TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
transfection with the isolated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase genes. ii. evidence for amplification of viral and adjacent cellular dna sequences.we have previously described several series of biochemical transformation experiments in which small defined portions of herpes simplex virus (hsv-1 and hsv-2) dna encompassing the thymidine kinase (tk) gene were introduced into ltk- cells by the calcium transfection procedure. the presence of authentic virus tk enzyme in several subcloned cell lines derived from these experiments was confirmed by either the specific incorporation of [125i]iododeoxycytidine into their nuclei or the inhibition of ...19826286848
clinical and virological features of herpes genitalis in japanese women.we report herein clinical and virological findings in 35 japanese women with a confirmed herpes genitalis. the frequency of herpes genitalis was 0.24% in our obstetrical and gynecological outpatient clinic, while that in cancer screening clinics was 0.01%. eighty percent of all patients were between 20 and 49 years of age (median age of 38.5 years). genital herpes was detected more frequently in summer and autumn. virus isolations were carried out in 20 patients and 13 were positive (65.0%). of ...19826287795
detection by rna blot hybridization of rna sequences homologous to the bglii-n fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.rna species, extracted at the time of peak synthesis of the alpha, beta, and gamma classes of herpes simplex virus polypeptides from lytically infected vero cells, were examined for homology to the bglii-n fragment (map units 0.58 to 0.63) of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna. by using northern blot analysis, two major and several minor polyadenylated rna species showed homology to the bglii-n fragment at times corresponding to the maximum synthesis of the beta (7 h postinfection) and gamma (12 h ...19826294326
augmented immunogenicity of lewis lung carcinoma by infection with herpes simplex virus type vitro, llt cells sustain hsv-2 replication without evidence of lysis. simultaneously, multiplication of the cells is stimulated. these xenogenized cells were tested for their immunopotentiating capacity: three-step immunization with xenogenized viable cells conferred significantly augmented transplantation resistance to a challenge graft with 4 x 10(4) intact llt cells. latency periods preceding tumor formation were increased and 15% of the mice failed to form primary tumors. metastasis was l ...19826288391
early and delayed shut-off of host protein synthesis in cells infected with herpes simplex virus.a mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 [hsv-1(hfem)], tsb7, appears to have two temperature-sensitive functions. one is required during the first hour of infecting a cell (suggesting that it is performed by a virion protein) and the other is the non-essential function of "early shut-off" of cellular protein synthesis, which is mediated by a virion protein. the latter function remained temperature-sensitive in a revertant virus (rc2) grown at the non-permissive temperature (39 degrees c). howeve ...19826288847
animal studies on the efficacy of vaccination against recurrent herpes.guinea pigs, latently infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), were immunized with an hsv 2 vaccine derived from extracts of infected cells and either formol inactivated or detergent treated. although such postinfection vaccination could significantly increase the titers of neutralizing antibodies, it had no effect on the course of recurrent herpes in these animals.19826289061
neutralization of herpes simplex virus by antibody in amniotic fluid.the ability of amniotic fluid to neutralize herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was quantitated and compared with the serum neutralization titer in 158 pregnant women. neutralizing activity was expressed as the ability of 0.1 ml of amniotic fluid to reduce the expected number of plaque-forming units (pfu) in the inoculum by 99%. all amniotic fluid samples from 32 women with serum titers of 1:40 or greater neutralized 5 pfu or more; at term, 96% of these fluid samples neutralized 50 pfu or more, ...19826289206
clinical and virologic studies on female genital herpes.ninety women with genital herpes were studied clinically and virologically. from a clinical standpoint, these patients could be classified into 3 clinical types--acute, recurrent, and provoked. when herpes simplex virus (hsv) strains isolated from these patients and asymptomatic virus secretors were typed, 36 strains were determined to be type 1 (hsv-1) and the remaining 54 to be type 2 (hsv-2). the acute type was caused by primary infection of hsv-1 or hsv-2 as well as by infection of hsv-2 in ...19826289208
protection against lethal challenge of balb/c mice by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies to five glycoproteins of herpes simplex virus type 2.monoclonal antibodies secreted by six hybridomas and recognizing antigenic sites on glycoproteins gc, gab, gd, ge, and gf of herpes simplex virus type 2 were examined for their ability to protect balb/c mice from lethal infection by the virus. administration of monoclonal antibodies to individual glycoproteins intraperitoneally 3 h before footpad challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose of virus protected between 35 and 75% of the mice, except for one of two monoclonal antibodies recognizing ...19826290390
early interactions of herpes simplex virus with mouse peritoneal macrophages.adsorption of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) to resident peritoneal macrophages (pm) of 4-week-old swiss albino (sa) and gr/afib mice was studied. a significantly (p less than 0.05) higher hsv-2 adsorption rate was found with pm of sa mice than with pm of gr/afib mice. of added hsv-2 65% bound to the cells of sa mice over a 120-min period versus 15% to pm of gr/afib mice. only 15 to 20% of added hsv-1 bound to pm regardless of the mouse strain. these patterns of adsorptio ...19826290397
herpetic proctitis and meningitis: recovery of two strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 from cerebrospinal fluid.a patient with simultaneous proctitis and meningitis due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) was extensively investigated. in both disease locations the infection was clinically evident and culture-proven. analysis by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rectal isolates revealed both hsv-1 and hsv-2. the cerebrospinal fluid harbored two apparently different strains of hsv-1, one of which was shown by restriction endonuclease analysis to be identical w ...19826290573
spectrum of sensitivity of acyclovir of herpes simplex virus clinical isolates.hsv-1 and hsv-2 clinical isolates were tested for their in vitro sensitivity to acyclovir. the median id50 for 32 genital hsv-2 isolates was 0.215 micrograms/ml and this was not significantly higher than a median value of 0.125 micrograms/ml for 28 oral hsv-1 isolates (p = 0.08). a wider range of id50s was observed with the hsv-2 isolates compared with the hsv-1 isolates. the concentration of drug required to inhibit virus replication by 90 and 99 percent was approximately 10- and 100-fold great ...19826285726
effect of acyclovir on genital herpes in guinea pigs.the chemotherapeutic efficacy of acyclovir was evaluated in guniea pigs that were inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). acyclovir was administered systemically (50 mg/kg of body weight per day ip) beginning three days after inoculation and continuing for 10-11 days. treatment with acyclovir reduced the incidence of paralysis of the hind limbs, mortality, and the severity and duration of genital lesions but had little effect on the excretion of virus from the genital ...19826282986
similarities and differences in the fc-binding glycoprotein (ge) of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and tentative mapping of the viral gene for this glycoprotein.we performed affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation experiments to determine whether cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) expressed a glycoprotein that was functionally and antigenically related to the hsv-1 fc-binding glycoprotein designated ge. we found that a protein from extracts of hsv-2-infected hep-2 cells bound specifically to an fc affinity column and that the electrophoretic mobility of this protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels was slightly less ...19826283108
studies on the interrelation of resistance and immunity in a mouse model system of herpes-simplex type 2 infection.intraperitoneal (i.p.) vaccination of mice with attenuated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) induced solid protection to i.p. infection with pathogenic virus within two days. protection was non-virus-specific until day four after sensitization but increased in specificity thereafter. normal mice could be protected by adoptively transferred spleen cells, serum, and peritoneal fluid from donors vaccinated seven days before. virus-specific effector cells induced in the spleen by in vivo i.p. sens ...19826284636
intratypic and intertypic specificity of lymphocytes involved in the recognition of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) were generated in c57bl/6 mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) (strains kos, 17, hfem, and mp) and hsv-2 (strains 186, g, and gp6). effector lymphocytes were tested for cytotoxicity against syngeneic hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells in a 5-h 51cr release assay. hsv-1 strain hfem was found to induce ctl efficiently only when 100-fold more virus was used as compared with hsv-1 strains kos, 17, and mp. all hsv-1 and hsv-2 strains induced cross-reactive populati ...19826286488
identification and typing of herpes simplex viruses with monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies which reacted with type-specific antigens of herpes simplex virus type 2 or with antigens shared by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to type virus isolates and to detect viral antigens in cells obtained from herpetic lesions. complete concordance was obtained for 42 isolates typed by endonuclease restriction analysis of viral dna and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. examination of a limited number ...19826286719
multimeric forms of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins.herpes simplex virus type 2-specific glycoproteins present in detergent extracts of infected cells were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions designed to permit detection of multimeric forms of these glycoproteins. two high-molecular-weight glycosylated species were detected when samples were disrupted at lower temperatures or in the absence of any reducing agents. one multimer having an apparent molecular weight of 275,000 was identified as a mul ...19826283127
sulphated glycoproteins induced by herpes simplex virus.bhk cells infected with strain 17 syn+ (hsv-1) or hg52 (hsc-2) incorporated inorganic sulphate into polypeptides which co-migrated on sds-polyacrylamide gels with virus-induced glycoproteins. the major sulphated glycoprotein was glycoprotein e. in addition, less-intense sulphated bands co-migrated with glycoprotein d and hsv-1 glycoprotein a/b/c. sulphate label co-migrating with hsv-2 glycoprotein a/b/c was occasionally observed. we have investigated which sulphated polypeptides are excreted fro ...19826278062
detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins expressed in virus-transformed rat cells.rat embryo fibroblasts transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were assayed for the expression of certain virus-specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes. monospecific antisera to hsv-2-specific glycoproteins, designated gagb, gc, and gx, were used in membrane immunofluorescence studies with hsv-2-transformed cell lines tref-g-1, tref-g-2, and a tumor-derived rat fibrosarcoma cells line produced in syngeneic rats inoculated with tref-g-1 cells. analysis of the three hsv-2-transf ...19826283145
identification of proteins encoded by a fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna that has transforming activity.cloned bglii fragment n (map units 0.58 to 0.625) of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna has been shown to transform rodent cells to an oncogenic phenotype (galloway and mcdougall, j. virol. 38: 749-760, 1981). rna homologous to this fragment directs the synthesis of five polypeptides in a cell-free translation system. the approximate molecular weights of these proteins are 140,000, 61,000, 56,000, 35,000, and 23,500. the 35,000-dalton protein is the major species late in infection and is the only s ...19826283171
expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens in premalignant and malignant human vulvar cells.vulvar biopsies and explants from patients with vulvitis, hyperkeratosis, condyloma acuminatum, severe dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma were screened for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) antigens. immunoperoxidase staining for vp143, an early nonstructural polypeptide of hsv-2, was identified within three biopsies exhibiting severe dysplasia, three of seven with carcinoma in situ, and one of three with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. similar staining for vp143 was observed in derived ...19826283892
detection of herpes simplex virus mrna in latently infected trigeminal ganglion neurons by in situ hybridization.latent infection of the trigeminal ganglion with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was studied in guinea pigs by in situ dna hybridization. frozen ganglion sections from animals killed during the period of latent virus infection were studied under nondenaturing conditions. some sections were treated with deoxyribonuclease (dnase) or ribonuclease (rnase) before incubation with hsv dna probes. hsv probes consisted of viral dna nick translated and labeled in vitro with tritiated nucleotides. bact ...19826284019
comparative studies of transformed hamster cells by herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2.hamster embryo cells transformed by herpesvirus type 2 (hsv-2) virus (two separate cell lines) and by hsv-1 virus (one cell line) were inoculated into hamsters. the morphological appearance of tumours was studied by both light and electron microscopy, and the results compared to similar studies of tumours induced by sv40 virus. the tumours were also tested for immunogenicity, and for susceptibility to contact suppression with bcg. the results indicated that the tumours induced by inoculation of ...19826284192
chemical interactions with herpes simplex type 2 virus: enhancement of transformation by norharman.the effects of the comutagen norharman on herpes simplex virus type 2 growth transformation was studied in 3t3 cells. pre-exposure but not post-exposure of the cells to 0.5 to 10 micrograms of norharman per ml of cell culture media resulted in a nearly three-fold enhancement in transforming activity. these results suggest that certain environmental chemicals may interact with cells creating an increased possibility of transformation by herpes viruses.19826284401
characterization of a polypeptide present in herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed and -infected hamster embryo cells.transformation of hamster embryo cells by herpes simplex virus stimulated the production of a 35-kilodalton (35k) protein that was specifically immunoprecipitated, along with other polypeptides, by rabbit hyperimmune serum. this 35k polypeptide was further analyzed by partial digestion with staphylococcus aureus v8 protease in parallel with a 35k polypeptide from herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells. these polypeptides had almost identical partial-proteolytic cleavage maps, indicating that ...19826284964
isolation and characterization of the growth-stimulating factor in supernatants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infected cells.lytic infection of cv1 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 does not stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity and there is no correlation between polyamines and a growth-stimulating factor (gsf) which is present in the supernatant of the cultures. the factor was partially purified by gel filtration on sephadex g-50 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. gel filtration as well as dialysis through membranes with different pore diameters indicated a molecular weight between 3,500 and 10,000 da ...19826285245
herpesvirus-specific rna and protein in carcinoma of the uterine cervix.cloned probes of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna were used in cytological hybridization experiments to detect herpesvirus rna transcripts in the neoplastic cells of tumors of the uterine cervix. virus-specific rna was shown to represent transcription of limited regions of the genome, of which one is known to code for a dna-binding protein that can be found by immunoperoxidase staining in the neoplastic cells of these tumors and has also been detected in cells transformed in vitro by this virus.19826285365
acyclovir treatment of experimental genital herpes simplex virus infections.genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections in mice and guinea pigs were used to determine the effectiveness of acyclovir administered topically, orally, or parenterally. topical treatment with 1 percent or 5 percent acyclovir begun six or 24 hours and 5 percent acyclovir begun 48 or 72 hours after intravaginal inoculation of mice with hsv-2 significantly inhibited viral replication in the genital tract. oral administration of acyclovir resulted in a significant reduction in vaginal v ...19826285699
immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2. iv. impaired lymphokine production during recrudescence correlates with an imbalance in t lymphocyte subsets.cell-mediated immunity (cmi) to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was studied in patients with recurrent disease. peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) obtained during recrudescence (0 to 3 days post-onset of lesion), convalescence (4 to 14 days), and quiescence (greater than 14 days), which were cultured in vitro in the presence of uv-inactivated hsv-2 (g) antigen, demonstrated similar, virus-specific lymphoproliferative responses. however, the production of the lymphokine, leukocyte migration-i ...19827045224
optimal treatment of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in mice with oral acyclovir.the effect of oral or intraperitoneal administration of acyclovir was evaluated in four experimental models of herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis in mice. mice were inoculated with hsv-1 or hsv-2 intracerebrally or with hsv-2 intranasally, intraperitoneally, or intravaginally. with all four routes of inoculation, oral acyclovir therapy significantly reduced mortality when started as late as 72 to 96 hours after viral challenge. intraperitoneal acyclovir was not effective in protecting mice ...19827102699
herpes simplex type 2 virus encephalitis presenting as psychosis.the current literature recognizes two antigenic types of herpes simplex virus, type 1 and 2. type 1 is the most common cause of sporadic necrotizing encephalitis in the united states, with a mortality rate of 30 to 70 percent, and leaves various neurologic sequelae in the survivors. herpes simplex virus type 2 had been recognized as an etiologic agent in fatal infections in neonates and a mild meningitis in adults, but its role in encephalitis in adults is less well known. we report a case of he ...19827124772
aseptic meningitis and herpes simplex proctitis. a case report.a male homosexual patient developed an aseptic meningitis during the course of acute ano-proctitis due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). aseptic meningitis (sometimes proved to be due to hsv-2) has been associated with genital but not with anal herpes. this sexually transmissible virus should be considered when patients with aseptic meningitis are investigated.19827198922
epidural analgesia in the presence of herpes simplex virus (type 2) infection. 19827201280
epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the scandinavian the scandinavian countries, laws require reporting of the traditional venereal diseases, i.e., gonorrhea, syphilis, lymphogranuloma venereum (lgv), and ulcus molle, or chancroid. incidence figures for these diseases, therefore, are fairly reliable. in the scandinavian countries, lgv and chancroid are rare diseases, and the syphilis incidence has remained low. these three diseases are typically male afflictions. gonorrhea outnumbers the other diseases mentioned and at present has a nearly 1:1 ...19826958011
modulation by cyclosporin a of murine natural resistance against herpes simplex virus infection. i. interference with the susceptibility to herpes simplex virus balb/c mice which are medium-high resistant against intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) manifested a drastic increase in susceptibility to the virus when treated locally with cyclosporin a (cya) during infection. oral application of the drug had no effect on the natural resistance status. mice appeared normal 2 weeks after cya treatment with regard to their ability to resist i.p. infections. cya did not interfere with established specific immune protec ...19826980627
treating viral venereal infections with the co2 laser.viral venereal infections caused by herpes simplex virus 2 and papillomavirus (wart) are epidemic diseases in the united states. unfortunately, these two infections have eluded conventional therapy to date. therefore, 306 women were treated for viral venereal diseases with the co2 laser. two hundred twenty-eight patients were treated for condyloma acuminatum and 78 for genital herpes. all the patients who underwent treatment for herpes were enrolled in an investigative protocol. since the viral ...19826819358
sex partners and herpes simplex virus type 2 in the epidemiology of cancer of the cervix.the authors examined the interaction of exposure to various numbers of sex partners and evidence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in cervical neoplasia in 181 cases of cervical dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and cancer of the cervix and 130 control patients in los angeles county, california hospitals, in 1974-1979. studies by the authors and other investigators have found that risk of cancer of the cervix was enhanced with numbers of sex partners, frequency and duration of usin ...19826282116
influenza type a virus-mediated adherence of type 1a group b streptococci to mouse tracheal tissue in vivo.influenza type a virus-mediated adherence of pathogenic bacteria to the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract may be one of several mechanisms whereby influenza predisposes to bacterial pneumonia. in the present study, we quantified the adherence of intranasally administered type 1a group b streptococci to the tracheal tissue of influenza type a/pr8/34 (honi) virus-infected and mock-infected mice. influenza type a/pr8/34 virus infection effected a 120-fold increase in the adherence of type 1a ...19826754623
congenital herpes simplex virus, type 2, bilateral endophthalmitis.a set of dizygotic twins, both born prematurely, developed herpes simplex encephalitis shortly after birth. the second twin had unilateral keratoconjunctivitis and bilateral endophthalmitis and subsequently died from disseminated herpes infection. herpes simplex, type 2, was isolated from conjunctiva of both eyes, cerebrospinal fluid, nasopharynx and trachea. histologic examination of the eyes revealed bilateral endophthalmitis with a necrotizing retinitis. intranuclear inclusion bodies were dem ...19826985228
lethal encephalitis and non-lethal multifocal central nervous system demyelination in herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in mice.six-week-old swiss-webster mice were infected intracerebrally with a low dose of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and were studied by pathological, virological and immunological methods. one third of mice developed severe neurological disease and died during the first 31/2 weeks of infection, while the remaining two thirds survived this acute stage with relatively minor neurological signs. these survivors had multifocal demyelinative white-matter lesions in the cns, and gray-matter lesions, i ...19827150512
modification of herpes 2-transformed cell-induced tumors in mice fed different sources of protein, fat and carbohydrate.the effects of different sources of protein (milk, soy, wheat, fish and beef), fat (corn oil and butter), and carbohydrate (dextrin and sucrose) on tumor development and on spleen characteristics were investigated in balb/c mice injected subcutaneously with 5 x 10(5) herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed cells (h238 cells). low or high levels of protein and fat were used. several weeks post-injection results indicated that a high level of fat significantly enhanced tumor incidence. a high fat ...19826299511
different weekly changes in immune response in virus-transformed cell-injected mice fed two different diets.changes in tumor development and in certain immune responses were investigated at 7-weekly intervals after subcutaneous injection of 5 x 10(5) herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed cells (h238 cells) into male balb/c mice fed 2 different diets. one diet contained 11% casein and 5% fat while the other had 11% supplemented wheat gluten and 30% fat. weanling mice (140/group) were fed one or the other of the diets for 12 weeks before injection and subsequent testing of 15 injected and 5 non-inject ...19826299512
herpes virus-related antigens in herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed cells in the course of cervical carcinoma.anticomplement immunofluorescence (acif) technique was applied to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-transformed cells (333-8-9) and to cells lytically infected with hsv-2 in sera from women with cervical carcinoma. there was a correlation between the positive results with both types of cells. long-term survivors suffering from cervical cancer showed a high percentage of positive immunofluorescence (if) reactions in hsv-2 transformed cells (77%) as well as in cells lytically infected with hsv-2 ...19826299751
use of monoclonal antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2 for serological analysis of the viral glycoproteins.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) specify four major glycoproteins designated ga/gb, gc, gd and ge. type-specific and cross-reacting monoclonal antibodies to the viral glycoproteins have been used to probe their antigenic determinants. our studies show the following: (i) type-specific monoclonal antibodies are suitable reagents for serotyping isolates. discriminating monoclonal antibodies distinguish antigenic variants among the strains of each serotype. (ii) glycoproteins ga ...19826299824
development of sensitive and enzyme-linked immunoassays for herpesvirus antigens and some applications.sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassays for herpes simplex virus (hsv), cytomegalovirus (cmv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) were developed. both a sandwich technique, using antiviral antibodies from two species to detect the antigen, and an inhibition assay where the sample antigen was incubated with one antiserum, could be used. around 4-50 ng of viral antigens (measured as protein content) could be detected. the elisa inhibition technique using type-specific antisera could differentiate betwee ...19826299833
herpes simplex virus subunit vaccine: characterization of the virus strain used and testing of the vaccine.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) used for vaccine production was isolated from a nasal recurrent infection and propagated over a limited number of passages in human diploid cells only. it was designated as hsv-1 bw3 and has been characterized by neutralizing antibodies as a typical hsv type 1 strain. in vitro transformation studies performed with this isolate in mouse or hamster cells revealed only very low, if any, transforming capacity. a preparation of hsv-1 bw3 which can be used as seed l ...19826299841
intertypic superinfection of herpes simplex virus in vivo leads to reisolation of latent viruses with newly acquired lymphotropic properties.the susceptibility of juvenile tupaias to several strains of temperature-sensitive mutants of hsv-1 and 2 was tested. it was found that in all cases the animal survived an infection of 1 x 10(7) pfu of temperature-sensitive mutants which were administered intravenously. in contrast, an infection dose of 1 x 10(3) pfu of wild-type hsv-2 and 1 x 10(2) pfu or hsv-1 was fatal for juvenile tupaias. those animals which had initially been infected with the ts-mutants of hsv-1 and/or 2 were protected ag ...19826299861
[humoral immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 in cervical cancer].the analysis of the results of serological studies revealed differences between the number of positively reacting sera from patients with cervical carcinoma and from normal women. the activity of complement-fixing and virus-neutralizing antibodies in the patients' sera and the frequency of their detection were higher than in the sera from normal subjects. these results in combination with other methods of laboratory examinations may be used for early detection of cervical carcinoma as well as fo ...19826289530
the role of herpes simplex virus in cervical and vulvar cancer.this report extends the association of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) with cervical cancer to vulvar carcinoma. in addition to seroepidemiologic observations linking prior hsv2 infection to genital cancer, the new evidence involves the neoplasms themselves. biopsies of cervical and vulvar cancers were found to contain hsv2-specified antigens. the virus-induced antigens are nonstructural dna-binding proteins normally present in the nuclei of infected cells; however, in the cancer cells they w ...19826299862
characterization of an herpes simplex virus type 2 mutant, which is resistant to acycloguanosine and causes fusion of bsc1 cells.a mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2, which induces low levels of thymidine-kinase activity in infected bsc1 cells and consequently able to grow in the presence of acycloguanosine, was isolated. this mutant has also been shown to cause fusion of bsc1 cells. in bsc1 cells, co-infected with the wild-type strain and the mutant, the yield of each of the two viruses was normal but the rounding and aggregation of cells observed, resembled that found in wild-type infected cultures. when the mixed in ...19826299232
imide derivatives of 3-nitro-1.8-naphthalic acid: their inhibitory activity against dna viruses.the antiviral action of a new drug, 5-amino-2-(dimethylaminoethyl)-benzo-[de]-isoquinolin-1.3-dione has been studied against herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) and adenovirus type 5 (ad-5) grown in vero cells. the concentration of the drug which gives a 5 log10 reduction in virus titer was 4 micrograms/ml (maximum tolerated concentration) for hsv-2. the anti-hsv-2 activity of this compound was one log. more powerful than that of iododeoxyuridine (idu). at this concentration the drug shows virucidal a ...19826299235
abortive infection of neural cells by herpes simplex virus type 2.the nature of the refractoriness of c6 rat glioma cells to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was examined. infection of c6 cells with hsv-2 results in low virus yields, not exceeding the input virus. although virus growth studies suggested a restricted cycle of virus replication, synthesis of hsv-2 dna and hsv-2-specific antigens could not be detected. in addition, hsv-2 yields in c6 cells were unaffected by interferon, cycloheximide, tunicamycin, actinomycin d and cytosine arabinoside. howeve ...19826299239
virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. the progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against ...19827118244
spinal cord and optic nerve demyelination in experimental herpes simplex virus type 2 produce a model of central nervous system (cns) demyelination, three strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were injected intracerebrally into swiss-webster outbred mice. animals developed pupillary abnormalities and leg weakness and, by light and electron microscopy, had focal lesions of primary demyelination in optic nerves and spinal cords. oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in these lesions contained herpesvirus. both mouse age and virus dose were important determinants of the rate a ...19827077361
leptomeningitis and polycaryocyte formation in the cns of rats inoculated subcutaneously with herpes simplex virus.wistar rats were inoculated subcutaneously with either type 1 (hsv1) or type 2 (hsv2) herpes simplex virus at 5 days of age. animals were killed in extremis or at the end of the 14-day observation period postinoculation. acute destructive meningoencephalitis with hemorrhage and leukocytic infiltration was observed in both groups. polycaryocytes comprised of cells of the internal granular layer of the cerebellum were observed in some animals inoculated with hsv1. these multinucleated cells appear ...19836852211
unique spectrum of activity of 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]-guanine against herpesviruses in vitro and its mode of action against herpes simplex virus type 1.a guanosine analog, 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine (dhpg), was found to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), herpes simplex virus type 2, cytomegalovirus, and epstein-barr virus replication by greater than 50% at concentrations that do not inhibit cell growth in culture. the potency of the drug against all of these viruses is greater than that of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir). dhpg was active against hsv-1 growth during the early phase of virus replication an ...19836302704
incorporation of 5-substituted analogs of deoxycytidine into dna of herpes simplex virus-infected or - transformed cells without deamination to the thymidine analog.the incorporation into dna of 5-bromocytosine and 5-iodocytosine, derived from their respective administered deoxyribonucleoside analogs, has been demonstrated in studies with cells infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) and in cells transformed with the thymidine kinase gene of hsv-1. no significant incorporation of iodocytosine or iodouracil occurred in the dna of uninfected or nontransformed cells when the deaminating enzymes were inhibited, in accord with past stu ...19836303214
characterization of mutants of herpes simplex viruses, types 1 and 2, that produce fragments of the thymidine kinase tk- mutants of herpes simplex virus, type 2 (hsv-2), and three tk- mutants of herpes simplex virus, type 1 (hsv-1), were isolated which did not produce the thymidine kinase (tk) polypeptides but formed smaller polypeptides not seen in wild-type infected cells. positive tk mrna selection by hybridization to the cloned tk genes followed by in vitro translation identified the tk polypeptides. comparisons of the products of partial proteolysis of the polypeptides of four hsv-2 and two hsv-1 tk ...19836303540
herpes simplex virus-induced ribonucleotide reductase: development of antibodies specific for the enzyme.we have previously reported on the characterization of a novel ribonucleotide reductase induced in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected mammalian cells. the virus-induced enzyme was partially purified, free of the constitutive cell isozyme, by fractionation of infected cell extracts with ammonium sulphate. in this report we describe a further purification of the virus-induced enzyme and the development of a rabbit antiserum capable of specifically inhibiting its activity. enzymically act ...19836304235
intranuclear distribution of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna synthesis: examination by light and electron microscopy.uptake of [3h]thymidine by serum-starved baby hamster kidney cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 was investigated by light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography. the distribution of incorporated label altered throughout the period of viral dna synthesis. it was restricted initially to a few well-defined sites within the nucleus which increased in size and spread as infection proceeded until the entire nucleus was involved. the label was not associated with any identifi ...19836310045
herpes simplex virus non-structural proteins. iv. purification of the virus-induced deoxyribonuclease and characterization of the enzyme using monoclonal antibodies.the alkaline nucleases induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) have been purified from high salt extracts of virus-infected cells. the purification used three types of column chromatography and resulted in apparently homogeneous dnase preparations with good recovery. the enzyme from hsv-2-infected cells has been characterized. it had both exonuclease and endonuclease activity, each with an unusually high ph optimum. the enzyme had an absolute requirement for magnesium w ...19836311954
inhibition by acyclovir of herpes simplex virus type 2 morphologically transformed cell growth in tissue culture and tumor-bearing animals.rat embryo fibroblasts (ref) morphologically transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and tumor-derived cells were tested for ability to grow in the presence of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanine (acyclovir). results indicated that the effective dose of acyclovir (acv) required to inhibit hsv-2-transformed and tumor-derived cell growth by 50% (ed50) compared to mock-treated control cells averaged 15 to 75 micrograms/ml. in contrast, the ed50 of acyclovir was more than hep-2 cells. hsv-2 ...19836311971
insertion mutants of herpes simplex virus have a duplication of the glycoprotein d gene and express two different forms of glycoprotein d.we produced insertion mutants of herpes simplex virus (hsv) that contain two functional copies of genes encoding different forms of glycoprotein d (gd). these viruses have the gene for hsv type 2 (hsv-2) gd at the normal locus and the gene for hsv-1 gd inserted into the thymidine kinase locus. results of immunoprecipitation experiments done with monoclonal antibodies revealed that both gd genes were expressed by these viruses, regardless of orientation of the inserted hsv-1 gd gene, and that max ...19836312097
12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate enhancement of the tumorigenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed cells.the consequences of tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (tpa) interaction with clonal hsv-2-transformed nontumorigenic and weakly tumorigenic cells were studied. enhancement of anchorage-independent growth (cloning efficiency) occurred in a dose-dependent manner when transformed but not nontransformed cells were pretreated with tpa. all subclonal nontumorigenic cell lines progressed to become tumorigenic after 20 serial passages in the presence of tpa. also, subclonal, weakly tu ...19836312388
identification of dna polymerase(s) involved in the repair of viral and cellular dna in herpes simplex virus type 2-infected cells.when human embryonic fibroblasts (hef) were infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), replicative viral dna synthesis and some repair synthesis of cellular dna were induced at the early stage of infection, but almost all dna synthesis at the late stage of infection was derived from repair synthesis of cellular and viral dna (y. nishiyama and f. rapp, virology 110, 466-475, 1981). in this study, we have assessed the effects of dna polymerase inhibitors on repair dna synthesis hsv-2-infec ...19836312689
interferon susceptibility of herpes simplex virus strains isolated from patients enrolled in clinical trials.herpes simplex virus type 1 strains isolated from patients who had received interferon in a clinical trial were not more resistant to human leukocyte interferon than strains derived from recipients of a placebo. the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 2 strains isolated from herpes genitalis was slightly less than that of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains causing herpes genitalis.19836312872
antiherpetic activity and mechanism of action of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine.9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine was synthesized and tested for antiherpes activity. in cell cultures, different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2(hsv-2) were inhibited by 50% at 2-14 microm of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine, while a hsv-1 mutant lacking thymidine kinase (hsv-1 tk-) was resistant. linear competitive inhibition of purified hsv-1-induced thymidine kinase (tk) with thymidine as a variable substrate was observed for 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine with an apparent ki value of ...19836312878
detection of herpes simplex virus type-2 dna restriction fragments in human cervical carcinoma tissue.dna extracted from eight human cervical carcinomas, one lymph node metastasis and related control tissue was examined for the presence of herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna sequences. southern blot transfers of tumour and control dna were hybridised with radioactively labelled cloned probes representing 70% of the hsv-2 genome. specific hybridisation to hsv dna sequences was observed in one of eight carcinoma tissues analysed. hybridisation of hsv-2 dna probes to bamhi and xhoi restriction enzyme fr ...19836313349
high-resolution characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 transcripts encoding alkaline exonuclease and a 50,000-dalton protein tentatively identified as a capsid protein.four partially overlapping mrnas (1.9, 2.3, 3.9, and 4.5 kilobases [kb]) were located between 0.16 and 0.19 map units on the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome. their direction of transcription was found to be from right to left. the 2.3-kb mrna was found to be early (beta), whereas the others were late (beta gamma). partial sequence analysis of the dna encoding these genes indicated that the promoter for the 2.3-kb mrna shares structural features with other early (beta) promoters. in vitro tran ...19836313961
antiviral effects of hygromycin b, a translation inhibitor nonpermeant to uninfected cells.hygromycin b, a preferential translation inhibitor in virus-infected cells, has been tested for its antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 2 and poliovirus. the activity has been compared with other antiviral agents such as vidarabine and iododeoxyuridine.19836314888
dna sequence homology between two co-linear loci on the hsv genome which have different transforming abilities.a transcription unit at the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 transforming region, mtr-2 (map coordinates 0.580-0.625), comprises two early, unspliced mrnas of 4.5 kb and 1.2 kb which are 3' co-terminal; a region including that specifying the 1.2-kb mrna has been sequenced. the putative translated portions of these two mrnas do not overlap and this feature, together with the arrangement of the mrnas, is similar to the apparently equivalent co-linear hsv-1 locus which however does not transform. ...19836315408
in vitro malignant transformation of hamster retina by herpes simplex virus.hamster retina was infected in vitro with irradiated herpes simplex virus type 2. cells underwent malignant transformation, and when injected subcutaneously into nude mice and hamsters, produced transferable tumors. transformed cells were found to have hsv antigen as determined by indirect fluorescent staining. in addition, the undifferentiated transformed retinal cells possess neurosecretory granules and retinoic acid receptors and produce growth factor, features similar to those found in spont ...19836315628
neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in king county, washington. increasing incidence and epidemiologic correlates.the incidence of neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection in king county, washington, has increased progressively from a rate of 2.6 per 100,000 live births to king county residents during the years 1966 through 1969 to 4.8, 7.4, and 11.9 cases per 100,000 live births for the years 1970 through 1973, 1974 through 1977, and 1978 through 1981, respectively. detailed interviews of the parents of newborns with neonatal hsv-2 infection revealed clinically symptomatic genital herpes in the mother ...19836315977
survival of herpes simplex virus in water specimens collected from hot tubs in spa facilities and on plastic surfaces.several health spas were closed temporarily because of possible nonvenereal spread of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in spa water at these facilities. we collected water specimens from two health spas and studied them for (1) the presence of hsv; (2) bromine (br2), chlorine (cl2), and ph levels; and (3) the ability of hsv to survive in water. no hsv could be isolated from the spa water specimens. spa water had high levels of cl2 and br2, tap water specimens had low levels of cl2, and distilled water ...19836315978
effect of prior immunization on induction of cervial cancer in mice by herpes simplex virus type 2.previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cevix produced premalignant and malignant lesions. in the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcuaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. it appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of c ...19836316503
herpes simplex virus. an expanding relationship to human cancer.herpes simplex virus (hsv) causes a wide spectrum of infectious disease in humans. during the past 15 years, evidence has accumulated indicating that, in addition, hsv may be a cause of human cancer, particularly cervical cancer. the research on hsv has taken five directions. first is detection of previous infection with hsv 2. this was the earliest approach and was performed largely with serologic assays. studies showed a higher incidence of infection with hsv-2 in cervical cancer patients as c ...19836300393
use of monoclonal antibodies against two 75,000-molecular-weight glycoproteins specified by herpes simplex virus type 2 in glycoprotein identification and gene mapping.we produced two monoclonal antibodies that precipitate different glycoproteins of similar apparent molecular weight (70,000 to 80,000) from extracts of cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. evidence is presented that one of these glycoproteins is the previously characterized glycoprotein ge, whereas the other maps to a region of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome collinear with the region in herpes simplex virus type 1 dna that encodes gc.19836300459
herpes simplex virus proctitis in homosexual men. clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histopathological features.acute herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection was detected in 23 of 102 consecutively examined, sexually active male homosexuals who presented with anorectal pain, discharge, tenesmus, or hematochezia, as compared with 3 of 75 homosexual men without gastrointestinal symptoms (p less than 0.01). findings that were significantly more frequent in men with hsv proctitis than in men with proctitis due to other infectious causes included fever (48 per cent), difficulty in urinating (48 per cent), sacral ...19836300674
[level of cyclic nucleotides (camp and cgmp), atpase activity and calcium ion transport in hamster lymphocytes during tumor growth].the biochemical systems of lymphocytes of the peripheral blood and lymph nodes of hamsters with a herpes simplex (type 2) virus--induced transplantable tumor rapp hsv2 were studied. the camp concentration in tumor-bearing hamsters was 1.5-2 times higher, while cgmp level--2.2 times lower than in control. this was matched by a rise in the level of transport atpases in the lymphocytes of experimental animals. concanavalin a had practically no effect on the uptake of ca2+ by lymphocytes of tumor-be ...19836301159
replication of non-respiratory viruses in tracheal organ cultures.employing hoorn's technique, tracheal explant cultures were set from adult hamsters, rabbits and human foetuses. to determine the susceptibility of these cultures they were infected with nine different mainly non-respiratory viruses. assay of virus was carried out in susceptible cell lines. the results of these studies indicated that herpes simplex type i (hsv-1) and vaccinia viruses multiplied in these cultures and caused ciliostasis. herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) although multiplying in all, p ...19836301520
herpesvirus.herpesvirus (hsv) infection of the genital tract is a sexually transmitted disease that is increasing at an epidemic rate. 2 types of virus, type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) have been identified, of which hsv-2 is the major cause of genital and neonatal infection. type 2 herpes infections may be the 2nd most common venereal disease in the us. more than 60% of the adult us population has antibodies to hsv, and socioeconomic factors have been found to influence the incidence of hsv infection. ...19836301717
herpes simplex virus non-structural proteins. iii. function of the major dna-binding protein.the herpes simplex virus type 2 major dna-binding protein has been functionally characterized using temperature-sensitive mutants in the complementation group 2-2. the mutants were shown to be defective in the dna-binding protein gene by mapping the mutants to the area of the genome known to code for the protein, and by demonstrating alterations in the major dna-binding protein induced in mutant-infected cells. the mutants were shown to be defective in the replication of virus dna. the nature of ...19836302216
9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine: a new potent and selective antiherpes agent.the synthesis of a new acyclic analogue of deoxyguanosine, 9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine (dhpg, 1), is described starting from epichlorohydrin via condensation of 2-o-(acetoxymethyl)-1,3-di-o-benzylglycerol (5) with n2,9-diacetylguanine (6). in vitro studies indicate that dhpg is a potent and broad-acting (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and epstein-barr virus) antiherpetic agent. in vivo studies indicate its lack of toxicity [ld50 (mice) = 1-2 g/kg, ip] and its ...19836302255
a comparative analysis of restriction enzyme digests of the dna of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital and facial lesions.the restriction endonuclease (re) cleavage patterns of the dna of herpes simplex virus (hsv) genital isolates from two geographically distinct groups and from one group of facial isolates were examined. eleven of 21 genital isolates from females, 1 of 27 genital isolates from males and all 17 of the facial isolates were hsv type 1 (hsv-1). the groups of isolates of the same serotype could not be distinguished by significant differences in the frequency of variable restriction endonuclease sites ...19836300289
antiherpes activity of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- and 5-vinyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil and some other 5-substituted uracil arabinosyl nucleosides in two different cell lines.of a series of 5-substituted 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (5-x-arau) analogues, (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-arau(brvarau) and 5-vinyl-arau (varau) were the most potent inhibitors of plaque formation by two herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strains in human embryonic lung fibroblast (helf) cell cultures. they were not only more active than 5-methyl-arau (marau, arat) and 5-ethyl-arau (earau), but even more than 1000 times more potent than the 5-fluoro, 5-iodo, 5-formyl and 5-trifluoromethyl (farau, ...19836316849
nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) thymidine kinase gene and predicted amino acid sequence of thymidine kinase polypeptide and its comparison with the hsv-1 thymidine kinase analyze the boundaries of the functional coding region of the hsv-2(333) thymidine kinase gene (tk gene), deletion mutants of hybrid plasmid pmar401 h2g, which contains the 17.5 kbp bglii-g fragment of hsv-2 dna, were prepared and tested for capacity to transform lm(tk-) cells to the thymidine kinase-positive phenotype. these studies showed that hybrid plasmids containing 2.2-2.4 kbp subfragments of hsv-2 bglii-g dna transformed lm(tk-) cells to the thymidine kinase-positive phenotype and sug ...19836317035
serotyping of herpes simplex virus isolates: a comparison of bvdu sensitivities, indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies, and indirect immunofluorescence with cross-adsorbed rabbit antibodies.four methods for typing of herpes simplex virus (hsv) isolates were compared for 43 recent clinical isolates and 3 reference strains of hsv. these isolates were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence using both monoclonal antibodies and cross-adsorbed rabbit antisera. sensitivity to e-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) was also examined. all isolates which fluoresced with hsv-1 monoclonals were found to be sensitive to bvdu with id50's ranging from 0.001 to 0.006 micrograms/ml. all isolat ...19836317706
[scanning microscopy of hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2].scanning microscopy was used to examine the features of morphology and attachment to a solid substrate of a transformed and tumor lines of hamster cells. these cell lines differed from normal hamster fibroblasts by changes in the mode of attachment and the degree of flattening on the solid substrate, relief of the cell surface and pattern of intercellular interactions. the observed morphological changes correlated with the degree of cell transformation.19836318450
acyclovir treatment of experimental genital herpes simplex virus infections. i. topical therapy of type 2 and type 1 infections of mice.intravaginal inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus (hsv) provides a model infection of genital herpes to determine the effectiveness of potential antiviral agents. topical (intravaginal) treatment with 1% or 5% acyclovir (acv) in an ointment of gel vehicle initiated 3, 6 or 24 h after inoculation with hsv type 2, significantly inhibited viral replication in the genital tract and usually reduced final mortality. treatment with 5% acv initiated 48 or 72 h after infection also reduced vagin ...19836320718
expression and cellular compartmentalization of a herpes simplex virus type 2 protein (icp 10) in productively infected and cervical tumor cells.antiserum to icp 10, a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) protein that is expressed in cells neoplastically transformed by viral dna sequences within the bgl ii/hpa i cd fragment, specifically precipitates the icp 10 protein from hsv-2 infected cells and stains cells infected with hsv-2 for 4 to 16 hrs by indirect immunofluorescence. at 4 hr post infection (p.i.), the staining is primarily perinuclear, while at 16 hr p.i., it is cytoplasmic and intranuclear. compartmentalization studies indicat ...19836320993
[evaluation of 80 virologically-confirmed cases of ocular herpes. study of the correlation between the type of virus and the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease].80 strains were isolated from patients with herpetic ocular infection during the period may 1979 to may 1981: 17 patients with herpetic blepharitis, 40 patients with superficial keratitis and 23 with deep stromal keratitis or kerato-uveitis. among 63 patients treated with antiviral agents, clinical resistance to the drug was observed in 17 cases. the strains were typed as hsv 1.1, 1.2 or 2.2 by seroneutralization and thermosensitivity in cellular cultures. no relationship between the viral types ...19836323567
detection of type-specific antibody to herpes simplex virus type 1 by radioimmunoassay with herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein c purified with monoclonal antibody.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 specify at least four glycoproteins designated ga/gb, gc, gd, and ge. previous studies have shown that gc produced by hsv-1 is antigenically distinct from the corresponding hsv-2 glycoprotein. with the exception of gc, the glycoproteins of both serotypes share antigenic sites. standard serological assays fail to differentiate the antibody to the shared antigenic determinants from the type-specific antibody. in this paper, we describe a procedure for ...19836832831
differential susceptibility of human neural cell types in culture to infection with herpes simplex virus.the ability of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1 glasgow (strain 17), hsv-2 (strain hg52), temperature sensitive mutants and a thymidine kinase negative mutant of glasgow strain 17 to produce a cytopathic effect and induce viral antigen expression in primary and passaged human fetal brain cells was studied. no difference was detected between the behaviour of hsv-1 and hsv-2. cell-type-specific markers and indirect immunofluorescence were used to define unambiguously the type of individual cells in cu ...19836831193
[possibilities and limits of chemotherapy of diseases caused by herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus].the available antiviral chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of herpes simplex type 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus infections are discussed in respect of their mechanism of action, clinical effects, and side effects. although effective under experimental conditions most of the antiherpetic drugs need further evaluation of clinical efficacy in controlled trials. it is possible to reduce initial herpetic pain mainly in patients with zoster by topical application of 5% 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridi ...19836841073
protection of newborn mice against herpes simplex virus infection by prenatal and postnatal transmission of antibody.pre- and postnatally acquired protection against herpes simplex virus type 2(hsv-2) infection mediated by maternal antibody was investigated in the newborn mouse. newborn mice, 2 days old, were inoculated with hsv-2 intraperitoneally after maternal immunization with live or inactivated virus. the survival rates improved in proportion to the maternal neutralizing antibody titres. ninety-three percent of animals delivered by caesarean section from immune mothers and suckled by non-immune mothers s ...19836842184
viruses and human cancer.the cause of human cancer is probably multifactorial and the role of viruses is unclear. the study of retroviruses has led to the identification of oncogenes responsible for transformation and tumor induction. human viruses associated with malignancies include the jc virus (associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and some adenoviruses. no human malignancies have been associated with the latter group. a number of herpes viruses of lower animals have been associated with malign ...19836870184
herpes type 2 infection with unusual generalised manifestations and delayed diagnosis in an adult male.a case of severe generalised herpes simplex type 2 infection is described in an adult male who had known exposure to herpes. the patient first complained of headache, fever and neurological symptoms, and three to six days later of conjunctivitis, severe pharyngitis, arthralgia and vesicular lesions about the body. during the first 14 days of illness, including three in hospital, the patient was diagnosed as having infection with varicella virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, or hand-foot-and-mouth ...19836875292
current status and prospects for oral acyclovir treatment of first episode and recurrent genital herpes simplex virus.herpes simplex genitalis is an increasingly common primary or recurrent hsv infection. acyclovir (acv) has been found to diminish virus shedding and clinical symptoms in patients with first episode genital hsv when given topically or intravenously. as most patients with first episode disease do not require hospitalization and recurrent disease is usually less severe than the primary infection, out-patient treatment forms the basis of practical management. acyclovir is absorbed orally with plasma ...19836355052
lysis of herpesvirus-infected cells by macrophages activated with free or liposome-encapsulated lymphokine produced by a murine t cell hybridoma.thioglycolate-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages were activated in vitro by the lymphokine designated macrophage-activating factor (maf) produced by a murine t cell hybridoma to lyse herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected murine target cells. comparison of uninfected balb/c 10e2 cells with hsv-2-infected 10e2 cells showed that macrophages activated with maf selectively destroyed hsv-2-infected cells and left uninfected cells unharmed, as measured by an 18-h 51cr-release assay. in contras ...19836358037
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