
detection of ehv-1 neuropathogenic strains using real-time pcr in the neural tissue of horses with myeloencephalopathy. 200818503069
[immune evasion of alphaherpesviruses].alphaherpesviruses represent the largest subfamily of the herpesviruses and comprise many different, closely related pathogens of man and animal, including herpes simplex virus (cold sores, genital lesions) and varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox, shingles) in man, pseudorabies virus oraujeszky's disease virus in pigs (neurological and respiratory symptoms, abortion), equine herpesvirus type 1 (neurological and respiratory symptoms, abortion), and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (respiratory symptoms, ...200818512358
use of viral loads in blood and nasopharyngeal secretions for the diagnosis of ehv-1 infection in field cases. 200818515763
varicellovirus ul 49.5 proteins differentially affect the function of the transporter associated with antigen processing, tap.cytotoxic t-lymphocytes play an important role in the protection against viral infections, which they detect through the recognition of virus-derived peptides, presented in the context of mhc class i molecules at the surface of the infected cell. the transporter associated with antigen processing (tap) plays an essential role in mhc class i-restricted antigen presentation, as tap imports peptides into the er, where peptide loading of mhc class i molecules takes place. in this study, the ul 49.5 ...200818516302
comparison of the growth kinetics of neuropathogenic and nonneuropathogenic equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strains in cultured murine neuronal cells and the relevance of the d/n(752) coding change in dna polymerase gene (orf30).we compared the growth kinetics of neuropathogenic and nonneuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strains in mouse cerebral cortex cells and investigated the relevance of the d/n amino acid change at position 752 of orf30 in japanese isolates. neuropathogenic electropherotype p strains 01c1 and 89c25 exhibited similar growth kinetics to nonneuropathogenic p strain 90c16 in cultured neurons; however, the growth ability of type b strain 97c7 was lower than those of the other strains test ...200818525176
nucleic acid extraction methods for detection of ehv-1 from blood and nasopharyngeal secretions. 200818587063
manipulation of pkc isozymes by rna interference and inducible expression of pkc constructs.protein kinase c (pkc), a family of serine/threonine kinases, plays an important role in apoptosis. several members of the pkc family act as substrates for caspases. in addition, pkcs can also regulate caspase activation and cell death by apoptosis. the cleavage of pkcs separates the regulatory domain from the catalytic domain. the full-length, the catalytic domain, and the regulatory domain of pkc family members may have distinct function in apoptosis. delineating the role of protein kinase c ( ...200818603120
biochemical studies of the maturation of herpesvirus nucleocapsid species.three distinct species of nucleocapsids of equine herpesvirus type-1, designated as either light (l), intermediate (i), or heavy (h) on the basis of their densities in renografin-76 density gradients (perdue et al. 1975), were characterized with respect to their amino acid content, dna content, and role in the maturation process. preparations of l and i nucleocapsids, shown previously to lack a densely staining core within the capsid, exhibited virtually identical amino acid compositions. prepar ...197618625460
prevalence of equine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-4 infections in equidae species in turkey as determined by elisa and multiplex nested this report we examined the presence of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), and equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) in several equidae, including mules, donkeys, horses. the presence of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in respiratory diseases of equids, and ability of multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) screening in simultaneous diagnosis of horses acutely infected by ehv-1 and ehv-4 were also investigated. sera from 504 horses, mules and donkeys sampled were tested for t ...200918649902
equine herpesvirus infections in yearlings in south-east queensland.twelve nasal swabs were collected from yearling horses with respiratory distress and tested for equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equid herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) by real-time pcr targeting the glycoprotein b gene. all samples were negative for ehv-1; however, 3 were positive for ehv-4. when these samples were tested for ehv-2 and ehv-5 by pcr, all samples were negative for ehv-2 and 11 were positive for ehv-5. all three samples that were positive for ehv-4 were also positive for ehv-5. these three sam ...200818677574
detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in nasal swabs of horses by quantitative real-time pcr.early identification of inhalation-transmitted equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infections has been facilitated by the availability of a number of real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) tests. a direct comparison between nasal swab qpcr and traditional virus isolation (vi) requires a method for normalizing the qpcr samples and controlling for pcr inhibitors present in some clinical samples.200818691363
evaluation of an air tester for the sampling of aerosolised equine herpesvirus type 1. 200818776179
equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: a review of recent developments.equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (ehm), although a relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms or boarding stables. although outbreaks of ehm have been recognized for centuries in domestic horse populations, many aspects of this disease remained poorly characterized. in recent years, an improved understanding of ehm has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding scho ...200918805030
biological and genotypic properties of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus 1 that mediate persistent infection.infection with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) preparations enriched for defective interfering particles (dip) leads to a state of persistent infection in which infected cells become lysis resistant and release both infectious (standard) virus and dip. ehv-1 dip are unique in that the recombination events that generate dip genomes produce new open reading frames (orfs; hyb1.0 and hyb2.0) consisting of 5' sequences of varying lengths of the early regulatory gene ir4 fused to 3' sequences of varying ...200818805562
equine herpesvirus 1 entry via endocytosis is facilitated by alphav integrins and an rsd motif in glycoprotein d.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, and its broad tissue tropism suggests that ehv-1 may use multiple receptors to initiate virus entry. ehv-1 entry was thought to occur exclusively through fusion at the plasma membrane, but recently entry via the endocytic/phagocytic pathway was reported for chinese hamster ovary cells (cho-k1 cells). here we show that cellular integrins, and more specifically those recognizing rgd motifs such as alphavbeta5, are important during ...200818815313
evaluation of orally administered valacyclovir in experimentally ehv1-infected ponies.the purpose of the current study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of valacyclovir against ehv1 in a controlled study. eight naïve shetland ponies were inoculated with 10(6.5) tcid(50) of the neuropathogenic strain 03p37. four ponies were treated with valacyclovir at a dosage of 40mg/kg bodyweight, 3 times daily, for 5 (n=2) or 7 (n=2) consecutive days, while the other four ponies served as untreated controls. the treatment regimen started 1h before inoculation. ponies were monitored d ...200918986780
equid herpesvirus 2-associated oral and esophageal ulceration in a foal.a case of a 1-month-old thoroughbred foal with dysphagia, salivation, pyrexia, oral mucosal pustules, and esophageal ulceration is reported. swabs from the ulcerated lesions yielded equid herpesvirus 2 (ehv-2) in virus isolation assays, and histopathology of a biopsy from the esophageal lesion identified nuclear inclusions suggestive of herpesviruses. immunohistochemical staining with antibodies specific for ehv-2 was positive for epithelial cells in the vicinity of the ulcer but not in more dis ...200818987236
fibropapilloma of the glans penis in a 18-year-old arabian stallion was presented for recent onset of stranguria. physical examination of the distal portion of the glans penis revealed multiple, smooth, glistening, grayish-pink, variably sized, exophytic, nodular masses circumferentially surrounding the external urethral orifice. partial penile amputation was performed, and the entire specimen was submitted for histological evaluation. microscopically, the masses consisted of abundant amounts of loosely arranged fibrovascular stro ...200818987237
herpesvirus-associated neurological disease in a donkey.a 4-year-old donkey was evaluated for progressive neurological abnormalities consisting of depression, stupor, weakness, and recumbency. diagnostic evaluation for viral involvement identified an asinine herpesvirus in dna extracted from deep pharyngeal swabs. specific primers were designed based on comparison with equine herpesviral dna polymerase sequences and yielded an 875-base pair product from the donkey. this sequence had complete identity with short sequences of asinine herpesvirus previo ...200818987238
molecular phylogeny of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from onager, zebra and thomson's gazelle.viruses related to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) were isolated from an aborted fetus of an onager (equus hemionus) in 1984, an aborted fetus of grevy's zebra (equus grevyi) in 1984 and a thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsoni) with nonsuppurative encephalitis in 1996, all in the usa. the mother of the onager fetus and the gazelle were kept near plains zebras (equus burchelli). in phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequences of the genes for glycoproteins b (gb), i (gi), and e (ge), and ...200819002555
the ir4 auxiliary regulatory protein expands the in vitro host range of equine herpesvirus 1 and is essential for pathogenesis in the murine model.ir4, an early regulatory protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), is not a dna-binding protein, but interacts with the sole immediate-early protein (iep) to increase both iep site-specific dna-binding and iep-mediated trans-activation of ehv-1 promoters. to investigate the biological properties of ir4 and ascertain whether this regulatory protein is essential for virus growth, bacterial artificial chromosome methods were employed to generate an ir4-null ehv-1. the ir4 gene was dispensable for eh ...200919012943
genomic and phylogenetic analysis of argentinian equid herpesvirus 1 strains.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has long been causally implicated in the occurrence of abortion, neonatal death, respiratory disease, and neurological disorders in horses. this study analyzed for the first time the characteristics of the genomic section of argentinian ehv-1 strains and reconstructed the phylogeny in order to establish their origin. the phylogenetic dataset included 22 argentinian strains and four additional reference strains isolated in other countries. the intergenic region between ...200919023651
development of a bead-based multiplex assay for simultaneous quantification of cytokines in horses.the detection and quantification of equine cytokines has been hampered by the lack of antibodies for many years. with the development of antibody pairs for equine cytokines during the past years, the quantification of these essential regulators of the immune response became possible. after being successfully tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), three of these anti-cytokine reagents were used here to establish the first cytokine multiplex assay for equine il-4, il-10 and ifn-alph ...200919027964
risk factors for development of neurologic disease after experimental exposure to equine herpesvirus-1 in identify risk factors associated with development of clinical neurologic signs in horses exposed to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1).200819046006
analysis of the herpesvirus chemokine-binding glycoprotein g residues essential for chemokine binding and biological activity.viral chemokine-binding protein (vckbp) are expressed by large dna viruses, such as herpesviruses and poxviruses. vckbp can bind chemokines with high affinity and efficiently neutralize their ability to induce cell migration. recently, herpesvirus glycoprotein g (gg) was identified as a member of the vckbp-4 subfamily. the structural domains of gg important for binding to chemokines and biological activity, however, are unknown. here, we used equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) as a model to deter ...200919074431
effective treatment of respiratory alphaherpesvirus infection using rna interference.background: equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, is spread via nasal secretions and causes respiratory disease, neurological disorders and abortions. the virus is a significant equine pathogen, but current ehv-1 vaccines are only partially protective and effective metaphylactic and therapeutic agents are not available. small interfering rnas (sirna's), delivered intranasally, could prove a valuable alternative for infection control. sirna's against two essential ...200919122813
equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy: unravelling the enigma. 200919141371
pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus-1 infection in the mouse model.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is a major equine pathogen causing respiratory diseases, abortions and severe neurological disorders. the basis of neurological disturbances is, as in other organs, infection of endothelial cells, followed by vasculitis, thrombosis and ischaemic damage of the parenchyma. here, a murine model was used to explore the mechanism of entry to, and spread within the brain, the cell affinity of the agent and the modulating role of the immune defence, which are all factors go ...200919161532
evaluation of the presence of equine viral herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine viral herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) dna in stallion semen using polymerase chain reaction (pcr).in the horse, the risk of excretion of two major equine pathogens (equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4)) in semen is unknown. the objective of our study was to assess the possible risks for the horizontal transmission of equine rhinopneumonitis herpesviruses via the semen and the effect of the viruses on stallion fertility. samples of stallion semen (n=390) were gathered from several different sources. examination of the semen involved the detection of viral dna using specific pcr. t ...200919268345
equine herpesvirus 1: characterisation of the first strain isolated in colombia.this paper describes the isolation and characterisation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in colombia. the virus was isolated from a nasal swab and an aborted foetus of a pregnant mare imported from argentina, with clinical signs of rhinopneumonitis. the new strain was characterised through culture and morphological, serological and immunocytochemical studies. polymerase chain reaction and dna restriction maps revealed an ehv-1 1p genome. this is the first report on the isolation and characterisat ...200819284057
comparison of the pseudorabies virus us9 protein with homologs from other veterinary and human alphaherpesviruses.pseudorabies virus (prv) us9 is a small, tail-anchored (ta) membrane protein that is essential for axonal sorting of viral structural proteins and is highly conserved among other members of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. we cloned the us9 homologs from two human pathogens, varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), as well as two veterinary pathogens, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), and fused them to enhanced green fluorescent ...200919420087
herpesviruses in respiratory liquids of horses: putative implication in airway inflammation and association with cytological features.the objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the potential role of equine herpesviruses (ehvs) detection in both bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) and tracheal wash (tw). the population included a control group (ctl; 37 tw and 25 bal) and a pathological group (pat; 259 tw and 387 bal), including horses either suffering from respiratory diseases including syndrome of tracheal inflammation, inflammatory airway disease, recurrent airway obstruction, or submitted to respiratory invest ...200919427139
equine herpesvirus-1, non-neurogenic pathotype, in a 9-year-old american saddlebred with neurological signs.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, and rarely, myeloencephalopathy. the neurovirulence of this virus is due to a point mutation in the dna polymerase gene. diagnosis by virus isolation has been replaced by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays that can detect strains, viral loads, and states; this may aid in control and management of the disease.200919436483
a single-nucleotide polymorphism in a herpesvirus dna polymerase is sufficient to cause lethal neurological disease.epidemiological studies have shown that a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the equid herpesvirus type 1 dna polymerase gene is associated with outbreaks of highly lethal neurological disease in horses. reverse genetics experiments further demonstrated that a g(2254) a(2254) nucleotide mutation introduced in neurovirulent strain ab4, which resulted in an asparagine for aspartic acid substitution (d(752) n(752)), rendered the virus nonneurovirulent in the equine. here, we report that the nonneuro ...200919456260
replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 in equine dermal cells transfected with bam hi[g] restriction fragment of ehv-2 previous experiments, we have demonstrated that the presence of equine herpesvirus 2 (ehv-2) enhanced plaque formation in cell cultures infected with equine herpesvirus type 1. to determine whether a specific region of the ehv-2 genome is responsible for this effect, we have constructed a library of bam hi fragments of the ehv-2 genome ligated into pcdna plasmid. equine dermal (ed) cell cultures were subsequently transfected with the constructs, passaged 5 times, tested for the presence of th ...200919459446
neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic genotypes of equid herpesvirus type 1 in argentina.infection with equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) leads to respiratory disease, abortion, and neurological disorders in horses. molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (a(2254)/g(2254)) in the genome region of the open reading frame 30 (orf30), which results in an amino acid variation (n(752)/d(752)) of the ehv-1 dna polymerase, is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of naturally occurring strains. in order to estimate the prev ...200919589651
investigation of the prevalence of neurologic equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) in a 23-year retrospective analysis (1984-2007).a single nucleotide polymorphism in the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) dna polymerase gene (orf30 a(2254) to g) has been associated with clinical signs of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (ehm). the purpose of our study was to determine the odds ratio for this genetic marker and ehm using a panel of field isolates from north america collected over the past twenty-three years. ehv-1 isolates cultured at the cornell university animal health diagnostic laboratory from 1984 to 2007 were retrieved alo ...200919615831
herpesviruses--a zoonotic threat?herpesviruses are highly host specific and share a long synchronous evolution with their hosts. only in rare cases, species barriers fall and allow animal to human or human to animal transmission. among the zoonotic herpesviruses, cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 is the most significant and can be transmitted from macaques to human. conversely, human herpesvirus 1 is capable of causing severe disease in primates. besides those two examples, there are several herpesviruses with a certainly limited or ...201019616388
equine herpesvirus-1 consensus statement.equine herpesvirus-1 is a highly prevalent and frequently pathogenic infection of equids. the most serious clinical consequences of infection are abortion and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm). in recent years, there has been an apparent increase in the incidence of ehm in north america, with serious consequences for horses and the horse industry. this consensus statement draws together current knowledge in the areas of pathogenesis, strain variation, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, ...200919645832
lack of detectable equine herpesviruses 1 and 2 in paraffin-embedded specimens of equine sarcoidosis.equine sarcoidosis is a rare, multisystemic, noncaseating, granulomatous and lymphoplasmacytic disease of unknown etiology. a recent report described a horse with granulomatous skin disease displaying histologic, electron microscopic, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) findings consistent with equine herpesvirus 2 (ehv-2).200919645844
multiple oral dosing of valacyclovir in horses and ponies.the aim of the current study was to investigate whether multiple oral dosing of valacyclovir could result in plasma concentrations exceeding the ec(50)-value of acyclovir against equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) during the majority of the treatment period. additionally, we wanted to determine the concentration of acyclovir in nasal mucus and cerebrospinal fluid (csf). valacyclovir was administered to four horses and two ponies, three times daily, at a dosage of 40 mg/kg, for four consecutive days. bl ...200919646083
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) utilizes microtubules, dynein, and rock1 to productively infect initiate infection, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) attaches to heparan sulfate on cell surfaces and then interacts with a putative glycoprotein d receptor(s). after attachment, virus entry occurs either by direct fusion of the virus envelope with the plasma membrane or via endocytosis followed by fusion between the virus envelope and an endosomal membrane. upon fusion, de-enveloped virus particles are deposited into the cytoplasm and travel to the nucleus for viral replication. in this rep ...201019713056
infectious entry of equine herpesvirus-1 into host cells through different endocytic pathways.we investigated the mechanism by which equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) enters primary cultured equine brain microvascular endothelial cells (ebmecs) and equine dermis (e. derm) cells. ehv-1 colocalized with caveolin in ebmecs and the infection was greatly reduced by the expression of a dominant negative form of equine caveolin-1 (ecavy14f), suggesting that ehv-1 enters ebmecs via caveolar endocytosis. ehv-1 entry into e. derm cells was significantly reduced by atp depletion and treatments with lyso ...200919720389
experimental infection with neuropathogenic equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in adult horses.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) may follow an infection with the virus in horses. this study tested three hypotheses: (1) a large inhaled dose of a neuropathogenic ehv-1 strain would induce a cell-associated viraemia in all infected horses; (2) neurological disease will only occur in viraemic horses, and (3) the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) composition following ehv-1 viraemia will be an indicator for ehm. four ehv-1 seronegative horses were inoculated with ehv ...201019726209
the increased prevalence of neuropathogenic strains of ehv-1 in equine abortions.a panel of 426 archived ehv-1 isolates collected (1951-2006) from equine abortions was analyzed using a real-time taq-man((r)) allelic discrimination pcr assay. based on previous findings, isolates possessing adenine at nucleotide position 2254 (a(2254)) in orf30 were classified as having a non-neuropathogenic genotype and those with guanine at 2254 (g(2254)) were designated as the neuropathogenic genotype. the resultant data demonstrated that viruses with the neuropathogenic genotype existed in ...201019733451
pseudorabies virus us3- and ul49.5-dependent and -independent downregulation of mhc i cell surface expression in different cell types.many herpesviruses interfere with the mhc i antigen-processing pathway in order to limit elimination by cytotoxic t-lymphocytes. for varicelloviruses, the largest subgroup of alphaherpesviruses, two viral proteins have been reported to downregulate mhc i cell surface expression: ul49.5 for bohv-1, prv, and ehv-1 and the us3 orthologue for vzv. here, we report that prv reduces mhc i cell surface expression during infection in a cell-type-dependent manner. in st cells, a kinase-active us3 was nece ...200919819514
prevalence of ehv-1 in adult horses transported over long distances. 200919850855
equine herpesvirus type 1 quantification in different types of samples by a real-time pcr.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is one of the major viral agents causing diseases in horses common worldwide. a variety of techniques, including pcr, have been used to diagnose ehv-1 infections. in this paper, an attempt of real-time pcr has been described, which uses specific fluorochrome-labeled taqman probes for detection of viral dna. this method does not require post-amplification manipulations, thereby reducing the risk of cross-contamination. the assay was sensitive enough to detect ehv ...200919886251
the effect of sirna treatment on experimental equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in horses.available vaccines fail to induce lasting and protective immunity to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) associated diseases. rna interference is a novel approach showing promise for therapeutic use in outbreak situations. this study examined the effect of small interfering rna (sirna) on clinical signs as well as the presence of live virus and viral dna in nasal secretions and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) in horses experimentally infected with ehv-1. sirna targeting two ehv-1 genes (glyc ...201019896512
a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against ehv-1 and h3n8 equine influenza virus.vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine influenza virus (eiv). here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant ehv-1 modified live virus vaccine (mlv) based on a recent abortogenic ehv-1 strain, ny03. the immunogenicity and efficacy of the mlv was tested in horses in an ehv-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent ehv-1 strain oh03. induction of a robust ehv- ...201019897066
comparison of four methods to quantify equid herpesvirus 1 load by real-time polymerase chain reaction in nasal secretions of experimentally and naturally infected horses.the objective of the current study was to compare the performance of 4 methods to quantify equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in nasal secretions from experimentally and naturally infected horses. nasal secretions were collected on the challenge day and daily thereafter for 13 days from 4 experimentally infected horses. additional nasal swabs were collected from 30 horses with clinical signs consistent with natural ehv-1 infection. absolute quantitation of e ...200919901285
differences in replication kinetics and cell tropism between neurovirulent and non-neurovirulent ehv1 strains during the acute phase of infection in horses.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) replicates in the respiratory tract of horses, after which infected leukocytes transport virus throughout the body, resulting in abortion or nervous system disorders. two ehv1 strains circulate in the field: neurovirulent and non-neurovirulent. to investigate differences in replication in the upper respiratory tract (urt), an experimental inoculation study in ponies was performed with both strains. two groups of six ponies, were inoculated intranasally with 10(6.5) tc ...201019926232
characterization of a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of equine herpesvirus 4 and in vitro susceptibility of the virus to antiviral agents.equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) is an important equine pathogen that causes respiratory tract disease among horses worldwide. a thymidine kinase (tk)-deletion mutant has been generated by using bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) technology to investigate the role of tk in pathogenesis. deletion of tk had virtually no effect on the growth characteristics of wa79deltatk in cell culture when compared to the parent virus. also, virus titers and plaque formation were unaffected in the absence of the ...201019931566
pharmacokinetics of penciclovir after oral administration of its prodrug famciclovir to horses.we investigated the pharmacokinetics of penciclovir after oral administration of its prodrug famciclovir to horses. following an oral dose of famciclovir at 20 mg/kg, maximum plasma concentrations of penciclovir occurred between 0.75 and 1.5 hr (mean 0.94 + or - 0.38 hr) after dosing and were in the range 2.22 to 3.56 microg/ml (mean 2.87 + or - 0.61 microg/ml). the concentrations of penciclovir declined in a biphasic manner after the peak concentration was attained. the mean half-life of the ra ...201019959884
diverse pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) isolates in cba mouse model.the pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) isolates of japan were evaluated by using the cba mouse model. cba mice were inoculated with eight japanese ehv-1 strains (89c1, 90c16, 90c18, 97c11, 98c12, 00c19, 01c1 and hh-1) and one british strain (ab4p). 89c1 caused slight body weight loss and nervous signs in mice at 8 days post infection (dpi). severe weight loss and nervous signs were observed in mice inoculated with ab4p at 6 dpi. the other strains did not cause apparent clinical signs. ...201019959887
equine herpesvirus type 1 mutant defective in glycoprotein e gene as candidate vaccine equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) mutant, deltage, defective in glycoprotein e (ge) was evaluated as a modified live virus (mlv) vaccine. colostrum-deprived thoroughbred foals inoculated intranasally (i.n.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) with deltage did not exhibit any clinical signs of respiratory disease except for a mild nasal discharge in 1 i.n. inoculated foal on days 1 and 3 post-infection. in contrast, the intranasal inoculation of foals with the revertant of deltage resulted in biphasic p ...200919959893
antiviral effect of recombinant equine interferon-gamma on several equine viruses.recombinant equine interferon-gamma (reifn-gamma) was prepared using a baculovirus expression system and its antiviral activity was investigated using several equine viruses. the reifn-gamma suppressed the replication of all equine viruses used in the present experiment in horse cell cultures, but did not affect the growth of host cells at concentrations of less than 1000 u/ml. a strong antiviral effect was observed, especially against rna viruses. equine picornavirus, equine rhinovirus and equi ...201020004981
vaccination of ponies with the ie gene of ehv-1 in a recombinant modified live vaccinia vector protects against clinical and virological disease.the control of ehv-1 infection by cytotoxic t-cell responses (ctl) via a reduction in cell associated viremia remains an important goal in horses. unfortunately, current vaccines are inefficient at inducing these responses. we have identified the immediate early (ie) gene of ehv-1 as a potent stimulator of virus-specific ctl responses in ponies expressing a specific mhc class i serological haplotype (a3/b2). this study was designed to determine if vaccination of a3/b2 mhc i positive ponies with ...201020018383
loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for detection of equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 and differentiating a gene-deleted candidate vaccine strain from wild-type equid herpesvirus 1 strains.loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) is a novel method for the rapid and sensitive detection of dna without the need for expensive equipment. in the present study, lamp assays were developed for the specific detection of equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4, respectively) and for the differentiation of glycoprotein e (ge)-deleted ehv-1 (deltage) strain, a candidate strain for a live vaccine, from field ehv-1 strains. specific primer sets were designed for the gc and ge genes of eh ...201020093679
comparison of the biological and biochemical activities of several members of the alphaherpesvirus icp0 family of proteins.immediate-early protein icp0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) is an e3 ubiquitin ligase of the ring finger class that is required for efficient lytic infection and reactivation from latency. other alphaherpesviruses also express icp0-related ring finger proteins, but these have limited homology outside the core ring domain. existing evidence indicates that icp0 family members have similar properties, but there has been no systematic comparison of the biochemical activities and biological f ...201020106921
cell-mediated immunity evaluation in foals infected with virulent equine herpesvirus-1 by multi-parameter flow cytometry.the cell-mediated immune (cmi) response of foals to virulent equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection was evaluated by multi-parameter flow cytometry (fcm). ten 7-8-month-old ehv-1 seronegative foals were infected intranasally with virulent ehv-1 and 10 foals served as uninfected controls. blood samples were collected 6 and 7 weeks after infection to test for specific cmi responses to live heterologous ehv-1 recall antigen. the activation markers included major histocompatibility complex class ii ...201020116862
the orf37 (ul24) is a neuropathogenicity determinant of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in the mouse encephalitis model.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) bacterial artificial chromosome clone (ab4p bac) was established based on neuropathogenic strain ab4p. orf37 encoding ul24 was replaced with a selection cassette, rpsl-neo gene, to produce an orf37 deletion mutant, ab4porf37. transfection of rk-13 cells with ab4porf37 genome dna produced infectious virus, indicating that orf37 is not essential for ehv-1 replication in cell culture. deletion of orf37 had no effect on the transcript expression of neighboring genes, orf ...201020199788
residue 752 in dna polymerase of equine herpesvirus type 1 is non-essential for virus growth in vitro.a single amino acid variation in the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) dna polymerase (pol) (d752/n752) determines its neuropathogenic potential. here, an ehv-1 strain racl11 mutant with a deletion of pol residue 752 was constructed. the deletion virus was then repaired to encode d752 or n752, respectively. the delta752 mutant virus replicated with kinetics indistinguishable from those of d752 and n752 viruses. in addition, we could demonstrate that the deletion mutant was significantly more res ...201020200193
pathogenic potential of equine alphaherpesviruses: the importance of the mononuclear cell compartment in disease outcome.equid herpesviruses types 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) are closely related pathogens of horses. while both viruses can infect the upper respiratory tract, ehv-1 regularly causes systemic infection, which is only rarely observed in the case of ehv-4. little is known about the molecular basis for this striking difference in pathogenic potential. recently, we have started a systematic analysis of differences in the amino acid sequences of proteins involved in virus replication, more specifically entry ...201020202764
glycoprotein c of equine herpesvirus 4 plays a role in viral binding to cell surface heparan sulfate.heparan sulfate moieties of cell surface proteoglycans serve as receptors for several herpesviruses. for herpes simplex virus 1, pseudorabies virus and equine herpesvirus 1, glycoprotein c (gc) homologues have been shown to mediate the binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. however, the role of gc in equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) infection has not yet been analyzed. using pull-down assay, we first determined that ehv-4 gc as well as gb are heparin-binding glycoproteins. to study the role of gc ...201020236610
opposite effects of two different strains of equine herpesvirus 1 infection on cytoskeleton composition in equine dermal ed and african green monkey kidney vero cell lines: application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis in a quantitative study.viruses can reorganize the cytoskeleton and restructure the host cell transport machinery. during infection viruses use different cellular cues and signals to enlist the cytoskeleton for their mission. however, each virus specifically affects the cytoskeleton structure. thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the cytoskeletal changes in homologous equine dermal (ed) and heterologous vero cell lines infected with either equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain rac-h or jan-e. we found that rac-h ...201020349252
the equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) ir3 transcript downregulates expression of the ie gene and the absence of ir3 gene expression alters ehv-1 biological properties and virulence.the ir3 transcript of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) harbors 117 nts antisense to the immediate-early (ie) mrna, suggesting it plays a regulatory role. here, we show that the ir3 transcript downregulates ie gene expression and that the absence of ir3 expression altered ehv-1 biological properties and virulence in mice. reporter assays revealed that the ir3/ie overlapping sequences [ir3(+226/+342)] and an additional ir3(+343/+433) region are necessary for the ir3 rna to downregulate ie expression. ...201020417949
neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants of equine herpesvirus 1 in france.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a common pathogen of the horse which may induce mild respiratory distress, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease. a single nucleotide polymorphism in the ehv-1 dna polymerase (orf30 a(2254) to g(2254)) has been associated with clinical signs of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (ehm). the aim of this work was to analyze the orf30 genomic region among a panel of ehv-1 dna extract in order to estimate the prevalence of the ehv-1 neuropathogenic genotype ...201020427133
replication kinetics of neurovirulent versus non-neurovirulent equine herpesvirus type 1 strains in equine nasal mucosal explants.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is the causative agent of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, of which outbreaks are reported with increasing frequency throughout north america and europe. this has resulted in its classification as a potentially emerging disease by the us department of agriculture. recently, it was found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in the viral dna polymerase gene (orf30) at aa 752 (n-->d) is associated with the neurovirulent potential of ehv-1. in the present s ...201020427565
immunohistochemical and molecular detection of equine herpesvirus 1 in uruguay.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major cause of epidemic abortion, neonatal mortality, respiratory disease and neurological disorders in horses. in south america, the virus has been isolated in brazil, argentina and colombia. in chile pathological findings from one aborted foetus have been reported, and in uruguay only serological data about ehv-1 activity have been found. some pathological findings were reported in uruguay several years ago, but these data have never been officially confirmed. ...200920462167
control of ehv-1 viremia and nasal shedding by commercial vaccines.equine herpesvirus-1 is a cause of outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease. the pathogenesis of both these diseases depends on establishment of viremia. an experiment was performed to determine the protective efficacy of two commercially available vaccines used with an optimized 3-dose vaccination regime: a modified-live viral (mlv) and a high antigen load killed vaccine licensed for abortion control. the study design was a blinded, randomized challenge trial. three groups of 8 yearling p ...201020538091
detection and management of an outbreak of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection and associated neurological disease in a veterinary teaching hospital.because of the serious disease sequelae associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infections, awareness and control measures used to control outbreaks are important issues for all horse populations.201020584137
molecular investigation of the viral kinetics of equine herpesvirus-1 in blood and nasal secretions of horses after corticosteroid-induced recrudescence of latent infection.recrudescence of latent equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) with subsequent viral shedding via nasal secretions is a potential source of infection for susceptible horses and has been implicated in outbreaks occurring in closed populations.201020584139
equus caballus major histocompatibility complex class i is an entry receptor for equine herpesvirus type this study, equus caballus major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i) was identified as a cellular entry receptor for the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). this novel ehv-1 receptor was discovered using a cdna library from equine macrophages. cdnas from this ehv-1-susceptible cell type were inserted into ehv-1-resistant b78h1 murine melanoma cells, these cells were infected with an ehv-1 lacz reporter virus, and cells that supported virus infection were identified by x ...201020610718
detection of neuropathogenic strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) associated with abortions in germany.a single nucleotide polymorphism within ehv-1 gene orf 30, which encodes for the viral dna polymerase, allows the differentiation of the neuropathogenic (g2254) from non-neuropathogenic genotype (a2254). the aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic genotype of ehv-1 isolates associated with abortions in germany. to determine the nucleotide sequence at the polymorphic site the amplification product of orf 30 gene specific nested pcr was d ...201120619972
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
development of a new primer-probe energy transfer method for the differentiation of neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen of horses with worldwide distribution that can cause various clinical signs ranged from mild respiratory disease to neurological symptoms. comparison of neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic ehv-1 strains revealed that a single non-synonymous nucleotide substitution (a/g2254) in the orf30 region is associated with the altered functions of the viral dna polymerase and therefore the neuropathogenicity of ehv-1 virus strains. the aim of the present ...201020709107
report of the second havemeyer ehv-1 workshop, steamboat springs, colorado, usa, september 2008.this report summarises the findings of the second havemeyer ehv-1 workshop, which was held in steamboat springs, colorado, usa in september 2008. a total of 38 delegates, consisting of veterinary clinicians and scientists from academia and industry participated in a series of sessions that focused on equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm). each session consisted of a review, followed by short presentations on current research topics. the sessions included ehm epidemiology, in vivo and in v ...201020716200
prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 1 in trigeminal ganglia and submandibular lymph nodes of equids examined postmortem.the objective of this study was to detect and characterise the biovar of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) from submandibular lymph nodes (smlns) and trigeminal ganglia from 153 equids undergoing routine postmortem examination for various medical and surgical reasons. a combination of nucleic acid precipitation and preamplification steps was used to increase the analytical sensitivity of the analysis. the presence of latent ehv-1 was determined when tissue samples were pcr-positive for the glyco ...201020817899
impact of etif deletion on safety and immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1-vectored vaccines.heterologous gene transfer by viral vector systems is often limited by factors such as preexisting immunity, toxicity, low packaging capacity, or weak immunogenic potential. a novel viral vector system derived from equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) not only overcomes some of these obstacles but also promotes the robust expression of a delivered transgene and the induction of antigen-specific immune responses. regarding an enhanced safety profile, we assessed the impact of the gene encoding the s ...201020826695
immunohistochemical approach to the pathogenesis of clinical cases of bovine herpesvirus type 5 infections.meningoencephalitis by herpesvirus type 5 (bohv-5) in cattle has some features that are similar to those of herpetic encephalitis in humans and other animal species. human herpesvirus 3 (commonly known as varicella-zoster virus 1), herpes simplex viruses (hsv), and equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) induce an intense inflammatory, vascular and cellular response. in spite of the many reports describing the histological lesions associated with natural and experimental infections, the immunopathological m ...201020831786
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