conserved epitopes of simian herpesvirus sa 8 and bovine herpesvirus type 2.some major structural components of simian herpesvirus sa 8 were analyzed and the relationship of sa 8 with hsv-1 and especially with bhv-2 was further characterized using a panel of sa 8- and bhv-2-specific monoclonal antibodies directed against gb, gd, ge, and icp 8. it could be shown that sa 8 and bhv-2 expressed gb-1 equivalents, which differ in electrophoretic mobility, but share common epitopes with hsv-1. the antigenic determinants were detectable in the cytoplasm, on the surface of infec ...19901691622
novel membrane-interactive ether lipid analogs that inhibit infectious hiv-1 production and induce defective virus formation.a new class of membrane-active ether lipid (el) analogs of platelet-activating factor were studied for in vitro anti-hiv-1 activity. human t-cell (cem-ss) monolayers or suspension cultures were used to determine effects of structural modifications of type a phosphorus-containing and type b nonphosphorus el analogs on (a) the inhibitory concentration50 (ic50) for hiv-1 syncytial plaque formation and cell growth, and, (b) virus budding at the cell plasma membrane. results indicate that representat ...19901692729
glycoprotein gb of herpes simplex virus expresses type-common and type-specific antigenic determinants in vivo.four monoclonal antibodies directed against glycoprotein b of herpes simplex virus were evaluated for their ability to immunize mice passively against acute virus-induced neurological illness and death when administered intraperitoneally 2 hours prior to footpad challenge with type 1 or type 2 virus. two monoclonal antibodies, h120 and h157, failed to reduce the severity of neurological disease in infected animals. in contrast, h233 and h368 antibodies provided significant protection in type-com ...19901692872
selective virus inhibitors.our recent efforts have been directed at the development of selective inhibitors of different classes of viruses, including adeno, pox, and herpesviruses [herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), varicella-zoster (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus (ebv)], (+/-)rna viruses (reo- and rotavirus), (-)rna viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, measles, respiratory syncytial, vesicular stomatitis and rabies virus) and retroviruses [i.e. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), the ...19901693749
role of exogenous interferons on intrinsic antiviral activity of macrophages from patients affected by neoplasia.macrophages derived from in vitro cultured monocytes were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. a marked impairment in the intrinsic antiviral activity was found in macrophages obtained from patients with breast cancer or melanoma. moreover, the antiviral activity of macrophages from healthy donors, differentiated in serum from patients with neoplasia, was also impaired. the aim of this work was the evaluation of alpha, beta, gamma exogenous interferon in restoring the intrinsic antiviral a ...19901694541
anti-interferon antibody inhibits natural killer cell activity in hsv-2 genital infection in c57bl/6j mice.we reported previously that the administration of anti-alpha/beta murine interferon antibody (anti-ifn-ab) to c57bl/6j mice genitally infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dramatically increases morbidity and mortality. the effect of anti-ifn-ab is visible early postinfection and it is more evident when low virus doses are used. this report describes our study of the mechanism of action of anti-ifn-ab. we found that anti-ifn-ab did not affect peripheral multiplication of the virus at ...19901695621
comparative therapeutic efficacy of recombinant interferons-alpha, -beta, and -gamma against alphatogavirus, bunyavirus, flavivirus, and herpesvirus infections.recombinant (r) preparations of interferons (ifn)-alpha, -beta, and -gamma were shown to protect mice against experimental virus infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), and with three rna-containing viruses from different families: banzi, a flavivirus; semliki forest virus (sfv), an alphatogavirus; and caraparu, a bunyavirus. the antiviral effects of the three different types of ifn were different with each virus. hsv-2 was the most sensitive virus, followed by sfv. against banzi vi ...19901696607
intratypic variation of herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates detected by monoclonal antibodies against viral glycoproteins.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoproteins gd, gg, gb, and ge were used to analyze antigenic variations of 128 genital hsv-2 isolates by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). isolates were considered significantly different from the standard hsv-2 strain 186 when their optical density (od) in elisa was less than half that of strain 186. this criterion gave 30 patterns of reactivity among the genital hsv-2 isolates. the mabs to gb, gg, and 2 of the g ...19901701081
three cell lines from hamster buccal pouch tumors induced by topical 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, alone or in conjunction with herpes simplex virus inoculation.three squamous carcinoma cell lines hbpc-1, hbpc-2, and hbpc-3 were established from hamster buccal pouch tumors induced by topical 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (dmba) treatment alone, topical dmba treatment in conjunction with type 1 herpes simplex virus (hsv-1) inoculation, and topical dmba application in combination with type 2 hsv (hsv-2) inoculation, respectively. the cells were epithelial in morphology, had a doubling time of approximately 18 h, and required bovine serum for optimal grow ...19911708371
a follow-up study of children with neonatal herpes simplex virus infections with particular regard to late nervous disturbances.forty-five children with neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection, representing all known cases in the diagnostic records of four virological laboratories within a 15-year period, were followed up. twelve children had died. sixteen of the 33 survivors were healthy. thirteen children had severe disabilities: all of them showed severe mental retardation; moreover, 11 were tetraplegic, one was hemiplegic with hydrocephalus and one had a pronounced behavioural abnormality. four children had sli ...19911709771
a related epitope is consistently present on glycoprotein c of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2.a monoclonal antibody (ve8) directed to glycoprotein c of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) cross-reacted with all hsv type 2 (hsv-2) strains tested. positive reaction was also observed with all investigated hsv-1 strains, indicating that the related epitope is consistently present in hsv-1 and hsv-2.19911719785
intratypic variations in neutralizable epitopes among herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates.intratypic variation among 94 isolates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was investigated using 4 different monoclonal antibodies (mabs). by neutralization test, these mabs appeared to be directed to at least 2 distinct epitopes on the viral glycoprotein d (gd), i.e., 6g6.g9 and 6e8.f11 which did not require complement (c-mab) and gd-105 and gd-110 whose neutralizing activities could be enhanced by complement (c+mab). the c-mab pairs each separately could detect significant intratypic varia ...19911723784
computer predictions of antigenic domains in herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 glycoprotein d as compared with experimentally proven domains.the primary amino-acid sequence of the glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2) was analyzed by computer programs that provided values for hydrophilicity, surface probability, flexibility, and antigenicity, as well as the secondary structure conformation. putative antigenic domains with a high hydrophilicity, surface probability, and antigenicity index were determined and compared with the reported antigenic domains in hsv-1 and hsv-2 gd protein based on experimen ...19911724582
herpes simplex virus infection of the placenta. the role of molecular pathology in the diagnosis of viral infection of placental-associated tissues.herpes simplex infections of the placenta and its associated tissues are rarely seen and, consequently, the pathologic features are not well understood. we describe the occurrence of herpes simplex virus infection of the placenta that was limited to maternal-derived cells of the subchorionic tissue. the microscopic findings were remarkable for both the absence of inflammation and characteristic viral inclusions. however, in situ dna hybridization, as well as immunohistochemistry using antibody t ...19911747033
effect of dsrna from phi 6 bacteriophage on herpetic infection in cell culture and an animal model.the double-stranded (ds) rna from phi 6 bacteriophage inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 infection in ma-104 cells but not in vero cells. hsv-2 was more sensitive to this effect than hsv-1, with the hsv-2 ed50 being 0.25 micrograms/ml and the hsv-1 ed50 1.68 micrograms/ml. on genital infection by hsv-2 in guinea pigs, phi 6 dsrna was more effective by intravaginal (p less than 0.05) than by intraperitoneal administration. a single dose of dsrna of 600 micrograms/kg by intrav ...19911774466
[esophageal pathology in patients with the aids virus. etiology and diagnosis].from 180 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and followed-up for one year, 17 cases (9.44%) were referred to detect oesophageal pathology. they were prospectively analyzed through fibroscopy, radiology, biopsies for histopathology, virology and mycology and brush cytology. most frequent symptoms were dysphagia. odynophagia and retrosternal pain, usually associated, and not providing an accurate diagnostic clue. the most common causes of symptoms were oesophageal candidiasis ...19911820692
selective depletion of liver and splenic macrophages using liposomes encapsulating the drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate: effects on antimicrobial resistance.the current results provide direct evidence for a role of tissue macrophages (m phi) in natural immunity and support the use of immunomodulators to enhance antiviral resistance in immunocompromised individuals. in this study, macrophages (m phi) in the spleen and liver were eliminated by intravenous (i.v.) injection of the drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate (dmdp) encapsulated in liposomes. the effect of this depletion system on peritoneal m phi, peripheral blood leukocytes, splenic natural ki ...19911827490
herpes simplex virus type-2 ulcers resistant to acyclovir in an aids patient--successful treatment with foscarnet.the case of a 25-year-old homosexual man with large inguinal and perianal ulcers is reported. he had been pretreated extensively with acyclovir. herpes simplex virus (hsv) was identified in the ulcer tissue by in-situ hybridization. no clinical improvement with acyclovir but a prompt response to foscarnet was noted. in a relapse after 11 weeks an acyclovir-resistant hsv type 2 was isolated. again, a prompt response to foscarnet was noted. the case is presented in detail, and the clinical impact ...19911828096
acyclovir resistance/susceptibility in herpes simplex virus type 2 sequential isolates from an aids patient.the biological characterization of a number of sequential herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) isolates obtained from an aids patient undergoing sequential courses of antiviral treatment due to an extended mucocutaneous genital lesion is reported. resistance to acyclovir (acv) and related compounds was linked to a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) phenotype. after acv discontinuation and a course of treatment with foscarnet, a new isolate was recovered, characterized by loss of the acv-resistant t ...19911832460
a microbiological study of genital ulcers in kuala lumpur.the microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in kuala lumpur, malaysia. herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphil ...19911839925
characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcription in human sacral ganglia and in cell culture.the ability of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) to establish latency in and reactivate from sacral dorsal root sensory ganglia is the basis for recurrent genital herpes. the expression of hsv-2 genes in latently infected human sacral ganglia was investigated by in situ hybridization. hybridizations with a probe from the long repeat region of hsv-2 revealed strong nuclear signals overlying neurons in sacral ganglia from five of nine individuals. the rna detected overlaps with the transcript fo ...19911845807
type-specific identification of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus antigen in autopsy identify antigens of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) in human tissue, polyclonal antisera and an immunoperoxidase method were used to examine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from autopsy cases and experimentally infected animals. these antisera readily distinguished between hsv and vzv antigen, with no evident cross-reactivity. antiser ato hsv-1 and hsv-2 were more strongly reactive with antigen of the homologous virus than with that of hete ...19911845866
the promoter, transcriptional unit, and coding sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 family 35 proteins are contained within and in frame with the ul26 open reading frame.the herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) genome specifies an abundant capsid protein which in denaturing gels forms multiple bands designated family 35 proteins (d.k. braun, b. roizman, and l. pereira, j. virol. 49:142-153, 1984). nucleotide-sequencing studies have assigned the coding sequences of these proteins to the open reading frame ul26 (d.j. mcgeoch, m.a. dalrymple, a.j. davidson, a. dolan, m.c. frame, d. mcnab, l.j. perry, j.e. scott, and p. taylor, j. gen. virol. 69:1531-1574, 1988). in studi ...19911845885
mechanism and mode of action of 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribonucleoside, a potent anti-herpes simplex virus compound, in herpes simplex virus-infected cells.the anti-herpes simplex virus type 2 (-hsv-2) action of 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone deoxyribonucleoside (ipdr) was found to be exerted through inhibition of hsv dna synthesis. the inhibition of viral dna synthesis was not caused by inhibition of the synthesis of hsv-2-specified proteins or hsv-2 mrna species involved with viral dna synthesis or by depletion of deoxynucleotides. the inhibition of viral dna synthesis may be due to damage to the dna template in the nuclei or to an action at the dna repli ...19911846219
herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein h is partially processed in a cell line that expresses the glycoprotein and fully processed in cells infected with deletion or ts mutants in the known hsv glycoproteins.cell lines that constitutively express herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein h (gh-1) failed to synthesize the mature form of gh and accumulated a precursor-like form of the glycoprotein, which was retained intracellularly, most likely in rer. fine-structure analysis of the oligosaccharides present in recombinant gh revealed oligosaccharides processed by rer enzymes; sialylated complex-type and biantennary oligosaccharides, which are assembled in the trans-golgi, were absent. a small fract ...19911846486
synthesis and antiviral activity of 9-alkoxypurines. 2. 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-, 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutoxy)-, and 9-(1,4-dihydroxybut-2-oxy)purines.reaction of alkenoxyamines (3,5) or (r,s)-, (r)-, and (s)-hydroxy-protected derivatives of hydroxyalkoxyamines (20a,b, 37a-c) with 4,6-dichloro-2,5-diformamidopyrimidine (4) and cyclization of the resultant 6-[(alkenoxy)amino]-and 6-(alkoxyamino)pyrimidines (6,7,21a,b, 38a,b,c) by heating with diethoxymethyl acetate afforded 9-alkenoxy- and 9-alkoxy-6-chloropurines (9,10,22a,b, 39a-c, 40a). these were subsequently converted to 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy), 9-(3,4-dihydroxybutoxy), and 9-(1,4-dihydro ...19911846922
latent herpes simplex virus reactivation in the guinea pig. an animal model for recurrent disease.the purpose of this investigation was to establish an animal model by which latent herpetic disease could be mechanically reactivated, yielding an adequate number of recurrent clinical lesions in the guinea pig. to determine strain virulence, hairless guinea pigs were inoculated with three different strains of herpes simplex virus (hsv) using a spring-loaded multiple puncture apparatus. hsv-1 strains sc-16 and mckrae produced an average of 21 and 8 lesions per infected area, respectively. the hs ...19911847124
the difference in sensitivity to cicloxolone sodium between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 maps to the locations of genes ul22 (gh) and ul44 (gc).cicloxolone sodium (ccx) is a broad spectrum antiviral agent which has a largely non-specific and complex mode of antiviral action. however, the experimental finding that herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) (strain hg52) is consistently more sensitive to inhibition by ccx than hsv-1 (117 syn+) additionally implies the specific involvement of hsv genes. hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants have been utilized to investigate this genetic difference by comparing their ccx ed50 concentrations. no shor ...19911847174
construction of herpes simplex viruses that are pseudodiploid for the glycoprotein b gene: a strategy for studying the function of an essential herpesvirus gene.the primary structure of glycoprotein b (gb) is conserved strongly among many members of the herpesviridae, including some that differ vastly in their natural properties. to determine whether the structural similarity between the gbs of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) was reflected in functional homology, we constructed pseudodiploid hsv-1 virions which, in addition to their own gene encoding gb, also contained a gene for encoding bhv-1 gb. two kinds of ...19911847175
the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein gb gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus: analysis and evolutionary relationship to the homologous gene from other herpesviruses.a 3698 bp region of the genome of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) was sequenced and found to contain the entire glycoprotein gb gene and the c-terminal region of a gene homologous to the icp 18.5 protein gene of herpes simplex virus type 1. the iltv gb gene encoded a protein with an mr of 100k possessing all the characteristics of a transmembrane glycoprotein. alignment of the iltv gb sequence with homologous sequences from six other herpesviruses revealed that 10 cysteine residues on ...19911847176
the conserved dna-binding domains encoded by the herpes simplex virus type 1 icp4, pseudorabies virus ie180, and varicella-zoster virus orf62 genes recognize similar sites in the corresponding promoters.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), pseudorabies virus (prv), varicella-zoster virus (vzv), and equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) are all classified as alphaherpesvirinae. each of these five viruses encodes an essential immediate-early (ie) regulatory protein referred to as hsv-1 icp4, hsv-2 icp4, prv ie180, vzv orf62 protein, and ehv-1 ie1, respectively. these five proteins share extensive homology with each other in domains referred to as regions 2 and 4. the hsv-1 icp4 region 2 d ...19911847444
identification of an immunodominant cytotoxic t-lymphocyte recognition site in glycoprotein b of herpes simplex virus by using recombinant adenovirus vectors and synthetic peptides.cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) responses to herpes simplex virus (hsv) polypeptides play an important role in recovery from infection and in preventing latency. we have previously shown that glycoprotein b (gb) is a major target recognized by hsv-specific ctls in c57bl/6 (h-2b) and balb/c (h-2d) mice but not in cba/j (h-2k) mice (l. a. witmer, k. l. rosenthal, f. l. graham, h. m. friedman, a. yee, and d. c. johnson, j. gen. virol. 71:387-396, 1990). in this report, we utilize adenovirus vectors ex ...19911847447
fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides: synthesis and antiviral activity of 2'- and 6'-fluorocarbocyclic 2'-deoxy guanosines.a series of four isomeric 2'- and 6'-fluorocarbocyclic guanosine analogues have been prepared and evaluated as potential anti-herpes agents. the racemic 2' beta-fluoro isomer 2-amino-1,9-dihydro- 9-[(1 alpha, 2 alpha, 3 beta, 4 alpha)-2-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4- (hydroxymethyl)cyclopentyl]-6h-purin-6-one (11a, c-afg) and its 2' alpha-fluoro epimer 11b plus the chiral 6' beta-fluoro isomer 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[[1s-(1 alpha, 2 alpha, 3 alpha, 4 beta)]- 2-fluoro-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentyl]- ...19911848298
human papillomavirus types 16 and 33, herpes simplex virus type 2 and other risk factors for cervical cancer in sichuan province, china.cancer of the cervix is relatively common in china, but has been investigated epidemiologically in only a few studies. in the hospital-based case-control study reported here, we investigated the role of various lifestyle and dietary factors, as well as infection with human papillomavirus (hpv) types 16 and 33 and herpes simplex virus type 2 in the aetiology of invasive cervical cancer. the study was conducted in sichuan province, and involved 101 cases with histologically-confirmed cervical canc ...19911848537
herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion variants 1714 and 1716 pinpoint neurovirulence-related sequences in glasgow strain 17+ between immediate early gene 1 and the 'a' sequence.dideoxynucleotide sequence analysis of a spontaneously isolated deletion variant (1714) of glasgow strain 17+ of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) demonstrates that the deletion is 759 bp in length and is located within each copy of the bamhi s fragment (0 to 0.02 and 0.81 to 0.83 map units) of the long repeat region of the genome. the deletion removes one complete copy of the 18 bp dr1 element of the 'a' sequence and terminates 1105 bp upstream of the 5' end of immediate early (ie) gene 1. th ...19911848598
neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in relation to asymptomatic maternal infection at the time of define the risk factors associated with neonatal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection, we prospectively obtained hsv cultures from the cervix and external genitalia of 15,923 pregnant women in early labor who were without symptoms or signs of genital hsv infection. follow-up of the women with positive cultures for hsv and their hsv-exposed infants included serologic tests and serial cultures for hsv.19911849612
detection and characterization of latent hsv rna by in situ and northern blot hybridization in guinea pigs.following intravaginal infection of guinea pigs, herpes simplex virus establishes a latent infection in the sensory lumbosacral ganglia. using the techniques of in situ and northern blot hybridization, we have characterized this latent hsv-2 virus and compared it to latent hsv-1 at the same anatomical site. for hsv-2, a single 1.8-kb latency-associated transcript (lat) was detected. in contrast, as described for latent hsv-1 in the trigeminal ganglia of rabbits and mice, two hsv-1 lat species we ...19911849688
priming of rabbit alveolar macrophages for enhanced oxidative responses by herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection on the oxidative response in infant and adult rabbit alveolar macrophages (am) was studied using either phorbol myristate acetate (0.5 microgram pma/ml) or latex (250 micrograms/ml) as eliciting agents in a chemiluminescence (cl) assay. results indicated that uninfected infant am responded to a latex-elicited but not pma-elicited cl response. hsv-2 infection (moi = 1.0) of infant am for 2 hr at 37 degrees c did not alter the pma or late ...19911849952
properties and evolutionary relationships of the marek's disease virus homologues of protein kinase, glycoprotein d and glycoprotein i of herpes simplex virus.the deduced amino acid sequences of the open reading frames (orfs) mapping in the short unique segment (us) of marek's disease virus (mdv) reported in the accompanying paper have been analysed using computer programs to determine their relationships to herpesvirus proteins. analysis of the catalytic domains of protein kinases showed that the mdv kinase (mdv pk) was closely related to the alphaherpesvirus protein kinase mapping in us. the results also showed that the mdv pk was more closely relat ...19911849976
herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection in human oral mucosa in examine the sensitivity of human oral mucosa to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) infection, human gingival mucosa explants were infected with either hsv-1 or hsv-2 in vitro and the expression of virus specific antigen was examined by the immunofluorescent antibody technique. hsv-2 antigen was found in the basement membrane, basal cell layer and lower prickle cell layer. this finding was consistent with the hsv-1 infection. electron microscopic study revealed the presence ...19911849992
expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcript in neurons and nonneurons.the presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) transcription during in vivo latent infection was investigated by in situ hybridization. latent infection of mouse dorsal root ganglion was investigated with the bamhi p fragment of hsv-2, which resulted in evidence of ganglion hybridization, and other fragments representing approximately 40% of the genome, which did not result in hybridization. strand specificity of hybridization was investigated in studies with synthetic oligonucleotides, whi ...19911850049
use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect herpes simplex virus dna in paraffin sections of human brain at necropsy.the feasibility of detecting herpesvirus dna in paraffin sections of routinely fixed and processed human necropsy brains by use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was assessed. a 110 bp segment of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1) could readily be amplified in sections from the brains of six patients with acute hsv1 encephalitis but not from those of six patients with other neurological diseases, including varicella-zoster encephalitis and herpes simplex virus t ...19911850452
modulation of the intrinsic antiviral activity by escherichia coli endotoxin in macrophages from patients with neoplasia.macrophages from patients with breast cancer showed an impairment of their antiviral activity. the capability to hinder herpes simplex virus type 2 replication of macrophages from healthy donors and from patients with breast cancer was compared to the in-vitro treatment with escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (lps). the lps showed a dose-dependent effect on the different macrophage populations studied. nevertheless, macrophages from healthy donors appeared to be more sensitive to lps in compari ...19911850454
expression of hsv-1 and hsv-2 glycoprotein g in insect cells by using a novel baculovirus expression vector.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) glycoprotein g (gg-1 and gg-2) were expressed in insect cells from recombinant baculoviruses (acdsmgg-1 and acdsmgg-2, respectively) constructed using a novel baculovirus transfer vector, pacdsm. this vector allows the coding region of a foreign gene to be precisely linked to the baculovirus polyhedrin gene at the translation initiation site and retains the native polyhedrin translation initiation environment. fourfold more gg-1, with a higher ...19911850903
mutagenesis occurring following infection with herpes simplex virus does not require virus replication.infection of eukaryotic cells in culture with herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) or hsv-2 increased the mutation frequency of the supf gene carried on the shuttle vector pz189 by around sixfold. the increase was apparent 2 hr postinfection and reached a peak after 8 hr. to investigate this mutagenesis, plasmids pckrr1 and pckrr2 were constructed to express the large and small subunits, respectively, of hsv-2 ribonucleotide reductase (rr) under the control of the inducible mouse metallothionein ...19911850920
oral acyclovir therapy of recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of the hand.acyclovir was evaluated as treatment of recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of the hand in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. in nine fully evaluable patients, oral acyclovir (2 g/day in three doses for 10 days) initiated during the earliest phase of a recurrence reduced the mean durations (+/- standard deviation) of clinical symptoms from 10.1 (+/- 3.6) to 3.7 (+/- 3.0) days (p = 0.008), signs from 11.1 (+/- 3.7) to 6.2 (+/- 3.3) days (p = 0.024), and viral positivi ...19911850971
retention of nonlinear viral dna during herpes simplex virus latency in vitro.we investigated the state of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genome during latency in vitro. latent dna was present in the cell nucleus in a nonlinear configuration. the joint fragment was represented at approximately double the molar concentration of fragments from unique regions, indicating that genome termini had fused. the hsv-2 genome copy number was estimated to be between 1.5 and 8, with a mean value of 4.5 per latently infected cell. nonlinear hsv dna can therefore exist during l ...19911851145
cell-mediated immunologic responses and recurrent genital herpes in the guinea pig. effects of glycoprotein immunotherapy.the specific immune alterations associated with hsv recurrences are ill defined although it appears that alterations in cell-mediated immune mechanisms are more likely associated with recurrent disease than humoral immunity. immunization with hsv glycoproteins b and d (gbgd) after primary hsv infection has reportedly reduced the frequency of recurrences but the mechanisms remain unidentified. we therefore evaluated the effects of immunization with cloned gbgd on selected cell-mediated immune res ...19911851194
antiviral activity and dose optimum of recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor on herpes simplex genitalis in guinea pigs.the antiviral activity of recombinant human macrophage csf (m-csf) against genital herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infection in guinea pigs was investigated. m-csf stimulates proliferation of human and guinea pig peripheral blood monocytes, specifically the plastic adherent esterase-positive mononuclear cells. when anti-hsv-2 activity of m-csf was evaluated in guinea pigs by 6 daily injection (s.c.) of m-csf at various doses (5 x 10(5) to 7 x 10(7) u/kg), we found 2 x 10(6) u/kg to be the op ...19911851195
seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus and restriction endonuclease cleavages analysis of herpes simplex virus type 2 in okinawa.a seroepidemiologic study of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in okinawa was performed. a total of 423 serum samples were collected from all over okinawa, and the positivity rate of antibody against hsv was measured using a passive hemagglutination method. the sero-positive rate for hsv in age groups of over 40 years was 100%. seven hsv type 2 (hsv 2) isolates were obtained in okinawa, and dna preparations from vero cells infected with the isolates were analyzed using five restriction endonucleases: b ...19911851598
binding of herpes simplex virus to cellular heparan sulphate, an initial step in the adsorption has been suggested that heparan sulphate has a receptor function in the initial phase of the attachment of herpes simplex virus (hsv) to cells. we have studied the influence of glycosaminoglycans on cell adsorption of, and plaque formation by, hsv-1 and hsv-2, with regard to the role of saccharide structure, chain length and charge density. heparin and highly-sulphated heparan sulphate (1.5 sulphate groups/disaccharide unit), but neither chondroitin sulphate nor dermatan sulphate, were found ...19911851813
leucine repeats in the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase (rr; icp10) are involved in rr activity and subunit complex comparison of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (rr1) sequence with the known primary structures of other rr1 proteins revealed a motif consisting of five leucines occurring at every seventh residue between positions 409 to 437. this motif is specific to hsv rr1 proteins. a synthetic oligopeptide (la-4) corresponding to 15 residues in the internal portion of the motif inhibited hsv-2 rr activity. in immunoprecipitation experiments, l ...19911851814
hiv and other sexually transmitted diseases among female prostitutes in 1988, 1233 prostitutes from different geographic areas of kinshasa participated in a cross-sectional survey on hiv infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (stds). despite relatively good knowledge about aids and stds, the reported preventive behaviour was poor. only 12% of the women reported regular use of condoms, while greater than 50% of the women reported regular use of antibiotics and 38% reported doing nothing specific to prevent stds. thirty-five per cent of the women were hi ...19911883543
molecular probe for identification of trichomonas vaginalis dna.trichomoniasis is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases in the world. diagnosis can be achieved by several methods, such as direct microscopic observation of vaginal discharge, cell culture, and immunological techniques. a 2.3-kb trichomonas vaginalis dna fragment present in strains from diverse geographic areas was cloned and used as a probe to detect t. vaginalis dna in vaginal discharge by a dot blot hybridization technique. this probe was specific for t. vaginalis dna. it ...19911890171
differential suppression of host cell protein synthesis and mrna levels in herpes simplex virus-infected endothelial cells.earlier studies from this laboratory have shown that infection of vascular cells with herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2) results in the differential suppression of extracellular matrix proteins including fibronectin (fn), type iv collagen, thrombospondin (tsp) and factor viii von willebrand protein. the present study was designed to determine whether a correlation exists between suppression of synthesis of specific proteins and their mrna levels. we have measured the steady-state levels ...19911891960
acute ascending necrotizing myelitis in okinawa caused by herpes simplex virus type 2.a case of rapidly progressing ascending myelitis was necropsied. necrosis was present throughout the whole length of the spinal cord and involved both the grey and white matter randomly. the perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in the spinal cord in the present case was more pronounced than that in the previously reported two cases of necrotizing myelopathy associated with malignancy. using immunoperoxidase staining the presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) antigen was demonstrated. e ...19911899169
treatment of experimental genital herpes with liposomal interferon.the therapeutic effect of genetically engineered interferon (reaferon) in the treatment of genital herpes in male guinea pigs was studied. the disease was induced in the animals by application of culture liquid containing herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) to the scarified skin of the penis. the affected sites were treated once daily, for 7 days, with different reaferon preparations 1-3 days after the symptoms of the disease had appeared. reaferon preparations were most effective in the treatme ...19911912245
prolonged and potent therapeutic and prophylactic effects of (s)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]cytosine against herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in mice.the acyclic nucleotide analog (s)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]cytosine (hpmpc) is a potent and selective inhibitor of herpesviruses. cells preincubated with hpmpc are refractory to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection for several days after removal of the drug from the medium. a single administration of 30 mg of hpmpc per kg of body weight 4 days prior to virus infection intraperitoneally with hsv-2 (strain g) completely protected mice from death, and the protective effect ...19911929331
abnormal bleeding associated with reproductive tract infection.reproductive tract infection is an often unrecognized, but relatively common, cause of abnormal reproductive tract bleeding. postcoital bleeding, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, and oral contraceptive break-through bleeding are potentially infection-related complaints. the microorganisms most often associated with abnormal reproductive tract bleeding include: chlamydia trachomatis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus type 2, and microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis. the clinical ...19911931376
[nationwide survey of necrotizing myelopathy associated with malignancy in japan].twenty-two cases of transverse myelopathy associated with malignancy were collected in nationwide survey in japan. paraneoplastic necrotizing myelopathy (pnm) was suspected in 9 of them and 8 cases were diagnosed as radiation myelopathy (rm), clinically and pathologically. other 5 cases had different causes of transverse myelopathy. in comparison with pnm and rm, malignant lymphoma, flaccid paraplegia and sphincter dysfunction were highly associated in the patients with pnm. on the other hand, l ...19911934764
management of genital herpes simplex infection.herpes simplex infection of the genitals is a common condition, more often due to herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 than to type 1 virus. there is a severe first attack followed by mild recurrences which are more common and more frequent after hsv-2 than after hsv-1 genital infection. clinical features with prodrome, vesicles and erosions may be characteristic allowing rapid clinical diagnosis. when possible laboratory confirmation should be attempted. general management includes simple hygiene, ...19911958714
prevalence of specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 as revealed by an enzyme-linked immunoassay and western blot analysis.a solid-phase elisa for the detection of antibodies to gg-2 was developed. the assay utilizes a recombinant dna-derived gg-2 as a solid-phase "capture" reagent and goat anti-human igg (gamma) conjugate to horseradish peroxidase as a probe (detector) reagent. a total of 229 serum samples collected from various populations were tested by elisa and western blot analysis. on comparison with confirmed hsv-2 infection, the sensitivity and specificity of the elisa were 92.9% and 98.7%, respectively. we ...19901963039
recurrent herpetic keratitis: failure to detect herpes simplex virus infection using the syva microtrak hsv1/hsv2 direct specimen identification/typing test.a 35-year-old man had developed recurrent herpetic keratitis characterized by dendritic keratitis at intervals of a year. we were able to culture cytopathic agents repeatedly from his lesions by inoculating vero cells. the cultures yielded definitive evidence of a virus that caused a cytopathic effect within 3 days. however, these virus strains could not be identified as herpes simplex virus (hsv) in immunofluorescence assays using the syva microtrak hsv1/hsv2 direct specimen identification/typi ...19901963928
incidence of herpes simplex virus type-1 and type-2 from patients with primary (first-attack) genital herpes in a study to determine the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type isolated from patients with primary (first-attack) genital herpes and to identify any clinical or epidemiological features that might influence the reported incidence of any particular viral type, there was almost an equal incidence of hsv-1 and hsv-2 isolated from women (48% versus 52%). in the case of women, the initial clinical diagnosis was correct in 97% with hsv-1 and 95% with hsv-2 infection. amongst men, hsv-2 was isolated more ...19901964600
clinical and laboratory study of first episode genital herpes in singapore.a prospective study of the epidemiology, clinical aspects and laboratory features of first episode genital herpes was carried out in middle road hospital, singapore between june 1986 and december 1987. a total of 68 patients were studied. there were more women than men in the study population with a female to male ratio of 7.5 to 1. the peak incidence of first episode genital herpes was between 20 and 29 years of age. specimens from 63 patients yielded positive culture for herpes simplex virus ( ...19901964601
inducible expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein c in nih 3t3 cells.antibodies directed against the glycoprotein c (gc) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) are known to be mainly hsv-1-specific, whereas antibodies against other major hsv-1 glycoproteins cross-react with hsv-2 antigens. to investigate the immunological features of gc-1, the gene encoding gc-1 was isolated and cloned from dna of cells infected with hsv-1. the 3.6 kbp sali fragment r of hsv-1 dna was modified in order to place the gene under transcriptional control of the glucocorticoid dependen ...19901965287
isolation and typing of herpes simplex viruses in the infections of mouth, respiratory and genital tracts.a total of 60 herpes simplex virus (hsv) isolates obtained from individuals with genital herpes lesions in the mouth or respiratory illness were typed in this study. the hsv isolation rate in genital herpes was 31%. the typing was done by a direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody technique using commercial reagents. all the 60 vero cell grown isolates were successfully typed without any indeterminate results. nine isolates were typed as hsv 1 and 51 as hsv 2. the technique was easy to perform and ...19901965431
natural killer (nk) cell activity of mice treated with herpes simplex virus type-2, sarcoma-180 cells, cyclosporine and cimetidine.nk cell activity in beige mice was compared with that in control balb/c mice and balb/c mice treated with hsv-2, sarcoma-180 cells, cimetidine and cyclosporine. the nk cell activity in five week-old beige mice was lower than in three week-old balb/c mice. the nk cell activity in eight week-old balb/c mice was four to eleven times the activity in balb/c mice that were three weeks of age. balb/c mice, injected with 2 mg cyclosporine or 10(7) plaque forming units (pfu) of hsv-2, had decreased nk ce ...19901965843
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) can coinfect and simultaneously replicate in the same human cd4+ cell: effect of coinfection on infectious hsv-2 and hiv-1 replication.experiments were designed to determine whether hiv-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) coinfection leads to simultaneous replication of both viruses in the same human cd4+ cell (mt-4 cell line) and the possible effects of coinfection on infectious virus production. results from transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed replication of typical hsv-2 nucleocapsids in the nucleus and budding of hiv-1 particles through the plasma membrane and through intracytoplasmic vacuoles containin ...19901972888
herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d is recognized as antigen by cd4+ and cd8+ t lymphocytes from infected mice. characterization of t cell clones.several previous reports have described the surprising inability to detect murine ctl specific for glycoprotein d (gd), one of the important protective immunogens of hsv. using slight variations of published procedures, we were able to show that the immune response to hsv in infected mice includes the generation of ctl specific for gd. c3h/ouj (h-2k) mice were infected by injection in the hind footpads with purified hsv-1. lymphocytes from draining lymph nodes were then isolated and shown to pro ...19901973187
herpes simplex virus antigens and inflammatory cells in oral lesions in recurrent erythema multiforme. immunoperoxidase and autoradiographic studies.herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigens were sought in 15 biopsy specimens from both lesional mucosa and clinically healthy looking oral mucosa between attacks in patients with erythema multiforme (em). four of the eight biopsy specimens obtained from lesional em mucosa stained positively with hsv-1-and/or hsv-2-specific antisera applied in direct immunoperoxidase staining. of the 16 tissue specimens used as controls, two displayed positive staining with hsv-1 and/or hsv-2. five of the seven biopsy ...19901980974
identification of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus equivalent to the herpes simplex virus type 2 major dna binding protein (icp8).a region of homology between the genomic dna of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv), an avian herpesvirus, and the region encoding the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) major dna binding protein (icp8) has been detected by the use of nick translation and southern blot analysis. further, a monoclonal antibody directed against the hsv-2 icp8 protein detected has antigenic cross-reaction with iltv as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence.19901981454
equine herpes virus 1 and pseudorabies virus resistance to 2'-fluoropyrimidine analogs and to bromovinyldeoxyuridine: implications for dtmp kinase activity.the 2'-fluoropyrimidine nucleoside analogs 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (fiac). 1(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (fmau), and 1(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (fiau) showed higher in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), than equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) or pseudorabies virus (prv). comparison of the 50% plaque inhibitory doses for hsv-1 and its mutant mmdur-20 in cell cultures with inhibition c ...19901983184
colonization of adrenal glands and ovaries of mice by variants of hsv 1 and 2. ii. histopathological, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies.the herpes simplex virus (hsv)-infected mouse model was used to correlate histopathological lesions in adrenal glands and ovaries with the localisation of viral nucleic acids and viral antigens, employing in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. in the adrenals, the lesions were mainly restricted to the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis, sometimes extending to the medulla. in the ovaries, lesions were detected in follicles and in the stroma. during the course of infection, hsv nuc ...19912018430
expression in bacteria of a polypeptide encoded by a transforming fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2.we have constructed a plasmid (pmd2) containing the 38,000 mw polypeptide (38k polypeptide) gene from the transforming bg1ii-n fragment of hsv-2 fused to the amino-terminal portion of the beta-galactosidase gene in plasmid puc8. nucleotide sequence determination around the fusion-junction confirmed that the viral gene sequences starting at its second codon is in the correct reading frame in relation to the translation initiation codon of beta-galactosidase. the lac control sequences direct the s ...19912032251
[massive necrotizing adenitis complicating a disseminated herpes simplex virus 2 infection in chronic lymphoid leukemia].we report a case of a 68 years old male patient treated for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, presenting a right inguino-crural tender lymphadenopathy with periadenitis. the histologic changes associated with adenitis were large foci of necrosis with regular crown of epithelioid cells, without giant cell. the presence of herpes simplex virus 2 was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and culture. occurrence, physiopathology, clinical and histological aspects of herpes simplex lymphadenitis in patients ...19912036132
synthesis and antiviral activity of 5-heteroaryl-substituted 2'-deoxyuridines.the synthesis of 5-heteroaryl-substituted 2'-deoxyuridines is described. the heteroaromatics were obtained from three different 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridines. cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides on the 5-ethynyl derivative 1 gave the isoxazoles 4a-e. the thiazole derivatives 14a-c were obtained from the 5-thiocarboxamide 11, while 5-pyrrol-1-yl-2'-deoxyuridine (17) could be synthesized directly from 5-amino-2'-deoxyuridine. the compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity. selective act ...19912061920
efficacy of (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine in various models of herpes simplex virus infection in mice.the phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivative (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (hpmpc) was evaluated for its in vivo efficacy in several model infections for herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) and thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) hsv-1 in mice. in hairless mice infected intracutaneously with hsv-1 or hsv-2, hpmpc completely suppressed all manifestations of the disease (skin lesions, paralysis of the hind legs, and mortality) if it was administered topically at a co ...19912069375
gynaecological infections and strategies for treatment.frequently, encountered gynaecologic infections and pathogens involved are presented. a review is given of bartholinitis, vulvovaginitis-bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, trichomoniasis cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease: neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus 2. of each infection a thorough description of clinical symptoms and diagnostic criteria is followed by up-to-date treatment advices. for vulvovaginitis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease ant ...19902075077
[lesions of the spinal cord and spinal roots in human immunodeficiency virus infection].spinal cord lesions, although far less frequent than brain lesions, are not uncommon in aids. almost all diffuse or multifocal pathological processes involving the central nervous system and/or leptomeninges may also affect the spinal cord. however, some of them involve it predominantly causing specific, clinically overt, myelopathic diseases. the most characteristic of these is vacuolar myelopathy which usually manifests as progressive spastic ataxia. its incidence varies in different pathologi ...19902077614
effect of the estrous cycle on susceptibility of female mice to intravaginal inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2).in order to explore the effect of sexual maturity on the susceptibility of mice to genital herpesvirus infections, mice were separated into the four stages of the estrous cycle and inoculated intravaginally with varying doses of hsv-2, strain 186. deaths were observed as indicators of susceptibility and were recorded as follows: proestrous, 33%; estrous, 16%; metestrous, 9% and diestrous, 75%. to determine the course of infection in animals inoculated at different stages of estrous, cotton swabs ...19902088207
protection from herpes simplex virus type 1 lethal and latent infections by secreted recombinant glycoprotein b constitutively expressed in human cells with a bk virus episomal vector.the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein b (gb-1) gene, deleted of 639 nucleotides that encode the transmembrane anchor sequence and reconstructed with the extramembrane and intracytoplasmic domains, was cloned under control of the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat in the episomal replicating vector prp-rsv, which contains the origin of replication and early region of the human papovavirus bk as well as a cdna for a mutant mouse dihydrofolate reductase that is resistant to meth ...19902152829
fluoro carbocyclic nucleosides: synthesis and antiviral activity of 2'- and 6'-fluoro carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleosides including carbocyclic 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil and carbocyclic 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil.the racemic carbocyclic 2'-fluoroarabinosyl pyrimidine nucleosides 8, 9 (c-fiau), 12, and 13 (c-fmau) and the 2'-fluororibosyl pyrimidine nucleosides 17, 20, and 21 were prepared from their respective protected 2'-fluoro amino diols 5 and 14. the carbocyclic 2'-2'-difluorothymidine analogue 27 was obtained from the protected difluoro amino diol 24 which was prepared from the ketone 23 and (diethylamino)sulfur trifluoride (dast). the chiral carbocyclic 2'-deoxy-6'-fluorouridines 33, 34, 38, and 3 ...19902153201
identification and characterization of the herpes simplex virus type 2 gene encoding the essential capsid protein icp32/vp19c.we describe the characterization of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) gene encoding infected cell protein 32 (icp32) and virion protein 19c (vp19c). we also demonstrate that the hsv-1 ul38/orf.553 open reading frame (orf), which has been shown to specify a viral protein essential for capsid formation (b. pertuiset, m. boccara, j. cebrian, n. berthelot, s. chousterman, f. puvian-dutilleul, j. sisman, and p. sheldrick, j. virol. 63: 2169-2179, 1989), must encode the cognate hsv type 1 (hsv-1 ...19902154597
localization on the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome of a region encoding proteins involved in adsorption to the cellular receptor.we have previously shown that aminoglycosides such as neomycin and the polyamino acids polylysine and polyarginine selectively inhibit the binding of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) to the cellular receptor, whereas hsv-2 infection is unaffected. in the present study we took advantage of this difference between hsv-1 and hsv-2 by using hsv(-1)-hsv(-2) intertypic recombinants to locate a region on the hsv-1 genome encoding proteins affecting the binding of the virion to the cellular receptor. ...19902154609
in vitro synthesis and processing of herpes simplex virus type 2 gg-2, using cell-free transcription and translation systems.translation of in vitro-synthesized herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) gg-2 mrna in a reticulocyte lysate system was used to study the processing of hsv-2 gg-2. in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomal membranes, a single species that is protected from trypsin digestion was detected. this product comigrates with the 104,000-mr (104k) high mannose intermediate seen in hsv-2-infected-cell lysates. endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase h treatment of the in vitro-synthesized 104k protein yielde ...19902154614
restriction endonuclease analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) from genital herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates in thailand.local herpes simplex virus (hsv) isolates were characterized by the use of bamhi, kpni, and ecori restriction endonucleases. analysis of 120 clinical isolates by observation of presence or absence of cleavage sites and of mobility variation in deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) fragments from the terminal and joint regions of the hsv genome revealed that 112 (93.3%) were type-2 (hsv-2) and the others were type-1 (hsv-1), mixed hsv-2 and hsv-1, and mixed hsv-2 strains. the genomes of hsv-2 isolates were ...19902154866
structural organization of the conserved gene block of herpesvirus saimiri coding for dna polymerase, glycoprotein b, and major dna binding protein.lymphotropic herpesviruses such as epstein-barr virus and herpesvirus saimiri are commonly grouped as gamma-herpesviruses, although overall genome organization and numerous biological properties are quite different in the viruses. to define the relationship more precisely, we sequenced the kpnl fragments f (6.5 kb) and c (9.8 kb) of the h.saimiri strain no. 11 genome; these dna fragments were found to contain the genes coding for equivalents of the major dna binding protein, a putative glycoprot ...19902154888
influence of vehicle on topical efficacy of 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone and related derivatives on in vivo type 2 herpes simplex virus infections.2-acetylpyridine semicarbazone (apsc), 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (aptsc) and 2-acetylpyridine-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazonoe (apmtsc) were evaluated against type-2 herpes simplex virus (hsv-2)-induced genitalis and encephalitis in mice and guinea pigs. the antiviral activity of these compounds was compared with that of acyclovir. with 1,3-butanediol as a topical treatment vehicle, 1% apsc and aptsc showed significant activity against the genital infection in mice, as evidenced by increas ...19902155092
transfer of ul41, the gene controlling virion-associated host cell shutoff, between different strains of herpes simplex virus.studies with mutant viruses have suggested that the product of gene ul41 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) controls the virion-mediated inhibition of cellular protein synthesis as well as the rate of degradation of viral mrnas. hsv-1 strain 17+ has a weak host shutoff function, whereas hsv-2 strain g shuts off strongly. a gene of hsv-2(g), judged from its position in the genome to be the probable analogue of gene ul41 of hsv-1, was inserted into the nonessential thymidine kinase gene of hsv ...19902155295
nmr investigation of cell cultures: early detection of infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 and transformation.the water proton nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spin-lattice relaxation rates were measured in suspension of uninfected and herpes simplex virus type 2-infected wi-38 diploid cells and shown to allow reliable detection of (i) the early signs of productive infection, and (ii) the tendency to undergo either spontaneous or virus-induced transformation. in addition, nmr investigation of several transformed cell lines currently and previously established from wi-38 cells clearly indicated that the ...19902155373
sexually transmitted diseases in victims of rape.the risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease as a result of rape is not known, in part because it is difficult to ascertain whether infections were present before the assault or acquired during it. to investigate this question, we examined female victims of rape within 72 hours of the assault and again at least one week after the assault. of the 204 girls and women initially examined within 72 hours of the rape, 88 (43 percent) were found to have at least one sexually transmitted disease ...19902155389
role of dna topoisomerase i in the replication of herpes simplex virus type 2.camptothecin (cpt), a specific inhibitor of dna topoisomerase i, effectively inhibited the replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). cpt was found to reduce the level of immediate early viral mrna in a dose-response manner. on the other hand, we could not find any evidence that a novel dna topoisomerase i was induced in hsv-2-infected cells. our observations suggest that host cell dna topoisomerase i is involved in the replication of hsv-2.19902155595
neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex in pregnant women and their neonates.the neutralizing antibody (nab) titer against herpes simplex virus (hsv) was determined in blood obtained at term delivery in 76 women with documented genital hsv infection. maternal and cord blood nab titers against hsv-1 and hsv-2 displayed significant correlation (r = .88 and r = 0.89, respectively). in 33% of the paired samples, the neonatal nab titer against hsv-1 exceeded the concomitant maternal titer, and in 59% the maternal and neonatal nab titers against hsv-1 were equal. in 28% of the ...19902156030
carbocyclic 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (c-idu) and carbocyclic (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (c-bvdu) as unique examples of chiral molecules where the two enantiomeric forms are biologically active: interaction of the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of c-idu and c-bvdu with the thymidine kinase of herpes simplex virus type 1.the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the carbocyclic analogues of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (c-bvdu) and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (c-idu) were synthesized by separate routes. both the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of c-bvdu and c-idu were markedly inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) replication. (+)-c-bvdu and (+)-c-idu were as inhibitory to hsv-1 as the racemic (+/-)-c-bvdu and (+/-)-c-idu, respectively, whereas the (-)-enantiomers were only 10-fold less active. also, the (+)- and ...19902156153
phenotypic properties of herpesvirus-transformed cells with high tumorigenic and metastatic ability.herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (333-8-9 cells) produce increased plasminogen activator (pa) compared with normal hamster cells. these cells produce undifferentiated fibrosarcomas at the inoculation site in newborn hamsters, and metastasize to the lungs. using a direct pa assay, in which 125i-labeled plasminogen is cleaved, the optimum ph and osmolarity for detection of the 333-8-9 extracellular pa were ph 8.9 and approximately 150 mosmol. secretion of enzyme d ...19902156388
risk factors for cervical human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus infections in greenland and denmark: a population-based study.risk factors for genital human papillomavirus (hpv) types 6/11 and 16/18 and any hpv type as well as for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections were investigated in a population-based study of 1,600 randomly selected women (20-39 years) from godthåb (native, nuuk), greenland, and nykøbing falster, denmark. a total of 586 greenlandic women and 661 danish women were included, respectively. they all had a personal interview and a gynecologic examination with cervical smear and swab for hpv ...19902156420
herpes simplex virus type 2 meningoencephalitis resistant to acyclovir in a patient with aids.a case is reported of relapsing fatal meningoencephalitis caused by a neurovirulent thymidine kinase-positive (tk+) type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv) that developed thymidine kinase deficiency (tk-) during intravenous acyclovir therapy. a patient with aids was admitted for acyclovir treatment of a persistent perirectal herpetic ulcer. he subsequently developed meningoencephalitis. a tk+ type 2 hsv was isolated from a brain biopsy specimen. a progressive and fatal relapse occurred, and a tk- type ...19902156946
acyclic purine phosphonate analogues as antiviral agents. synthesis and structure-activity relationships.a series of 9-(phosphonoalkyl)purines, which are analogues of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]purines (guanine, pmeg, 1; adenine, pmea, 2), were synthesized. the analogues were tested for activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), human cytomegalovirus (hcmv), rauscher murine leukemia virus (r-mulv), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). with variations in the length of the alkyl chain, the optimal activity was achieved with two carbons between the purine base ...19902157012
identification of c3b-binding regions on herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein c.glycoprotein c from herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (gc-1 and gc-2) acts as a receptor for the c3b fragment of the third component of complement. our goal is to identify domains on gc involved in c3b receptor activity. here, we used in-frame linker-insertion mutagenesis of the cloned gene for gc-2 to identify regions of the protein involved in c3b binding. we constructed 41 mutants of gc-2, each having a single, double, or triple insertion of four amino acids at sites spread across the prot ...19902157859
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