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physical mapping of drug resistance mutations defines an active center of the herpes simplex virus dna polymerase enzyme.the genome structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants have been previously determined by restriction endonuclease analysis, and these recombinants and their parental strains have been employed to demonstrate that mutations within the hsv dna polymerase locus induce an altered hsv dna polymerase activity, exhibiting resistance to three inhibitors of dna polymerase. the viral dna polymerases induced by two recombinants and their parental strains were purified a ...19816270349
herpes simplex virus type 2 and cervical cancer. 19816271502
a comparison of phosphonoacetic acid and phosphonoformic acid activity in genital herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infections of mice.the activity of phosphonoacetic acid (paa) and phosphonoformic acid (pfa) against four strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and four strains of hsv-2 were compared in tissue culture and in a murine model of genital herpes. in mouse embryo fibroblast cells, both drugs were three-fold more active against the hsv-1 strains than against the hsv-2 strains. in contrast, in the animal model infections, paa appeared to be more active against the hsv-2 strains, while pfa was equally effective a ...19816280607
use of monoclonal antibody directed against herpes simplex virus glycoproteins to protect mice against acute virus-induced neurological disease.monoclonal antibodies hcl and hd1, directed against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoproteins gc and gd, respectively, were evaluated for their ability to passively immunize mice against acute virus-induced neurological disease after footpad inoculation with hsv-1 or herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). control virus-infected mice receiving a single intraperitoneal injection of normal serum died within 7 to 10 days after the spread of virus from footpad to spinal cord and brain. however, ...19816271681
[possible role of herpes simplex virus type 2 in the etiology of cervical cancer]. 19816274212
the development and use of microcarrier and glass sphere culture techniques for the production of herpes simplex viruses.two high productivity monolayer culture methods, the microcarrier and glass sphere culture, were compared for their capacity to support the growth of mrc-5 and vero cells, and herpes simplex type 2 virus. cell growth was similar in both systems giving yields of 14 x 10(5)/cm2 in microcarrier and 18 x 10(5)/cm2 in glass sphere cultures with yields of vero cells being marginally better than mrc-5 cells. virus yields were only slightly lower in these cultures than in small scale stationary cultures ...19816281104
herpes simplex vaccine using cell membrane associated antigen in an animal model.vesicles of plasma membrane, containing no detectable live virus, were prepared by treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infected vero cells with dithiothreitol and formaldehyde. these preparations proved to be antigenic on injection into guinea-pigs and also protected these animals against intravaginal challenge with hsv-2.19816281105
differential immunologic reactivity and processing of glycoproteins ga and gb of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 made in vero and hep-2 cells.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively) specify five major glycoproteins designated as ga, gb, gc, gd, and ge. previous studies have shown that ga and gb differ in electrophoretic mobility but not in reactivity with antisera prepared to each of these glycoproteins. moreover, ga and gb of hsv-1 crossreact in serologic tests with the corresponding glycoproteins of hsv-2. in this paper, we report on the reactivities of ga and gb of hsv-1 and hsv-2 with 24 independently de ...19816272294
evaluation of the antiherpetic activity of 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-ara-c in rabbit eyes and cell cultures.2-fluoro-5-iodo-ara-c (fiac), a new and potent drug, was tested for antiviral activity against several strains of herpes simplex virus (hsv), types 1 and 2. effective dose-50% (ed-50) determinations for fiac ranged from 0.023 to 0.51 mum for hsv-2. fiac-treated cells did not exhibit any toxicity until the drug concentration was increased 2000-fold above the ed-50 level. ocular herpetic keratitis in new zealand white rabbits was treated with 1.0%, 0.1%, 0.01% fiac beginning 3 days after inoculati ...19816273355
[new antigen induced by herpes simplex virus in human tumors].the study showed the new antigen induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) to be present not only in cancer tumors of the cervix and corpus uteri, and ovaries but also in malignant tumors of the mammary glands, kidneys, urinary bladder, as well as in tissues of fibrous-cystic mastopathy and fibroadenoma of the mammary glands. in malignant tumors of the cervix, however, the hsv-2-induced antigen was found more frequently and had a higher serological activity than in other tumors. in contrast ...19816278776
identification of a virus-specific polypeptide associated with a transforming fragment (bglii-n) of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.the bglii n fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna (approximately 0.58 to 0.63 map unit) was examined for encoded products. using plasmid pgz59, which consists of bglii-n cloned in pat153, in conjunction with hybrid arrested translation, mrna selection, and in vitro protein synthesis, we found that the major translated product of this region has an approximate molecular weight of 37,800. by further mapping, coding sequences for this polypeptide were located within the region of bgli ...19816270369
phospholipid synthesis in human embryo fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection on the synthesis of phospholipids in human embryo fibroblasts was determined at temperatures permissive (35 c) or nonpermissive (42 c) for virus replication. incorporation of [32p]i was decreased by herpes simplex virus type 2 infection after 6 hr, which corresponds to the time of initiation of progeny virus production. no differences were observed in the relative incorporation of [32p]i phospholipid classes. in another series of experiments ce ...19816270493
repression and activation of the genome of herpes simplex viruses in human cells.we have described previously a cell culture system in which the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2) genome is maintained in a repressed form after treatment of infected cells with 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine and increase of incubation temperature from 37 degrees c to 39.5 degrees c. infectious hsv-2 production was activated by altering incubation temperature or by superinfecting with human cytomegalovirus. we now report the establishment of an analogous system utilizing hsv type 1 (h ...19816273875
recovery of mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 hepatitis: adoptive transfer of recovery with immune spleen cells.young balb/c mice inoculated intraperitoneally with herpes simplex virus type 2 develop focal necrotizing hepatitis. after infection, the livers of these mice show increasing virus titers, which reach a maximum on day 3 after infection; this is followed by a dramatic decrease in the amount of virus recovered on days 4 and 5. this decrease in virus content is accompanied by a progressive infiltration of the lesions with mononuclear leukocytes and an apparent resolution of the lesions. adoptive tr ...19816269998
focus formation and neoplastic transformation by herpes simplex virus type 2 inactivated intracellularly by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and near uv light.the induction of focus formation in low serum and of neoplastic transformation of syrian hamster embryo cells was examined after the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 functions. syrian hamster embryo cells infected at a high multiplicity (5 pfu/cell) with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled herpes simplex virus type 2 (11% substitution of thymidine residues) were exposed to near uv light irradiation at various times postinfection. this procedure specifically inactivated the viral genome, whi ...19816270382
inability to rescue viral genes from human cells biochemically transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. 19816274496
microscopic examination of the intracellular fate of infectious herpes simplex virus dna.the intracellular fate of 3h-labeled exogenous herpes simplex virus type 2 dna following the exposure of recipient cells to selected dna facilitators and the ultrastructural changes which ensued in transfected cultures were examined. in most cases, electron microscopic radioautography demonstrated that exogenous dna reached the nucleus within 1 h postinoculation. at later time periods, enlargement of nuclei and margination of chromatin were noted. cells treated with polyornithine differed signif ...19816276330
sexually transmitted infections and cervical atypia.epidemiologic studies have long associated cervical cancer and dysplasia with sexual activity. in the past two decades an abundance of biological and epidemiologic data have indicated a relationship between herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and these conditions. unfortunately, the strength of the evidence (albeit circumstantial) has led many researchers to focus exclusively on the putative role of hsv-2 as the carcinogen. at the same time, many studies have shown that cervical atypia, if it is ...19816277023
pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections in guinea pigs.the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 has been studied in guinea pigs after inoculation by various routes (subcutaneous and intradermal infection in footpads and vaginal infection). clinical observations as well as virus isolation studies are reported. herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by all three routes of inoculation led to acute primary and recurrent lesions. virus persisted in the nervous system, particularly in sensory ganglia, and locally at the site of inoculation. h ...19816277787
monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 proteins, including the immediate-early protein icp 4.monoclonal antibodies were prepared against herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain 14012) by two immunization procedures. procedure a utilized infectious virus propagated in mouse cells, and procedure b utilized mouse cells infected with herpes simplex virus in the presence of cycloheximide and harvested 1 h after removal of the inhibitor. a total of 52 monoclonal antibodies were obtained against 10 herpes simplex virus proteins, including four glycosylated proteins (a 110,000-molecular-weight prot ...19816277788
cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus: recognition of type-specific and type-common surface antigens by cytotoxic t cell populations.in this communication, we examine the specificity of anti-herpes simplex virus (hsv) cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl). serological studies of the two related hsv serotypes (hsv-1 and hsv-2) have revealed both type-specific and cross-reactive antigenic determinants in the viral envelope and on the surface of infected cells. by analysis of cytotoxicity of ctl, generated in vitro by restimulation of splenocytes from mice primed with one or the other hsv serotype, the recognition of both type-specific ...19816277790
linkage map of cotransfected viral dna sequences in a mouse 3t3 cell line.a physical map was constructed of a cotransformed 3t3 thymidine kinase (tk) negative cell line revealing a close linkage of the selectable herpes simplex virus type 2 tk gene and cotransfected simian virus 40 dna sequences in high-molecular-weight cellular dna.19816277824
differentiation of members of the human herpesviridae family by radioimmunoassay.many individuals who are seronegative for one member of the human herpesviridae family are strongly seropositive for other members. using sera from such individuals, the radioimmunoassay technique demonstrated absence of antigen-antibody cross-reactions between varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) at levels of less than one part in 1,000. sera containing antibody to both hsv and vzv were absorbed with antigens of one agent without significantly altering the amount of remai ...19816268545
protectivity of herpes simplex virus antigens: studies in mice on the adjuvant effect of piclc and on the dependence of protection on t cell competence.the efficacy of a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) envelope antigen (eag) preparation against hsv infection was studied in t cell competent and t cell deficient mice. immuno-competent mice were successfully protected against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) infection when immunized 2 weeks prior to this infection with a heat-inactivated whole virus preparation or a hsv-1 envelope antigen (hsv-1 eag) preparation. since hsv-1 eag was considerably less effective than the who ...19816268955
parameters distinguishing herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed tumorigenic and nontumorigenic rat cells. 19816256070
latency in vitro using irradiated herpes simplex virus.human embryonic fibroblasts infected with u.v.-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2, strain 186) and maintained at 40.5 degrees c did not yield detectable virus. virus synthesis was induced by temperature shift-down to 36.5 degrees c. the induced virus grew very poorly and was inactivated very rapidly at 40.5 degrees c. non-irradiated virus failed to establish latency at 40.5 degrees c in infected cells. enhanced reactivation of hsv-2 was observed when latently infected cultures were su ...19816267167
physical mapping of temperature-sensitive mutations of herpes simplex virus type 2 by marker rescue.the physical mapping of six ts mutations of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is presented. the results were obtained from 14 separate intratypic marker rescue experiments and the analysis of 20 hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants. the order of these mutations on the physical map of hsv-2 is unambiguous and correlates almost exactly with the previously published genetic map of timbury & calder (1976). one of the mutants studied (hsv-2 ts12) has apparently two distinct conditionally lethal ts m ...19816267168
aminoacyl fucosides as possible biochemical markers at tumorigenic and metastatic potential in herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed rat cells.two classes of aminoacyl fucosides termed fl3 and fl4 were studied as possible markers of tumorigenic and metastatic potential in herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed rat cells. in the present study, clonal cell lines of transformed highly tumorigenic and metastatic (t-ref-g-1.1), weakly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic (t-ref-g-2.1), nontumorigenic (t-ref-g-2.0), and secondary nontransformed rat embryo fibroblast cells were labeled with [3h]fucose, and cell extracts were analyzed for ratio of r ...19816266657
mechanism of degradation of duplex dna by the dnase induced by herpes simplex virus.reaction intermediates formed during the degradation of linear pm2, t5, and lambda dna by herpes simplex virus (hsv) dnase have been examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. digestion of t5 dna by hsv type 2 (hsv-2) dnase in the presence of mn(2+) (endonuclease only) gave rise to 6 major and 12 minor fragments. some of the fragments produced correspond to those observed after cleavage of t5 dna by the single-strand-specific s1 nuclease, indicating that the hsv dnase rapidly cleaves opposite a ni ...19816264148
induction of natural killer cells by herpes-simplex virus type 2 in resistant and sensitive inbred mouse strains.infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) stimulated natural killer (nk) cells in a variety of inbred mouse strains including athymic nude mice. essentially all mouse strains tested exhibited high nk activity on day four after virus inoculation. assayed 24 hours after infection, swr/j, akr/j, sjl/j and c57b1/10j mice were low or negative for these non-virus-specific cytotoxic responses. whereas the first two mouse strains were most sensitive to the lethal effects of hsv 2, the l ...19816263793
production of hybrid cell lines secreting antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2.following different immunization schedules we have produced 102 myeloma--spleen cell hybrid lines (30.8% of the total) secreting antibodies to hsv-2 infected cells. the highest yield of hybrids was derived from fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice sensitized by footpad injection of formalin-inactivated virus and boosted intravenously with the same antigen. to date, twelve of the antibody-producing hybrids have been cloned by limiting dilutions to generate over 100 monoclonal lines ...19816262346
immunological reactivity of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 polypeptides electrophoretically separated and transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl paper.in this paper we report that viral polypeptides from herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells electrophoretically separated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-agarose gels and transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl paper can react with rabbit hyperimmune sera, both polyvalent and prepared against specific antigens. the polyvalent hyperimmune sera against hsv-1 reacted with 17 hsv-1 polypeptide bands and 8 hsv-2 polypeptide bands. concordantly, polyvalent sera against hsv-2 ...19816260673
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. vii. characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant produced by in vitro mutagenesis and defective in dna synthesis and accumulation of gamma polypeptides.we report on the properties of a temperature-sensitive mutant produced by transfection of cells with intact dna and a specific dna fragment mutagenized with low levels of hydroxylamine. the plating efficiency of the mutant at 39 degrees c relative to that at 33.5 degrees c was 5 x 10(-6). the pattern of polypeptides produced at the nonpermissive temperature was similar to that seen with wild-type virus in infected cells treated with inhibitory concentrations of phosphonoacetic acid in that alpha ...19816260973
mode of action of phosphonoformate as an anti-herpes simplex virus agent.phosphonoformate inhibited the replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2 in culture. the concentration required to inhibit the replication of both types of virus by 2 logs at 28 h post-infection was approximately 150 microm. it was more potent than phosphonoacetate against the growth of both virus types. a virus mutant which is resistant to phosphonoacetate was cross-resistant to phosphonoformate. arsonoacetate, at 300 microm, had no antivirus activity. phosphonoformate also in ...19816260189
herpesviruses and parkinsonism. herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and cytomegalovirus antibodies in serum and csf.antibodies against herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 and cytomegalovirus (cmv) were assayed with a microindirect hemagglutination (iha) test in the serum of 67 pairs of patients with parkinson's disease and controls. cerebrospinal fluid from 30 pairs was assayed. all patient and control serum was tested with a radioimmunoassay (ria) for antibodies against hsv type 1 subunit antigens. serum iha antibody level against hsv type 1 was increased in patients with parkinson's disease and ria ant ...19816257211
monoclonal antibodies to two glycoproteins of herpes simplex virus type 2.monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 were found to precipitate different numbers of radiolabeled polypeptides from lysates of virus-infected cells. antibodies directed against two viral glycoproteins were characterized. antibodies from hybridoma 17 alpha a2 precipitated a 60,000-molecular-weight polypeptide which chased into a 66,000- and 79,000-molecular-weight polypeptide. all three polypeptides labeled in the presence of [3h]glucosamine and had similar tryptic digest maps. the ...19816168775
herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 intracellular p40: type-specific and cross-reactive antigenic determinants on peptides generated by partial proteolysis.intracellular p40 is a class of protein ranging in molecular weight from 39,000 to 45,000 that is immunoprecipitated from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)- and hsv-2-infected cell extracts by mouse monoclonal antibodies or guinea pig antisera against hsv-1 and hsv-2 nucleocapsid p40. analysis by a two-dimensional gel system showed that hsv-1 and hsv-2 intracellular p40 each consisted of three major components. however, these hsv-1 and hsv-2 proteins differed in charge and size. analysis of st ...19816172597
detection of rna complementary to herpes simplex virus dna in human cervical squamous cell neoplasms.nonneoplastic and neoplastic cervical biopsy specimens were examined by in situ hybridization to 125i-labeled dna of herpes simplex virus (hsv), adenovirus, and bacteriophage lambda dna's, and quantitative hybridization data were obtained using a video image analyser. hsv-specific rna was detected in 72% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 60% of squamous cervical carcinomas, 2% of nonneoplastic cervices, and 9% of primary adenocarcinomas of the cervix. none of the tissues gave positive hybri ...19816167349
tumorigenicity of herpesvirus-transformed cells correlates with production of plasminogen activator.our studies first demonstrated that established hamster cell lines transformed in vitro by herpesviruses activate plasminogen more effectively than normal hamster fibroblasts. this ability is probably due to increased levels of the enzyme plasminogen activator (pa). in the studies described here, the 333-8-9 cell line, originally transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 strain 333, was used to derive subclonal lines that maintained stable pa phenotypes over the course of long in vitro passage. ...19816100964
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and multiple sclerosis.a hypothesis is proposed which states that multiple sclerosis (ms) is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in persons lacking herpes simplex virus type 1(hsv-1) immunity. it is examined by comparing the epidemiology of these viruses with that of ms. the age at which hsv-2 infections are first detected, as well as the age of peak incidence are similar to those for ms. if age-specific hsv-1 immunity data from various places is compared, an inverse relationship of immunity levels with lati ...19816116906
function, target-cell preference and cell-surface characteristics of herpes-simplex virus type-2-induced non-antigen-specific killer cells.wild-type and congenitally athymic nude mice injected with herpes-simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) responded with a local outburst of non-antigen-specific killer cells masking any virus-specific response. cytolytic activity could be assayed on mouse-tumor cell lines and on syngeneic or allogeneic non-transformed cells from various sources. some of the tumor cell lines and proteose-peptone-induced peritoneal exudate cells were lysed more efficiently after infection with either hsv 2, vaccinia or infl ...19816165679
comparison of the effects of arabinosyladenine, arabinosylhypoxanthine, and arabinosyladenine 5'-monophosphate against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus with their effects on cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis.in a single line of human foreskin fibroblasts, minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) and the minimum intracellular virus inactivation concentrations (miics) of arabinosyladenine, arabinosylhypoxanthine, and arabinosyladenine 5'-monophosphate were assayed for a number of recent isolates of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), varicella-zoster virus (vzv), and cytomegalovirus (cmv). (the term miic is used here to describe the selective qualitative intracellular inhibition of the ...19816166244
characteristics of a persistent rubella infection in a human cell line.a persistent infection of the human mcf-7 cell line (mcf-7rv) was established with the dbs strain of rubella virus at a low multiplicity of infections. fluorescent antibody staining revealed that 100% of the cells were positive for rubella antigens. the infected cells were refractory to superinfection with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) but were susceptible to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). no interferon could be detected in infected cell culture fluid, and continuous passage in the pres ...19816169785
[incidence of herpes virus (hsv-2) alterations in squamous cells of vagina epithelium (author's transl)].the authors have analysed 17,519 cytological cervix smears. alterations characteristic of hsv infection were recorded from squamous cells of vaginal and cervical epithelia in 21 cases (0.12 per cent). incidences of cytologically detected hsv infection of the vagina and cervix were 0.17 per cent among female factory workers and 0.08 per cent among peasant women. no statistically unambiguous difference was found to exist between the incidences of genital hsv infections in the two groups examined ( ...19817198853
a study of hla and drw antigens in severe recurrent herpes progenitalis (hsv-2) infection.in this preliminary study the phenotypic distribution of hla and drw antigens was investigated in patients with recurrent herpes progenitalis. ninety-three white men between the ages of 20 and 53 years, with at least a 2-year history of recurrent herpes progenitalis infection, and 558 age-matched white men from the same area of los angeles were studied by means of a microcytotoxicity assay. statistical analysis of data indicated that there is no increased incidence of any hla antigen. the b cell ...19826954168
herpes simplex virus diagnosis. antigen detection by elisa and flow microfluorometry.rapid diagnosis of herpes virus (hsv) infection is essential, primarily in the clinical management of the obstetrical patient. we developed an elisa procedure for viral antigen detection within 24 hours. the assay is sensitive and specific, detecting as little as 2 x 10(-3) micrograms antigen protein and reactivity with mock antigen or unrelated viruses (not observed). good (91.6%) correlation is observed between elisa and virus isolation. however, direct quantitative comparison indicates that t ...19826762291
effect of combinations of acyclovir with vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate on herpes simplex viruses in cell culture and in mice.the combination of various concentrations of acyclovir and vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate usually produced an additive interaction with various strains of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in vero cells. similarly, certain combinations of these drugs were more effective than the individual drugs in decreasing the mortality and increasing the mean day of death of mice inoculated intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 2. neither antagonism nor interference was noted for any of the in ...19826182836
experimental infection of inbred mice with herpes simplex virus. iv. comparison of interferon production and natural killer cell activity in susceptible and resistant adult mice.inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2). in this study interferon production was tested in the peritoneal exudate of mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of hsv-1 or hsv-2. in hsv-resistant mice (c57 bl/6, c3 h/hej) high titers of interferon were already present 2 to 4 hours after injection. in comparison, less resistant mice (dba/2, akr) lacked this early response. there was no correlation between interferon tit ...19826187314
detection of rna complementary to herpes-simplex virus in mononuclear cells from patients with behçet's syndrome and recurrent oral ulcers.viral dna probes were used in in-situ hybridisation to detect the complementary rna in mononuclear cells from the blood of normal subjects and patients with behçet's syndrome and recurrent oral ulcers. hybridisation of 125i-labelled dna probes was detected by means of autoradiography and quantitated with a video image-analysis technique. hybridisation between herpes-simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) dna and the complementary rna in mononuclear cells was significantly greater in 10 of 20 patients with ...19826129461
control of expression of the herpes simplex virus-induced deoxypyrimidine triphosphatase in cells infected with mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and intertypic recombinants.infection of cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) induces high levels of deoxypyrimidine triphosphatase. the majority of the enzyme activity is found in infected cell nuclei. a similar activity is induced by hsv type 2 (hsv-2) which, in contrast to the hsv-1 enzyme, fractionates to more than 99% in the soluble cytoplasmic extract. of a series of temperature-sensitive mutants of hsv-1 studied, only the immediate-early mutants in complementation group 1-2 (strain 17 mutants tsd and tsk a ...19826128430
effect of monoclonal antibodies on limited proteolysis of native glycoprotein gd of herpes simplex virus type 1.we examined the properties of 17 monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein gd of herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) (gd-1) and hsv-2 (gd-2). the antibodies recognized eight separate determinants of gd, based on differences in radioimmuno-precipitation and neutralization assays. the determinants were distributed as follows: three were gd-1 specific, one was gd-2 specific, and four were type common. several type-specific and type-common determinants appeared to be involved in neutralization. we developed a ...19826176725
herpes simplex infection simulating a positive auto-inoculation for haemophilus ducreyi.auto-inoculation from a genital ulcer suspected of being ulcus molle gave redness after 24 hours and after 48 hours vesicles and pustules appeared. cultivation from the auto-inoculation after the 48 hours was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2. our observation underlines two points: auto-inoculation for the diagnosing of haemophilus ducreyi infection may be mimicked by herpes simplex infection, and the incubation period of herpes simplex can be shorter than the 4-5 days usually given.19826183910
protease inhibitors suppress fibrinolytic activity of herpesvirus-transformed cells.previous studies in this laboratory have quantified the fibrinolytic activity of herpesvirus-transformed cell lines and implicated the proteolytic capacity of cloned cell lines in the formation of primary and metastatic tumours. because of the involvement of proteases in tumourigenesis in this system, we examined the effect of various protease inhibitors (alpha-1-antitrypsin, leupeptin and alpha-2-macroglobulin), as well as hamster serum containing acute phase proteins generated in response to p ...19826178796
anti-herpesvirus activity of adenine arabinoside analogues in tissue culture and a genital infection of mice and guinea pigs.four analogues of adenine arabinoside (ara-a) were compared for activity against herpes simplex virus (hsv) in tissue culture and in a genital infection of mice and guinea pigs. these analogues, 5'-monophosphate (ara-amp), 5'-valerate ester (ara-av), 2'3'-diacetate ester (ara-ada), and 2',3',5'- triacetate ester (ara-ata) have greater water and lipid solubility and resistance to deamination than ara-a. in mouse embryo fibroblast cells, similar viral inhibitory levels were noted with ara-a, amp, ...19826179469
efficiency and selectivity of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and some other 5-substituted 2'-deoxypyrimidine nucleosides as anti-herpes agents.a number of novel 5-substituted 2'deoxypyrimidine nucleosides exhibited antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 strain v3 (hsv-1-v3) when assayed under one-step conditions in primary human lung fibroblast j(phlf) cell cultures, and compared with the reference compounds cytosine arabinoside (ara-c), 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (iudr), and 5-iodo-5'amino-2',5'-dideoxyuridine (aiu). the most effective of these were (in order of decreasing activity): (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-udr (brvudr) great ...19826285818
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-transformed cells in the course of cervical carcinoma.the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to determine whether humoral antibodies from women with cervical carcinoma in the presence of normal mononuclear cells could induce cytotoxicity to hamster embryo fibroblasts, originally transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) (333-8-9), to a cervical carcinoma cell line (me-180) and to a lung carcinoma cell line (a-549). control groups consisted of 81 age-matched healthy women and 77 patients suffering from malignancies ...19826280493
intratypic and intertypic specificity of lymphocytes involved in the recognition of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) were generated in c57bl/6 mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) (strains kos, 17, hfem, and mp) and hsv-2 (strains 186, g, and gp6). effector lymphocytes were tested for cytotoxicity against syngeneic hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells in a 5-h 51cr release assay. hsv-1 strain hfem was found to induce ctl efficiently only when 100-fold more virus was used as compared with hsv-1 strains kos, 17, and mp. all hsv-1 and hsv-2 strains induced cross-reactive populati ...19826286488
identification and typing of herpes simplex viruses with monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies which reacted with type-specific antigens of herpes simplex virus type 2 or with antigens shared by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to type virus isolates and to detect viral antigens in cells obtained from herpetic lesions. complete concordance was obtained for 42 isolates typed by endonuclease restriction analysis of viral dna and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. examination of a limited number ...19826286719
comparative studies of transformed hamster cells by herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2.hamster embryo cells transformed by herpesvirus type 2 (hsv-2) virus (two separate cell lines) and by hsv-1 virus (one cell line) were inoculated into hamsters. the morphological appearance of tumours was studied by both light and electron microscopy, and the results compared to similar studies of tumours induced by sv40 virus. the tumours were also tested for immunogenicity, and for susceptibility to contact suppression with bcg. the results indicated that the tumours induced by inoculation of ...19826284192
chemical interactions with herpes simplex type 2 virus: enhancement of transformation by norharman.the effects of the comutagen norharman on herpes simplex virus type 2 growth transformation was studied in 3t3 cells. pre-exposure but not post-exposure of the cells to 0.5 to 10 micrograms of norharman per ml of cell culture media resulted in a nearly three-fold enhancement in transforming activity. these results suggest that certain environmental chemicals may interact with cells creating an increased possibility of transformation by herpes viruses.19826284401
studies on the interrelation of resistance and immunity in a mouse model system of herpes-simplex type 2 infection.intraperitoneal (i.p.) vaccination of mice with attenuated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) induced solid protection to i.p. infection with pathogenic virus within two days. protection was non-virus-specific until day four after sensitization but increased in specificity thereafter. normal mice could be protected by adoptively transferred spleen cells, serum, and peritoneal fluid from donors vaccinated seven days before. virus-specific effector cells induced in the spleen by in vivo i.p. sens ...19826284636
identification of proteins encoded by a fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna that has transforming activity.cloned bglii fragment n (map units 0.58 to 0.625) of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna has been shown to transform rodent cells to an oncogenic phenotype (galloway and mcdougall, j. virol. 38: 749-760, 1981). rna homologous to this fragment directs the synthesis of five polypeptides in a cell-free translation system. the approximate molecular weights of these proteins are 140,000, 61,000, 56,000, 35,000, and 23,500. the 35,000-dalton protein is the major species late in infection and is the only s ...19826283171
investigations in the transforming activity of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus.transformation of rat embryo fibroblast was induced by a temperature-sensitive mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2. transformation was scored using the morphological criterion of focus formation and the cell changes that lead to the final focus are described. virus genome persistence in the transformed cell line was demonstrated by the presence of virus-specific membrane antigens and by the specificity of antibodies elicited in rabbits by inoculation of transformed cells. the cytogenetic analy ...19826280377
effect of acyclovir on genital herpes in guinea pigs.the chemotherapeutic efficacy of acyclovir was evaluated in guniea pigs that were inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). acyclovir was administered systemically (50 mg/kg of body weight per day ip) beginning three days after inoculation and continuing for 10-11 days. treatment with acyclovir reduced the incidence of paralysis of the hind limbs, mortality, and the severity and duration of genital lesions but had little effect on the excretion of virus from the genital ...19826282986
confirmation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in herpes-like genital lesions by a simple complement-fixation test.the presence of complement-fixing antibody to an early herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antigen (the ag-4 antigen) was correlated with hsv-2 infection in the sera of patients with genital herpes. eighty-eight per cent of sera taken two weeks after clinical diagnosis of a primary or recurrent herpes infection in patients, confirmed to have hsv-2 by virus isolation and typing, contained the anti-ag-4 complement-fixing antibody. none of the patients with genital hsv-1 had the antibody, and only ...19826275941
multimeric forms of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins.herpes simplex virus type 2-specific glycoproteins present in detergent extracts of infected cells were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions designed to permit detection of multimeric forms of these glycoproteins. two high-molecular-weight glycosylated species were detected when samples were disrupted at lower temperatures or in the absence of any reducing agents. one multimer having an apparent molecular weight of 275,000 was identified as a mul ...19826283127
typing of herpes simplex virus with type-specific human immunoglobulin m in an indirect immunofluorescence assay.sera from nine individuals with suspected primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) infection were screened to identify those containing hsv type-specific immunoglobulin m (igm). selected sera were then utilized in an igm-specific indirect immunofluorescent-antibody hsv-typing assay (patent pending). to evaluate the procedure, 29 hsv isolates were grown in cultures of continuous human amnion cells, fixed, and used as substrates for indirect immunofluorescence. determination o ...19826279692
sex partners and herpes simplex virus type 2 in the epidemiology of cancer of the cervix.the authors examined the interaction of exposure to various numbers of sex partners and evidence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in cervical neoplasia in 181 cases of cervical dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and cancer of the cervix and 130 control patients in los angeles county, california hospitals, in 1974-1979. studies by the authors and other investigators have found that risk of cancer of the cervix was enhanced with numbers of sex partners, frequency and duration of usin ...19826282116
sulphated glycoproteins induced by herpes simplex virus.bhk cells infected with strain 17 syn+ (hsv-1) or hg52 (hsc-2) incorporated inorganic sulphate into polypeptides which co-migrated on sds-polyacrylamide gels with virus-induced glycoproteins. the major sulphated glycoprotein was glycoprotein e. in addition, less-intense sulphated bands co-migrated with glycoprotein d and hsv-1 glycoprotein a/b/c. sulphate label co-migrating with hsv-2 glycoprotein a/b/c was occasionally observed. we have investigated which sulphated polypeptides are excreted fro ...19826278062
the effect of a temperature-sensitive lesion in the alkaline dnase of herpes simplex virus type 2 on the synthesis of viral dna. 19826278703
activation of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 genome by temperature-sensitive mutants of hsv type 2.previous studies have demonstrated that herpes simplex viruses (hsv) type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) can be maintained in a repressed form in human embryo lung cells. reducing the incubation temperature or superinfecting with a heterologous herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv), results in activation of virus replication. we now report that superinfection with a partially homologous herpesvirus, hsv-2, also resulted in activation of hsv-1. to minimize excessive synthesis of infectious hsv- ...19826278723
viral receptors on isolated murine and human ependymal cells.viruses that infect ependyma cause ependymitis in humans and hydrocephalus in experimental animals. we report that reovirus type 1 (which induces hydrocephalus in mice) binds to the surface of isolated human and murine ciliated ependymal cells. with the use of recombinant viral clones, the binding property was mapped to the type 1 viral hemagglutinin, which also determines in vivo the affinity of reovirus type 1 for ependyma. mumps virus, measles virus, parainfluenza type 3, and herpes simplex v ...19826276976
inhibiting herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in human epithelial cells by gossypol, a potent spermicidal and contraceptive agent.gossypol, a male contraceptive, has an antifertility effect of 99.9%. it has also been reported to possess antiviral activities, and to inhibit herpes simplex virus infection in mice. dorsett and kerstine found that gossypol inactivated the infectivity of the enveloped virus parainfluenza type 3 and herpes simplex for hep-2 carcinoma cells but had no effect on the infectivity of the nonenveloped poliovirus. the authors studied the effect of gossypol on infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 ...19826277198
similarities and differences in the fc-binding glycoprotein (ge) of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and tentative mapping of the viral gene for this glycoprotein.we performed affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation experiments to determine whether cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) expressed a glycoprotein that was functionally and antigenically related to the hsv-1 fc-binding glycoprotein designated ge. we found that a protein from extracts of hsv-2-infected hep-2 cells bound specifically to an fc affinity column and that the electrophoretic mobility of this protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels was slightly less ...19826283108
use of monoclonal antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2 for serological analysis of the viral glycoproteins.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) specify four major glycoproteins designated ga/gb, gc, gd and ge. type-specific and cross-reacting monoclonal antibodies to the viral glycoproteins have been used to probe their antigenic determinants. our studies show the following: (i) type-specific monoclonal antibodies are suitable reagents for serotyping isolates. discriminating monoclonal antibodies distinguish antigenic variants among the strains of each serotype. (ii) glycoproteins ga ...19826299824
genital herpes in guinea pigs: pathogenesis of the primary infection and description of recurrent disease.guinea pigs inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) developed a self-limiting infection characterized by vesiculo-ulcerative lesions on the external genital skin, urinary retention, and hindlimb paralysis. infection rarely resulted in death. virologic, histologic, and immunoperoxidase data suggested the following scheme for viral pathogenesis: initial replication in the introitus, vagina, and bladder; spread via sensory nerves to the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and ...19826286797
the role of herpes simplex virus in cervical and vulvar cancer.this report extends the association of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) with cervical cancer to vulvar carcinoma. in addition to seroepidemiologic observations linking prior hsv2 infection to genital cancer, the new evidence involves the neoplasms themselves. biopsies of cervical and vulvar cancers were found to contain hsv2-specified antigens. the virus-induced antigens are nonstructural dna-binding proteins normally present in the nuclei of infected cells; however, in the cancer cells they w ...19826299862
neutralization of herpes simplex virus by antibody in amniotic fluid.the ability of amniotic fluid to neutralize herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was quantitated and compared with the serum neutralization titer in 158 pregnant women. neutralizing activity was expressed as the ability of 0.1 ml of amniotic fluid to reduce the expected number of plaque-forming units (pfu) in the inoculum by 99%. all amniotic fluid samples from 32 women with serum titers of 1:40 or greater neutralized 5 pfu or more; at term, 96% of these fluid samples neutralized 50 pfu or more, ...19826289206
[humoral immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 in cervical cancer].the analysis of the results of serological studies revealed differences between the number of positively reacting sera from patients with cervical carcinoma and from normal women. the activity of complement-fixing and virus-neutralizing antibodies in the patients' sera and the frequency of their detection were higher than in the sera from normal subjects. these results in combination with other methods of laboratory examinations may be used for early detection of cervical carcinoma as well as fo ...19826289530
the effect of prostaglandins on the multiplication and cell-to-cell spread of herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) after infecting an individual has the ability to remain latent in nervous tissues. the factors that control herpesvirus infection, latency, and reactivation are poorly understood. fever, menstruation, emotional stress, exposure to sunlight, and surgical resection have been associated with activation of latent herpes. the situations which activate latent herpes are associated with a local or systemic rise in prostaglandins. the data presented show that prostagl ...19826289665
protection against lethal challenge of balb/c mice by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies to five glycoproteins of herpes simplex virus type 2.monoclonal antibodies secreted by six hybridomas and recognizing antigenic sites on glycoproteins gc, gab, gd, ge, and gf of herpes simplex virus type 2 were examined for their ability to protect balb/c mice from lethal infection by the virus. administration of monoclonal antibodies to individual glycoproteins intraperitoneally 3 h before footpad challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose of virus protected between 35 and 75% of the mice, except for one of two monoclonal antibodies recognizing ...19826290390
early interactions of herpes simplex virus with mouse peritoneal macrophages.adsorption of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) to resident peritoneal macrophages (pm) of 4-week-old swiss albino (sa) and gr/afib mice was studied. a significantly (p less than 0.05) higher hsv-2 adsorption rate was found with pm of sa mice than with pm of gr/afib mice. of added hsv-2 65% bound to the cells of sa mice over a 120-min period versus 15% to pm of gr/afib mice. only 15 to 20% of added hsv-1 bound to pm regardless of the mouse strain. these patterns of adsorptio ...19826290397
herpetic proctitis and meningitis: recovery of two strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 from cerebrospinal fluid.a patient with simultaneous proctitis and meningitis due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) was extensively investigated. in both disease locations the infection was clinically evident and culture-proven. analysis by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rectal isolates revealed both hsv-1 and hsv-2. the cerebrospinal fluid harbored two apparently different strains of hsv-1, one of which was shown by restriction endonuclease analysis to be identical w ...19826290573
detection of herpes simplex virus mrna in latently infected trigeminal ganglion neurons by in situ hybridization.latent infection of the trigeminal ganglion with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was studied in guinea pigs by in situ dna hybridization. frozen ganglion sections from animals killed during the period of latent virus infection were studied under nondenaturing conditions. some sections were treated with deoxyribonuclease (dnase) or ribonuclease (rnase) before incubation with hsv dna probes. hsv probes consisted of viral dna nick translated and labeled in vitro with tritiated nucleotides. bact ...19826284019
herpesvirus-specific rna and protein in carcinoma of the uterine cervix.cloned probes of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna were used in cytological hybridization experiments to detect herpesvirus rna transcripts in the neoplastic cells of tumors of the uterine cervix. virus-specific rna was shown to represent transcription of limited regions of the genome, of which one is known to code for a dna-binding protein that can be found by immunoperoxidase staining in the neoplastic cells of these tumors and has also been detected in cells transformed in vitro by this virus.19826285365
isolation and characterization of the growth-stimulating factor in supernatants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infected cells.lytic infection of cv1 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 does not stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity and there is no correlation between polyamines and a growth-stimulating factor (gsf) which is present in the supernatant of the cultures. the factor was partially purified by gel filtration on sephadex g-50 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. gel filtration as well as dialysis through membranes with different pore diameters indicated a molecular weight between 3,500 and 10,000 da ...19826285245
effect of acyclovir on genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in the guinea pig.the pathogenesis of genital infection with three different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and three strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was compared in the guinea pig. strain differences in severity of clinical disease and mortality were noted. hsv-1 strains generally produced milder disease than hsv-2. both hsv-1 and hsv-2 infections resulted in acute and chronic changes in the cervix. virus recovery during latent infection was more frequently obtained from the spinal ...19826285705
macrophage migration inhibition as a correlate of cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.mice inoculated intraperitoneally or intravenously with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) develop a focal necrotizing hepatitis. the livers show expanding foci of necrosis and increasing virus content during the first days of the infection with maximal titers achieved on day 3. the clearance of virus from the organ is manifest from day 4 onward with the most dramatic fall in virus content occurring between days 4 and 5. the development of immunity during the course of infection was assessed by ...19826286467
clinical and virological features of herpes genitalis in japanese women.we report herein clinical and virological findings in 35 japanese women with a confirmed herpes genitalis. the frequency of herpes genitalis was 0.24% in our obstetrical and gynecological outpatient clinic, while that in cancer screening clinics was 0.01%. eighty percent of all patients were between 20 and 49 years of age (median age of 38.5 years). genital herpes was detected more frequently in summer and autumn. virus isolations were carried out in 20 patients and 13 were positive (65.0%). of ...19826287795
synergism among biolf-62, phosphonoformate, and other antiherpetic compounds.9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]guanine (biolf-62) is highly synergistic with either phosphonoformate or phosphonoacetate when used in combination against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in vitro. acycloguanosine did not show significant synergism with these two compounds. bromovinyldeoxyuridine and phosphonoformate were highly synergistic against herpes simplex virus type 2, but not against type 1.19826297382
properties of a herpes virus-transformed hamster cell line--i. growth and culture characteristics of sublines of high and low metastatic potential.a herpes virus hominis type 2-induced tumour line of the syrian hamster, designated hsv-2-333-2-26, exhibited a low level of spontaneous metastasis from the primary subcutaneous tumour mass. two lung foci, met a and met b, were resected and transplanted s.c.; both lines showed an elevated metastatic potential compared with the parent cell line such that all animals inoculated with these cells developed metastatic disease within 40 days after resection of the primary tumour. neither the rapidity ...19826297914
failure of 2-deoxy-d-glucose in the treatment of experimental cutaneous and genital infections due to herpes simplex virus.the effectiveness of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-dg) was evaluated in the treatment of cutaneous infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) in mice and genital infections with hsv type 2 (hsv-2) in mice and guinea pigs. groups of mice were inoculated in the lumbosacral or orofacial area with hsv-1 and treated topically three times a day with 0.2% or 0.5% 2-dg solution beginning 3 hr after inoculation. no effect on skin lesions, mortality, or latency was observed. mice were inoculated intravagi ...19826286785
inapparent genital herpes simplex virus infection in college women.during a six-month period, 600 gynecological samples were collected from 585 women with typical herpes lesions, women with non-herpes symptoms (ie, vaginitis, moniliasis, trichomoniasis, etc), and normal women seen at the student health center gynecological clinic and processed for herpes simplex virus (hsv) isolation. from these specimens, 29 samples from 25 of the 585 women (4.3%) were positive for hsv. when these isolates were typed using plaque diameter in chick cells, heat stability of vira ...19826298359
augmented immunogenicity of lewis lung carcinoma by infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.in vitro, llt cells sustain hsv-2 replication without evidence of lysis. simultaneously, multiplication of the cells is stimulated. these xenogenized cells were tested for their immunopotentiating capacity: three-step immunization with xenogenized viable cells conferred significantly augmented transplantation resistance to a challenge graft with 4 x 10(4) intact llt cells. latency periods preceding tumor formation were increased and 15% of the mice failed to form primary tumors. metastasis was l ...19826288391
disease and latency characteristics of clinical herpes virus isolated after acyclovir therapy.herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 from a bone marrow transplant recipient and hsv type 2 from a patient with genital herpes infection were examined for sensitivity to acyclovir after both patients received therapy with the drug. a 38- and 83-fold shift in sensitivity was detected in association with a marked decrease in viral thymidine kinase activity in isolates from both patients. the resistant hsv-1 isolate was approximately 900 times less neurovirulent to balb/c mice but had similar cutaneou ...19826285725
imide derivatives of 3-nitro-1.8-naphthalic acid: their inhibitory activity against dna viruses.the antiviral action of a new drug, 5-amino-2-(dimethylaminoethyl)-benzo-[de]-isoquinolin-1.3-dione has been studied against herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) and adenovirus type 5 (ad-5) grown in vero cells. the concentration of the drug which gives a 5 log10 reduction in virus titer was 4 micrograms/ml (maximum tolerated concentration) for hsv-2. the anti-hsv-2 activity of this compound was one log. more powerful than that of iododeoxyuridine (idu). at this concentration the drug shows virucidal a ...19826299235
abortive infection of neural cells by herpes simplex virus type 2.the nature of the refractoriness of c6 rat glioma cells to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was examined. infection of c6 cells with hsv-2 results in low virus yields, not exceeding the input virus. although virus growth studies suggested a restricted cycle of virus replication, synthesis of hsv-2 dna and hsv-2-specific antigens could not be detected. in addition, hsv-2 yields in c6 cells were unaffected by interferon, cycloheximide, tunicamycin, actinomycin d and cytosine arabinoside. howeve ...19826299239
spectrum of sensitivity of acyclovir of herpes simplex virus clinical isolates.hsv-1 and hsv-2 clinical isolates were tested for their in vitro sensitivity to acyclovir. the median id50 for 32 genital hsv-2 isolates was 0.215 micrograms/ml and this was not significantly higher than a median value of 0.125 micrograms/ml for 28 oral hsv-1 isolates (p = 0.08). a wider range of id50s was observed with the hsv-2 isolates compared with the hsv-1 isolates. the concentration of drug required to inhibit virus replication by 90 and 99 percent was approximately 10- and 100-fold great ...19826285726
mechanism of action and selectivity of acyclovir.acyclovir, an acrylic purine nucleoside analog, is a highly potent inhibitor of herpes simplex virus (hsv), types 1 and 2, and varicella zoster virus, and has extremely low toxicity for the normal host cells. this selectivity is due to the ability of these viruses to code for a viral thymidine kinase capable of phosphorylating acyclovir to a monophosphate; this capability is essentially absent in uninfected cells. the acyclovir monophosphate (acyclo-gmp) is subsequently converted to acyclovir tr ...19826285736
virus-induced thymidine kinases as markers for typing herpes simplex viruses and for drug sensitivity assays.a rapid, reproducible and objective new method for typing herpes simplex viruses type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) based on the effects of virus-induced thymidine kinases on various antiviral drugs has been developed. when several laboratory strains and clinical isolates were typed by this method and compared to the results obtained by the immunofluorescence antibody typing method, agreement was found for all the viruses. the new technique has the added advantage of determining the sensitivity o ...19826296179
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