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herpesvirus rna in human urogenital tumors.in situ hybridization was used to examine human urogenital cancers for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human cytomegalovirus rnas. neither of these herpes rnas was found in prostate tissues. however, hsv-2 rna was detected in premalignant and malignant cervical tissues.19836314345
the effect of cycloheximide on the accumulation and stability of functional alpha-mrna in cells infected with herpes simplex virus.cells were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2, hsv-2(g), and incubated in the presence of cycloheximide (cx). when cx was removed and actinomycin d (act d) added, alpha-polypeptides icp 0 and icp 4 were synthesized at low rates. if cx was removed without adding act d, the rate of production of icp 4 increased while that of icp 0 remained constant. in cells treated with azetidine to enhance the production of icp 4 and 0, accumulation of functional mrna for icp 4 (determined indirectly by t ...19836310035
antiviral effects of hygromycin b, a translation inhibitor nonpermeant to uninfected cells.hygromycin b, a preferential translation inhibitor in virus-infected cells, has been tested for its antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 2 and poliovirus. the activity has been compared with other antiviral agents such as vidarabine and iododeoxyuridine.19836314888
herpes simplex virus non-structural proteins. iii. function of the major dna-binding protein.the herpes simplex virus type 2 major dna-binding protein has been functionally characterized using temperature-sensitive mutants in the complementation group 2-2. the mutants were shown to be defective in the dna-binding protein gene by mapping the mutants to the area of the genome known to code for the protein, and by demonstrating alterations in the major dna-binding protein induced in mutant-infected cells. the mutants were shown to be defective in the replication of virus dna. the nature of ...19836302216
blocked herpes simplex virus type 2-specific dna synthesis in simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells permissive for herpes simplex virus type 1.simian virus 40-transformed hamster cells (ll-1) permissive to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) were shown to be relatively nonpermissive to hsv-2. when ll-1 cells were infected with hsv-2, there was a 3- to 4-log reduction in infectious viral progeny at 24 h postinfection as compared with hsv-1 under identical cultured conditions. hsv-2 could be carried in the ll-1 cell line for up to 12 passages without any appreciable cytopathology. various early functions of the replicative cycle of hsv-2 ...19836307875
the use of monoclonal antibodies in (reverse) passive haemagglutination tests for herpes simplex virus antigens and antibodies.three monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 have been tested for their suitability as reagents in reverse passive haemagglutination. two of these antibodies with specificity for virus glycoprotein d, when linked to red blood cells, were able to capture antigens without being agglutinated, but addition of immune serum subsequently led to agglutination. haemagglutination using these monoclonal antibody-linked, antigen-captured red cells was readily applicable to testing human s ...19836308140
activity of 1-(2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine against herpes simplex virus in cell cultures and rabbit eyes.a new antiviral compound 1-(2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine (2'-fluoro-5-methyl-ara-uracil [fmau]), was compared with acyclovir and idoxuridine in vitro against two strains of both herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2. determinations of the 50% effective dose varied slightly with each strain and with the host cells employed. the 50% effective dose for fmau and acyclovir against hsv-1 ranged from 0.1 microm to 0.5 to 0.6 microm in rabbit kidney cells and from 0.5 micro ...19836311085
phase i evaluation of 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine in immunosuppressed patients with herpesvirus infection.2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (fiac) is a potent selective inhibitor of the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus in cell culture systems. fiac produces an unequivocal therapeutic effect in mice that have been inoculated with a lethal burden of hsv-1. we have administered fiac to 32 host compromised patients, 30 with advanced cancer, who were experiencing acute herpesvirus infections (varicella zoster, 2 ...19836309380
immortalization and neoplastic transformation of normal diploid cells by defined cloned dna fragments of herpes simplex virus type 2.diploid syrian hamster embryo (she) cells were passaged after transfection with recombinant plasmids containing herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna inserts bgl ii focus-forming fragment n, bgl ii transforming fragment c, and ecori/hindiii fragment ae. cultures transfected with salmon dna or with 0.1-5.0 micrograms of bgl ii fragment n reached crisis and senesced. those transfected with 0.1-0.5 micrograms of bgl ii fragment c or its left-hand 64% subclone ecori/hindiii fragment ae escaped sen ...19836310602
hepatic infection by thymidine kinase-positive and thymidine kinase-negative herpes simplex virus after partial hepatectomy.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection of mouse liver after partial hepatectomy was studied. partial hepatectomy resulted in the rapid onset of cellular dna synthesis and the appearance of many mitotic figures (peak, 3 days after surgery). similar changes were not seen in control animals. after partial hepatectomy, the mice were infected with thymidine kinase-positive (tk+) and -negative (tk-) hsv to investigate virus titers in liver tissue during liver cell replication. in control unoperated mice ...19836311750
serotyping of herpes simplex virus isolates: a comparison of bvdu sensitivities, indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies, and indirect immunofluorescence with cross-adsorbed rabbit antibodies.four methods for typing of herpes simplex virus (hsv) isolates were compared for 43 recent clinical isolates and 3 reference strains of hsv. these isolates were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence using both monoclonal antibodies and cross-adsorbed rabbit antisera. sensitivity to e-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) was also examined. all isolates which fluoresced with hsv-1 monoclonals were found to be sensitive to bvdu with id50's ranging from 0.001 to 0.006 micrograms/ml. all isolat ...19836317706
insertion mutants of herpes simplex virus have a duplication of the glycoprotein d gene and express two different forms of glycoprotein d.we produced insertion mutants of herpes simplex virus (hsv) that contain two functional copies of genes encoding different forms of glycoprotein d (gd). these viruses have the gene for hsv type 2 (hsv-2) gd at the normal locus and the gene for hsv-1 gd inserted into the thymidine kinase locus. results of immunoprecipitation experiments done with monoclonal antibodies revealed that both gd genes were expressed by these viruses, regardless of orientation of the inserted hsv-1 gd gene, and that max ...19836312097
effect of phosphonoformate on symptomatic genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of guinea pigs.using a guinea pig model of genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 infection, phosphonoformate treatment initiated after the onset of symptoms had a therapeutic effect on the outcome of disease. severity of disease, viral shedding, and hsv-induced cellular changes in vaginal cytology were significantly reduced in drug-treated animals as compared to sham-treated animals, although virus was readily detected in the nervous system of animals from both groups. the percentage of animals harboring l ...19836298142
neoplastic transformation by a cloned human cytomegalovirus dna fragment uniquely homologous to one of the transforming regions of herpes simplex virus type 2.specific dna fragments of human cytomegalovirus strain towne exhibited sequence homology to the transforming regions of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) when examined by nitrocellulose filter hybridization under nonstringent conditions. cloned towne xba i fragments b and c were homologous to both bgl ii transforming fragments n and c of hsv-2 dna, whereas cloned towne xba i fragment e was uniquely homologous to hsv-2 bgl ii fragment c. furthermore, towne xba i fragment e exhibited homology to ...19836304741
application of denatured, electrophoretically separated, and immobilized lysates of herpes simplex virus-infected cells for detection of monoclonal antibodies and for studies of the properties of viral proteins.we report the use of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)- and hsv-2-infected cell polypeptides (icps) separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels and transferred to nitrocellulose to (i) detect monoclonal antibodies to viral polypeptides and to (ii) study the properties of the proteins with the monoclonal antibodies. our results were as follows. (i) when the antigens were electrophoretically separated in denaturing gels and then immobilized on nitrocellulose strips, we detected a greater ...19836298448
an immunologically active chimaeric protein containing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein d.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) cause both persistent and latent infections, including recurrent cutaneous disease, lethal neonatal disease, central nervous system disease and other clinical syndromes. modified live vaccines or conventionally prepared subunit vaccines have generally been unsuccessful in the treatment of hsv-1 and hsv-2 infections from the standpoints of safety and efficacy. it has been established that hsv-1 and hsv-2 infectivity may be neutralized in vitr ...19836298636
9-([2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine: a selective inhibitor of herpes group virus replication.9-([2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine (2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine; 2'ndg) selectively inhibits the replication of herpes group viruses. in cell culture studies 2'ndg was at least 10-fold more potent than acyclovir (acv) in inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication and epstein-barr virus-induced lymphocyte transformation and was about as effective as acv in inhibition of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus. orally administered 2'ndg was 6- to 50-fold more ...19836306664
is ribonucleotide reductase the transforming function of herpes simplex virus 2?transformation of cells by herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) can be induced by the bglii c (0.43-0.58 map units) or n (0.58-0.625) fragments of the viral genome. sequences partially overlapping both fragments (0.566-0.602) encode two 3' coterminal mrnas; these in turn direct the synthesis of two related polypeptides of molecular weight 140,000 (140k) and 35k (refs 4, 7), which may be involved in transformation. recently, a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutation affecting hsv-induced ribonucleotide red ...19836298637
herpes simplex virus. an expanding relationship to human cancer.herpes simplex virus (hsv) causes a wide spectrum of infectious disease in humans. during the past 15 years, evidence has accumulated indicating that, in addition, hsv may be a cause of human cancer, particularly cervical cancer. the research on hsv has taken five directions. first is detection of previous infection with hsv 2. this was the earliest approach and was performed largely with serologic assays. studies showed a higher incidence of infection with hsv-2 in cervical cancer patients as c ...19836300393
use of monoclonal antibodies against two 75,000-molecular-weight glycoproteins specified by herpes simplex virus type 2 in glycoprotein identification and gene mapping.we produced two monoclonal antibodies that precipitate different glycoproteins of similar apparent molecular weight (70,000 to 80,000) from extracts of cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. evidence is presented that one of these glycoproteins is the previously characterized glycoprotein ge, whereas the other maps to a region of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome collinear with the region in herpes simplex virus type 1 dna that encodes gc.19836300459
inversion of the two segments of the herpes simplex virus genome in intertypic recombinants.we have analysed by restriction site mapping the structures of the termini and l-s joint in several hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants, including bx1(28-1), the virion dna of which has a marked overabundance of one orientation of the l segment, and subclones of bx1(28-1). all recombinants with both orientations of l present in equal amounts contain trl and irl regions derived at least in part from the same parent (hsv-1 or hsv-2) as a result of previously undetected crossovers in these regions. ...19836296294
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. viii. further characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in release of viral dna and in other stages of the viral reproductive cycle.previous studies have shown that cells infected with the herpes simplex virus 1(hfem) mutant tsb7 and maintained at the nonpermissive temperature fail to accumulate viral polypeptides. analyses of intertypic recombinants generated by marker rescue of tsb7 with herpes simplex virus 2 dna fragments localized the mutation between 0.46 and 0.52 map units on the viral genome (knipe et al., j. virol. 38:539-547, 1981). in this paper we report that the mutation in tsb7 affects several aspects of the re ...19836296445
enhancement of lewis lung carcinoma by the concomitant infection of the host with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2.infection with herpes simplex virus (hsv) enhances the growth of lewis lung tumor (llt). infection with hsv-1 enhances as efficiently as hsv-2. a significant acceleration of primary tumor formation was obtained. in mice, lung metastases were increased in number and size above the controls. enhancement occurred only with high doses of infectious virus and was also obtained only when the virus infection was at a site close to that of the tumor implantation. this finding, in addition to the lack of ...19836296746
fatal systemic herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a healthy young woman.a previously healthy 28-year-old woman without historic or anatomic evidence of immunologic defect had a genital herpes simplex virus infection that rapidly progressed to systemic disease, with death 12 days after the onset of illness. herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated from the liver and spleen and was also shown by direct immunofluorescence in the liver and spleen, but not in the brain. we have found no previously reported instance of death from this virus in a young adult uncompromised ...19836297097
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 induce shutoff of host protein synthesis by different mechanisms in friend erythroleukemia cells.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 disrupt host protein synthesis after viral infection. we have treated both viral types with agents which prevent transcription of the viral genome and used these treated viruses to infect induced friend erythroleukemia cells. by measuring the changes in globin synthesis after infection, we have determined whether expression of the viral genome precedes the shutoff of host protein synthesis or whether the inhibitor molecule enters the cells as part of ...19836296433
characterization of mutants of herpes simplex viruses, types 1 and 2, that produce fragments of the thymidine kinase polypeptide.seven tk- mutants of herpes simplex virus, type 2 (hsv-2), and three tk- mutants of herpes simplex virus, type 1 (hsv-1), were isolated which did not produce the thymidine kinase (tk) polypeptides but formed smaller polypeptides not seen in wild-type infected cells. positive tk mrna selection by hybridization to the cloned tk genes followed by in vitro translation identified the tk polypeptides. comparisons of the products of partial proteolysis of the polypeptides of four hsv-2 and two hsv-1 tk ...19836303540
genetic analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants which define the genes for the major herpes simplex virus type 2 dna-binding protein and a new late function.eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) exhibit overlapping patterns of complementation that define four functional groups. recombination tests confirmed the assignment of mutants to complementation groups 1 through 4 and permitted the four groups to be ordered in an unambiguous linear array. combined recombination and marker rescue tests (a. e. spang, p. j. godowski, and d. m. knipe, j. virol. 45:332-342, 1983) indicate that the mutations lie in a tight clust ...19836296441
a comparative analysis of restriction enzyme digests of the dna of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital and facial lesions.the restriction endonuclease (re) cleavage patterns of the dna of herpes simplex virus (hsv) genital isolates from two geographically distinct groups and from one group of facial isolates were examined. eleven of 21 genital isolates from females, 1 of 27 genital isolates from males and all 17 of the facial isolates were hsv type 1 (hsv-1). the groups of isolates of the same serotype could not be distinguished by significant differences in the frequency of variable restriction endonuclease sites ...19836300289
genetic analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants which define the gene for the major herpes simplex virus type 1 dna-binding protein.we have assigned eight temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 to complementation group 1-1. members of this group fail to complement mutants in herpes simplex virus type 2 complementation group 2-2. the mutation of one member of group 1-1, tsha1 of strain mp, has been shown to map in or near the sequence which encodes the major herpes simplex virus type 1 dna-binding protein (conley et al., j. virol. 37:191-206, 1981). the mutations of five other members of group 1-1 map in ...19836296442
a herpesvirus antigen in human premalignant and malignant cervical biopsies and explants.cervical biopsies and explant cultures from patients with squamous metaplasia, various grades of dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (cis), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma were screened for vp143, an early nonstructural polypeptide of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), vp143 was identified in 31% of biopsies exhibiting severe dysplasia, 29% with cis, and 41% with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. similar results were obtained when explants derived from these biopsies were examined for vp143. the ...19836295165
herpesvirus.herpesvirus (hsv) infection of the genital tract is a sexually transmitted disease that is increasing at an epidemic rate. 2 types of virus, type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) have been identified, of which hsv-2 is the major cause of genital and neonatal infection. type 2 herpes infections may be the 2nd most common venereal disease in the us. more than 60% of the adult us population has antibodies to hsv, and socioeconomic factors have been found to influence the incidence of hsv infection. ...19836301717
susceptibility of recent clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus to 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine: preferential inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2.we examined the in vitro susceptibilities of three reference strains and 41 recent clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine. this thymidine analog exerts a type 2-preferential but not a type 2-specific antiviral effect. utilizing a microtiter assay with bhk-21 cells, we found that the mean (+/- standard deviation) 50% inhibitory dose for herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates was 0.58 +/- 0.30 micrograms/ml as compared with 0.33 +/- 0.20 microgram/ml for h ...19836307130
12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate enhancement of the tumorigenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed cells.the consequences of tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (tpa) interaction with clonal hsv-2-transformed nontumorigenic and weakly tumorigenic cells were studied. enhancement of anchorage-independent growth (cloning efficiency) occurred in a dose-dependent manner when transformed but not nontransformed cells were pretreated with tpa. all subclonal nontumorigenic cell lines progressed to become tumorigenic after 20 serial passages in the presence of tpa. also, subclonal, weakly tu ...19836312388
colonization of murine ganglia by a superinfecting strain of herpes simplex virus.we report on the colonization of murine trigeminal ganglia after sequential infection of mice by herpes simplex viruses (hsvs). in preliminary studies, we have established that whereas the hsv-1(f) strain efficiently colonizes ganglia when inoculated by either the ear or eye routes, the hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinant c7d colonizes ganglia when inoculated by the eye route only. the experimental design consisted of inoculating the right eye with c7d on day 1 and with hsv-1(f) in both left and right eye ...19836307880
herpes simplex virus non-structural proteins. iv. purification of the virus-induced deoxyribonuclease and characterization of the enzyme using monoclonal antibodies.the alkaline nucleases induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) have been purified from high salt extracts of virus-infected cells. the purification used three types of column chromatography and resulted in apparently homogeneous dnase preparations with good recovery. the enzyme from hsv-2-infected cells has been characterized. it had both exonuclease and endonuclease activity, each with an unusually high ph optimum. the enzyme had an absolute requirement for magnesium w ...19836311954
detection in antisera of antibodies that cross-react with herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gc.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein gc was purified by affinity chromatography with an immunosorbent column containing monoclonal antibody to hsv-1 gc, and its reactivity with rabbit antisera was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of radioimmunoprecipitates. positive reactions were detected between hsv-1 gc and rabbit hyperimmune antisera to both hsv-1 and hsv-2. electrophoretic analysis also revealed ...19836307870
[level of cyclic nucleotides (camp and cgmp), atpase activity and calcium ion transport in hamster lymphocytes during tumor growth].the biochemical systems of lymphocytes of the peripheral blood and lymph nodes of hamsters with a herpes simplex (type 2) virus--induced transplantable tumor rapp hsv2 were studied. the camp concentration in tumor-bearing hamsters was 1.5-2 times higher, while cgmp level--2.2 times lower than in control. this was matched by a rise in the level of transport atpases in the lymphocytes of experimental animals. concanavalin a had practically no effect on the uptake of ca2+ by lymphocytes of tumor-be ...19836301159
herpes simplex virus proctitis in homosexual men. clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histopathological features.acute herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection was detected in 23 of 102 consecutively examined, sexually active male homosexuals who presented with anorectal pain, discharge, tenesmus, or hematochezia, as compared with 3 of 75 homosexual men without gastrointestinal symptoms (p less than 0.01). findings that were significantly more frequent in men with hsv proctitis than in men with proctitis due to other infectious causes included fever (48 per cent), difficulty in urinating (48 per cent), sacral ...19836300674
characterization of herpes simplex virus 2 temperature-sensitive mutants whose lesions map in or near the coding sequences for the major dna-binding protein.by marker rescue with cloned herpes simplex virus 2 dna fragments, we have mapped the temperature-sensitive mutations of a series of herpes simplex virus 2 mutants to a region of the herpes simplex virus 2 genome that lies within or near the coding sequences for the major dna-binding protein, icp8. in cells infected with certain of these mutants at the nonpermissive temperature, the association of the major dna-binding protein with the cell nucleus was defective. in these cells, the dna-binding ...19836296440
processing of glycoproteins induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: sulphation and nature of the oligosaccharide linkages.using the drug tunicamycin we have investigated the nature of the oligosaccharides on herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-induced glycoproteins e and y (gy is a newly identified glycoprotein which has the same apparent mol. wt. as gc but a more basic isoelectric point). synthesis of both glycoproteins was inhibited by the drug, suggesting they contain n-linked oligosaccharides. our finding, combined with the previous results of other workers, suggests that all the major hsv-induced glycoproteins ...19836310034
replication of herpes simplex virus in two cell systems derived from rhesus monkeys.the replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in two cell systems derived from rhesus monkeys (llc-mk2 and dbs-frhl-2) was studied. in llc-mk2, the growth of hsv-1 was abortive or extremely limited regardless of the multiplicity of infection, while that of hsv-2 was productive only on infection at high multiplicities. dbs-frhl-2 cells supported growth of both types of hsv, although growth was highly dependent on the age of monolayers and the infectious dose of virus inocula. plaques were produce ...19836312959
detection of herpes simplex virus type-2 dna restriction fragments in human cervical carcinoma tissue.dna extracted from eight human cervical carcinomas, one lymph node metastasis and related control tissue was examined for the presence of herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna sequences. southern blot transfers of tumour and control dna were hybridised with radioactively labelled cloned probes representing 70% of the hsv-2 genome. specific hybridisation to hsv dna sequences was observed in one of eight carcinoma tissues analysed. hybridisation of hsv-2 dna probes to bamhi and xhoi restriction enzyme fr ...19836313349
[mechanism of the cellular transformation of newborn hamsters inoculated with herpes simplex type 2 virus].combined virological, antigenic, electron microscopic, and molecular biologic study of the role of an oncovirus, herpes simplex type 2 virus (hsv-2), in the mechanisms of transformation of hsv-2-infected hamster cells was carried out. no expression of genetic information of the oncovirus could be detected. cell transformation was shown to be associated with persistence and realization of hsv-2 genetic information in the transformed cells.19836314675
survival of herpes simplex virus in water specimens collected from hot tubs in spa facilities and on plastic surfaces.several health spas were closed temporarily because of possible nonvenereal spread of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in spa water at these facilities. we collected water specimens from two health spas and studied them for (1) the presence of hsv; (2) bromine (br2), chlorine (cl2), and ph levels; and (3) the ability of hsv to survive in water. no hsv could be isolated from the spa water specimens. spa water had high levels of cl2 and br2, tap water specimens had low levels of cl2, and distilled water ...19836315978
antiherpetic activity and mechanism of action of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine.9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine was synthesized and tested for antiherpes activity. in cell cultures, different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2(hsv-2) were inhibited by 50% at 2-14 microm of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine, while a hsv-1 mutant lacking thymidine kinase (hsv-1 tk-) was resistant. linear competitive inhibition of purified hsv-1-induced thymidine kinase (tk) with thymidine as a variable substrate was observed for 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine with an apparent ki value of ...19836312878
intranuclear distribution of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna synthesis: examination by light and electron microscopy.uptake of [3h]thymidine by serum-starved baby hamster kidney cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 was investigated by light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography. the distribution of incorporated label altered throughout the period of viral dna synthesis. it was restricted initially to a few well-defined sites within the nucleus which increased in size and spread as infection proceeded until the entire nucleus was involved. the label was not associated with any identifi ...19836310045
role of the nuclear matrix in the growth of herpes simplex virus type 2.nuclear matrix was prepared from vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. in the early stage of infection, both 155k and 110k viral proteins were associated with the nuclear matrix, while in the late stage, 155k protein, presumably a viral capsid protein, was predominantly associated with the matrix. electron microscopic study showed that empty capsids were bound to the filamentous networks of the nuclear matrix of the late stage. neither viral dna nor viral dna polymerase activity ...19836312935
high-resolution characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 transcripts encoding alkaline exonuclease and a 50,000-dalton protein tentatively identified as a capsid protein.four partially overlapping mrnas (1.9, 2.3, 3.9, and 4.5 kilobases [kb]) were located between 0.16 and 0.19 map units on the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome. their direction of transcription was found to be from right to left. the 2.3-kb mrna was found to be early (beta), whereas the others were late (beta gamma). partial sequence analysis of the dna encoding these genes indicated that the promoter for the 2.3-kb mrna shares structural features with other early (beta) promoters. in vitro tran ...19836313961
identification of dna polymerase(s) involved in the repair of viral and cellular dna in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells.when human embryonic fibroblasts (hef) were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), replicative viral dna synthesis and some repair synthesis of cellular dna were induced at the early stage of infection, but almost all dna synthesis at the late stage of infection was derived from repair synthesis of cellular and viral dna (y. nishiyama and f. rapp, virology 110, 466-475, 1981). in this study, we have assessed the effects of dna polymerase inhibitors on repair dna synthesis hsv-2-infec ...19836312689
neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in king county, washington. increasing incidence and epidemiologic correlates.the incidence of neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection in king county, washington, has increased progressively from a rate of 2.6 per 100,000 live births to king county residents during the years 1966 through 1969 to 4.8, 7.4, and 11.9 cases per 100,000 live births for the years 1970 through 1973, 1974 through 1977, and 1978 through 1981, respectively. detailed interviews of the parents of newborns with neonatal hsv-2 infection revealed clinically symptomatic genital herpes in the mother ...19836315977
effect of prior immunization on induction of cervial cancer in mice by herpes simplex virus type 2.previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cevix produced premalignant and malignant lesions. in the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcuaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. it appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of c ...19836316503
antiherpes activity of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- and 5-vinyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil and some other 5-substituted uracil arabinosyl nucleosides in two different cell lines.of a series of 5-substituted 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (5-x-arau) analogues, (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-arau(brvarau) and 5-vinyl-arau (varau) were the most potent inhibitors of plaque formation by two herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strains in human embryonic lung fibroblast (helf) cell cultures. they were not only more active than 5-methyl-arau (marau, arat) and 5-ethyl-arau (earau), but even more than 1000 times more potent than the 5-fluoro, 5-iodo, 5-formyl and 5-trifluoromethyl (farau, ...19836316849
interferon susceptibility of herpes simplex virus strains isolated from patients enrolled in clinical trials.herpes simplex virus type 1 strains isolated from patients who had received interferon in a clinical trial were not more resistant to human leukocyte interferon than strains derived from recipients of a placebo. the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 2 strains isolated from herpes genitalis was slightly less than that of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains causing herpes genitalis.19836312872
location and orientation of homologous sequences in the genomes of five herpesviruses.molecular hybridization experiments were carried out to investigate homologous regions in the genomes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), pseudorabies virus (prv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv). virion dna probes from ehv-1, prv and vzv hybridized to similar regions of the hsv genome, and the use of cloned dna probes allowed heterologous genomes to be oriented with respect to homologous regions. the hsv-1 and hsv-2 genomes are colinear, the ehv ...19836310033
dna sequence homology between two co-linear loci on the hsv genome which have different transforming abilities.a transcription unit at the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 transforming region, mtr-2 (map coordinates 0.580-0.625), comprises two early, unspliced mrnas of 4.5 kb and 1.2 kb which are 3' co-terminal; a region including that specifying the 1.2-kb mrna has been sequenced. the putative translated portions of these two mrnas do not overlap and this feature, together with the arrangement of the mrnas, is similar to the apparently equivalent co-linear hsv-1 locus which however does not transform. ...19836315408
in vitro malignant transformation of hamster retina by herpes simplex virus.hamster retina was infected in vitro with irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. cells underwent malignant transformation, and when injected subcutaneously into nude mice and hamsters, produced transferable tumors. transformed cells were found to have hsv antigen as determined by indirect fluorescent staining. in addition, the undifferentiated transformed retinal cells possess neurosecretory granules and retinoic acid receptors and produce growth factor, features similar to those found in spont ...19836315628
nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) thymidine kinase gene and predicted amino acid sequence of thymidine kinase polypeptide and its comparison with the hsv-1 thymidine kinase gene.to analyze the boundaries of the functional coding region of the hsv-2(333) thymidine kinase gene (tk gene), deletion mutants of hybrid plasmid pmar401 h2g, which contains the 17.5 kbp bglii-g fragment of hsv-2 dna, were prepared and tested for capacity to transform lm(tk-) cells to the thymidine kinase-positive phenotype. these studies showed that hybrid plasmids containing 2.2-2.4 kbp subfragments of hsv-2 bglii-g dna transformed lm(tk-) cells to the thymidine kinase-positive phenotype and sug ...19836317035
sequential genital infections by herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2: restriction nuclease analyses of viruses from recurrent infections.virus isolated from a woman presenting with the first symptomatic episode of genital herpes was identified as herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) by restriction nuclease fingerprinting. testing for igm antibody to hsv indicated that the patient had recently contracted a new hsv infection. virus microneutralization and the micro-solid phase radioimmunometric test for igg, however, showed that the patient had had prior infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2); thus the hsv-1 infection wa ...19836318371
poly(adp-ribosyl)ation of a herpes simplex virus immediate early polypeptide.this paper reports in vitro poly(adp-ribosyl)ation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) immediate early polypeptide vmw175. the phenomenon was most clearly observed by use of the temperature-sensitive mutant tsk, which overproduces vmw175 at the nonpermissive temperature (npt) and has a mutation in the coding sequences for this polypeptide. nuclei prepared from cells which were infected with tsk at npt and subsequently downshifted to the permissive temperature incorporated [32p]nad into vm ...19836318441
hsv 2-associated antigens in human cervical tissues before and after grafting in nude mice.biopsy material from human invasive cervical carcinoma, carcinoma in situ (cis) and normal uterine cervix was transplanted into nude mice, some of which were then injected with estrogen or progesterone during a follow-up of 1-4 weeks. the cervical cells were analysed prior to and after passage in nude mice by the anticomplement immunofluorescence (acif) assay for the presence of herpes virus associated antigens. such antigens were found in a few cells in three out of seven transplanted cervical ...19836320579
acyclovir treatment of experimental genital herpes simplex virus infections. i. topical therapy of type 2 and type 1 infections of mice.intravaginal inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus (hsv) provides a model infection of genital herpes to determine the effectiveness of potential antiviral agents. topical (intravaginal) treatment with 1% or 5% acyclovir (acv) in an ointment of gel vehicle initiated 3, 6 or 24 h after inoculation with hsv type 2, significantly inhibited viral replication in the genital tract and usually reduced final mortality. treatment with 5% acv initiated 48 or 72 h after infection also reduced vagin ...19836320718
expression and cellular compartmentalization of a herpes simplex virus type 2 protein (icp 10) in productively infected and cervical tumor cells.antiserum to icp 10, a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) protein that is expressed in cells neoplastically transformed by viral dna sequences within the bgl ii/hpa i cd fragment, specifically precipitates the icp 10 protein from hsv-2 infected cells and stains cells infected with hsv-2 for 4 to 16 hrs by indirect immunofluorescence. at 4 hr post infection (p.i.), the staining is primarily perinuclear, while at 16 hr p.i., it is cytoplasmic and intranuclear. compartmentalization studies indicat ...19836320993
localization of the coding region for a 35000 dalton polypeptide on the genome of herpes simplex virus type 2.the cloned bglii n fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna has been shown to code for a 35k polypeptide. subfragments made by cleavage with xhoi, bamhi, sstii and xorii were then cloned and used with rna extracted from hsv-2-infected cells for mrna selection and in vitro protein synthesis. we found that the major translation product of such hybrid-selected mrna has a molecular weight of 35 000. by further mapping, dna coding sequences for this mrna were located within the region of b ...19836310044
biotin-avidin-amplified enzyme immunoassay for detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in clinical specimens.a biotin-avidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-a elisa) has been developed to detect herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 antigens in clinical specimens. the test was designed as a solid-phase, double-antibody, sandwich assay in which plates were coated with a polyclonal rabbit immunoglobulin g anti-hsv reagent, and the sandwich antibody was a biotin-labeled mouse immunoglobulin m monoclonal antibody that reacts with a common antigen associated with hsv-1 and hsv-2. the ...19836317711
[scanning microscopy of hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2].scanning microscopy was used to examine the features of morphology and attachment to a solid substrate of a transformed and tumor lines of hamster cells. these cell lines differed from normal hamster fibroblasts by changes in the mode of attachment and the degree of flattening on the solid substrate, relief of the cell surface and pattern of intercellular interactions. the observed morphological changes correlated with the degree of cell transformation.19836318450
dna sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein d gene.we describe a 1635-bp herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna sequence containing the entire coding region of glycoprotein d (gd-2). the amino acid sequence of gd-2, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, was compared to that of the analogous herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein (gd-1). the two glycoproteins are 85% homologous and contain highly conserved regions of as much as 49 amino acids in length. comparison of dna sequences upstream from gd-1 and gd-2 coding regions identified p ...19836323270
[evaluation of 80 virologically-confirmed cases of ocular herpes. study of the correlation between the type of virus and the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease].80 strains were isolated from patients with herpetic ocular infection during the period may 1979 to may 1981: 17 patients with herpetic blepharitis, 40 patients with superficial keratitis and 23 with deep stromal keratitis or kerato-uveitis. among 63 patients treated with antiviral agents, clinical resistance to the drug was observed in 17 cases. the strains were typed as hsv 1.1, 1.2 or 2.2 by seroneutralization and thermosensitivity in cellular cultures. no relationship between the viral types ...19836323567
cell surface alterations induced by the acycloguanosine (acg) resistant and sensitive strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in the presence of acg and tunicamycin.hsv-2-acg, a mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2, which is resistant to acycloguanosine and also capable of inducing fusion of bsc1 cells, was isolated. the viral-induced surface changes in these cells were studied using scanning electron microscopy. the formation of gigantic fused cells with increased number of microvilli and virus-like particles, extensively covering the infected cell surface, were investigated. tunicamycin (50 micrograms/ml), an inhibitor of glycosylation of polypeptides, b ...19836322282
either orientation of the l segment of the herpes simplex virus genome may participate in the production of viable intertypic recombinants.we have analysed the genome structures of 90 recombinant viruses produced by co-infection of baby hamster kidney cells with the dna of a herpes simplex virus type 1 temperature-sensitive mutant (tsd) and specific dna fragments of wild-type herpes simplex virus type 2 at non-permissive temperature. crossovers were located predominantly in regions of greatest intertypic homology, and we conclude that primary recombination occurred with the l segment of the genome in either orientation.19836296303
induction of a latent herpes simplex virus from a rat tumour initiated by herpes simplex virus-transformed cells.a rat tumour induced by cells transformed with the sheared dna of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 hfem alpha (re2a) was injected with the intertypic virus hsv-2 hg52 ts 1. separate plaques, isolated from cocultivation of excised tumour tissue with susceptible cells, yielded virus the dna of which had the restriction enzyme profile either of the injected hsv-2 virus or that of the hsv-1 virus, originally used to transform the cells. no evidence of in vivo recombination was detected. in hooded l ...19836298356
hla-restricted t lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against herpes simplex virus-infected cells in humans.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) against herpes simplex virus (hsv) were induced in vitro from human peripheral blood lymphocytes by stimulation with hsv antigen. ctl generated by hsv type 1 (hsv-1) antigen stimulation killed not only hsv-1-infected target cells but also hsv type 2 (hsv-2)-infected target cells, though at a lower level. this evidence suggests that ctl against hsv recognize the hsv type-specific and type-common determinants on hsv-infected target cells. these ctl were generated from ...19836187690
characteristics of a shared idiotype by two igm anti-herpes simplex virus monoclonal antibodies that recognize different determinants.two igm monoclonal antibodies (mcab) that recognized distinct antigenic determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) were shown to share idiotypes. seven other igm mcab generated to either hsv2 or the major envelope glycoprotein of hsv2, vp119, did not express this shared idiotype. the idiotypic determinants were associated with the antibody-combining site, because hsv2 inhibited the idiotype-anti-idiotype reactions. anti-hsv2 sera raised in balb/c mice also expressed the idiotype shared b ...19836187827
antigenic variants of herpes simplex virus selected with glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoproteins were used to demonstrate that hsv undergoes mutagen-induced and spontaneous antigenic variation. hybridomas were produced by polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of p3-x63-ag8.653 myeloma cells with spleen cells from balb/c mice infected with hsv-1 (strain kos). hybrid clones were screened for production of hsv-specific neutralizing antibody. the glycoprotein specificities of the antibodies were determined by sod ...19836187935
changes in the vaginal cytology of the guinea pig induced by herpes simplex virus.the vaginal cytology of guinea pigs with genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection was examined during acute and latent infection. cytologic changes similar to those observed in humans with hsv-2 genital infections were observed in the guinea pigs during acute infection. during latent infection, some animals continued to have abnormal cytology. the severity of the changes was reduced after treatment with phosphonoformic acid during acute infection.19836223477
immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2: recurrent lesions are associated with the induction of suppressor cells and soluble suppressor factors.cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 was investigated in infected inbred strain 13/n guinea pigs with (45%), and without, a history of recurrent herpetic disease (a. d. donnenberg, e. chaikof, and l. aurelian, infect. immun. 30:99-109, 1980). induction of suppressor cells capable of reducing the proliferative response of herpes simplex virus type 2-stimulated immune lymphoid cells was demonstrated in spleen cells from animals with a history of recurrent disease at recrudescence ...19836227561
a micro solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of herpesvirus type-specific antibody: parameters involved in standardization.a micro solid-phase radioimmunoassay (micro-spria) was developed to demonstrate type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv1 and hsv2). glycoproteins from the 123,000 dalton region of hsv1 (vp123) and the 119,000 dalton region of hsv2 (vp119) were isolated on preparative polyacrylamide gels for use as antigens in the micro-spria. human sera selected from clinical samples by virological history and appropriate microneutralization data were used to standardize the micro-spr ...19836189848
a micro solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of herpesvirus type-specific antibody: specificity and sensitivity.the specificity and sensitivity of a micro solid-phase radioimmunoassay (micro-spria) that detects type-specific igg antibody to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv1 and hsv2) were evaluated. glycoproteins vp123 (molecular weight, 123,000) of hsv1 and vp119 (molecular weight, 119,000) of hsv2 were found to display the greatest degree of antigenic type-specificity of several hsv antigens tested with the micro-spria technique. when testing a group of sera, negative for anti-hsv antibodies by m ...19836189849
immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2. v. risk of recurrent disease following primary infection: modulation of t-cell subsets and lymphokine (lif) production.phenotypic and functional characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) from 133 patients (87 female; 46 male) with documented primary or recurrent genital hsv-2 infection were determined by serologic testing and cmi [lymphocyte blastogenesis and lymphokine (lf)] evaluation. primary infection was followed by the development of virus-specific immune memory as defined in vitro by lymphocyte blastogenesis and the development of neutralizing antibody. virus-specific lif production was detect ...19836209056
human cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex type 2 virus in normal and adenocarcinomatous prostate glands.normal prostate, benign prostate hypertrophy (bhp), and prostate adenocarcinoma (acp) biopsy specimens were analyzed for the presence of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-specific macromolecules. hcmv dna homologous sequences were detected in 2 of 13 normal prostate, 2 of 9 bhp, and 3 of 10 acp tissues, and hsv-2 dna homologous sequences were found in 1 normal prostate tissue and 2 acp tissues. in situ dna-rna hybridizations indicated hcmv-specific rna in 3 of ...19836188872
rapid and selective shutoff of plasma protein production in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected hepatoma cells.the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection of hepatoma mca-rh7777 cells on the production of alpha-fetoprotein (afp) and several other secreted plasma proteins was examined. cells infected with hsv-2 were labeled with [35s]methionine for various times postinfection (p.i.). culture media and intracellular extracts were immunoprecipitated with plasma protein antibodies and examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the relative levels of afp and several other plasma proteins ...19836190309
mode of protection of mice against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by propionibacterium.we compared various strains of propionibacterium with regard to protection of young adult mice against lethal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). propionibacterium acnes, p. granulosum, and p. avidum were protective, while p. acidi-propionici and p. lymphophilum were ineffective. the protective effect proved to be in the cell wall fraction. attempts were made to elucidate possible mechanisms of the protection using both effective and ineffective strains. the results strongly sugg ...19836195512
x-linked resistance of mice to high doses of herpes simplex virus type 2 correlates with early interferon production.mice inoculated intraperitoneally with herpes simplex virus type 2 develop focal necrotizing hepatitis and eventually die from ascending myelitis and encephalitis. the genetics of resistance to the infection were analyzed in crosses between resistant c57bl/10 mice and susceptible balb/c mice. it was shown that the resistance of c57bl/10 mice to hepatitis induction was influenced by an x-linked dominant gene as previously shown for the gr mouse strain. the course of infection in the liver pointed ...19836196293
induction of nuclear deoxyribopyrimidine triphosphatase and sensitivity of clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus to (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.in a blind study, 21 clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus which had been typed using differential growth on guinea pig embryo versus chicken embryo cells were tested for the presence of the viral deoxyribopyrimidine triphosphatase. in all isolates of type 1, the triphosphatase was present in the nuclei of the infected cells, while none of the hsv-2 isolates induced a nuclear enzyme. in all isolates there was a complete correlation between the presence of nuclear deoxyribopyrimidine triphosp ...19836135391
herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein gf and type 1 glycoprotein gc have related antigenic determinants.the 104-s monoclonal antibody immunoprecipitated from herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cell extracts the 75,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein gf and its 65,000-molecular-weight precursor (pgf). the precursor pgf was sensitive to endoglycosidase h digestion, indicating the presence of high mannose-type oligosaccharides, whereas the stable gf product was sensitive to neuraminidase digestion, indicating the presence of sialic acid residues. the 104-s antibody also weakly precipitated th ...19836191040
characterization of a herpes simplex virus type 2 75,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein antigenically related to herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein c.evidence is presented that the herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein previously designated gf is antigenically related to herpes simplex virus type 1 gc (gc-1). an antiserum prepared against type 1 virion envelope proteins immunoprecipitated gf of type 2 (gf-2), and competition experiments revealed that the anti-gc-1 component of the antiserum was responsible for the anti-gf-2 cross-reactivity. an antiserum prepared against fully denatured purified gf-2, however, and three anti-gf-2 monoclona ...19836194310
comparison of the antiviral effects of 5-methoxymethyldeoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate with adenine arabinoside-5'-monophosphate.methoxymethyldeoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (mmudr-mp) and arabinofuranosyladenine-5'-monophosphate (ara-amp) had significant antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in rk-13 and vero cells. mmudr-mp and ara-amp were more potent than methoxymethyldeoxyuridine (mmudr) and arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-a) against the ms strain of hsv-2. mmudr-mp inhibited replication of hsv-1r (mutant resistant to mmudr). mmudr in combination with ara-amp showed additive act ...19836197027
the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection on the genital tract of the female mice--a virological and cytopathological study. 19836096260
herpes genitalis in patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.in a prospective study of 210 patients attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic, we documented the prevalence of genital herpes infection (ghi) and its association with gonococcal infection (gi). herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from 58% of symptomatic patients and 0.5% of asymptomatic patients.the ratio of gi to ghi was 41:31 by clinical criteria. the laboratory-confirmed ratio was 41:18. these ratios are much higher than those normally used to estimate the caseloa ...198321283317
prospective study on the relationship between cervical neoplasia and herpes simplex type-2 virus. i. epidemiological characteristics.to determine the risk associated with previous herpes simplex type-2 (hsv-2) infection and possibly other virus infections, a prospective study of cervical neoplasia in more than 10,000 women was performed in the 1975-1983 period. the subjects were selected at random from an alphabetical listing of eligible women living in one district of prague. at enrollment colposcopy and cervical cytology were performed, a blood sample was taken and data regarding education, socio-economic status, personal h ...19846693194
sequence of the putative origin of replication in the ul region of herpes simplex virus type 1 ang dna.interest has been stimulated concerning the region mapping between 0.38 and 0.42 on the prototype configuration of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) genome due to the high probability of the presence there of a second origin of dna replication. a 960 bp restriction fragment (hinfi e) of a class ii defective hsv-1 ang dna has been sequenced using the viral dna rather than molecularly cloned dna. this fragment includes the bamhi u/r cleavage site, mapping at approximately 0.4. part of the se ...19846096489
pathogenesis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in mice. iii. comparison of the virulence of wild and mutant strains.this study was undertaken to establish the role of virulence of various herpes simplex virus (hsv) strains in the course of infection when applying the virus to the non-injured mucous membranes of mice. wild-type hsv-type 1 (hsv-1) strains with marked differences in their neurovirulence following intracerebral inoculation showed minor differences in virulence after vaginal inoculation, but essentially their neurovirulence in cerebral infection corresponded to their virulence on the mucous membra ...19846096684
metabolic fate of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus- and mock-infected cells.(e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine is a potent antiherpes compound with far better activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 than type 2. to understand the role of drug metabolism in this differential antiviral activity, we examined the metabolic fate of this drug in virus-infected and mock-infected vero cells by high-pressure liquid chromatography. after 8 h of incubation in which cells were exposed to 10 micrograms of the drug per ml, 63 pmol/10(6) cells of the parent compound was detecte ...19846097176
use of aggregating brain cultures to study the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in central nervous system tissue.a novel tissue culture system consisting of reaggregated embryonic mouse brain cells was used to examine the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) within central nervous system tissue. brain aggregates cultured 30-40 days in vitro demonstrated progressive maturation and differentiation into cells recognizable as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, with the latter cell type exhibiting myelin production. mature aggregates were infected with hsv and sampled at ...19846099372
antibodies to membrane antigens of herpes simplex virus type-2 infected cells and hsv-2 specific antibodies in patients with cervical cancer in malawi.in a geographical study involving the united kingdom, sudan, sri lanka and malawi, sera were taken from 27 malawian patients with cervical cancer and 18 controls matched for age, ethnic origin and socioeconomic status. the sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for igg and iga antibodies to membrane antigens of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2). the results showed that there was no significant difference at titres 1:4 between malawian patients and controls, but at titres 1:16 the diff ...19846100279
herpes simplex virus type 2 and cervical cancer. 19846100718
infection of murine hepatocyte cultures by herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and 2.a study was undertaken of the interaction between liver cells and herpes simplex virus (hsv) in vitro. hepatocytes were obtained from hsv-resistant (c57/b16) and from hsv-susceptible (balb/c, a/j, c3h) mouse strains and cultured according to standard methods. each culture was infected with several strains of hsv-type 1 or of hsv-type 2, respectively. the multiplicity of infection was 5. the cytopathic effect was evaluated by light- and electron-microscopy. the number of infectious particles was ...19846094943
herpes simplex virus type-2 glycoprotein-subunit vaccine: tolerance and humoral and cellular responses in humans.twenty-three subjects were administered three doses of inactivated herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein-subunit vaccine, with doses 2 and 3 being given four and 22 weeks after dose 1. both hsv-neutralizing antibody and antibody effective in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity were detected in serum samples of 12 of the 13 initially seronegative subjects by week 8. the geometric mean titers of both antibody types decreased between weeks 8 and 22 but increased one week ...19846088648
rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens by use of a capture biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent capture assay with biotin and streptavidin (capture b/sa elisa) was developed to detect herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigen. rabbit anti-hsv antibody (immunoglobulin g fraction) was coated on flat-bottom, irradiated, 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates and served to capture hsv antigen. clinical specimens from patients with genital herpes were added. biotin-linked rabbit anti-hsv immunoglobulin g was used as the second antibody. the antigen-antibody compl ...19846086705
immunity in the female genital tract after intravaginal vaccination of mice with an attenuated strain of herpes simplex virus type 2.herpes simplex virus type 2 is a common human venereal pathogen which causes lethal neurological illness after intravaginal inoculation into balb/cj mice. to investigate whether an attenuated, nonlethal strain of this virus would confer immunity after inoculation of mice, we constructed a strain containing a partial deletion of the thymidine kinase gene, which is necessary for viral replication and spread in sensory ganglia. unlike its wild-type counterpart, this deletion-containing strain of he ...19846088797
herpes simplex virus latency in immunosuppressed mice.to determine the role of antibodies in establishing herpes simplex virus (hsv) latency, immunosuppressed swiss mice were experimentally infected in the right hind footpad with a hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinant (c6d) with low virulence. immunosuppression was induced by repeated intraperitoneal inoculations of cyclophosphamide (cy) and the production of antibodies to c6d in immunosuppressed animals was monitored by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). within 21 days after inoculation, c6d was able ...19846094985
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