the diagnosis of recent herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections by the simplex-2 test.the prevalence of complement-fixing (cf) antibody against the ag-4 early antigen of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 (hsv-2) was determined in patients with culture confirmed hsv-2 genital herpes and control groups using a commercial hsv-2 early antigen (simplex-2; gene link australia ltd). eighty seven per cent of 39 sera collected between 14 and 28 days after confirmed primary and recurrent hsv-2 infection were positive. in acute sera collected between 2-10 days after onset the simplex-2 test ...19921337770
influence of t-actemodulin on herpes simplex virus infection.the aim of the investigation was to study the direct influence of t-actemodulin (tam) on the herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection in vitro and in vivo. hsv-1 (strain vic) and hsv-2 (strain nissa) were used in the experiments in vitro. the experiments were performed using multicycle and singlecycle growth tests. seventy-five patients suffering from hsv infections (labialis and genitalis) were locally treated by 0.04% tam-containing hydrophilic gel or water-washable cream (applied every 3 h). the ...19921339076
viruses in anogenital cancer.the association between sexual activity and cancer, first described in carcinoma of the cervix, has been expanded to include the majority of anogenital squamous epithelial carcinomas. current evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (hpv) may be of great importance in the development of these tumours, whilst herpes simplex type 2 virus (hsv-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) may play minor roles. certain types of hpv dna, including types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 39 are found in most but not ...19921339181
recurrent genital infection in the guinea pig: differences between herpes simplex types 1 and 2.recurrence rates of genital infections are significantly higher for herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 than hsv type 1. reasons for this difference are not known. in this report, multiple strains of hsv-1 and hsv-2 were evaluated in the guinea-pig model. hsv-2 strains showed significantly higher genital lesion recurrence than hsv-1, including hsv-1 mckrae strain which is highly recurrent in ocular infections. hsv-2 strains were also associated with more frequent asymptomatic vaginal virus sheddin ...19921339184
[envelope and membrane glycoproteins of herpes simplex virus].a bibliographic update on the herpes simplex virus (hsv) envelope is made with special emphasis on the membrane glycoproteins and their role in adsorption, spreading and escape of the immune response. the hsv has at least seven glycoproteins on its envelope; three out of them are essential for in vitro replication, they are designated as gb, gd and gh; four are dispensable: gc, ge, gi and gg. their main functions are: gc, gb and gd attach the virion to the cell surface, binding to molecules of h ...19921345300
the glycoprotein b gene and its syn3 locus of herpes simplex virus type 1 are involved in the synthesis of virus-associated growth factor (hsgf-1).a putative growth factor (hsgf-1) associated with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), which is similar to prgf associated with pseudorabies virus, and/or hsgf-2 associated with hsv-2, was described. experiments with four syncytial (syn) and four nonsyncytial (syn+) hsv-1 strains showed that the ability of this virus to produce hsgf-1 in infected cells is associated with the syn+ phenotype. double infection of cells with syn+ and syn strain resulted either in enhancement or complete inhibition o ...19921363988
antiviral activity of metabolites of t-2 toxin against herpes simplex virus type 2. 19921369381
localization of the antigenic sites and intrinsic protein kinase domain within a 300 amino acid segment of the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit from herpes simplex virus type 2.the 140-kda ribonucleotide reductase (rr1) protein of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) functions as the large subunit of virus-specified rr1 and exhibits an intrinsic protein kinase (pk) activity at its unique nh2-terminal region. the n-terminal half of rr1 contains the protein and dna functions of the morphological transforming region iii (mtriii) of hsv-2. in the present study, we have expressed a number of truncated rr1 derivatives in a mammalian expression vector containing nh2-terminal r ...19921371028
computer prediction of antigenic and topogenic domains in hsv-1 and hsv-2 glycoprotein b (gb).the envelope glycoprotein b (gb) coded for by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ul27 gene is similar to the amino acid (aa) sequence of the gb coded by a homologous gene in hsv-2 dna. the putative antigenic domains in hsv-1 and hsv-2 gb glycoproteins were analyzed on a comparative basis by suitable computer programs, which allowed the prediction of putative antigenic and topogenic domains. the computer-derived domains were compared to experimentally reported antigenic domains in hsv-1 gb g ...19921375407
protection from herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with t cells involved in delayed type hypersensitivity that recognize glycosylation-related epitopes on glycoprotein d.immunization of mice with a vaccinia recombinant (vp176) that expresses a fully glycosylated herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein d (gd) induces long-term (greater than or equal to 50 days) hsv-specific lymphoproliferation and delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) responses, the ability to eliminate a high challenge dose of hsv-2 from the epidermis and protection from fatal disease due to hsv replication in the nervous system. adoptive transfer studies indicate that protection is mediated by th ...19921376951
in vitro toxicological evaluation of isis 1082, a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide inhibitor of herpes simplex virus.isis 1082, a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeted to a translation initiation codon of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) virion capsid protein ul13 inhibits in vitro viral replication. to better understand the pharmacological properties of isis 1082, we examined its effects in nonvirally infected hela cells by using a number of cytotoxicity assays. our data indicate that isis 1082 had no effect on hela cell viability as measured by cellular prolifer ...19921377898
genetic analysis of type-specific antigenic determinants of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein c.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein c (gc-1) elicits a largely serotype-specific immune response directed against previously described determinants designated antigenic sites i and ii. to more precisely define these two immunodominant antigenic regions of gc-1 and to determine whether the homologous hsv-2 glycoprotein (gc-2) has similarly situated antigenic determinants, viral recombinants containing gc chimeric genes which join site i and site ii of the two serotypes were construct ...19921378512
epitopes of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein b that bind type-common neutralizing antibodies elicit type-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.a panel of 45 well-characterized monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reactive to glycoprotein b (gb) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 was tested by elisa and in antiviral functional assays (that included virus neutralization, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (adcc), and antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis), using type 1 or 2 virus strains. all mabs were elisa-reactive. eleven of the mabs mediated neutralization and 9 mediated adcc. all of the adcc epitopes were contained within the ...19921380051
soluble glycoprotein d blocks herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of rat eyes.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ocular infection in rats was blocked by treating the eyes with uv-inactivated virions containing glycoprotein d (gd) prior to ocular challenge. in contrast, rats treated with uv-inactivated virions lacking gd were not protected. a soluble, truncated form of hsv-2 gd (gd-2t) also protected against ocular infection. treatment with gd-2t not only reduced mortality but also restricted progression of pathology and reduced the amount of viral antigen in the cornea. ...19921380093
down-regulation of keratin 14 gene expression after v-ha-ras transfection of human papillomavirus-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells.keratin expression in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma (scc) lines differed significantly from both normal and human papillomavirus (hpv) immortalized exocervical cells. keratin 14 (k14) expression, determined by protein synthesis and mrna levels, was dramatically down-regulated in the cervical scc lines while keratin 5 (k5) expression was not. k14 expression was similarly down-regulated in an hpv-16 immortalized cervical cell line after tumorigenic transformation with recombinant v-ha-ras ...19921382846
vaccination by cholera toxin conjugated to a herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein d peptide.immunization of balb/cj mice with a peptide corresponding to residues 1 to 23 of glycoprotein d [gd(1-23)] from herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) elicits antibody responses which correlate with protection against lethal hsv-2 infection. in the present study, we examined the ability of cholera toxin (ctx) to act as an immunogenic carrier for gd(1-23). the number of gd(1-23) residues conjugated to ctx affected its binding to gm1 ganglioside and physiological toxicity, both of which are factors a ...19921383408
herpes simplex virus infection induces a selective increase in the proportion of galanin-positive neurons in mouse sensory ganglia.we examined the effects of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection on host neuropeptide content in mouse dorsal root ganglia (drg) neurons following unilateral hind footpad inoculation. at selected survival times following infection, adjacent tissue sections of decalcified spine containing the paired 4th and 5th lumbar drgs were immunoreacted to detect hsv-2, calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), or galanin antigen. labeled and unlabeled neurons were counted and the somal areas for all n ...19921385205
fluorocontaining d-cycloserines. synthesis and in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and antiviral activities.some fluoroacylderivatives at the side chain nh2 of d-cycloserine were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and tubercular or non-tubercular mycobacteria. against the used gram-positive and gram-negative strains only trifluoroacetamide 1 exhibited comparable mic values and lower mbc values than those of parent antibiotic. other fluoroacycloserines, inactive at all on these bacteria, were found to inhibit the growth of mycobacteria when tested in liquid m ...19921388608
neuralgia preceding recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 whitlow. 19921436547
in vitro virucidal effects of allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds.garlic (allium sativum) has been shown to have antiviral activity, but the compounds responsible have not been identified. using direct pre-infection incubation assays, we determined the in vitro virucidal effects of fresh garlic extract, its polar fraction, and the following garlic associated compounds: diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thiosulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, ajoene, alliin, deoxyalliin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide. activity was determined against s ...19921470664
absence of genomes of dna tumor viruses and expression of oncogenes and growth factors in two esophageal carcinoma cell lines of chinese study the oncogenesis of human esophageal carcinoma, the presence of dna sequences homologous to several dna tumor viruses and the expression of oncogenes and growth factor genes were examined in two esophageal carcinoma cell lines of chinese origin, ce48t/vgh and ce81t/vgh. southern blot analyses failed to detect sequences homologous to hepatitis b virus (hbv), epstein-barr virus (ebv), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), cytomegalovirus (cmv) or human papilloma virus (hpv) genomes. norther ...19921473373
evaluation of new anti-infective drugs for the treatment of genital infections due to herpes simplex virus. infectious diseases society of america and the food and drug administration.this guideline addresses clinical trials of new therapies for genital infections due to herpes simplex virus (hsv). of the two types of virus, hsv-2 is the more common pathogen. both hsv-1 and hsv-2 become latent in sacral nerve root ganglia and intermittently reactivate. patients who have frequent recurrences (more than four per year) may be candidates for long-term suppressive therapy. in both first-episode and recurrent genital hsv infections, lesions should be cultured for hsv. testing for h ...19921477256
cystic encephalomalacia and intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection.cystic encephalomalacia occurred in two preterm infants who had proven intrauterine herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. calcification was evident in the basal ganglia. follow-up scans indicated that the cysts had resolved over a period of two months in one infant, while in the case of the other, the cysts became progressively larger with significant ventricular dilatation developing. while cystic changes in the brain of preterm infants are usually due to periventricular leukomalacia, intraute ...19921491914
cholera toxin conjugates for intragastric vaccination against herpes simplex virus type this study, we tested the hypothesis that enteric immunization with cholera toxin (ctx) conjugated to glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) or a peptide corresponding to residues (1-23) of gd (gd(1-23)) would induce relevant antiviral immunity. intraperitoneal (ip) immunization of mice with ctx-gd(1-23) conjugate induced anti-hsv-2 sera antibody responses which correlated with protection from a lethal ip challenge with hsv-2. intragastric (ig) immunization of mice with th ...19921503890
identification of equine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein g: a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein.equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) glycoproteins of m(r) 63k and 250k were identified in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. the 63k glycoprotein was type-specific; that is, it reacted with monospecific sera from horses that had been immunized or infected with ehv4, but not with monospecific sera from horses immunized or infected with ehv1, a closely related alphaherpesvirus. it was postulated that the secreted protein may be the homologue of similarly secreted glycoproteins of herpes simplex vi ...19921529525
outcome of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in guinea pigs.factors that influence the outcome of genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection were explored in a guinea pig model. the viral inoculum required to establish infection in 50% of animals (id50) was similar for inbred (strain 2) and outbred (hartley) guinea pigs. however, the viral inoculum required to produce clinical disease in 50% of the animals (cd50) was 10 times greater for strain 2 compared to hartley animals. hsv infection of both inbred and outbred animals was more likely to result in ...19921578222
acute retinal necrosis syndrome.1. acute retinal necrosis (arn) represents a specific pattern of clinical presentations for certain herpes virus infections in the posterior segment of the eye. these include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus. 2. patients with arn usually complain of mild to moderate ocular or periorbital pain, foreign body sensation, and a red eye. visual symptoms usually include hazy vision, floaters, and, rarely, decreased peripheral vision. 3. medical treatment of choice is intravenous acyclovi ...19921597865
structural basis of c3b binding by glycoprotein c of herpes simplex virus.glycoproteins c (gc) from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2, gc-1 and gc-2, bind the human complement fragment c3b, although the two glycoproteins differ in their abilities to act as c3b receptors on infected cells and in their effects on the alternative complement pathway. previously, we identified three regions of gc-2 (i, ii, and iii) which are important for c3b binding. in this study, our goal was to identify c3b-binding sites on gc-1 and to continue our analysis of gc-2. we cons ...19921602532
herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and cervical cancer: a prospective study of 12 years of follow-up in finland.this study was initiated to investigate the role of past herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection, as determined by serum antibody analysis, in the etiology of cervical neoplasia. two finnish registers, the registry of the social insurance institution's mobile clinic survey and the finnish cancer registry, were linked. about 40,000 blood samples were drawn in 1968-72 and stored by the social insurance institution. according to the cancer registry, 32 cases of cervical carcinoma or carcinoma ...19921617120
endemic disease, nutrition and fertility in developing countries.subfecundity is caused by disease and nutrition as well as by genetic, environmental, and psychological components. sexually transmitted diseases (stds) are caused by 21 different pathogens of which syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia are the most important. syphilis is caused by the bacterium treponema pallidum with incidence of 10% in thailand. 20% in papua new guinea, and 40% in ethiopia. stillbirths in infected mothers range from 66% to 80%. gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium neisseria ...19921634564
evaluation of five monoclonal antibody-based kits or reagents for the identification and culture confirmation of herpes simplex virus.five immunofluorescence (if) kits or reagents (bartels [bartels immunodiagnostic supplies, inc., bellevue, wash.], imagen [celltech diagnostics, ltd., distributed by analytab products, plainview, n.y.], ortho [ortho diagnostics systems, inc., raritan, n.j.], syva [syva co., palo alto, calif.], whittaker [whittaker bioproducts, walkersville, md.]) were evaluated for typing and laboratory confirmation of herpes simplex virus (hsv). of 101 clinical isolates tested by each kit or reagent, results fo ...19911645367
icp4, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus, shares features common to gtp-binding proteins and is adenylated and guanylated.infected cell protein 4 (icp4), the product of the alpha 4 gene, regulates herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 gene expression at the transcriptional level both positively and negatively. previous studies have shown that icp4 is extensively modified posttranslationally. we report that icp4 was labeled in isolated nuclei of infected cells by [alpha-32p]gtp or [alpha-32p]atp. the labeling of icp4 by [alpha-32p]gtp or [alpha-32p]atp required excess gtp, atp, gdp, and adp and occurred ...19911645791
native herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d vaccine: immunogenicity and protection in animal models.mice, guinea pigs, and rhesus monkeys were immunized with immunoaffinity-purified native glycoprotein d (gd) derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1). the native glycoprotein has evoked significant in vivo responses even at low doses. thus, mice immunized with doses as low as 1 microgram were significantly protected from the morbidity and mortality of lethal hsv2 challenge and from establishment of latent hsv2 infection. protection was dose-related and correlated with prechallenge serum n ...19911645898
differentiation of herpes simplex virus-induced fusion from without and fusion from within by cyclosporin a and compound 48/80.treating strains of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in culture with either cyclosporin a or compound 48/80, allowed the strains to be divided into two groups. group 1 contains the strains ang and hfem of hsv-1 and lux syn (hsv-2) producing fusion from within (ffwi) and fusion from without (ffwo). cyclosporin a fails to inhibit both types of fusion at concentrations up to 100 microm. strains ang and hfem belong to the syn 3 marker locus group identified for hsv-1. group 2 contains all other fusion-pro ...19911646277
the simian herpesvirus sa8 homologue of the herpes simplex virus gb gene: mapping, sequencing, and comparison to the hsv gb.the genomic location and dna sequence of the simian herpesvirus sa8 gene encoding a homologue of the hsv1 gb glycoprotein was determined. using a cloned gb gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1) as probe in southern blot hybridizations, the sa8 gb gene was localized to a 10-kbp kpni fragment mapping in the unique long part of the genome. a 2.8 kbp, 68.4% gc segment of this fragment was sequenced. it contained a 2649 nucleotide orf possibly encoding a 98.4 kda polypeptide. the predicted amino ...19911646593
herpes simplex virus type 2 and hiv seroconversion. 19911646875
rheumatoid factors react with fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 fc gamma-binding proteins.human polyclonal igm rheumatoid factors (rf) were tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies (mab) (ii-481 and b10/a8) to glycoprotein e (ge), the fc gamma-binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), as well as with mab 88-s to ge of hsv-2. most of the rf reacted with ii-481 and 88-s. positive reactions were recorded for rf reacting with whole mab ii-481 and 88-s, as well as with their fab, but not their fc, fragments. human monoclonal igm rf isolated f ...19911647772
restriction endonuclease patterns of herpes simplex virus dna: subtyping of hsv-1 and hsv-2 strains from genital and nongenital lesions.herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) isolates from genital and nongenital infections were submitted to restriction endonuclease analysis for possible genomic changes in relation with the adaptation of the virus to a new site on the body. hsv-1 and hsv-2 strains were successfully divided into two subgroups using the hin c ii restriction enzyme. no correlation was found, however, between the proposed genomic subtypes h1a, h1b, h2a and h2b, and the genital or nongenital origin of the hs ...19911647930
herpes and human ribonucleotide reductases. inhibition by 2-acetylpyridine 5-[(2-chloroanilino)-thiocarbonyl]-thiocarbonohydrazone (348u87).the mode of inactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and human ribonucleotide reductases by 2-acetylpyridine 5-[(2-chloroanilino)-thiocarbonyl]-thiocarbonohydrazone++ + (348u87) was determined and compared to that described previously [porter et al. biochem pharmacol 39: 639-646, 1990] for 2-acetylpyridine 5-[(dimethylamino)thiocarbonyl]-thiocarbonohydrazone (a1110u). 348u87 inactivated herpes ribonucleotide reductase faster than did a1110u. moreover, iron-complexed 348u87 was a considerably ...19911648925
[monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex viruses antigens--specificity and utility in rapid serotyping of clinical isolates].sixteen hybridomas secreting antibodies to hsv-1 and 22 hybridomas secreting antibodies to hsv-2 were derived from fusion of sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with each respective virus. four of the former 16 hybridomas and seven of the latter 22 hybridomas were subcloned and injected into pristane-primed mice to obtain high titers of monoclonal antibodies. antigen specificity of these monoclonal antibodies were determined by the western blotting (wb) assay. two ou ...19911649232
complementary lethal invasion of the central nervous system by nonneuroinvasive herpes simplex virus types 1 and is well-known that viral thymidine kinase (tk) expression is important for the maximum demonstration of virulence of herpes simplex virus (hsv). in this study, we have investigated interactions of a tk- mutant of virulent hsv type 2 (hsv-2) (syn+) and a nonneuroinvasive hsv-1 (syn) in mice. when the mice were inoculated with each virus alone in their rear footpads, no mice were killed even after infection with high doses of viruses (greater than 10(6) pfu per mouse), whereas 100% of the mice ...19911649347
synergistic topical therapy by acyclovir and a1110u for herpes simplex virus induced zosteriform rash in mice.combination therapy with a1110u, an inactivator of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) and the varicella zoster virus ribonucleotide reductase, and acyclovir (acv) was evaluated for treatment of cutaneous herpetic disease in athymic mice infected on the dorsum. in this model, infection with hsv produces a 'zosteriform-like' rash that is first visible on day 3 or 4 post-infection (p.i.) and eventually extends from the anterior mid-line to the dorsal mid-line of the affected flank. in untreated mice, t ...19911650166
efficacy of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine in the therapy of tk+ and tk- herpes simplex virus experimental keratitis.the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogue pmea [9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine] is a broad spectrum antiviral agent effective against dna viruses and retroviruses. it is particularly active against the human immunodeficiency virus and, like other phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivatives, it also inhibits hsv-1, tk- hsv-1 and hsv-2. we have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of pmea in the hsv-1 and tk- hsv-1 experimental keratitis models using bvdu (bromovinyldeoxyuridine) as the reference comp ...19911650660
protective effect of anti-glycoprotein d antibody on herpetic chorioretinitis in newborn rabbits.subcutaneous injection of type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) (10(3) pfu) to newborn rabbits produced severe skin lesions and wide dissemination of the virus to various organs including the eye. ocular lesions were characterized by retinal folds and choroiditis. hsv could be isolated from mononuclear cells (mncs) of infected animal blood. newborn rabbits treated with monoclonal antibody (mab) against glycoprotein d (gd) of hsv on days 0, 2 and 4 postinfection had little or no skin lesions (0.0-2 ...19911650664
differences in the capacity of two herpes simplex virus isolates to spread from eye to brain map to 1610 base pairs of dna found in the gene for dna polymerase.a intertypic recombinant, designated hsv-r(d1), had previously been generated from non-neuroinvasive hsv-2(186) and neuroinvasive hsv-1(17). although the recombinant contained less than 2% of the hsv-1 genome, it retained the neuroinvasive phenotype. the nucleotide sequences responsible for the neuroinvasiveness of hsv-r(d1) were previously mapped to a 3.0 kb segment of dna located within the dna polymerase gene (mu 0.414 to 0.430) via marker rescue experiments. we have now sequenced this region ...19911650671
evidence endogenous interferon production contributed to the lack of ocular virulence of an hsv intertypic intertypic recombinant isolated from rabbit kidney cells following co-transfection of hsv-1(17) and hsv-2(186) dna failed to induce overt ocular pathology when inoculated onto the murine sacrificed cornea at concentrations as high as 10(7) pfu per eye. in contrast, both parents induced corneal disease at a 1000-fold lower dose. the reason(s) for the failure of the intertypic recombinant, designated ro25x, to induce corneal pathology was investigated. it was found that the recombinant was 100- ...19911650672
necrotizing myelopathy associated with malignancy caused by herpes simplex virus type 2: clinical report of two cases and literature review.two cases of necrotizing myelopathy, one with lung carcinoma and the other with adult t cell leukemia (atl), displayed flaccid paraplegia and sphincter dysfunction. both cases did not show any direct neoplastic cell invasion of the spinal cord. pathologically, diffuse and random necrosis was found in the spinal cord in both cases. in the case of atl, small numbers of inclusion bodies in the nerve cell nuclei were demonstrated. using polyclonal and also monoclonal antibodies, herpes simplex virus ...19911650859
synthesis and anticancer and antiviral activities of various 2'- and 3'-methylidene-substituted nucleoside analogues and crystal structure of 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidenecytidine hydrochloride.various 2'- and 3'-methylidene-substituted nucleoside analogues have been synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer and/or antiviral agents. among these compounds, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidene-5-fluorocytidine (22) and 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidenecytidine (23) not only demonstrated potent anticancer activity in culture against murine l1210 and p388 leukemias, sarcoma 180, and human ccrf-cem lymphoblastic leukemia, producing ed50 values of 1.2 and 0.3 microm, 0.6 and 0.4 microm, 1.5 and 1.5 microm, ...19911652024
inability of enzyme immunoassays to discriminate between infections with herpes simplex virus types 1 and determine the accuracy of three commercial enzyme immunoassays in detecting and subtyping antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2.19911652909
nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene encoding virion protein 16 of herpes simplex virus type 2.a virion protein (vp16) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) activates transcription of viral immediate-early genes. we have determined the nucleotide sequence of the virion activator gene from hsv-2, which we term vp16-2. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the hsv-1 and hsv-2 homologs shows that the vp16-2 gene product retains features determined to be important for transcriptional activation by vp16.19911653757
seroreactive recombinant herpes simplex virus type 2-specific glycoprotein g.the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genome codes for an envelope protein, glycoprotein g (gg), which contains predominantly type 2-specific epitopes. a portion of this gg gene has been expressed as a fusion protein in escherichia coli. expression was regulated by a lambda phage pl promoter. the 60,000-molecular-weight recombinant protein was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. amino acid sequence analysis confirmed the n terminus of the purified protein. mice immunized with recombinant ...19911653787
herpes simplex virus glycoprotein c is a receptor for complement component ic3b.herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cells bind c3b and ic3b, but not c3d, at the cell surface. herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells bind none of these c3 fragments. a transfection assay was used to demonstrate that binding of ic3b was to gc1. although ic3b did not bind to hsv-2-infected cells, it did bind to mammalian cells transfected with the gc2 gene. using linker insertion mutants, three domains on gc2 that are important for binding ic3b were mapped; these regions were similar ...19911654359
cleavage of the bovine herpesvirus glycoprotein b is not essential for its function.herpes simplex virus glycoprotein b (hsvgb) and its bovine herpesvirus homologue (bhvgb) share similar primary structures. these glycoproteins are present in the envelope of the virion and are believed to initiate infection by fusing the virus envelope with a host cell membrane. bhvgb, like the membrane-fusing glycoproteins of most enveloped viruses, is normally cleaved and is present as a disulphide-linked complex in the virus envelope and host cell membranes. hsvgb, however, remains uncleaved, ...19911654372
the rl neurovirulence locus in herpes simplex virus type 2 strain hg52 plays no role in latency.we have demonstrated that the variant jh2604 of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain hg52 is completely avirulent in balb/c mice following intracranial inoculation, with an ld50 of greater than 10(7) p.f.u./mouse compared to the wild-type ld50 of less than 10(2) p.f.u./mouse. in jh2604, a 1.5 kbp deletion extends from the dr1/ub junction of the 'a' sequence to 511 bp upstream of the 5' end of ie1 in both long repeats. we have since constructed a second variant (2701) in which only 850 ...19911654382
the nucleotide sequence, 5' end, promoter domain, and kinetics of expression of the gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcript.the sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) latency-associated transcript (lat) region resembles that of hsv-1 only where the lats overlap icp0 and in the putative promoter region. otherwise, the lat 5' ends, kinetics of expression, and promoter elements are mostly conserved between hsv-1 and hsv-2. the remaining differences between the lats could contribute to each virus's distinctive pattern of reactivation.19911654458
enhanced malignant transformation induced by expression of a distinct protein domain of ribonucleotide reductase large subunit from herpes simplex virus type 2.the 1.3-kilobase (kb) pst i dna fragment c (pst i-c) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) morphological transforming region iii (mtriii; map unit 0.562-0.570) encodes part of the n-terminal half of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (rr1; amino acid residues 71-502) and induces the neoplastic transformation of immortalized cell lines. to assess directly the role of these rr1 protein sequences in cell transformation, the pst i-c fragment was cloned in an expression vector (p91023) co ...19911654564
modulation of lymphoproliferation and oxidative burst by herpes-transformed this study, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-transformed cells (h238) and conditioned medium (cm) from h238 cell cultures were studied with respect to their effects on lymphoproliferation and the chemiluminescent oxidative burst of phagocytic cells. the h238 cells expressed a nuclear antigen detectable by fluorescent antibody testing using pooled sera from tumor-bearing mice, but no hsv-1 or hsv-2 cell membrane antigens could be found using specific monoclonal antibodies. balb/c mice subcu ...19911654931
screening pregnant women for genital a prospective study to identify the viral type isolated from women undergoing screening for herpes simplex virus (hsv) during pregnancy using fluoroscine-labelled monoclonal antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2, hsv-2 was more likely to be isolated during the third trimester and was the only viral type isolated at term. as the severity of neonatal central nervous system disease is greater with hsv-2 than hsv-1 we recommended that all women with a history of genital herpes should be screened during p ...19911655058
genital warts, other sexually transmitted diseases, and vulvar determine whether specific sexually transmitted diseases were associated with an increased risk of vulvar cancer, we conducted a case-control study among residents of three countries in western washington. we identified, interviewed, and obtained blood samples from women with in situ (n = 180) and invasive (n = 53) vulvar cancer, 18-79 years of age, who were first diagnosed with these diseases during 1980-1988. we compared their responses with those of 466 women from the general population wh ...19911655066
herpes simplex virus type 2: a possible interaction with human papillomavirus types 16/18 in the development of invasive cervical cancer.a case-control study of 766 histologically confirmed incident cases of invasive cervical cancer and 1,532 hospital and community controls was conducted in latin america to evaluate the etiologic role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and to examine whether hsv-2 interacts with other risk factors. in addition to a personal interview, all subjects were asked to donate blood samples and cervical swabs for assessment of exposure to hsv-2 and human papillomaviruses (hpvs) respectively. ninety-ei ...19911655658
the herpes simplex virus 1 protein kinase encoded by the us3 gene mediates posttranslational modification of the phosphoprotein encoded by the ul34 gene.earlier studies have shown that a herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) open reading frame, us3, encodes a novel protein kinase and have characterized the cognate amino acid sequence which is phosphorylated by this enzyme. this report identifies an apparently essential viral phosphoprotein whose posttranslational processing involves the viral protein kinase. analyses of viral proteins phosphorylated in the course of productive infection revealed a phosphoprotein whose mobility was viral protein kinase ...19911656069
evaluation of sq 34,514: pharmacokinetics and efficacy in experimental herpesvirus infections in mice.the new antiviral nucleoside sq 34,514 [(1r-1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 alpha)-2-amino-9- [2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclobutyl]-6h-purin-6-one], the active r isomer of racemic sq 33,054 (cyclobut-g), was evaluated for efficacy in the treatment of herpesvirus infections in mice. sq 34,514 was orally efficacious in a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) systemic infection, an intracerebral hsv-2 infection, a vaginally induced hsv-2 infection in ovariectomized mice, and in a systemic murine cytomegalovirus infe ...19911656863
clinical and serologic features of herpes simplex virus infection in patients with aids.we studied the natural history of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection and its association with specific serum antibody in a sample of 68 hiv-infected patients with a first episode of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia at san francisco general hospital in 1986. seroprevalence was 66 and 77% for hsv-1 and hsv-2 antibody, respectively, by immunoblot assay. twenty-seven patients had 45 hsv outbreaks diagnosed during 739 patient-months of follow-up. median frequency of recurrence resulting in a medical ...19911657040
herpes simplex virus type 1 that exhibits herpes simplex virus type 2 sensitivity to (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.a clinical isolate, designated 145, of herpes simplex virus (hsv) had type 1 characteristics as determined by monoclonal antibody immunofluorescence, heat stability of viral thymidine kinase (tk), bamhi restriction endonuclease pattern, and absence of the hsv-2-specific 38-kd protein. however, instead of being sensitive to e-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) like hsv-1, isolate 145 displayed a resistance pattern like hsv-2 to the drug as determined by viral replication and viral dna synthe ...19911657822
a truncated protein kinase domain of the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase (icp10) expressed in escherichia coli.the amino-terminal domain of the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase (icp10) contains a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that has characteristics of a growth factor receptor (chung, t. d., wymer, j. p., smith, c. c., kulka, m., and aurelian, l. (1989) j. virol. 63, 3389-3398; chung, t. d., wymer, j. p., kulka, m. smith, c. c., and aurelian, l. (1990) virology 179, 168-178). to characterize this protein kinase (pk) domain further we constructed a bacteria ...19911657940
abolition of the rl neurovirulence phenotype of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain hg52 does not require deletion of the dr1 element of the 'a' sequence.we have characterized a spontaneous variant of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain hg52, 2616, which has 786 bp of both copies of rl deleted, but which retains 782 bp upstream of the 5' end of immediate early gene 1 and 463 bp downstream of the 'a' sequence. variant 2616 is avirulent following intracerebral inoculation of balb/c mice, thus showing in vivo characteristics similar to those of variant 2604, described previously (a 1488 bp deletion incorporating the dr1 element of the 'a' seq ...19911658204
sequence, function, and regulation of the vmw65 gene of herpes simplex virus type 2.we determined the sequence of the gene for the virion transactivator protein vmw65 of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), strain 333. an analysis of the coding sequence revealed an overall high degree of primary sequence conservation (86%) relative to the hsv-1 protein, although the carboxy-terminal region which encompasses the powerful acidic transactivation domain of the hsv-1 protein was slightly less well conserved (70%). one important change in this region was the presence of a proline res ...19911658370
effects of cytokines and r-837, a cytokine inducer, on uv-irradiation augmented recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs.we have recently reported that latently hsv-2-infected guinea pigs exhibit a three- to four-fold increase in recurrent lesions after exposure to ultraviolet radiation (uv), allowing rapid evaluation of antiviral drugs in treating recurrent hsv disease. in this report we examine the effect of alpha interferon (ifn-alpha), interleukin-2 (il-2), and a cytokine inducer (r-837) on uv-induced recurrent genital herpes. we have previously shown that topical r-837 is a biologic response modifier with no ...19911659313
development and evaluation of an elisa using secreted recombinant glycoprotein b for determination of igg antibody to herpes simplex elisa for the determination of igg antibody to herpes simplex virus (hsv) was developed using a secreted recombinant hsv-1 glycoprotein b (gb-1s) as a solid phase. the clinical validity of the elisa was established by testing different groups of sera containing hsv-1, hsv-2, or mixed antibody, in parallel with gb-1s elisa and conventional hsv-1/hsv-2 elisa. the new gb-1s elisa detected hsv-1/hsv-2 antibody in sera from 48 subjects with either hsv-1 or hsv-2 past infection as well as in sera f ...19911659581
the pathogenicity of ribonucleotide reductase-null mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 in mice.the pathogenicity of ribonucleotide reductase (rr)-null mutants (hrr3 and icp6 delta) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 was studied after intracerebral and corneal inoculation in newborn and adult icr mice. icp6 delta failed to replicate in brains of mice greater than or equal to 8 days old but exhibited significant virulence for newborn mice as a result of viral replication in the brains. the rr- and a thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient mutant of hsv-1 strain kos could grow in eye tissues of ad ...19911659596
evaluation of a test based on baculovirus-expressed glycoprotein g for detection of herpes simplex virus type-specific immunoblot assay for discrimination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 was devised using extracts of recombinant-baculovirus-infected insect cells expressing hsv-1 or -2 glycoprotein g (gg1 or gg2). the assay was evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained by using an immunodot assay based on gg immunopurified from hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells. each of 110 human serum specimens was tested blindly and independently three times. at a serum dilution of 1:20, ...19911659601
recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis in a preterm neonate. favourable outcome after prolonged acyclovir treatment.we describe a case of recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) central nervous system infection in a preterm neonate. on two occasions, encephalitis occurred together with eruption of vesicles on the right arm, and the patient was treated with acyclovir. new recurrences of vesicles followed each attempt to discontinue antiviral treatment, and prompted a continuous long-term acyclovir prophylaxis. at three years of age, the patient has developed normally. the use of immunoblotting for serolo ...19911659768
suppression of immune responses by herpes virus type 2-transformed murine tumor done in our laboratories, using a murine model, indicates that suppression of host immune responses might be due to secretion of soluble factors by tumor cells. the h238 cells (balb/c embryonic fibroblasts transformed by uv-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2) exhibit progressive tumor growth with subsequent decrease in lymphoproliferation. to further study the suppressive effects of a tumor, h238 conditioned medium (cm) was tested for its ability to block murine and human mitogenic and ...19911660030
antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.this article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. to study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, pluronic f-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultu ...19911660151
apical expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins in human neuroblastoma cells.the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoproteins on the surface of human neuroblastoma cells has been investigated using millipore millicell culture plate inserts. utilizing a modified radioimmunoassay, we learned that glycoproteins b, c, d, e, and i were expressed predominantly on the apical membrane domain of the infected neuroblastoma cells. the unidirectional transport of hsv-2 glycoproteins was substantiated by the analysis of extracellular glycoproteins released from neu ...19911660208
improved detection of hsv by electron microscopy in clinical specimens using ultracentrifugation and colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy: comparison with viral culture and cytodiagnosis.three tests were compared to diagnose herpes virus infection: electron microscopy (em), viral culture (vc) and cytodiagnosis (tzanck smear). the study comprised 67 patients with skin or mucous membrane lesions suggestive of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. the sensitivity of em increased 25% after virus concentration by ultracentrifugation. herpes virus infection was confirmed in 55 of the 67 cases by em or vc or both. em detected 53 herpes virus-positive lesion samples of which 14 were not ...19911660490
efficacy of hsv-1 iscom vaccine in the guinea-pig model of hsv-2 infection.the capability of a herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1 iscom vaccine to protect against intravaginal hsv-2 challenge infection in guinea-pigs is described. the protective efficacy of the hsv-1 iscom vaccine is compared with that of a purified, aqueous hsv-1 antigen preparation administered using a similar immunization schedule. the results show that female guinea-pigs immunized with two doses of hsv-1 iscom vaccine, each consisting of 20 micrograms of protein given 2 weeks apart responded with high el ...19911661978
comparative sequence analysis of the long repeat regions and adjoining parts of the long unique regions in the genomes of herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2.we report the determination of the dna sequence of the long repeat (rl) region and adjacent parts of the long unique (ul) region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain hg52. the dna sequences and genetic content of the extremities of hsv-2 ul were found to be closely similar to those determined previously for hsv-1. the 5658 bp sequenced at the left end of hsv-2 ul contained coding regions for genes ul1 to ul4 plus part of ul5. the 4355 bp sequenced at the right end of ul co ...19911662697
a transformation-specific polypeptide distinct from heat shock proteins is induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.a tumour-specific polypeptide designated u90 is one of a set of polypeptides which are encoded by the host cell and are specific for the transformed cell state, being immunoprecipitated by the sera of tumour-bearing animals. the interest in these tumour-specific polypeptides centres on the finding that they are also recognized by antisera raised against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells, implying some role for hsv-2 in tumorigenesis. the peptide map of hsv-2-induced u90 is indis ...19911662699
discrimination of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 cerebral infections in a rat model.a rat model was used to evaluate intertypic differences after intracranial (i.c.) inoculation of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 strains with regard to neurovirulence and neuropathology, and influence of age on susceptibility. in adult rats, hsv-1 strains were more virulent than hsv-2 strains. hsv-1 replicated to higher titers in the central nervous system (cns) of rats, as compared with hsv-2. in rats of less than 2-3 weeks of age, hsv-1 and hsv-2 were equally virulent, but morphologic ...19911662855
genomic sequences homologous to the protein kinase region of the bifunctional herpes simplex virus type 2 protein icp10.the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) ribonucleotide reductase (icp10) consists of two functional domains. the amino (n)-terminal domain at residues 1-411 has serine/threonine-specific kinase activity (pk domain) and is encoded by a dna fragment with transforming potential (15,17). the remaining region is required for ribonucleotide reductase activity (rr domain) (14, 15). computer-assisted comparison of the icp10 sequence to the embl database 21 has revealed sequences within ...19911663292
amplification and characterization of herpesvirus dna in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute encephalitis.a single pair of oligonucleotide primers selected within a highly conserved region of the dna polymerase gene of the herpesviruses was designed to amplify related viral genomes, i.e., herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, epstein-barr virus, and cytomegalovirus, by the polymerase chain reaction. a simple restriction enzyme analysis of these amplified products allowed accurate characterization of the herpesvirus type. ninety-nine cerebrospinal fluid samples from 36 patients (i ...19911663508
clinical studies with herpes simplex virus type 2 curtis strain vaccine. 19911664125
development of a herpes simplex virus subunit glycoprotein vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic use.a herpes simplex virus subunit vaccine has been tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in animal models. the vaccine is a mixture of the viral glycoproteins gb and gd expressed in mammalian cells as secreted carboxyl terminal truncated derivatives. the antigens have been combined with several adjuvants, including a lipophilic derivative of a muramyl tripeptide, mtp-pe, and administered in a stable, low-oil emulsion. titers of antibody that are threefold to 15-fold greater than those o ...19911664126
evaluation of herpes simplex virus vaccines in animals: the guinea pig vaginal model.the guinea pig model of genital herpes has proved useful for the evaluation of experimental herpes simplex virus vaccines. the model shares many of the features of genital herpes in humans, including a natural route of inoculation that results in self-limiting primary vulvovaginitis. latent infection is established in sensory ganglia, and animals experience both spontaneous and ultraviolet radiation-induced recurrence of infection. many humoral, cellular, and cytokine responses to herpes simplex ...19911664129
immune responses to herpes simplex virus in guinea pigs (footpad model) and mice immunized with vaccinia virus recombinants containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d.vaccinia virus recombinants containing the herpes simplex virus (hsv) gene for glycoprotein d type 1 (gd-1) under control of an early (vp176) or late (vp254) vaccinia virus promoter or for hsv glycoprotein type 2 (gd-2) under control of the early promoter (vp221) were studied for their ability to induce protective immunity to hsv-2 in the guinea pig model of cutaneous recurrent disease and the mouse model of fatal disease. titers of hsv-specific neutralizing antibody were similar in the two grou ...19911664130
herpes simplex virus infection in populations of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons: effects of inoculation route and virus investigate whether herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infection of sensory ganglion neurons is restricted to a particular neuronal class, we unilaterally inoculated either the footpad, leg muscle or sciatic nerve of mice with strains of hsv-2 that differ in virulence and examined the soma sizes of lumbar dorsal root ganglion (drg) neurons containing viral antigen near the peak of acute infection. each inoculation route appeared relatively selective for a different portion of the neuronal si ...19911665505
[a comparison of the results of analyzing the clinical data from gynecological, ophthalmological and dental patients using a set of rapid methods for the diagnosis of herpesvirus infection].analysis of biological specimens from gynecological, ophthalmological, and stomatological patients was carried out using current express methods for diagnosis of herpes virus infection developed by the authors: enzyme immunoassay (eia), time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (tr-fia), molecular hybridization and conventional immunofluorescence technique. monoclonal antibodies (mca) generated by us with epitope specificity for gpd hsv-2 were used in eia and tr-fia. f(ab')2-fragments of mca used as sorbe ...19911665621
inhibition of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 replication in vitro by mercurithio analogs of deoxyuridine.the in vitro antiviral activity of several 5-mercurithio analogs of 2'-deoxyuridine (durd) on the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) were examined. of those compounds tested, the thioglycerol analog of 5-mercuri-2'-deoxyuridine (hgdurd) was most effective in inhibiting the replication of hsv-1 in kb cells with a 50% inhibitory dose (id50) of 0.001 micrograms/ml while the glutathione analog of hgdurd was the most effective in inhibiting the replication of hsv-2 with ...19911665962
virological and clinical characteristics of human herpesvirus 6.six distinct human herpesviruses have been identified. they include herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), cytomegalovirus (cmv), varicella-zoster virus (vzv), epstein-barr virus and the recently described human herpesvirus 6 (hhv-6). with the exception of hsv-2, the members of the family are ubiquitous and infect most of the human population in the first decade of life. hhv-6 possesses morphological and structural features characteristic of members from the herpesvirus family ...19911666441
vaccination against herpesvirus, fiction or reality?against herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) there are commercially available vaccines which may induce protection against symptoms of primary infections, but not against establishment of latency. effective animal vaccines have been developed against herpes simplex-like viruses, for example pseudorabies vaccine for pigs, and an experimental vaccine can protect cattle against infection with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus. there are also commercially available effective live vaccines again ...19911666442
one year acyclovir suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: a study of efficacy, safety, virus sensitivity and antibody response.the efficacy of oral acyclovir 400 mg twice daily in suppressing frequently relapsing genital herpes simplex was evaluated in an open multicenter study. seventy-one patients were treated for 12 months. during treatment, 73% of the patients were completely free of symptoms when taking the tablets continuously, and another 14% had mild symptoms such as erythema and/or itching at single occasions. an accidental treatment interruption for 2-4 days led to mild but definite herpes episodes within a fe ...19911666444
suppression of ocular herpes recurrences by a thymidine kinase inhibitor in squirrel monkeys.5'-ethynylthymidine, an inhibitor of viral thymidine kinase (tk), was given intraperitoneally to squirrel monkeys previously infected by the ocular route with rodanus strain herpes simplex virus. spontaneous ocular recurrences were reduced during therapy, compared to saline-treated controls. this is the first in vivo demonstration that a viral tk inhibitor can reduce recurrences of hsv-1. similar benefit would be expected for hsv-2 and perhaps vzv (varicella zoster virus).19911666825
isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus from clinical specimens collected at national taiwan university hospital, 1981-1990.from 1981 to 1990, 10,167 clinical specimens were collected at national taiwan university hospital from the cases with suspected viral infections. three hundred of herpes simplex virus (hsv) were isolated from these samples (isolation rate; 3.0%). one hundred and fifty-one strains were isolated from non-genital, and 149 strains from genital areas. hsv strains were typed by direct immunofluorescence staining technique. the type specific monoclonal antibodies were used in the test. most of the hsv ...19911667988
condom issues in aids prevention in vitro studies have demonstrated that an intact latex condom provides an effective barrier against several sexually transmitted pathogens, including herpes simplex virus type 2, hepatitis b virus, cytomegalovirus, hiv, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and mycoplasma. this paper discusses some of the major advances and critical issues which should be incorporated in condom program design and implementation. the authors drew extensively from their experience with family health inter ...19911669918
differential susceptibility of a rat glioma cell line and its clones to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.a rat glioma cell line, c6-bu-1, showed differential susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), namely, all the hsv-1 strains tested so far persisted in this cell line but the hsv-2 strains did not. two clones were derived from c6-bu-1 cells and designated c-17 and c-72. the c-72 as well as the parental c6-bu-1 cells supported the replication of hsv-1, but not that of hsv-2. in contrast, c-17 was highly resistant to both hsv-1 and hsv-2. hydrocortisone treatment co ...19911681710
type-common and type-specific monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.seventeen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reacting specifically with the cells infected with herpes simplex viruses type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) were characterized by a variety of immunological tests such as radioimmunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and virus-neutralization. the majority of mabs was directed against glycoprotein b (anti-gb), six reacted with glycoprotein c (anti-gc) and one with glycoprotein g (anti-gg). six anti-gb mabs reacted with both types of hsv (anti-gb-1,2), two anti-gb ...19911681713
effect of selected neuroleptic agents and stereo-isomeric analogues on virus and eukaryotic cells.chlorpromazine, cis(z)-chlorprothixene (truxal), and the non-neuroleptic trans(e)-chlorprothixene and trans(e)-flupenthixol were studied in vitro for possible antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus 2 and for toxic effect on human diploid fibroblasts. based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) antiviral activity was demonstrated for all the compounds in the concentration range 0.39 micrograms/ml-25 micrograms/ml. a cell-toxic effect was shown in the higher concentration range for all ...19911682908
acyclovir resistant genital herpes virus infection in a patient with aids.three acyclovir resistant strains of hsv-2 were isolated from mucoulcerative lesions in a patient suffering from aids in whom the oral and intravenous acyclovir treatment was unsuccessful. all the isolates were classified by monoclonal antibodies and showed no differences in dna restriction patterns.19911683121
improved assays for dna-polymerizing enzymes by the use of enzymatically synthesized 5-[125i]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate, illustrated by direct quantitation of anti-hiv reverse transcriptase antibody and by serum dna polymerase analyses.a one-step procedure which uses enzymes in a crude extract of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1-infected cells to synthesize 5-[125i]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate [( 125i]dutp) from [125i]du is described. the design of a one-step procedure for the purification of the product is also presented. the recovery of [125i]dutp from [125i]du varied between 50 and 75%, the radiochemical purity of the product was greater than 90%, and both synthesis and purification were completed within 8 h. the sens ...19901690011
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