conserved antigenic and functional domains on glycoprotein b of herpes simplex virus 1 and bovine herpesvirus 2. brief report.a panel of monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein b (gb) of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) reacted in immune precipitation and in immunofluorescence tests with a glycoprotein 130,000 in apparent molecular weight specified by bovine herpesvirus 2 (bhv-2). two cross reactive antibodies neutralized the heterologous virus. these results suggest that the bhv-2 glycoprotein is the homologue of hsv-1 gb and shares structural and functional domains expressed on the gb gene product.19872444195
the nucleotide sequence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (333) glycoprotein gb2 and analysis of predicted antigenic sites.the gene coding for glycoprotein b2 (gb2) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain 333 was mapped and its nucleotide sequence determined. open reading frame analysis deduced a polypeptide consisting of 902 amino acids and having close homology to gb1 of hsv type 1. several predicted features of gb2 are consistent with a membrane-bound glycoprotein, i.e., a signal peptide sequence, a hydrophilic extracellular domain containing possible n-linked glycosylation sites, a hydrophobic membrane spa ...19872446730
flow cytometric detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 infected and transformed cells by immunoenzymatic and by indirect immunofluorescence staining.the glucose oxidase antiglucose oxidase (gag) immunoenzymatic staining procedure has been used to detect herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigens microscopically. in this study, the gag procedure was adapted to cells in suspension, and its potential usefulness in flow cytometry was examined. hsv-2 infected monkey kidney and hsv-2 transformed mouse cells were stained using antisera to hsv-2 or to an hsv-2 specific protein with a molecular weight of 38 kd, respectively, with the gag procedure. flow cyt ...19882452054
helper activity in antigen-specific antibody production mediated by cd4+ human cytotoxic t cell clones directed against herpes simplex virus.three hsv type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv type 2 (hsv-2) common ("hsv-type common") and three hsv-1 specific ctl clones, which were cd3+, cd4+, cd8-, 4b4+, and 2h4-, were established. these clones proliferated in response to stimulation with hsv in the presence of autologous apc. the hsv type specificity of the proliferative response was identical with that of the cytotoxic activity of the clones. the cytotoxic activity and the proliferative response were both inhibited by addition of anti-hla-dr mab to ...19882452188
characterization of epitopes on native and denatured forms of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein b.herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein b (gb) is an envelope glycoprotein which promotes fusion of virions with the cell membrane. this report characterizes the epitopes on native, disulfide-linked dimers of gb and monomeric forms of the glycoprotein using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. the antibodies were divided into groups, based on immune reactions with denatured or native forms of gb. the first group reacted with discontinuous epitopes assembled on gb dimers but failed to detect native or d ...19882453097
enhanced in vitro reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 from latently infected guinea-pig neural tissues by 5-azacytidine.5-azacytidine (5-azc) reduces cytosine methylation in dna and has been reported to activate quiescent virus genes. treatment of explant cultures of latently herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected guinea-pig dorsal root ganglia and spinal cords in vitro with 5-azc significantly enhanced the rate of hsv recovery. both the number of isolates from ganglia (p less than 0.001) and the rate of recovery (p less than 0.001) were significantly increased with the addition of 50 microm-5-azc to explan ...19882453606
synthesis and antiviral activity of novel n-substituted derivatives of acyclovir.novel n-substituted derivatives of acyclovir (1a) were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral, antimetabolic, and antitumor cell properties in vitro. monomethylation of 1a at positions 1, 7, and n-2 gave compounds 2-4, respectively. when positions 1 and n-2 were linked together by an isopropeno group, the tricyclic 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-1,n-2-isopropenoguanine (5) was obtained. compound 5 was then further methylated at positions n-2 and 7 to give 6 and 7, respectively. none of the n ...19882455050
enhanced efficacy of nucleoside analogs and recombinant alpha interferon in weanling mice lethally infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.weanling icr swiss mice were inoculated intranasally with a lethal dose of herpes simplex virus type 2, and treated with either vidarabine, vidarabine-5'-monophosphate, acyclovir or a hybrid recombinant human alpha interferon which is active in murine tissues. treatment with antiviral drugs was initiated 2, 24, 48, 72 or 96 h following virus inoculation. single drug treatment showed little effect on mortality, with only acyclovir showing some slight reduction. four dual drug combinations (vidara ...19882455473
fine mapping of antigenic site ii of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d.glycoprotein d (gd) is a virion envelope component of herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) which plays an important role in viral infection and pathogenesis. previously, anti-gd monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were arranged into groups which recognize distinct type-common and type-specific sites on hsv-1 gd (gd-1) and hsv-2 gd (gd-2). several groups recognize discontinuous epitopes which are dependent on tertiary structure. three groups, vii, ii, and v, recognize continuous epitopes p ...19892467994
targets of infection in a herpes simplex-reactivation mice surviving intracerebral inoculation with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), recurrent infection was induced using high-dose immunosuppressive treatment. targets of reactivated infection were identified in serial sections of heads using immunoperoxidase methods to detect viral antigen. peripheral targets were cranial sensory and autonomic ganglia, peripheral nerves, and many non-neural structures. central neural tissues included retina, optic nerve and tract, lateral geniculate nucleus ...19892469288
topological distribution of virus-specific and cross-reactive antigenic determinants on the gb glycoprotein of the herpes simplex viruses.the antigenic properties and relations between the herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (hsv1, hsv2) gb glycoproteins were investigated. using several assay systems to analyze the virus-specific reactivity of polyclonal monospecific rabbit anti-gb sera, it was demonstrated that most of the antigenic determinants of the gb glycoproteins exposed at the surface of both virions and infected cells are virus-specific rather than cross-reactive. comparative examination of the reactivity of human immune se ...19892470853
a subset of type-specific epitopes map in the amino terminus of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein b.we constructed a recombinant herpes simplex virus (hsv) containing the transcribed coding and non-coding sequences of hsv-1 strain f glycoprotein b (gb) gene, a gamma 1 gene, fused to the promoter-regulatory sequences of the hsv-1 alpha 4 gene and inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of rh1g44, an hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinant that contains an hsv-2 gb gene at the natural locus. phenotypic analyses of the insertion mutant, r3145, showed that the alpha gb gene was transcribed in the presence of cy ...19892471797
properties of the herpes simplex virus type 2 trans-inducing factor vmw65 in wild-type and mutant viruses.a temperature-sensitive mutant (ts13) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has a mutation which causes in vitro thermolability of the virion. this mutation lies within the gene encoding a virion structural protein of mr 65k which is known to stimulate immediate early transcription (the trans-inducing factor, 65ktif). the results presented here show that the structural role of 65ktif is essential. the electrophoretic mobility of the 65ktif encoded by ts13 and a revertant of ts13 differed from t ...19892471816
effects of the immunomodulating agent r837 on acute and latent herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.r837 is an immune modulator with no in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (hsv). we evaluated topical r837 as therapy for genital hsv type 2 infection using the guinea pig model of this disease. furthermore, we investigated the effect of r837 therapy on acute and latent neural hsv infections. therapy initiated 12 h after viral inoculation and given twice a day significantly reduced the acute neural infection so that hsv was recovered from only 1 of 64 neural tissue specimens obtained fr ...19892479335
effect of 2',5'-oligoadenylate on herpes simplex virus-infected cells and preventive action of 2',5'-oligoadenylate on the lethal effect of hsv-2.antiviral effects of ppp(a2'p)na, (2-5a) on herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 (hsv-1 or hsv-2)-infected baby hamster kidney fibroblasts (bhk cells) and hsv-2-infected female guinea pigs were examined. 2-5a was introduced into bhk cells in the form of a calcium phosphate precipitate and as an ointment of polyethylene glycol (peg) into guinea pig vagina. under optimum conditions, 2-5a trimer and other 2-5a derivatives inhibited over 90% of hsv-1 syncytia formation and over 50% of hsv-2 plaque ...19892481701
relatedness of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of simian herpes-virus virions and infected cells to specific hsv glycoproteins.the antigenic relatedness of the surface glycoprotein antigens of six herpesviruses indigenous to human and nonhuman primates was examined. binding of anti-viral sera to viral antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells demonstrated that the surface antigens of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1), hsv 2, simian agent 8 (sa8), and herpesvirus simiae (b virus) exhibit extensive cross-reactivity. surface antigens of two viruses isolated from south american primates, h. saimiri 1 (hvs 1) and ...19892482016
studies of phospholipase and cyclooxygenase activities in herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed rat this report we describe results showing that both arachidonic acid (20:4) release and prostaglandin (pg) synthesis in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-transformed tumor-derived rat fibrosarcoma (rfs) cells are inhibited by indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). these data suggest that cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase, pes) and phospholipase are coupled in their regulation in rfs cells. data obtained using a cell-free assay to measure directly cyclooxygenase specific ...19892509090
foscarnet therapy for severe acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type-2 infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). an uncontrolled determine whether trisodium phosphonoformate (foscarnet) is efficacious in treating severe mucocutaneous disease due to acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids).19892522751
genital infections due to herpes simplex virus type 2 in male guinea pigs.a small-animal model of genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection has not been available for investigating the pathogenesis of disease in males. male hartley guinea pigs were inoculated on the medial thigh with 10(5)-10(6) plaque-forming units of hsv type 2. animals developed vesicular lesions in the genital area, including the penis. transient urinary retention, hindlimb paralysis, and acute urethral shedding of hsv also occurred. during acute infection, virus was detected in neural and geni ...19892535869
effect of human semen on herpes-simplex virus-2.this study was designed to evaluate the suggestion of inhibition of infectivity of hsv-2 by seminal fluid by examining relationships between hsv-2 and components of human semen. viral infectivity was quantitated by tcid50 measurements of cpe in comparing viral inoculated aliquots of whole semen, seminal fluid, and control (emem) medium during incubation at 0, 5, and 24 hours. statistical analysis of data from 15 experiments revealed inhibition by seminal fluid during 5 hours of incubation. after ...19892535986
viral agents in two-stage cervical carcinogenesis: an experimental study in mice.the role of chemical and viral agents in the development of cervical cancer in mice was studied by repeated carcinogen applications, repeated intravaginal instillations of hsv type ii virus, and single carcinogen application as initiating agent followed by repeated instillations of virus as promoter. in all the animals studied, repeated applications of 9,10-dimethylbenzanthracene (dmba) induced dysplastic conditions of the cervix and vagina, mild, moderate, and severe, as well as a large number ...19892535998
identification, transfer, and characterization of cloned herpes simplex virus invasiveness regions.following peripheral inoculation of experimental animals, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strains are more virulent than hsv-1 strains, and clinical studies suggest that they possess enhanced virulence in humans. one dramatic type-specific difference in virulence is observed following inoculation of the chorioallantoic membrane (cam) of the chicken embryo: hsv-2, but not hsv-1, makes large pocks on the cam, invades the mesoderm, generalizes in the embryo, and kills the chicken. these propert ...19892536826
lack of serum antibodies to the major hsv-2 specified dna-binding protein before diagnosis of cervical neoplasia.we report results based on a prospective case-control study within a cohort obtained by linking the finnish social insurance institutions mobile clinic survey registry and the finnish cancer registry. the overall prevalence of herpes virus early antigen (icsp 11/12) antibodies was similar in controls and in cervical neoplasia cases (consisting of invasive cervical carcinoma, icc, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia group iii, cin iii cases). however, those cin iii cases, who after a long lag ...19892537883
the antiviral activity of 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine is enhanced by the 2',3'-dideoxyriboside, the 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyriboside and the 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyriboside of 2,6-diaminopurine.the 2',3'-dideoxyriboside (dddapr), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyriboside (ddedapr) and 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyriboside (azdddapr) of 2,6-diaminopurine have been previously recognized as potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus replication. these compounds are also potent inhibitors of adenosine deaminase and inhibit the deamination of 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (araa). dddapr, ddedapr and azdddapr markedly potentiate the antiviral activity of araa against herpes simplex virus type ...19892538128
regulation of expression of herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein d in vaccinia recombinants affects their ability to protect from cutaneous hsv-2 disease.the effect of regulation of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 glycoprotein d (gd-1) gene expression on hsv-specific immune response and protection from cutaneous hsv-2 disease was studied using vaccinia virus recombinants containing gd-1 under the control of early (vp176) or late (vp254) vaccinia virus promoters. expression of gd-1 in vp176-infected cells was first observed at 2 h after infection. it did not depend on viral dna replication. in vp254-infected cells, gd-1 was first observed at 24 ...19892538519
transformation of nih 3t3 cells by herpes simplex type 2 bglii n fragment and sub-fragments is independent from induction of mutation at the hprt locus.the effect of transfection of the herpes simplex virus type 2 transforming fragment bglii n and of its three xhol subfragments on mutagenesis and morphological transformation was assayed in nih 3t3 cells. while bglii n and the right hand portion of this fragment increased the number of transformed foci, no significant effects on the mutation frequency at the hprt locus were observed. our results indicate that transformation by bglii n is independent from the induction of somatic mutations and su ...19892539146
promoting effect of croton oil on the induction of cervical and vaginal cancers with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice.hybrid swiss virgin mice (kuan-min strain) were challenged intravaginally with uv-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) twice a week for 16 times and subsequently with croton oil or control medium twice a week for 27 times. after a period of 180 days the exposure to hsv-2 plus control medium induced premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix and vagina in 50.0% of the mice. the exposure to hsv-2 plus croton oil induced similar lesions in 78.2% of the mice. the e ...19892539313
search for human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus and c-myc oncogene in human genital tumors.we tested grade iii cervical intra-epithelial neoplasms (cin iii), genital invasive carcinomas and healthy genital tissues for the presence of a number of viral and cellular parameters, considered to be risk factors in genital oncogenesis. the results show that: (i) about 30% of genital tumors had homology to hsv-2 bglii n and/or bamhi e dna fragments; (2) positivity to hsv-2-specific protein icp10, encoded by sequences within the hsv-2 bamhi e dna fragment, was detected in 29/55 neoplastic geni ...19892539328
short, duplicated sequence indicative of the recombinogenicity of the junction between a unique and an inverted repeat sequence in the s component of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome.a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain, b3, was found to have a short duplication on the left junction between the unique sequence (us) and the inverted repeat sequence (rs) in the s component of the genome dna. a short region of rs contiguous to the left us-rs junction was duplicated in b3. based on the nucleotide sequences in and around the us-rs junctions of b3 and other hsv-1 strains, a concept of junction stretch was proposed. the organization of junction stretch is rs side 5'-(g or a ...19892539490
a neutrophil-derived antiviral protein: induction requirements and biological properties.polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (pmn) have been implicated as playing a role in antiviral defense. in addition to having phagocytic and cytotoxic activities, pmn may produce an antiviral substance with interferon (ifn)-like activity. the product, for which the name polyferon (pf) has been coined, is produced upon direct encounter of pmn with bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1)-infected bovine cells or membranes thereof. exposure to purified virus only does not induce pf. the intimate intera ...19892539494
herpes simplex virus type 2 mutants with deletions in the intergenic region between icp4 and icp22/47: identification of nonessential cis-acting elements in the context of the viral herpes simplex virus type 2, the mrnas of icp4 and icp22/47 are divergently transcribed and their transcription initiation sites are separated by 750 base pairs (l. j. whitton and j. b. clements, nucleic acids res. 12:2061-2078, 1984). this 750-base-pair region contains many recognized cis-acting elements, including two tata boxes, numerous sp1-binding sites, four taatgarat motifs, at least one icp4-binding site, and two origins of replication (oris) linked in tandem. in this report, we descr ...19892539500
possible transmission of herpes simplex virus by organ transplantation.herpes simplex virus commonly reactivates in seropositive transplant recipients but has not been generally thought to be transmissible by the transplanted organ itself. we studied two consecutive cases of disseminated hsv, without mucosal lesions, occurring in a heart and in a pancreatic transplant recipient, and implicate the allografts as the source of the virus. in both cases the recipients were seronegative pretransplant by complement fixation (less than 1:4), neutralization (less than 1:2), ...19892539664
a prospective study of the effects of acyclovir treatment on the hsv-2 lymphoproliferative response of persons with frequently recurring hsv-2 genital a randomized double-blinded fashion, herpes simplex virus type 2 specific lymphocyte proliferation (hsv-2-lp) was studied in patients with frequently recurring genital hsv-2 who were administered daily suppressive oral acyclovir (s-acv) or placebo and acyclovir for 5 d (plc/acv) with recurrences. the pretreatment hsv-2-lp of subjects was low compared with that of controls with infrequently recurring genital hsv-2 (54,000 vs. 110,000 cpm). the hsv-2-lp increased with both s-acv and plc/acv (10 ...19892540245
development of clinically recognizable genital lesions among women previously identified as having "asymptomatic" herpes simplex virus type 2 determine if patients initially identified by history, clinical examination, and serologic status as having asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 infection report clinically recognizable genital lesions after having a detailed instructional session on the clinical signs and symptoms of genital herpes.19892541645
analysis of unselected hsv-1 mckrae/hsv-2 hg 52 recombinants demonstrates preferential recombination between intact genomes and restriction endonuclease fragments containing an origin of identify viral genes involved in reactivation of herpes simplex virus from latency, intertypic hsv-1 strain mckrae/hsv-2 strain hg 52 recombinants were selected following cotransfection of intact mckrae dna and xbai or hpai cleaved hg 52 dna. eleven separately obtained recombinants containing hg 52 inserts between 0.35-0.56 and/or 0.82-1.0 map units (mu) were isolated. it was noted that with hpai digested hg 52 dna, only recombinants containing type 2 inserts from hpai d (0.35-0.57) and/or co ...19892541672
two colour dna in situ hybridization for the detection of two viral genomes using non-radioactive probes.methods for the simultaneous detection of two virus types in cytological preparations or tissue sections by non-radioactive in situ hybridization were investigated. as a model system, caski cells, which have human papilloma virus type 16 (hpv16) dna integrated in their cellular genome, were in vitro infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv2). dna probes for both viruses were labeled with biotin, acetylaminofluorene (aaf), and transaminated-sulfonated cytosine (ts-modified). best results were ob ...19892542189
serum iga antibodies in hsv asymptomatic genital infections.cervico-vaginal swabs and serum samples from 81 women without herpes-associated clinical symptoms were examined for virus isolation and for the presence of iga antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. nineteen of the 81 women were followed up for 2 years. blood samples and swabs from cutaneous lesions were obtained from another group of 20 women (medical staff) with herpes labialis. by analysing the specific anti-hsv iga antibodies, a higher geo ...19892542431
identification of immediate-early-type cis-response elements in the promoter for the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit from herpes simplex virus type 2.regulation of the expression of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (icp10) gene was studied directly by immunofluorescence or by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase analysis with hybrid icp10 promoter constructions. in vero cells, cotransfection with dna encoding hsv ie110 or vmw65 proteins or hcmv ie2 enhanced expression at least 10-fold. in contrast, expression was minimally enhanced by dna encoding ie175 at low doses and slightly reduced at high dose ...19892542589
antigen-presenting liposomes are effective in treatment of recurrent herpes simplex virus genitalis in guinea pigs.the therapeutic and immunologic effects of a liposome preparation containing both a macrophage activator, muramyl-tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine, and a recombinant antigen, glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus type 1, have been investigated. this preparation was tested in vitro for the ability to stimulate peripheral blood lymphocytes and in vivo for the control of recurrent herpes genitalis in guinea pigs. our results show that the liposome-antigen-adjuvant preparation is capable of enha ...19892542605
transmission of genital herpes by donor insemination.this report describes a donor in a therapeutic donor insemination program who asymptomatically acquired a primary herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection from his long-standing sexual partner. his fresh semen was used to inseminate two hsv-seronegative recipients; in one a primary hsv-2 infection developed, and in one it did not. direct evidence of transmission from donor to recipient was documented by restriction enzyme analysis of the hsv-2 isolates obtained from the donor's semen and fr ...19892542632
[structure and functional analysis of genomes of herpesviruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2)]. 19892542648
[chemotherapy to thymidine kinase producing virus (hsv-1, hsv-2, vzv) infection]. 19892542661
anti-herpes simplex virus activity of 5-substituted 2-pyrimidinone nucleosides.several 5-substituted 2-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (pdr) analogs were examined for their anti-herpes simplex virus (hsv) activity in cell culture. the order of potency of their antiviral activities against hsv type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 was iodo pdr approximately ethynyl pdr approximately propynyl pdr. the antiviral action of iodo pdr is dependent on the ability of hsv to induce virus-specified thymidine kinase in infected cells. several hsv-1 variants with altered thymidine kinase change ...19892543279
a variant of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain hg52 with a 1.5 kb deletion in rl between 0 to 0.02 and 0.81 to 0.83 map units is non-neurovirulent for mice.the virulence of a deletion variant of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain hg52 has been determined by intracranial inoculation of 3-week-old balb/c mice. the variant jh2604 has a 1.5 kb deletion within each copy of the long repeat region (rl) of the genome between 0 to 0.02 and 0.81 to 0.83 map units. jh2604 is avirulent for mice compared to the parental wild-type virus, and fails to replicate in mouse brain in vivo. correction of the deletion by marker rescue resulted in the isolation o ...19892543755
mild acidic ph inhibition of the major pathway of herpes simplex virus entry into hep-2 cells.penetration of the kos strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and the ms and 333 strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) into hep-2 cells at ph 6.3 was at least 100-fold less efficient than at ph 7.4. penetration of two low passage clinical isolates was completely blocked at ph 6.3. the syncytium-forming hsv-1 strains gc and mp were less sensitive than kos to the mild acidic conditions. the inhibition was completely reversed upon neutralization of the medium. penetration was assaye ...19892543762
herpes simplex virus type 2 primes mouse macrophages for an early and genetically determined respiratory burst mediated by interferon-alpha/beta.the influence of infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) on the respiratory burst capacity of mouse macrophages was studied by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with phorbol myristate acetate (pma) as trigger. peritoneal cells from virus-infected mice were strongly primed for a respiratory burst during the acute phase of the infection. by 12 h after infection the response had increased 40-fold over control values. most of the response was elicited by mononuclear phagocytes. when resti ...19892543784
a seroepidemiologic survey of the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the united states.the prevalence of infection with the genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been difficult to ascertain, primarily because of the large percentage of subclinical cases and the limitations in specificity of serologic assays for antibody to hsv-2. to obtain an improved estimate of the distribution of hsv-2 infection in the united states, we used an hsv type-specific antibody assay to test serum samples from 4201 participants in the second national health and nutrition examination survey. ...19892543928
induction of cervical neoplasia in the mouse by herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.induction of cervical neoplasia in the mouse cervix by herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) has been reported. the present study was done to determine if transfection with dna of hsv-2 can induce carcinogenesis in this animal model. genomic hsv-2 dna was isolated from infected hep-2 cells and separated from host cell dna by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. the dna was applied to mouse cervix for periods of 80-100 weeks. experimental controls were treated with uninfe ...19892543981
effect of phosphorothioate homo-oligodeoxynucleotides on herpes simplex virus type 2-induced dna polymerase.effects of phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides of different chain length and base composition on herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (strain 333)-induced dna polymerase have been examined in vitro. the anti-hsv-2 dna polymerase activity was related to the base composition of the analogs, with the order of potency: deoxycytidine greater than thymidine greater than deoxyadenosine, for compounds with equal chain length. the potency was also related to oligomer chain length, since it was observed t ...19892544598
viral antigen stimulation of the production of human monokines capable of regulating hiv1 expression.we have previously described model systems for cytokine-induced regulation of chronically hiv-infected promonocyte and t cell clones. using these systems, we have shown that monokines contained in supernatants from lps-stimulated human monocyte/macrophages (mo) up-regulate hiv expression, reflected by an increase in reverse transcriptase activity, viral rna levels, and expressed viral proteins. current studies were designed to determine whether viral ag can interact with mo and secondarily affec ...19892544645
in vitro evaluations of condoms with and without nonoxynol 9 as physical and chemical barriers against chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and human immunodeficiency virus.simulated in vitro intercourse conditions demonstrated that unlubricated latex condoms provide an effective physical barrier to high concentrations of chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and human immunodeficiency virus. however, since condoms can be damaged after manufacturing inspection and prior to use, latex condoms alone should not be perceived as absolute protection against stds. nonoxynol 9 used in conjunction with condoms provided additional, yet still not foolproof, prot ...19892545003
vero cells co-infected with chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus type 2: a scanning and transmission electron microscope study.vero (african green monkey kidney) cells infected with chlamydia trachomatis (serovar l2) (ct-l2) for 48 hr and superinfected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were fixed 24 hr later and examined with the transmission electron microscope (tem) and scanning electron microscope (sem). ultrastructural examination of the co-infected cells showed that, although many ct-l2 inclusions were present, most were empty of reticulate bodies or elementary bodies. however, large numbers of viruses were ...19892545004
herpes simplex virus glycoprotein immunotherapy of recurrent genital herpes: factors influencing efficacy.recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoproteins b (gb) and d (gd) were used as immunotherapeutic agents for the treatment of recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. administration of a gbgd vaccine eight to 21 days after intravaginal hsv-2 inoculation significantly increased the titer of anti-hsv antibodies (p less than 0.005) while significantly reducing the frequency of subsequent herpetic recurrences (p less than 0.05). the effectiveness of gbgd immunotherapy was influenced by ...19892545166
herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of unstimulated human t-lymphocytes.unstimulated human leukemia t-cell lines (molt-4, mt-4) were tested for their susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection. permissive infection of mt-4 cells was demonstrated by growth curve and infectious center assays. in growth curve experiments new progeny virus replication was detected by 24 hrs and maximum titers of hsv-2 replication were measured by 72 hrs after infection of mt-4 cells, whereas, molt-4 cells did not produce detectable infectious hsv-2 in growth curve e ...19892545223
rapid detection of herpes simplex virus with fluorescein-labeled helix pomatia lectin.the use of fluorescein-conjugated helix pomatia lectin was shown to be as effective as fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody reagents for the detection and differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in mrc-5 cell culture. cells infected with hsv-1 generally displayed a pattern of nongranular or diffuse fluorescence, while cells infected with hsv-2 were identified by the production of fluorescent grains and flecks. this unique nonimmunological reagent, when u ...19892545739
protein kinase activity associated with the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase (icp10).the large subunit of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) ribonucleotide reductase (rr1) is demonstrated to possess serine/threonine-specific kinase activity. computer-assisted sequence analysis identified regions within the amino terminus of icp10 that are homologous to the catalytic domain of known protein kinases (pks). an in vitro kinase assay confirmed the ability of icp10, immunoprecipitated from either hsv-2-infected cells or from cells transfected with an icp10 expression vector, to a ...19892545912
herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein vmw110 reactivates latent herpes simplex virus type 2 in an in vitro latency system.reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) by the immediate-early protein vmw110 was studied by using an in vitro latency system. adenovirus recombinants that express vmw110 reactivated latent hsv-2. an hsv-1 mutant possessing a deletion in a carboxy-terminal region of vmw110 reactivated latent hsv-2, whereas mutant fxe, which has a deletion in the second exon, did not. therefore, vmw110 alone is required to reactivate latent hsv-2 in vitro, and the region of vmw110 defined by th ...19892545921
immunogenicity of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gb-1-related protein produced in yeast.a protein related to glycoprotein b of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) produced in yeast (ygb-1) was purified with an immunoadsorbent. the molecular weight of the purified ygb-1 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 96,000. mice injected twice with ygb-1 adsorbed to alum developed elisa antibody to ygb-1, neutralizing antibody to hsv-1 and a lymphoproliferative response to ygb-1 and hsv-1. the immunized mice were protected against intraperitoneal and ...19892546329
sexual activity, contraception, genital infections, and cervical cancer: support for a sexually transmitted disease hypothesis.a case-control study was conducted in utah between 1984 and 1987 to examine risk factors for cervical cancer. interviews were completed with 266 histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer cases who were categorically matched by age to 408 controls. among the factors identified as altering risk for cervical cancer, after adjustment for age, education, church attendance, and cigarette smoking, were: having numerous sex partners (odds ratio (or) = 8.99 for ...19892546422
inhibition of herpes simplex virus infection by pine cone antitumor substances.several antitumor substances extracted from cones of various pine trees inhibited the plaque formation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2) strains in african green monkey kidney cells and human adenocarcinoma cells. the 50% effective dose of the most active fraction, fr. vi (0.3 micrograms/ml) was 0.001 times its 50% cytotoxic dose (greater than 300 micrograms/ml). the anti-hsv activity of various pine cone extracts increased with their acidity. identification of the polyphenol ...19892546481
biological and biochemical characterization of clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 2 resistant to acyclovir.a series of clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 2 were taken from a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. acyclovir (acv) susceptibility assays revealed that some isolates were resistant to acv and cross-resistant to ganciclovir but not to phosphonoacetic acid. the nature of the resistance was examined further. a number of cloned variants were generated, and thymidine kinase and dna polymerase assays were carried out. variants that were resistant to acv were found to be thymidine ...19892546486
[neutralizing activity against herpes simplex in maternal milk].human milk could play a role in the protection of the newborn from herpes simplex virus 2 contamination. neutralizing activity against herpes simplex virus 2 was measured in 94 human milk samples and in 31 sera from healthy women. a weak neutralizing activity was detected in 48 milk samples. they were neither correlated to anti-herpes simplex virus antibodies found in milk, nor to the neutralizing activity in sera. the origin and non immunologic nature of this activity are discussed.19892546513
serological evidence for variation in the incidence of herpesvirus infections in different species of apes.sera from captive lowland gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, and gibbons were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for antibody to herpesviruses serologically related to human herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), a baboon virus (sa8), and a macaque herpesvirus (b virus). the incidence of herpesvirus antibodies varied considerably among the different species, gorillas having the highest incidence of seropositivity (65.4%) and orangutans the lowest. the virus specifi ...19892546978
synthesis and antiviral activity of the enantiomeric forms of carba-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and carba-(e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.both enantiomers of the carbocyclic analogues of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (14 and ent-14) and of (e)-5-(2-bromo-vinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (16 and ent-16) were synthesized by using (+)- or (-)-endo-norborn-5-en-2-yl acetate or butyrate, respectively, as starting materials. against herpes simplex virus type 1 (+)-c-bvdu (16) was only slightly less active than bvdu itself, whereas (-)-c-bvdu (ent-16) proved to be 10-400-fold less effective, depending on the strain investigated. against hsv-2 both (+)- a ...19892547072
smoking and infectious agents and risk of in situ cervical cancer in sydney, a study of 116 in situ cervical cancer patients and 193 matched community controls in sydney, australia, smoking was found to be a major risk factor. current smokers had a adjusted relative risk [rr] of 4.5 compared to nonsmokers [95% confidence interval (ci) 2.2-9.1] and exsmokers a rr of 1.3 [95% ci 0.6-3.0]. there was a stepwise dose-response relationship between risk and number of cigarettes smoked (30+ cigarettes/day, rr = 5.1, 95% ci 1.5-17.3); this dose-response relationship was more m ...19892547521
efficacy of oxetanocin g against herpes simplex virus type 2 and murine cytomegalovirus infections in mice. 19892547744
replacement of the pseudorabies virus glycoprotein giii gene with its postulated homolog, the glycoprotein gc gene of herpes simplex virus type 1.giii, the major envelope glycoprotein of pseudorabies virus (prv), shares approximately 20% amino acid similarity with glycoprotein gc of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2. we describe here our first experiments on the potential conservation of function between these two genes and gene products. we constructed prv recombinants in which the giii gene and regulatory sequences have been replaced with the entire hsv-1 gc gene and its regulatory sequences. the gc promoter functions in the ...19892548015
enhancement of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna synthesis in infected cells that constitutively express the bglii-n region of the hsv-2 genome.the bglii-n fragment of the herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) genome encodes one of two known transforming regions of this dna virus. in this study, we report the derivation of hela s3 cells (2dc4) that stably express the hsv-2 bglii-n region, including the small subunit of hsv-2 ribonucleotide reductase (rr). superinfection of the 2dc4 cells with wild-type hsv-2 resulted in the efficient induction of hsv-2-encoded icp10, dna polymerase, and thymidine kinase. the amount of hsv-2 dna synthesis ...19892548338
a herpes simplex virus type 2 variant in which a deletion across the l-s junction is replaced by single or multiple reiterations of extraneous dna.we have isolated and characterized a novel variant of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain hg52 which has a deletion of 13.5 kb across the l-s junction of the genome, resulting in all of the irl region, half of the irs region and the intervening l-s junction 'a' sequence(s) being removed. the deleted dna has been replaced by single or multiple (up to 14) reiterations of a dna sequence approximately 1 kb in length. individual genomes within the population range in size from approximately 12 ...19892549183
retention and expression of the left end subfragment of the herpes simplex virus type 2 bglii n dna fragment do not correlate with tumorigenic conversion of nih 3t3 cells.cotransfection experiments have been carried out using recombinant plasmids pag60, conferring resistance to antibiotic g418, and pxho3 which contains the left end subfragment (map coordinates 0.583 to 0.596) of the transforming herpes simplex virus type 2 bglii n dna fragment and encodes the 36k polypeptide associated with the viral ribonucleotide reductase activity. several nih 3t3 cell clones resistant to g418 and having morphological changes commonly observed for transformed nih 3t3 cells wer ...19892549186
[detection of igg and igm antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in human serum using an immunoenzyme method (elisa) and the complement fixation reaction].on the basis of borderline optical density values (od) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) resulting from comparative testing of this method with complement fixation reactions (cf), determination was made of a set criteria for negative, weakly positive and positive results of igg and igm antibody detection of herpes simplex type 1 (hsv 1), respectively type 2 (hsv 2). of the 192 examined specimens by elisa, 69.2% and 49.5% igg hsv 1 and hsv 2 antibodies were found respectively. the n ...19892549311
herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies: high prevalence in monogamous women in costa rica.we studied the prevalence of antibody to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in 766 randomly selected costa rican women 25-59 years of age in a national household survey in 1984-1985. overall, 97.1% were seropositive for hsv-1 and 39.4% for hsv-2. only 1.1% of hsv-2 seropositive women gave a history of symptomatic genital herpes. hsv-2 virus antibody increased with age and with the number of lifetime sexual partners. hsv-2 seroprevalence among women who reported only 1 lifetime ...19892549796
viral etiology of cervical carcinoma. human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus type 2.the possible role of human papilloma virus (hpv) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in the viral etiology of cervical carcinoma was investigated a series of cervical lesions were studied for the presence of hpv and hsv-2 dna sequences as well as hpv and hsv-2 antigens by dna dot blot hybridization technique and high-specificity pap staining method. the results obtained were correlated with the histologic diagnosis. hpv 16 dna sequences detected in cervical carcinoma biopsies were 43%, where ...19892550184
clinical and serological outcome of genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 inoculation following oral hsv type 1 infection in guinea-pigs.the clinical and serological outcome of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) inoculation in animals previously orally infected with hsv type 1 was evaluated. a prior hsv-1 oral infection modified the genital hsv-2 infection so that only four of 18 (22%) animals were initially symptomatic although all but one animal shed hsv-2 from the cervicovaginal area for at least 5 days following inoculation. three of four animals with symptomatic initial disease also developed recurrences, as did an ...19892550572
antigen-presenting capacity of epidermal cells infected with vaccinia virus recombinants containing the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d, and protective immunity.we studied the association of herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein d (gd-1) expression in epidermal cells (ec) with virus-specific immunity and protection of mice from fatal hsv-2 challenge. vaccinia virus recombinants containing gd-1 under the control of an early (vp176) or late (vp254) vaccinia virus promoter were used. mature gd-1 protein was expressed in vp176-infected ec and they had accessory cell function for hsv-2-induced t cell proliferation of immune lymph node cells (lnc). it wa ...19892550579
evaluation of a new herpes simplex virus typing reagent for tissue culture confirmation.monoclonal antibody typing reagents for herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) from california integrated diagnostics, inc. (berkeley, ca) were compared to two other commercially available hsv monoclonal antibody typing reagents. of the 105 specimens tested, of which 81 were positive for hsv, there was 100% agreement with all three typing reagents.19892551569
isolation of a herpes simplex virus type 2 that is retinovirulent in mice.the virulence of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) isolated from the urine of a patient (sl) with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and bilateral acute retinal necrosis (arn), was investigated in mice. the ratio of plaque forming units (pfu) in fibroblasts to the 50% lethal dose (ld50) of hsv-2(sl) in mice was 10 fold more than the pfu to ld50 ratio of a neurovirulent hsv-2, strain 186. further, hsv-2(sl) caused retinitis with and without lethal encephalitis in mice inoculated intrac ...19892551573
inhibition of herpes simplex virus infection by tannins and related compounds.several chemically defined plant extracts were investigated for their antiviral action on herpes simplex virus (hsv-1, hsv-2)-infected african green monkey kidney cells and human adenocarcinoma cells, using a plaque formation assay. among them, the monomeric hydrolyzable tannins, oligomeric ellagitannins and condensed tannins, having galloyl groups or hexahydroxydiphenoyl groups, had the most potent anti-hsv activity. their 50% effective doses (0.03-0.1 microgram/ml) were by two-three orders of ...19892552915
detection of herpes simplex virus dna in a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma by in situ hybridization.a case of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (scc) occurring at the site of a long-standing recurrent hsv infection is described. no deficit of the cell-mediated immunity was recorded. hsv2 was isolated in several viral cultures. hsv dna was visualized in the scc by in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes in paraffin-embedded tissue. the samples were negative for hpv2, 5, 16, and 18 probes. a causal relationship between hsv infection and cutaneous scc is hypothesized.19892552936
[correlation of human papilloma virus (hpv) and herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2)in the viral etiology of carcinoma of uterine cervix].hpv dna and hsv-2 antigens were detected in a series of cervical lesions by dna hybridization and pap stain techniques in order to investigate the possible role of hpv and hsv-2 in the viral etiology of cervical carcinoma. the correlation of hpv dna sequence and hsv-2 antigens was analyzed. the results showed that the positive rates of hpv 16, 18 and 11 in cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer were 13%; 0, 13%; 17%, 17%, 17%; 43%, 8%, 4%; and hsv-2 antigens were found in 41% of cervicitis, 5 ...19892553361
proliferative t-cell response to glycoprotein b of the human herpes viruses: the influence of mhc and sequence of infection on the pattern of cross-reactivity.oligopeptides of the highly conserved herpes virus glycoprotein b (gb) were expressed from dna fragments of the ebv gb (balf4) and hsv-2 gb open reading frames as fusion proteins with the lambda cii protein and beta-galactosidase (gz), respectively, in escherichia coli. after immunopurification using anti-gb or anti-gz affinity columns, the fusion proteins were used in vitro to stimulate human peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) or murine lymph node cells that have been primed with ebv, hsv-1, hs ...19892553584
thymidine kinase deficient human cells have increased uv sensitivity in their capacity to support herpes simplex virus but normal uv sensitivity for colony formation.a thymidine kinase deficient (tk-) and two thymidine kinase proficient (tk+) human cell lines were compared for uv sensitivity using colony-forming ability as well as their capacity to support the plaque formation of herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1). the tk- line (143 cells) was a derivative of one of the tk+ lines (r970-5), whereas the other tk+ line (ac4 cells) was a derivative of the 143 cells obtained by transfection with purified sheared hsv-2 dna encoding the viral tk gene. 143, r970-5 and ac ...19892554138
human topoisomerase 1 messenger rna is not destabilized by the herpes simplex virus type 2 virion-associated shut-off function.a cdna for human topoisomerase i (topo 1) was used to identify a 4.1 kb polyadenylated topo 1 mrna in methotrexate-resistant human kb cells that are permissive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection. using these cells, no effect of the hsv-2-associated early shut-off function on levels of topo-1 mrna was observed up to 6 hours postinfection, whereas the actin mrna level was 22% cellular transcripts are susceptible. the level of several host-cell polyadenylated rnas detected as cdna cl ...19892554584
protection and serum antibody responses in guinea-pigs and mice immunized with hsv-1 antigen preparations obtained using different detergents.guinea-pigs immunized with a zwitterionic detergent-extracted hsv-1 antigen preparation responded with eia and nt serum antibody titres that were significantly greater than those elicited by a non-ionic detergent-extracted antigen preparation inoculated using a similar dosage schedule. following intravaginal challenge of the guinea-pigs with hsv-2 (strain sh/b), there was no statistically significant difference in the protection afforded to these animals by the two antigen preparations, although ...19892554607
analysis of dna synthesis in herpes simplex virus infected cells by dual parameter flow cytometry.the dna incorporation of a thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (brdurd) in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infected cervical cancer cell lines (caski and c-33 a) was studied by dual parameter flow cytometry. hsv-2 infection resulted in an exponential increase in dna synthesis in the caski cells. in the less permissive c-33 a cells the proportion of dna-synthesizing cells cycled during hsv-2 infection. the inhibition of viral dna synthesis by phosphonoformate (pfa) was able to inhibit the vi ...19892554855
recovery frequencies of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from symptomatic and asymptomatic genital herpes cases and antiviral sensitivities of isolates.herpes simplex viruses were isolated from 40.8 to 56.0 per cent of the patients with genital herpes. the frequency of recovery seemed to be higher in females than in males, particularly during the first episode of infection. asymptomatic shedding of the virus from female genitalias was approximately 0.7 per cent. herpes simplex virus type 2 represented 98.4 per cent of all isolates and the remaining isolates were type 1. these isolates exhibited a wide range of sensitiveness to 9-(2-hydroxyethox ...19892555430
the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hg52) variant jh2604 has a 1488 bp deletion which eliminates neurovirulence in mice.the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hg52) deletion variant jh2604 is avirulent (ld50 greater than 10(7) p.f.u./mouse) for mice compared to the parental wild-type virus (ld50 less than 10(2) p.f.u./mouse) and fails to replicate in vivo. jh2604 has a 1488 bp deletion within the 3 kb bamhi v fragment (0 to 0.02 and 0.81 to 0.83 map units) which removes one copy of the 17 bp direct repeat dr1 element of the 'a' sequence and terminates 522 bp upstream of the 5' end of the immediate early gene 1. in vivo ...19892555437
evaluation of a hsv specific monoclonal antibody reagent for laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infection.a new fitc-conjugated hsv specific monoclonal antibody reagent (syva co., palo alto, ca) was evaluated for the confirmation of hsv clinical isolates. the reagent was also compared to type-specific monoclonal antibodies for the pre-cpe detection of hsv from clinical specimens in centrifugation culture and by direct examination of specimens smears by direct immunofluorescent antibody staining (dfa). hsv was isolated from 75 of 232 specimens (32%). all 75 isolates were confirmed with both the type- ...19892556235
herpes simplex virus stromal keratitis is not titer-dependent and does not correlate with neurovirulence.we developed a murine model of ocular herpes simplex virus (hsv) disease which is particularly suited for testing stromal keratitis because most animals show some evidence of infection. using this model, we characterized the ocular disease patterns caused by ten recent low-passage clinical isolates of hsv-1, as well as those caused by the established laboratory strains hsv-1 kos and hsv-2 333. viral strains were evaluated for their ability to cause stromal keratitis, blepharitis, vascularization ...19892556353
prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women, and estimated rates of infection.there has been a recent increase in notifications of genital herpes but it is not known whether this has been reflected in the pregnant population. we have therefore carried out a study to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex antibodies in pregnant women and to estimate the incidence of primary infection. sera were collected from 3533 women at antenatal clinics and tested for total antibodies to herpes simples virus (hsv), and if positive, for specific antibodies to hsv-2. estimates of hsv ...19892556492
anti-herpesvirus activity of citrusinine-i, a new acridone alkaloid, and related compounds.citrusinine-i, a new acridone alkaloid isolated from the root bark of the citrus plant (rutaceae), exhibited potent activity against herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2 at low concentrations relative to their cytotoxicity; 50% effective concentrations (ed50) of citrusinine-i were 0.56 micrograms/ml and 0.74 micrograms/ml against hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively. inhibitory action was also demonstrated against cytomegalovirus (cmv) and thymidine kinase-deficient or dna polymerase mutants of ...19892556960
active replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells following coincubation with herpes viruses.patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) commonly suffer from opportunistic infections associated with members of the herpes virus family. to investigate whether certain of these other viruses might have an effect on the ability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) to replicate, we coincubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from nine hiv-1-seropositive donors with live preparations of various herpes viruses. in seven of nine cases, exposure of pbmc to prep ...19892557380
rapid identification and typing of herpes simplex virus by a new enzyme immunoassay with peroxidase-labeled complement c1q.a new enzyme-linked immunoassay system (tc-elisa) was developed for the rapid, specific detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (hsv) using anti-hsv immune sera and enzyme-labeled complement component c1q (p*-c1q). the method is based on viral antigen produced in hsv-infected cells being detected by simultaneous addition of immune serum and p*-c1q (elisa-cf). with this assay, it was found that hsv was detected with anti-hsv immune serum and p*-c1q and that hsv type 1 and hsv type 2 could be ...19892557809
evidence of the non-infectivity of herpes simplex viral particles in trichomonas et al., employing an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) technique, reported the presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in trichomonas vaginalis. however, using the same method, we found that the protozoa showed autofluorescence immediately after acetone fixation. in order to demonstrate the non-infectivity of hsv-2 in t. vaginalis, several other methods were performed in this study. trichomonads were experimentally incubated together with hsv-2 and examined after immunofluore ...19892558006
gene ul11 of herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a virion protein which is myristylated.we have investigated whether herpes simplex virus (hsv) contains structural polypeptides which are modified by myristic acid. we demonstrate that herpes simplex virions contain a family of myristylated proteins, mr approximately 13,000 to 16,000. these were mapped, using hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants, to 0.130 to 0.204 map units on the virus genome. using anti-peptide sera, raised against the carboxyterminus of the predicted ul11 gene product, we have established that the myristylated viri ...19892558153
herpes simplex virus in oral mucosal ulcers in patients with hematological malignancy.developments of oral mucosal ulcers induced by herpes simplex virus (hsv) were studied in patients with hematologic malignancy. herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) was identified by immunological staining using virus-specific monoclonal antibodies in the epithelial cells of such ulcers from two patients with malignant lymphoma (ml), three with acute myeloblastic leukemia (aml), one with refractomy anemia with excess blasts, two with chronic myelocytic leukemia (cml), one with acute lymphoblastic ...19892558241
simian alphaherpesviruses and their relation to the human herpes simplex viruses.biochemical and immunological properties of structural and non-structural polypeptides of the human simplex viruses (hsv1 and hsv2) and four related herpesviruses of non-human primates [herpesvirus simiae (b virus), h. cercopithicus (sa8), h. saimiri 1 (hvs 1), and h. ateles 1 (hva 1)] were compared. using a radioimmunoassay (ria), the presence of antigenic determinants shared among all six viruses was demonstrated. the relative degree of antigenic cross-reactivity among these viruses was furthe ...19892558632
histopathologic study of herpes virus-induced retinitis in athymic balb/c mice: evidence for an immunopathogenic order to determine whether antiviral immunity is pathogenic in mouse eyes, hsv-1 was injected into the anterior chamber of one eye of adult athymic balb/c mice. the eyes of these t cell deficient mice were examined clinically and histopathologically for ocular disease. the anterior segment of injected eyes developed progressive inflammatory reactions that eventually destroyed the ciliary body and then progressed to the posterior compartment where partial necrosis occurred, but only in the inn ...19892558848
increased efficacy of ganciclovir in combination with foscarnet against cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro and in tissue culture, efficacy against either murine cmv or hsv-2 was increased 27-fold for the acyclic nucleoside ganciclovir and 3-fold for foscarnet (trisodium phosphonoformate) when the 2 drugs were combined; whereas against human cmv, efficacy was increased 3-fold for both drugs. in mice, efficacy was increased 2-fold for ganciclovir and 4- to 5-fold for foscarnet when used in combination against either murine cmv or hsv-2. these results suggest an additive interaction between the two drugs in ...19892559657
synthesis and biological activity of dansyl thymidines.the synthesis of thymidines selectively dansylated in the 3'- and 5'-positions is reported. the biological investigation showed that these fluorescent nucleosides behave as competitive inhibitors of thymidine kinase (tk) from herpes simplex virus (hsv) and are endowed with a certain degree of antiviral activity against hsv-2 and hsv-1.19892559740
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