TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies in the course of cervical carcinoma.complement-dependent cytotoxic antibodies to three cervical carcinoma cell lines (me-180, sw-732 and hela) and to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells were determined in a long-term study of women with cervical carcinoma. cytolysis of surface antigens differed significantly between the cervical carcinoma cell lines and hsv-2. regression of the tumor during treatment was accompanied by decreasing cytolysis in the cervical carcinoma lines, while tumor bearers and patients who became ...1977200570
unexpected disseminated herpes simplex infection in a newborn.disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 was unexpectedly discovered in a baby delivered by primary cesarean section at 36 weeks' gestation prior to rupture of the membranes. the mother was free of orogenital lesions at each prenatal examination. examination of the placenta revealed chorioamnionitis implicating an ascending infection from the mother's infected genital tract.1977200876
[herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 and hsv-2) infection: its clinical and oncogenic properties (author's transl)].the epidemiology and clinical features of diseases caused by the herpes simplex virus, are reviewed and recent results are discussed which give an insight into the complex mechanism of primary and chronic, recurrent hsv-1 infections. immunological reactions in hsv infection and data concerning the oncogenic potential of hsv-1 and -2 are dealt with. furthermore, current therapeutic possibilities are outlined.1977201107
studies on tumors produced by cells transformed with herpes simplex virus type 2.biological, histological, and ultrastructural studies were made on tumors produced in weanling hamsters inoculated with hamster embryo fibroblasts (hef) transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 or with cultured cells (tumor cell lines t1 and t2) derived from the tumor tissues. the malignancy of transformants increased through passages in vitro and in vivo. histologically, two tumor cells lines (155-4t1 and u-15t1) produced fibrosarcomas and one (u-26t1) produced lesions resembling "malignant f ...1977201537
an investigation into the relationship of the immunological status of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infected animals and the tumor-enhancing property of this order to compare the state of immunity of hsv-2 infected animals with their sham treated counterparts, several in vivo methods for cell-mediated immunity in addition to the stimulation in vitro of mouse splenocytes with pha were performed. the grafting of c 3 h mice with heterologous skin and the paw test with pha showed no noticeable difference between the two groups. the tuberculin test performed on guinea pigs infected via the footpads, permitted the detection of a slightly impaired reacti ...1977201898
induction of latent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in human cervical epithelial cells in in vitro method was used to induce non-productive herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections in human ecto- and endocervical epithelial cells. adenine arabinoside (ara-a) could prevent the replication of hsv-2 in ecto- and endocervical cells and after removal of ara-a from growth medium a rapid destruction of explants with development of infectious virus was observed. when ara-a was not withdrawn until 4 days or later after in vitro infection the morphological, immunofluorescent and virol ...1977203162
cell-mediated immune responses in recurrent herpesvirus infections. i. lymphocyte proliferation assay.studies in immunosuppressed and immunodeficient patients indicate that the cell-mediated immune response appears to be responsible for controlling reactivated herpesvirus infections. in this study, the various parameters of a herpesvirus (types 1 and 2) antigen specific lymphocyte proliferation assay were optimized and used to evaluate individuals with clinical, recurrent hsv-1 and hsv-2 infections. normal individuals with neutralizing antibody to hsv-1 or hsv-2 responded to virus antigen in cul ...1977191528
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in clinical infections: differences observed by electron microscopy.microtubule-like structures have been observed ultrastructurally in bhk-21/4 cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) but not in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). bhk-21/4 cells were infected with two known strains of hsv-2 and one known strain of hsv-1, as well as with vesicular fluid from 50 clinical isolates (47 perioral, two penile, and one from the leg) in an examination of the accuracy of electron microscopy for differentiation between clinical isolate ...1977191545
herpes simplex virus type 2 date only 9 culture-proven cases of herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis have been recorded. presented here is the 10th case with a review of the literature. although generally a benign disease, its recognition in association with herpes progenitalis must be appreciated to avoid confusion in the treatment of this common veneral disease.1977191771
[investigations concerning the evidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antibodies in patients with carcinoma of the cervix (author's transl)].the neutralizing antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2 were determined in the sera of 128 patients. infection was detectable in nearly 100% of the cases in each of the three investigated groups (patients with carcinoma of the cervix, female patients with chronic recurrent hsv infection in the genital area and a control group without and history of hsv infection). the percentage of patients displaying hsv-2 antibodies in the group with carcinoma of the cervix (38%) is significantly higher than in the con ...1977191994
long-term follow-up studies on herpes simplex antibodies in the course of cervical cancer: patterns of neutralizing antibodies.the kinetics of neutralization was used to study antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in 90 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri. the first sera were drawn before treatment and consective sera were drawn at intervals thereafter. control groups consisted of 90 age-matched healthy women and 70 cancer patients suffering from malignancies other than cervix carcinoma. patients surviving during the observation period of 12-60 months had a significantly higher frequency of neutrali ...1977192072
immunodiagnostic potential of a virus-coded, tumor-associated antigen (ag-4) in cervical cancer.the central theme of this communication is the recognition of an immunodiagnostic potential in a herpes virus antigen, the molecular interrelationship of which with cervical tumor cells is described. in addition to the productive infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) we are confronted by latency and, as suggested by recent studies, by cancer. these different types of virus-host cell interactions are discussed at the host, as well as at the cellular level. a defined level of mol ...1977192436
specific non-immunoglobulin g antibodies and cell-mediated response to herpes simplex virus antigens in women with cervical carcinoma.non-immunoglobulin g-neutralizing antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 were assayed in sera adsorbed with staphylococcus aureus cowan i. they were present in 8% of women with normal cervical smear and in 20, 41, and 74% of women with atypia, dysplasia, and cervical carcinoma, respectively. lymphocytes of the patients were tested for in vitro transformation by killed hsv type 1 and hsv type 2 (hsv-2), as well as by mitomycin c-treated hamster cells transformed by hsv or other viruses o ...1977192446
[prevention and therapy of viral diseases with special reference to interferon].human leukocyte interferon (hli) was used for treatment of human diploid fibroblasts before and after infection with vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), and varicella zoster virus (vzv). vero cells were infected with medical lake macaque herpes virus (mlmv), and treated with hli in the same way. in all of these systems hli exhibited an antiviral effect when administered before infection, and this effect could be increased by additional hli tr ...1977192653
role of macrophages in hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in mice.a marked difference was found between herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in the induction of hepatic necrotic lesions in mice inoculated intraperitoneally. although hsv-2 produced many large, progressive liver lesions in 4-week-old balb/c mice, hsv-1 only occasionally induced a few, self-limiting foci, which eventually healed. this was reflected in the isolation of hsv from the liver and spleen, two organs that are rich in macrophages. although hsv-1 could be only temporarily ...1977192671
a sensitive method for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 specific thymidine kinase.thymidine kinase (tk) activity of uninfected and in vitro herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infected human fetal lung cells was analyzed. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out, and subsequent incubation of equally divided gel slices in the presence of normal or anti-hsv-2 specific tk serum, together with different substrates, was performed. small amounts of virus-specific enzyme could be detected using this combination of electrophoresis and antibodies and replacing atp by ctp in ...1977192698
effect of immunization on acute and latent infections of vaginouterine tissue with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) by the vaginal route resulted in viral shedding during the acute phase of the infection and the development of a latent infection in vaginouterine tissue lasting up to one year in greater than 25% of the animals. immunization with either serotype of hsv markedly reduced viral shedding when animals were subsequently challenged with the homologous serotype, but immunization with hsv-2 was significantly less effective in ...1977192810
comparative effects of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in organotypic cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion.mature organized cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion (mdrg) were infected with herpes simplex virus, type 1 (hsv 1) and type 2 (hsv 2). onset of infectious virus production occurred faster and reached higher levels in hsv 2-infected cultures. neurons, supporting cells and myelin were affected in both types of infection, but morphological changes occurred significantly earlier and more dramatically with the type 2 infection. the pattern of myelin changes was distinctly different in the two typ ...1977192854
[photodynamic inactivation of herpes simplex virus: ii. photodynamic inactivation with proflavine in experimental herpetic keratitis (author's transl)]. 1977204176
incidence and distribution of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital lesions in college women.during a 9-month period, 9,772 women were treated at the student health center's gynecology clinic. herpes simplex virus was isolated from 30 of 57 patients clinically diagnosed as suffering from a herpetic or herpetic-like genial infection for a virological incidence rate of 0.31%. using virus plaque diameter in chick embryo cells and heat stability of viral thymidine kinase, 37% of the isolates were classified as herpes simplex virus type 1 and 63% were classified as herpes simplex virus type ...1977204741
the tumor enhancing property of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2).the s.c. infection of dbf-1 mice with hsv-2 has a tumor enhancing effect on simultaneously i.m. implanted mca-induced syngeneic spindle cell sarcoma. thus with the dosage used here, the first palpable tumors appeared on day 6 in the virus treated group as compared to day 9 p.i. in the sham treated batch. further, more tumors were formed: 75% among the infected and 40% among the sham injected. the tumor yield could be modulated: no difference between the 2 groups was found when the tumor cell dos ...1977193079
transfer of the gene for thymidine kinase to thymidine kinase-deficient human cells by purified herpes simplex viral dna.transformation of human cells from a thymidine kinase (atp:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, ec to a thymidine kinase-positive phenotype has been achieved by using purified dna from herpes simplex virus type 2. the specific activity of the dna was in the range 0.5 to 2.0 transformants per microng and the efficiency of gene transfer was up to 1 transformant per 10(5) recipient cells. several transformed lines able to grow continuously in medium selective for thymidine kinase-pos ...1977193108
[oncogeny of herpes simplex viruses and lupidon].the part of the herpes simplex virus type 2 in the development of the cervex carcinoma of women is still an open question. after the serological findings that patients with cervix carcinoma have a higher rate of antibodies against type 2 than healthy women, which were initially published with great expectation, the molecular-virological examinations which were meanwhile carried out by several work groups to find traces of the herpes simplex virus type 2 in the carcinoma cells were negative, exce ...1977193311
[epidemiology of herpes simplex diseases].the epidemiological principle of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections is to have the affected host survive, to persist in it and thus to make it to be a life long starting point for new infection chains. there is an accurately tuned correlation between virus and host organism, in which the persistence of the virus as a latent infection in the ganglion cells of sensory neurones is of central importance. in this state the virus cannot be attacked by the defensive power of the body. when chang ...1977193312
multicystic cerebral degeneration in neonatal herpes simplex virus encephalitis.typical herpetic papulovesicular skin lesions developed in an apparently normal infant at 12 days of age and were followed within 48 hours by signs and symptoms of acute encephalitis. herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from the intact skin vesicles, and a fourfold increase in complement fixation titer to herpes simplex virus type 2 was found over the ensuing 24 days. the infant survived her acute illness, but was left with severe neurologic sequelae manifested as microcephaly with multicys ...1977193394
igg-, iga- and igm-antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in sera from patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. 1977193693
biochemical and immunological characterization of deoxythymidine kinase of thymidine kinaseless hela cells biochemically transformed by herpes simplex virus type.thymidine kinase (tk) from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) biochemically transformed hela cells, purified by affinity chromatography, has been characterized with respect to its electrophoretic mobility, molecular weight, activation energy, substrate specificity, and immunological specificity. tk purified from hsv-1-transformed hela cells has the same electrophoretic mobility as tk purified from hela cells lytically infected with hsv-1. the sedimentation velocity of purified tk from transform ...1977193790
efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 1 immunization in protecting against acute and latent infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.icr mice were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and later challenged with hsv-2 by footpad inoculation. both immunized animals and age-matched, nonimmunized controls were observed for ascending neurological disease and latent infection of spinal ganglia resulting from the hsv-2 challenge. control animals had a 78% incidence of acute and latent infection compared with a 1.7% incidence in immunized mice. the data show immunity to hsv-1 is protective against both acute and latent i ...1977193798
effect of hormones on herpes simplex virus type-2-induced transformation. 1977194162
biochemical transformation of mouse cells by fragments of herpes simplex virus dna.mouse l cells lacking the enzyme thymidine kinase (lmtk-) have been converted to a tk+ phenotype by infection with fragmented hsv2 strain 333 dna. the dna fragments used were either unique, produced by cleavage with the restriction endonucleases eco ri and hild iii, or randomly produced by mechanical shearing. survival in hat medium was used initially to establish the tk+ phenotype; clones possessing the ability to grow in selective medium were picked on the basis of differing morphology and gro ...1977194705
congenital herpes simplex virus, type 2, bilateral endophthalmitis.a set of dizygotic twins, both born prematurely, developed herpes simplex encephalitis shortly after birth. the second twin had unilateral keratoconjunctivitis and bilateral endophthalmitis and subsequently died from disseminated herpes infection. herpes simplex, type 2, was isolated from conjunctiva of both eyes, cerebrospinal fluid, nasopharynx and trachea. histologic examination of the eyes reveaed bilateral endophthalmitis with a necrotizing retinitis. intranuclear inclusion bodies were demo ...1977206999
a rational approach to the development of antiviral chemotherapy: alternative substrates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) thymidine kinase (tk). 1977212988
lymphocyte stimulation by herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigens. 1. culture conditions, cell fractionation and presentation of hsv antigens.optimal culture conditions for rabbit lymphocytes were established. inclusion of 2-mercaptoethanol in the medium greatly enhanced responses. lymphocytes from the blood of hsv-immunized rabbits responded specifically in vitro to heat-killed (56 degree, 60 min) or uv-inactivated hsv preparations. a uv dose of 13,392 ergs/mm2 was the most suitable inactivating dose. oral intramucosal injection was the most effective way of generating blood lymphocyte responses to hsv, but animals immunized in trade ...1977216529
[the importance of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection pregnancy and the period following birth (author's transl)].the type 2 herpes simplex virus is mainly localized in the genital region and is transmitted by sexual intercourse. a distinction must be made between primary and recurrent infection. during pregnancy, infection of the generative tract with hsv-2 can be expected in 0.1% of cases, depending on the patient's social status. it was possible to culture hsv-2 from the cervical secretion in 0.65% of an investigated group of pregnant women. fifty percent of all infections in pregnancy are asymptomatic. ...1977341550
disodium phosphonoacetate in cream base as a possible topical treatment for skin lesions of herpes simplex virus in cebus monkeys.disodium phosphonoacetate (paa) in a cream-ointment base was applied to herpesvirus skin lesions on the genitalia of cebus monkeys. the lesions had been produced by the intradermal injection of herpes simplex virus type 2. concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 5% paa were used. liberal application of paa at concentrations of 2 and 5% proved extremely irritating and produced extensive, severe lesions over the treated area. the 2% paa, when applied carefully to the lesion area, proved less irritating, but ...1977411417
reduction of herpes simplex virus-type 2 plaque formation by urea.the effect of urea on plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was examined in two systems at concentrations within or approximating the range found in human urine. approximately 7--10 mg urea/ml, added 2, 4, or 8 hours after infection, reduced plaque formation by 50% in african green monkey kidney cells. the growth of this system was affected slightly by continuous treatment with urea at 7--10 mg/ml. plaque formation was reduced in the monkey kidney system, albeit diminishingly, ...1978215721
unusual membranous structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 maintained in media containing 2-deoxy-d-glucose. 1978215884
reversible inhibition of the induction of dna polymerase of herpes simplex virus type 2 in hela cells.the induction of dna polymerase of herpes simplex virus type 2 in hela cells was inhibited by 2-mercapto-1-(beta-4-pyridethyl)benzimidazole added at an early time after infection. however, the inhibitory effect was easily released by removal of the inhibitor. since the drug disorganizes nucleolar structure and prevents its function in hela cells in a reversible manner, it is possible that nucleoli are involved in the induction of dna polymerase of this virus.1978216336
reactivation of herpes simplex virus (type 2) infection in trigeminal ganglia and oral lips with cyclophosphamide treatment.age-dependent resistance in trigeminal nerve against type 2 herpes simplex virus infection through oral lips and reactivation of the latent virus infection with cyclophosphamide in the ganglion in correlation to theprimary infected part were studied in mice with immunofluorescent and histopathological methods. the mice acquired resistance in the nervous tissue after 8 weeks of age. the viral antigen appeared in all trigeminal ganglia immediately after infection, but not found at 4 weeks later. r ...1978219274
application of antisera to interferon in studying oncogenic viruses.susceptibility of balb/c mice to infection with moloney sarcoma virus (msv) and to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was considerably increased by administration of sheep anti-mouse interferon (anti-if) serum. the regression of the msv-induced tumors was inhibited when the weanling (three-to-four-week-old) mice were injected with the anti-if serum. using the anti-if serum it has been found that the antagonism between hsv-2 and rauscher leukemia virus in the mouse is not mediated by interferon. ...1978219809
antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2-induced early antigens and its radioimmunoassay with sera of cervical carcinoma patients. 1978225600
antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of uterine cervix in india.antibody activity to herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) and type-2 (hsv-2) was measured by the indirect hemagglutination (iha) test in sera from 124 women with squamous-cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, 46 women with non-cervical cancer and 116 matched normal women. the type-specific antibodies were assayed by iha inhibition test. the proportion of cervical cancer cases positive for hsv-2 infection was significantly greater than that of non-cervical cancer cases and matched control women. n ...1978214407
recombinants between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: analyses of genome structures and expression of immediate early polypeptides.recombinants between temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) were constructed. using restriction endonucleases, we analyzed the genome composition of 17 intertypic recombinants and detected crossovers in every region of the genome. the virion dna of one recombinant appeared to be largely "frozen" in two of the four possible genome arrangements of hsv. knowledge of the genome structures of recombinants enabled us to physically map immediate early polype ...1978214575
colposcopic examination of the cervix of cebus monkeys.a total of 410 colposcopic examinations were performed on 188 female cebus monkeys that were under study to determine the oncogenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2 in this genus. a split-cone vaginal speculum was developed that permitted good observation of the vaginal cervix in the cebus monkey. the cervical anatomy of cebus monkeys was found to differ from that of humans in that the surface of the animal cervix was more papilliform, with thinner squamous epithelium, and the squamocolu ...1978214730
effect of treatment with 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine on herpes simplex virus encephalitis in normal and immunosuppressed mice.5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-ethyl-durd), an analog of thymidine, was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit herpes simplex virus (hsv) replication in vitro and in vivo. the 50% effective dose concentration of 5-ethyl-durd for hsv types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) cultured in vero cells was 6 and 9 mug/ml, respectively. levels of 5-ethyl-durd 14-fold in excess of the 50% effective dose for hsv-1 did not inhibit the formation of confluent monolayers by vero cells, suggesting that the compound was not cyt ...1978215081
relationship of herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies and squamous dysplasia to cervical carcinoma in situ.serum specimens from 75 women with cervical carcinoma in situ, 84 with squamous dysplasia, and 132 controls, who had previously been interviewed and tested for complement fixing antibodies against a number of organisms, were analyzed for hsv-2 antibodies. carcinoma in situ and severe dysplasia were associated with hsv-2 antibodies. mild dysplasia was related to evidence of prior infection by trichomonas vaginalis, adenoviruses, and mycoplasma pneumoniae, plus a history of vaginal discharge. seve ...1978215294
comparison of various macrophage-inhibitory agents on vaginal and systemic herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.pretreatment of mice intraperitoneally with silica, trypan blue, or dextran sulfate to inhibit macrophage function markedly increased the lethality of a systemic intravenous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2, but did not affect the lethality or local virus growth after vaginal infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. agents which inhibit macrophage function by different mechanisms decreased host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2, but the effects of macrophage-inhibito ...1978215548
physical mapping of herpes simplex virus-coded functions and polypeptides by marker rescue and analysis of hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants.a number of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants and one pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinase-deficient mutant of herpes simplex virus (hsv), have been located on the physical map of the genome by means of marker rescue experiments and by the analysis of the crossover points in intertypic recombinants between hsv types 1 and 2. the physical map is compared to the genetic map and certain anomalies identified. analysis of infected-cell polypeptides specified by intertypic recombinants has allowed t ...1978221322
analysis of herpes simplex virus low molecular-weight native proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrofocusing.this communication has demonstrated the potential application of gel electrofocusing for the isolation and further characterization of hsv-2 native proteins. at least eight major hsv-2 specific proteins with characteristic isoelectric points could be reproducibly resolved by gel isoelectric focusing. their isoelectric points ranged from 5.0 to 7.5 and analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis on sds gels indicated that their molecular weights range from 11,000 to 49,000.1978221328
the use of intertypic recombinants for analysis of gene organization in herpes simplex virus.analysis of the dna sequence arrangement and polypeptides specified by 28 hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinants show the following: (i) recombinants with heterogeneous l and s components or with heterogenous inverted repeats are viable. (ii) hsv-1 and hsv-2 genes appear to be functionally equivalent and with few exceptions co-linearly arranged. co-linear dna maps have been established. (iii) at most two arrangements of hsv dna are capable of replication. this is consistant with current studies suggesting t ...1978221347
repair of single-stranded breaks in host dna when rabbit kidney cells are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1978221348
mapping of the herpes simplex virus dna sequences in three herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-transformed cell lines.we have made use of a novel filter hybridization approach in order to map the herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna sequences which are present in three hsv thymidine kinase (tk)-transformed cell lines. the cell line 33a+ which was produced by infection of 3t3 tk- cells with uv-irradiated hsv-2 (333) was found to contain one contiguous stretch of viral dna sequences which maps between 0.15 and 0.57 on the hsv-2 genome. the sequences mapping from 0.31 to 0.37 were present in 3--4-fold higher abundance t ...1978221351
dna-mediated transfer of herpes simplex virus tk gene to human tk- cells: properties of the transformed lines.human tk- cells carrying the hsv-2 tk gene express a tk activity of viral origin and maintain the tk+ phenotype when grown in hat medium. under non-selective or counterselective conditions, however, reversion to a tk- phenotype occurs with a significant frequency characteristic of each transformed line. the tk- phenotype appears to be stable since no instances of tk- to tk+ reversion have been observed.1978221353
enhanced efficiency of transfection of hsv dna in hsv-1 dna-transformed hamster cells.the efficiency of transfection, i.e., the number of plaques per microgram of dna, was compared for herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2, and herpesvirus eidolon (antigenically unrelated to hsv) dnas in hsv dna-transformed cells (eh/a44) and control hamster cells (eht). the efficiency of transfection of hsv-1 and hsv-2 dnas was significantly higher in eh/a44 cells than in eht cells, showing that an early step in hsv infection was involved in the partial resistance of hsv dna-transformed c ...1978221357
interferon in the replication of herpes simplex virus in normal and pathological nerve cells.previous results obtained in experimental and clinical trials have demonstrated that topical combined thrapy with human interferon (hi) and human colostral secretory immunoglobulin a (s-iga) is effective against herpetic corneal infection. this therapy prevented encephalitis in rabbits but could not completely prevent recurrences either in rabbits or in patients. a number of in vitro studies were designed to elucidate the role of these factors in herpes simplex virus replication in the nervous s ...1978221373
immune responses to vaginal or systemic infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2.relationships among cell-mediated immune (cmi) responses, neutralizing antibody, and macrophages in host resistance to vaginal or systemic infection with hsv-2 were defined in balb/c mice. the importance of t-lymphocytes in resistance to either systemic or vaginal infection was demonstrated by increased susceptibility of mice depleted of t-lymphocytes. a role for non-specific resistance against the systemic, but not vaginal, infection was demonstrated by increased susceptibility of mice depleted ...1978221400
detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 mrna in human cervical biopsies by in situ cytological hybridization. 1978221414
resistance to vaginal or systemic infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1978207239
alkaline dnase activity in cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2.bhk cells infected with the temperature-sensitive mutant ts13 of herpes simplex virus type 2 at a nonpermissive temperature lack the alkaline nuclease activity, which is induced by the mutant at a permissive temperature and by wild-type virus at either temperature. for ts13, enzyme activity could be induced by a temperature shift to permissive conditions, but not in the presence of cycloheximide. after a shift from permissive to nonpermissive conditions in the presence of cycloheximide, the acti ...1978207883
anatomy of herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna. x. mapping of viral genes by analysis of polypeptides and functions specified by hsv-1 x hsv-2 an earlier paper (morse et al., j. virol 24:231--248, 1977) we reported on the provenance of the dna sequences in 26 herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) x hsv-2 recombinants as determined from analyses of their dnas with at least five restriction endonucleases. this report deals with the polypeptides specified by the recombinants and by their hsv-1 and hsv-2 parents. we have identified (i) the corresponding hsv-1 and hsv-2 polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 20,000 to more than 2 ...1978207894
5,6-dihydro-5-azathymidine: in vitro antiviral properties against human herpesviruses.5,6-dihydro-5-azathymidine (dhadt), a novel water-soluble nucleoside antibiotic, inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) in appropriately infected cell cultures to a greater extent than herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). vaccinia virus was less susceptible than hsv-2, and pseudorabies virus yields were not reduced at the concentrations studied. plaque formation by varicella-zoster virus was suppressed by dhadt. dhadt was slightly toxic to cells at concentrations that were inhibitory for h ...1978208459
protective effect of an oral infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.the problem of whether oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was investigated. mice were used as models. following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. mice infected orally with hsv-1 were weakly protected against virus 'take' following vaginal challenge with hsv-2. genital 'takes' were found in 67% of the immunized mice, as compared with 83% ...1978209295
[herpes simplex virus type 2 and cervix cancer]. 1978209356
conditions required for induction of murine p30 by herpes simplex virus.mouse cells (line n cia cl10) contain 1.2-2.5 ng murine leukaemia virus (mulv) p30 antigen/mg of protein; this amount of antigen is measurable by competition radioimmunoassay (ria) but is not detectable by indirect immunofluorescence (if). infection of n cia cl10 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) induces expression of mulv p30. induction by hsv-2 does not require either cell or virus dna synthesis and is optimal 8 h post infection when cells at 50-70% confluence are infected at a mu ...1978210128
a nonlytic transforming mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2.a small-plaque mutant (no.69) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain 333 has been previously isolated and characterized in this laboratory. this mutant was shown to produce a high ratio of noninfectious to infectious particles when grown at the nonpermissive temperature in hamster embryo fibroblasts [westmoreland d. and rapp f. (1976). journal of virology [8:92--102]. in this study, we have demonstrated that it is possible to obtain noninfectious stocks of this virus which retain transfor ...1978210252
effect of immunization on the development of latent ganglionic infection in mice challenged intravaginally with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.immunization of balb/c mice with virulent and avirulent strains of hsv-1 resulted in high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected against both the lethal effect of the virus and the development of a latent ganglionic infection when animals were challenged by the intravaginal route. in animals immunized with avirulent strain of hsv-2 and challenged with a high virulent strain of hsv-2, substantial protection against death was observed despite low levels of neutralizing antibody. nineteen pe ...1978210669
herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of neonatal mice.we have demonstrated that newborn mice can be infected orally with herpes simplex virus type 2. transplacental and transvaginal transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 did not occur in our mice. failure to produce natural transvaginal infection in mice may be explained by the relatively short period of exposure to the virus during parturition. these experiments demonstrate that high oral doses of herpes simplex virus type 2 can produce disseminate herpes neonatal infection in mice and theref ...1978211091
the fine structure of cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.the fine structure of cells infected with the hg 52 strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 and 13 temperature-sensitive mutants derived from it was investigated. in cells infected with the wild-type virus, development of virions appeared to be similar to that described in previous reports. however there were two exceptions to this: (1) capsid envelopment apparently occurred de novo in the nucleus; (2) densely staining vacuolar accumulations were seen, frequently surrounding virus capsids. the 13 ...1978211178
complement-mediated cytolysis of hsv-1 and hsv-2 infected cells: plasma membrane antigens reactive with type-specific and cross-reactive antibody.surface antigens of bhk-21 cells infected with hsv-1 or hsv-2 were radioiodinated (125i) with lactoperoxidase, immune precipitated and analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). experiments using antiserum to hsv-1 or hsv-2, absorbed with appropriate hemotypic or heterotypic antigens, revealed that both type-specific (homotypic) and cross-reactive antibody combined with surface glycoproteins to form a single large radioactive peak. this peak, which constituted the major glycoprotein ...1978211189
herpes simplex virus necleic acid synthesis following infection of non-permissive xc cells.dna hybridization kinetic analysis of cellular dna following high multiplicity infection of non-permissive xc cells by herpes simplex virus type i showed that hsv dna penetrates to the nucleus of the cell but that the number of virus dna copies present in each cell quickly begins to decline. there did not appear to be any net virus dna synthesis and the loss of virus dna copies continued until there was approximately one per haploid genome equivalent. hsv-2 likewise did not show any detectable v ...1978211197
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in organotypic cultures of mouse central and peripheral nervous system. i. light microscopic observations of myelin degeneration.mature mouse spinal cord-ganglion cultures, which contain both peripheral and central nervous system as one unit, were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1) or type 2 (hsv 2) and observed by bright field microscopy for up to 72 hours. there was degeneration of both central and peripheral myelin in cultures infected with either virus, but the pattern of peripheral myelin degeneration associated with hsv 1-infected cultures was differrnt from that in hsv 2-infected cultures. type 1 was ...1978211204
evidence for a herpes simplex virus-specific factor controlling the transcription of deoxypyrimidine kinase.a cistron-specific, enzyme-forming-capacity method was used to study the control of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-specific deoxypyrimidine kinase (dpyk) mrna synthesis. a virus-specific factor was formed by a primary infecting virus, and this factor effected the transcription of dpyk mrna of a superinfecting virus in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that the factor acted in "trans" and was a diffusible one. after the addition of actinomycin d to prevent further transcription and upon remov ...1978211259
cellular immune response in genital herpes simplex virus infection.we studied the relations between the cellular immune response, pre-existing complement-fixing antibody and virus type with duration of virus excretion in genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. thirty-six patients (seven with hsv-1 and 29 with hsv-2) with genital herpes underwent serologic testing, sequential viral cultures and weekly determination of lymphocyte-transformation stimulation index with inactivated hsv antic n. the duration of virus excretion was shortest in those with pre-exi ...1978211414
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus: demonstration of regions of obligatory and nonobligatory identity within diploid regions of the genome by sequence replacement and insertion.the dnas of herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and 2 consist of two components, l and s, each composed of unique sequences bracketed by inverted repeats. in this study we have probed the structure of the reiterated regions of the s component in marker rescue experiments involving transfection of cells with mixtures of intact hsv-1 mutant viral dna and individual dna fragments generated by restriction endonuclease digestion of wild-type hsv-1 or hsv-2 dnas. the results were as follows: (i) hsv is diplo ...1978211508
optical diffraction analysis of electron microscope images of tubular structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.optical diffraction analysis was done on the electron micrographs of tubular structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. by this method, the helical arrangement of subunits forming a tubular structure was demonstrated.1978212515
suppression of the synthesis of cellular macromolecules by herpes simplex virus.synthesis of cellular protein was substantially inhibited within 1 h of infection with herpes simplex virus, type 2, strain g (hsv-2). the inhibition also occurred, although no virus-specific protein synthesis was detected, after infection with u.v. irradiated virus and in cytoplasts that had been enucleated before infection. the inhibitory activity could not be distinguished from infectivity by dilution, sedimentation or reaction with gamma-globulin. hsv-2 also suppresssed the synthesis of send ...1978212520
collaborative complementation study of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.twenty-three complementation groups of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and 20 of hsv-2 were identified by qualitative and quantitative complementation analysis from among 43 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of hsv-1 and 29 ts mutants of hsv-2 which had been isolated independently in 10 laboratories.1978212578
chromosome abberations in rat embryo cells transformed after infection with ultraviolet-irradiated herpes simplex virus.two rat embryo cell lines (tr1 and tr2) transformed after infection with ultaviolet-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 showed modal chromosome numbers in the tetraploid range. in the tr1 cell line a near-diploid cell population replaced during subcultivation the hypotetraploid cells thus explaining the loss of immunofluorescent viral antigens. both transformed cell lines showed frequent achromatic gaps. in the tr1 cell line such gaps were preferentially located in specific chromosome region ...1978205041
induction capacity and influence of dthdmp on thymidine kinase activity of type 1 and 2 strains of herpes simplex virus.the thymidine kinase inducing ability of 104 strains of herpes simplex virus was studied comparatively. a pronounced relationship was established between induction of the enzyme and the serotype of the strains. as a rule, the strains of serotype 2 are weaker inducer of dthd- and dcyd-kinase activity than serotype 1 strains. a certain parallelism exists between induction of both enzymes, however the activity of the thymidine kinase increases after infection with herpes simplex virus 4--5 times mo ...1978205197
production of plasminogen activator by cells transformed by herpesviruses.plasminogen activator is produced by hamster cells transformed by human herpesviruses. these cell lines have previously been shown to be oncogenic when injected s.c. into newborn syngeneic hamsters. lysis of fibrin overlays by these cell lines was plasminogen dependent. normal hamster embryo fibroblasts and a hamster cell line transformed by para-7 (an adenovirus-sv 40 hybrid) failed to produced lysis. in separate experiments fibrin overlay of lytically infected secondary rabbit kidney cells did ...1978205345
role of activated macrophages in resistance of congenitally athymic nude mice to hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2.congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice of a balb/c genetic background were found considerably more resistant to the induction of focal necrotic hepatitis by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) tha, were phenotypically normal littermates (nu/+) or balb/c mice. the augmented resistance was age dependent, as it was only manifested in mice from 4 to 5 weeks of age. studies of the course of infection showed that nude mice were able to restrain virus multiplication in the liver far better than normal ...1978205507
the deoxyribonuclease induced after infection of kb cells by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2. i. purification and characterization of the enzyme.the deoxyribonuclease induced in kb cells by herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2 has been purified. both enzymes are able to completely degrade single- and double-stranded dna yielding 5'-monophosphonucleotides as the sole products. a divalent cation, either mg2+ or mn2+, is an absolute requirement for catalysis and a reducing agent is necessary for enzyme stability. the maximum rate of reaction is achieved with 5 mm mgcl2 for both hsv-1 and hsv-2 dnase. the optimum concentration for mn ...1978206546
biochemical transformation of mouse cells by herpes simplex virus type 2: enhancement by means of low-level photodynamic treatment.the biochemical transformation of thymidine kinase-deficient cells by uv-inactivated herpes simplex virus is enhanced by low-level photodynamic treatment of the infected cells. at the concentration of proflavine used, the virus was not inactivated and both virus and cellular dna syntheses were only marginally inhibited. the observed enhancement of the transfer of a virus gene to the cell genome suggests a possible cocarcinogenic role for photodynamically active dyes at very low concentrations.1978206727
herpes simplex virus type 2 induced pyrimidine nucleoside kinase: enzymatic basis for the selective antiherpetic effect of 5-halogenated analogues of deoxycytidine. 1978204334
herpes simplex virus type 2 and carcinoma of cervix uteri. 1978204721
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus type 2 infected target cells in the course of cervical carcinoma.the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) assay was used as a sensitive instrument to study if specific antibodies acting synergistically with lymphocytes to induce target cell destruction, could be detected in sera from patients with cervical carcinoma. significant cytotoxicity to herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) infected target cells was observed in sera of 17 out of 23 (74%) surviving patients with cervical cancer who were followed with at least two serum samples. a rise in cytoly ...1978101081
production of group- and type-specific antigens during non-permissive infection of dog kidney cells with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1978203280
macrophages and age-dependent resistance to hepatitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 im age-dependent increase in the resistance of balb/c mice to induction of focal necrotic hepatitis by herpes simplex virus type 2 was demonstrated. in 3-week-old mice inoculated intraperitoneally with virus, numerous necrotic foci developed in the liver. as the mice matured, the number of lesions declined until the age of 8 weeks, when no further increase in resistance appeared. corresponding to this, the virus titers of livers and spleens of 3-week-old mice were higher than in 8-week-old anima ...1978203536
radiometric detection of herpes simplex viruses.two radiometric techniques were investigated as possible means of detecting viruses in clinical specimens. the effect of herpes simplex virus on dna synthesis by monolayers of human embryonic lung fibroblasts was monitored by the incorporation of [3h] thymidine or [125i] iododeoxyuridine ([125i] idu). radiometric results were compared with those obtained from visual examination for cytopathic effects in the same cell line. cells infected with herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2, 10(6.8) virions) ...1978203666
observations of antigenic relatedness between viruses of the herpes simplex "neutroseron".the antigenic relatedness of three viruses of the herpes simplex type 1 neutroseron - herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) and bovine mammillitis virus (bmv) - has been examined by immune precipitation and virus neutralization tests. many virus-specific infected-cell polypeptides were shown to possess antigenic sites shared by both hsv-1 and hsv-2. cross-neutralization between the viruses is mediated through antibodies to at least two antigenic sites, one shared by hsv-1, hsv-2 and ...197887364
identification of a common antigen of herpes simplex virus bovine herpes mammillitis virus, and b immunoelectrophoretic analyses one common antigen was demonstrated in antigen preparations from herpes simplex virus types 1- and 2- (hsv-1 and hsv-2), bovine herpes mammillitis (bhm) virus-, and b virus-infected cells solubilized by triton x-100. the antigen was also demonstrated in solubilized purified hsv-1 and bhm virus. the common antigen was identified as antigen 11 of hsv-1 or hsv-2. differences were found in the polypeptide composition of the related antigens when isolated from the fo ...197878988
antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in husbands of patients with cervical carcinoma. 197879964
type-common cp-1 antigen of herpes simplex virus is associated with a 59,000-molecular-weight envelope glycoprotein.the cp-1 antigen of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) is a glycoprotein found in the soluble portion of infected cells, in detergent extracts of infected cell membranes, and in the envelope of purified virus. antisera were prepared against a further purified form of cp-1 prepared from hsv soluble antigen mix; a glycoprotein, gp52, isolated from detergent-treated infected cells; and detergent extracts of purified virus. each of the antisera reacted with cp-1 to give a single immunoprecipitin ba ...197880458
increased susceptibility to infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 of cold-adapted l cells.l cells (l-as subline) have been adapted to a temperature of 4 degrees c. in the cold-adapted cells, designated lc3, greater amounts of infectious herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) were synthesized than in the original l-as cells or in another control l-cell line. two strains of hsv-1 reached higher infectious titres in lc3 cells grown at 36 degrees c than in those grown at 32 degrees c. the hsv-2 strain tested replicated in lc-3 cells grown at 32 degrees c better than at higher ...197826196
biological effects of 5-carboxy-2'-deoxyuridine: hydrolysis product of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine.5-carboxy-2'-deoxyuridine (5-cooh-2'-durd) is a product of the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine. hydrolysis of 5-trifluoromethyl-2'-deoxyuridine to 5-cooh-2'-durd in phosphate-buffered saline was kinetically first order and was ph dependent. at 37 degrees c and ph 7.0, 7.5, and 8.0, hydrolysis occurred with rate constants of 4.19 x 10(-5), 9.30 x 10(-5), and 1.61 x 10(-4) s(-1), respectively, with corresponding half-lives of 45.7, 20.6, and 11.9 h. 5-cooh-2'-durd in ...197828691
new treatment for herpes simplex virus type 2 [ultrasound and zinc, urea, and tannic acid ointment]. part i--male patients.twenty-three male patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 blisters on the prepuce, glans penis, and penile shaft were divided into two groups. ten patients served as controls, and thirteen patients were treated with ultrasound (1 watt/cm2 for 60 seconds) and herpigon on three consecutive days. results showed a negative virus culture after three days of treatment and significant reduction of recurrent infection in the treated group while the control group experienced recurrent infection within ...1978283170
role of t lymphocytes in cellular immune responses during herpes simplex virus infection in humans.lymphocyte blast transformation and interferon production in mononuclear cell culture prepared on ficoll-hypaque gradients from individuals with herpes simplex virus-i infection were enhanced by a disease recurrence. responses to both herpes simplex virus-2 and phytohemagglutinin were unaltered. transformation to herpes simplex virus-i antigen was adversely affected by depleting either thymus-derived (t) lymphocytes or bone marrow-derived (b) lymphocytes together with monocytes from cultures. th ...1978308659
[changes in the cellular surface, related to herpes simplex virus type 2, in cells derived from human cervical cancer]. 1978224426
severe thrombocytopenia after generalized herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) infection.our patient, we believe, experienced a primary hsv-2 infection manifested by fever, malaise, and orogenital mucocutaneous lesions. with resolution of systemic manifestations, and at a time of theorized rise in hsv-2 antibody levels, he had thrombocytopenic purpura which persisted for several weeks. an immune disorder secondary to hsv-2 infection similar to that of postrubella infection is postulated. if this theory is correct, severe immune thrombocytopenic purpura is yet one more of the many ob ...1978566472
antiviral activity of extracts from marine algae.extracts of two species of marine algae, constantinea simplex and farlowia mollis, were tested for antiviral activity in tissue culture and in experimental infections of mice. treatment of confluent mouse embryo fibroblast cell monolayers with either compound before viral inoculation was effective in inhibiting the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, vaccinia virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus, but not encephalomyocarditis virus, semliki forest virus, or murine cytomegalovi ...1978686707
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