macrophage-lymphocyte interaction. ii. antigen-mediated physical interactions between immune guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes and syngeneic macrophages.the effect of specific antigen on the development of physical interactions between lymph node lymphocytes (lnl) obtained from animals which had been immunized to that antigen and macrophages was examined. we found that the presence of antigen, either limited to the macrophage () or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of ) or free in the medium, profoundly increased the degree of mphi-lnl interaction observed. this enhanced interaction was dependent on the coincidence in the cultu ...197546908
the specificity of cellular immune responses in guinea pigs. i. t cells specific for 2,4-dinitrophenyl-o-tyrosyl residues.guinea pigs immunized with the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp) coupled directly to mycobacterium tuberculosis of strain h37ra (dnp-h37) show a variety of cell-mediated immune responses to dnp coupled to protein carriers. the cells responsible for this specific response are thought to be t lymphocytes for the following reasons: guinea pigs immunized with dnp-h37 displayed delayed hypersensitivity reactions to several dnp-proteins and contact sensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene. peritoneal exudate ...197546912
neuritogenic and encephalitogenic properties of the peripheral nerve basic proteins.two basic proteins, p1 of molecular weight 14,200 and p2 of molecular weight 12,300, purified from bovine peripheral nerve, were assayed for biological activity. the p1 protein is an exclusively neuritogenic agent, capable of producing clinical signs of experimental allergic neuritis (ean) and histological abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system (pns) of guinea pigs and rabbits, without any changes in their central nervous system (cns). p2 protein, like the cns basic encephalitogenic prot ...197546920
ultrastructural demonstration of cystine in guinea pig back stratum corneum.a method for the ultrastructural demonstration of cystine in keratinized epidermal cells of guinea pig back hairy skin is described. this involves selective oxidation by peracetic acid and formation of an electron dense reaction product with uranyl acetate. unkeratinized cells were unstained except for nuclei and keratohyalin. the thickened plasma membranes of transitional and keratinized cells were darkly stained. in transitional keratinized cells darkly stained membranes occurred initially in ...197547239
beta-adrenoceptors invloved in inhibition of histamine release from sensitized guinea-pig lung. 197547291
carrier and hapten functions in immune deviation. i. contrary effects of hapten and carrier on cellular and helper functions of t cells.carrier and hapten functions have been studied in the immune deviation phenomenon. delayed hypersensitivity to the carrier and anaphylaxis and arthus hypersensitivities to the hapten and to the carrier were studied in guinea-pigs injected intravenously with large doses of carrier, homologous and heterologous hapten-carrier conjugates and subsequently immunized with the hapten-carrier conjugate in freund's complete adjuvant. pretreatment with dnp-bsa or with hgg were found to modify, in opposite ...197547307
genetic control of sensitization to structurally unrelated antigens and its relationship to histocompatibility antigens in guinea-pigs.five strains of guinea-pigs homozygous for gpl-a and 2/13 histocompatibility antigens were sequentially immunized with seven structurally unrelated antigens (tgal, bpo-bgg, asan, bpo-pll, phenetidine, horseradish peroxidase and dnp-dodecapeptide). considerable differences in the immune response were observed, as measured by delayed skin reactivity and antigen-induced lymphocyte stimulation in vitro. the data presented show that when the progeny of various back-cross matings are analysed for thei ...197547308
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in resistant and susceptible guinea pigs: in vivo and in vitro correlates.strain 2 guinea pigs develop less severe experimental allergic encephalomyelitis than do strain 13 and hartley guinea pigs when sensitized with equivalent amounts of homologous myelin basic protein (bp) in complete freund's adjuvant. in vivo and in vitro correlates of delayed hypersensitivity to myelin basic protein are depressed in the strain 2 guinea pigs relative to the two susceptible strains. the incidence of circulating anti-bp antibodies is also lower in sera from strain 2 guinea pigs tha ...197547353
the location of regions in guinea pig and bovine myelin basic proteins which induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in lewis rats.myelin basic proteins and peptides derived from them by limited cleavage with pepsin were tested for their ability to induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae) in lewis rats. the encephalitogenicity of the weakly active bovine protein was found to be associated with both halves of the molecule, peptides (1-88) and (89-169). of the four smaller derivates of peptide (1-88), peptides (1-36), (43-88), (1-42), and (37-88), only the last two were active. this demonstrated that the overlap r ...197547354
macrophage requirement for production of guinea pig migration inhibitory factor (mif) in vitro.methods devised for generation and assay of migration inhibitory factor (mif) on a reduced scale have permitted the performance of experiments which demonstrate that glass bead column-purified guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes do not produce mif or proliferate in response to antigen. evidence that the macrophage is the essential cellular element eliminated by the purification procedure is demonstrated by the restoration of both lymphocyte responses upon addition of 5% macrophages to the purified ...197547355
neural antigens and induction of myelination inhibition factor.rabbits were sensitized or immunized with a variety of central nervous system antigens, including bovine spinal cord, bovine, monkey, human, guinea pig, rabbit and rat s myelin basic proteins, and a polypeptide derived from guinea pig basic protein. the animals were observed for development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, and their sera were collected at varying intervals after inoculation and evaluated for presence of precipitating anti-basic protein antibody and for their ability t ...197547359
fractionation of functional lymphocytes sensitized to basic encephalitogen on derivatized collagen and gelatin gels.the lymph node cells of basic encephalitogen (be)-sensitized guinea pigs were fractionated on derivatized collagen and gelatin gels. the population of cells specifically reactive to this antigen can be isolated from derivatized gelatin gels and retain their viability and functionality as assayed in vitro. the specific binding of be-sensitized cells to be-derivatized gels comprised between 1 and 2% of the cells applied per plate. the ratio of sensitized cells bound to non-sensitized cells bound r ...197547362
experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice: immunologic response to mouse spinal cord and myelin basic was confirmed that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis eae, could be induced in sjl/j mice with mouse spinal cord homogenate. it was shown that induction of eae in mice was critically dependent on the concentration of pertussis vaccine. the encephalitogen present in mouse brain was the basic protein of myelin. the smaller form of the mouse and rat basic proteins induced eae; thus the mouse like the rat responds to determinants other than the "tryptophan region," which induced eae in gui ...197547366
cardiac histamine-ouabain interaction: potentiation by ouabain of the arrhythmogenic effects of histamine.cardiac effects of histamine include stimulation of sinus rate and ventricular contractile force, impairment of atrioventricular conduction and increase in ventricular automaticity. atrioventricular block and increase in ventricular automaticity are common features of digitalis toxicity. the purpose of the present investigation was to study the influence of low concentrations of ouabain on the cardiac effects of immunologically released and administered histamine. hearts excised from guinea pigs ...197547388
large peptides of bovine and guinea pig myelin basic proteins produced by limited peptic hydrolysis.bovine and guinea pig myelin basic proteins were cleaved with pepsin at ph 3.0 or ph 6.0 (enzyme/substrate, 1:500, w/w), and the peptides were isolated and identified. at ph 3.0 cleavage of the bovine protein occurred principally at three sites: phe-phe (88-89), phe-phe (42-43), and leu-asp (36-37). minor cleavages occurred at leu-ser (110-111), phe-ser (113-114), and ile-phe (152-153). a study of the time course of the hydrolysis showed that the reaction was biphasic; nearly all of the protein ...197547756
the beta-adrenoceptors of the lung mediating inhibition of antigen-induced histamine release.the beta-adrenoceptor stimulants, isoprenaline (ipr), orciprenaline (opr), terbutaline (trb), and itp were studied for effects on antigen-induced release of histamine from guinea-pig lung tissue and for effects on guinea-pig isolated trachea and heart. the order of potency for the agents in the four funct-ons studied were: (a) inhibition of histamine release, ipr greater than opr approximately equal to trb greater than itp equal 0; (b) heart stimulation, chronotropic effect, ipr greater than opr ...197547809
carrier and hapten functions in immune deviation. ii. role of hapten and carrier on the helper functions of the t cells.the kinetics of haemagglutinating and haemolytic antibody synthesis to the hapten and to the carrier determinants were studied in guinea-pigs injected intravenously with large doses of the carrier, or of the hapten conjugated to an homogous or heterologous protein carrier and subsquently immunized with the hapten-carrier conjugate in freund's complete adjuvant. the animals treated with the heterologous conjugates exhibited enhanced reactions to the hapten and supressed reactions to the carrier, ...197547838
spasmolytic constituents of cedrus deodara (roxb.) loud: pharmacological evaluation of himachalol.himachalol has been identified as the major antispasmodic constituent in the wood of cedrus deodara. the pharmacological studies of himachalol on various isolated smooth muscles (guinea pig ileum, rabbit jejunum, rat uterus, and guinea pig seminal vesicle) and against different agonists (acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, nicotine, and barium chloride) indicated spasmolytic activity similar to that of papaverine. it was a more potent antagonist of barium chloride-induced spasm of guinea pig il ...197547907
the histochemical localization of n-l-arginyl-2-naphthylamine- and n-l valyl-2-naphthylamine-cleaving enzymes in the guinea-pig testis. 197547910
interspecies brain antigen detected by naturally occurring mouse anti-brain autoantibody.normal mouse sera contain naturally occurring antibodies that are cytotoxic in the presence of rabbit complement for nb1, a cell line derived from a neuroblastoma adrenal metastasis of a spontaneous ovarian teratoma. the anti-nb1 antibodies can be specifically removed from normal mouse sera by absorption of the sera with homogenized brain tissue of mouse, rat, guinea pig, chicken, and man and by homogenized kidney tissue of mouse and man. the antigen recognized by anti-nb1 naturally occurring au ...197548248
forssman antigen and phase specific fetal antigens: an evaluation of their role in sv40 tumor immunity.forssman heterophile antigen was detected on hamster fetal cells which had been previously shown to be capable of eliciting transplantation resistance to syngeneic hamster sv40 tumors. the expression of forssman antigen continued throughout fetal development and could be detected postpartum in the tissues of neonate hamsters. in contrast, fetal antigen(s) evoking immunity to sv40 tumors was also present on early fetal cells but, unlike forssman antigen, was not expressed after the tenth day of g ...197548262
cell-mediated immunity in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: cross reactivity between myelin basic protein and mycobacteria antigens.guinea pigs injected with freund's incomplete adjuvant emulsified with guinea pig spinal cord, purified guinea pig myelin basic protein, or human myelin basic protein showed dermal reactivity to both of the basic proteins as well as to mycobacteria antigens. animals receiving only mycobacteria antigens expressed dermal reactivity to the sensitizing antigen in addition to basic protein. this cross reactivity may help explain the role of mycobacteria in inducing and protecting against eae, and may ...197548264
histamine induction and release following proteolytic enzyme exposure.the mechanism of biologic response from exposure to a 12% subtilisin carlsberg preparation is shown to be one of histamine release in the guinea pig. three groups of guinea pigs were pretreated by intradermal injections withsaline solution of (1) the commercial proteolytic enzyme preparation containing 12% subtilisin carlsberg, (2) an alkaline protease preparation obtain from aspergillus oryzae that was isolated from cotton dust, or (3) a nonproteolytic mixture of proteins and lipases obtained f ...197548332
inhibition of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in laboratory animals by a phenanthroline salt (ici 74,917).1. the activity of a new anti-allergic compound, i.c.i. 74,917, has been studied in the rat, mouse and guinea-pig. 2. following intravenous administration, i.c.i. 74,917 inhibits in a dose-dependent manner passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced in rats and mice by heat-labile homocytotropic antibody. in rats, its potency is approximately 300 times that of disodium cromoglycate. 3. to achieve maximal inhibition, it is necessary to administer i.c.i. 74,917 at the same time as antigenic challenge; d ...197548393
surface immunoglobulin of guinea-pig leukaemic lymphocytes.the surface immunoglobulin of the transplantable l2c leukaemia of strain 2 guinea-pigs has been investigated. the immunoglobulin is seen to be synthesized when the cells are maintained in culture, indicating its intrinsic origin. immunolabelling of the cell surface and immunochemical study of the fab released by limited surface proteolysis indicate the presence of immunoglobulin of class igm. igg and free light chains were not detected, and there is unlikely to be an appreciable amount of immuno ...197548498
inhibition by serum of encephalitogenic activity of myelin basic protein.basic protein of myelin from bovine brain (b-bpm) in freund's complete adjuvant (fca) is highly encephalitogenic for the guinea pig. however, when b-bpm is mixed with serum from various species it loses its encephalitogenic effect but not its immunogenic properties. when the synthetic tryptophan peptide matching residue 115-126 of human bpm is mixed with normal human serum it loses both its encephalitogenic and immunogenic effects. the time of exposure to serum necessary for complete inhibition ...197548507
modulation of the immune response by passive antibodies. i. anti-hapten antibodies enhanced delayed hypersensitivity to the carrier and depressed antibody synthesis to the hapten.the modulating effects of passive antibodies on both delayed hypersensitivity to the carrier and antibody synthesis to carrier and hapten determinants were studied in guinea pigs. animals were injected with antibodies directed against either the carrier or the hapten prior to immunization with the hapten-carrier conjugate in freund's complete adjuvant. anti-hapten antibodies have been shown to have an enhancing effect on delayed hypersensitivity to the carrier and a suppressive effect on antibod ...197548508
retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase in peripheral autonomic exogeneous marker protein, horseradish peroxidase (hrp) was used to race peripheral autonomic pathways in adult guinea pigs and cats. small doses of hrp were injected into various organs and after a brief survival period, hrp activity appeared in the perikarya of autonomic neurons that supplied each injection site. after injection of hrp into the anterior chamber of the eye, reaction product was detected in the postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. ...197548519
effect of intravenous b.c.g. in guineapigs and pertinence to cancer immunotherapy in man.intravenous injection of heat-killed or irradiated b.c.g into tuberculin-positive guineapigs produced macroscopic lesions in the lung when examined 10 days or 4 or 6 weeks later. microscopically, granulomas typical of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction were seen. intravenous b.c.g. in normal guineapigs did not produce lesions. at equivalent doses to the killed vaccine, viable vaccine caused only mild lesions. liver lesions were also found on early examination but by 4 weeks had almost resolved. ...197548944
non-encephalitogenic synthetic analogues of the determinant for allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs. 197549022
ammonium and sulfate ion release of histamine from lung vitro studies with guinea pig lung fragments incubated with 10- to 200-mm concentrations of ammonium ion demonstrated the release of substanial quantities of histamine. of the anions tested with ammonium ion, sulfate was the most potent, while nitrate and acetate ions were of intermediate potency and chloride was less potent. an osmotic effect is unlikely since equal concentrations of sodium chloride failed to release histamine. isoproterenol, known to decrease anaphylactic histamine release, ...197549176
isolation and characterization of a basic encephalitogenic protein from the central nervous system of sheep.a basic protein has been purified from sheep brain. the purified protein sedimented in the analytical centrifuge at 56,000 r.p.m. as an homogenous product. this protein induced an allergic encephalitis when injected into guinea pigs. some physiochemical properties of the protein were studied: the sedimentation coefficient was 1.52 and the molecular weight was 20,000 +/- 2,000, as estimated by electrophoresis in acrylamide gels containing sds and urea; the specific extinction coefficient (see art ...197549199
the metabolic action of gestagens on the cerebral cortex of the guinea pig. 197549253
immunological comparison of basic encephalitogen and histone f2a1.the extent of immunological cross-reaction between basic encephalitogen and histone f2a1 on both the humoral antibody level and on the cellular level has been established. the extent of humoral cross-reaction was tested by direct complement fixation employing both anti-histone f2a1 and antisera to basic encephalitogen, by inhibition of complement fixation, by radioimmunoassay and by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. the data obtained failed to reveal immunological cross-reaction at the cellular lev ...197549268
nonoxidative fungicidal mechanisms of mammalian granulocytes: demonstration of components with candidacidal activity in human, rabbit, and guinea pig leukocytes.granulocytes from the peripheral blood of normal subjects and a patient with hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency were homogenized in 0.34 m sucrose. a granule-rich fraction, prepared by sedimentation at 27,000 x g for 20 min, contained components that killed c. parapsilosis in vitro. these were extractable with 0.01 m citric acid and were shown by micropreparative polyacrylamide electrophoresis to be multiple. the candidacidal activity of these neutrophil components was heat stable and they we ...197549298
the effect of glucocorticoids and catecholamines on cyclic amp and allergic histamine release in guinea pig lung. 197549315
histamine release, formation of prostaglandin-like activity (srs-c) and mast cell degranulation by the direct lytic factor (dlf) and phospholipase a of cobra venom.cobra venom, alone and in combination, on mast cell degranulation, histamine release and formation of prostaglandin-like activity (srs-c) was studied in perfused guinea-pig lungs and in mast cell-containing rat peritoneal cell suspensions. for comparison, the effect of equivalent doses of whole cobra venom was investigated. 1. cobra venom caused mast cell degranulation, histamine release and srs-c formation in both systems. for comparable effects much higher doses had to be used in guine-pig lun ...197549854
pseudomonas pseudomallei: ii. laboratory and experimental studies in animals.the cultural, biochemical characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of strains of pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from four cases of melioidosis admitted to ramathibodi hospital are described. the organisms were gram-negative bacilli often with bipolar staining. the colonies were wrinkled when incubated for long periods. the characteristic non-specific uptake of dye from media into the colonies and their musty or earthy odour rendered them easily distinguishable from other organisms. all stra ...197549930
antibody in cats to mammalian rna tumor virus interspecies antigens.the studies were undertaken to determine whether the cat, a mammalian species that carries xenotropic endogenous c-type virus(es) and in addition undergoes horizontally transmitted oncogenic c-type rna tumor virus infections, responds immunologically to the mammalian c-type virus interspecies antigens. sera from normal cats and from cats with spontaneous or virus-induced neoplasms were examined for antibodies to interspecies antigen antigen by complement-fixation inhibition, by inhibition of the ...197550133
preliminary characterization of a major allergen of timothy grass pollen.previous studies with timothy pollen extracts demonstrated that a low molecular weight dialyzable fraction, antigen d, possessed the allergenic determinant of the major allergen of timothy pollen (allergen b). bio-gel p-2 gel-filtration of the dialysate fraction resulted in the isolation of a fragment, antigen d3 with a molecular weight near 1000. the relationship of antigen d3 to the antigenic and allergenic determinants of allergen b was evaluated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (pca) in guin ...197550243
the antigenic interrelations of some mammalian igg subclasses detected with cross-reacting fowl antisera to human and mouse igg-fc.two fowl antisera to plyclonal human igg and one to a mouse igg1 myeloma protein, after absorption either with homologous f(ab)2 alone, or also with myeloma proteins of known subclasses, cross-reacted in immunoelectrophoresis or immunodiffision withthe igg of many mammalian species. often more than one igg precipitation line was formed in the corss-reacting systems. by testing isolated igg1 and igg2 fractions from mouse, rat, guinea-pig, bovine and dog sera, it was shown that the distinct arcs ...197550284
antigenicity of carcinogen and viral induced sarcomas in inbred and random bred guinea pigs.a tumor specific transplantation antigen (tsta) has been detected in a methylcholanthrene (mca) induced guinea pig tumor. it was possible to induce resistance to rechallenge with the tumor by immunization with irradiated cells in cfa. in contrast, the same technique failed to detect tsta in two viral (kirsten strain mouse sarcoma virus, ki-msv) induced guinea pig tumors; these results are similar to observations made with mouse ki-msv-induced tumors. transplantation studies with these tumors in ...197550348
induction of t lymphocyte responses to a small molecular weight antigen. i. failure to induce tolerance in azobenzenearsonate (aba)-specific t cells in guinea pigs with an aba conjugate of a copolymer of d-glutamic acid and d-lysine (d-gl).2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp) coupled to the copolymer d-glutamic acid and d-lysine (d-gl) induces b cell tolerance but not t cell tolerance. this implies either a lack of dnp determinant recognition by t cells or a substantial difference in tolerance mechanisms for the two cell types. in the present study d-gl was conjugated with the well-defined determinant azobenzenearsonate (aba) coupled to single amino acids shown here and previously by others to trigger effectively t lymphocytes. the experiments ...197550351
immunologic activity of myelin basic protein in strain 2 and strain 13 guinea pigs.the resistance of strain 2 guinea pigs to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae) induced by inoculation with whole cns tissue in complete freund's adjuvant (cfa) has been confirmed. the resistance is even more pronounced when myelin basic protein (bp) is used in attempts to induce eae. strain 2 guinea pigs are also resistant to an immunization schedule (multiple injections with bp in ifa followed by a single injection of bp in cfa) known to induce significant levels of antibody in suscept ...197550359
macrophage-lymphocyte interaction: antigen-independent binding of guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes by macrophages.the antigen independent binding of guinea pig lymph node lymphocytes by glass-adherent macrophages was investigated. binding was found to be mediated by a trypsin digestible, divalent cation-dependent, temperature-sensitive macrophage receptor mechanism that was not competitively inhibited by excess immunoglobulin. data are presented to indicate that in the absence of antigen, macrophages were capable of binding both thymus-derived and bone marrow-derived lymphocytes without apparent selectivity ...197550361
lysis of tumor cells by antibody and complement. iii. lack of correlation between antigen movement and cell lysis.the increase in susceptibility to killing by rabbit antibody and guinea pig complement of guinea pig hepatoma cells (line-10), after treatment with certain metabolic inhibitors, did not correlate with the mobility of antigen on the cell surface as measured by indirect immunofluorescence.197550364
further studies on the biologic properties of guinea pig igg1 antibodies. ii. in vivo activation of c3 by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies.normal rats were injected with guinea pig anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antibodies of the igg1 or igg2 class or with their f (ab') 2 fragments, in order to study which antibody site triggers the alternate complement pathway in vivo. both igg classes were able to induce a heavy proteinuria and led to c3 deposition in the glomeruli in a pattern similar to their own distribution along the glomerular basement membrane, as shown by the immunofluorescence technique. the fab(ab')2 fragment of i ...197550374
isolation of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) by affinity chromatography on antibody-coated immunoadsorbents.hepatitis tb surface antigen (hbsag) was isolated from human serum by two steps of affinity chromatography on antibody-coated gels. hbsag-positive serum was passed through a column packed with guinea pig anti-hbsag antibodies covalently bound to cnbr-activated beaded agarose gel. the majority of non-specifically bound proteins was removed by washing the gel with increased concentrations (0.5 m) of nacl in tris buffer. elution of the specifically bound hbsag was carried out with 3 m nascn. residu ...197550379
the skin-reactive antigens of mycoplasma pneumoniae.guinea pigs experimentally infected with mycoplasma pneumoniae or immunized with the orgnaism in combination with freund's complete adjuvant developed a delayed hypersensitive skin reaction following on intradermal injection of the m. pneumoniae antigen. the amount of protein necessary to produce the delayed skin reaction was as low as 0.01 mug. when the sonicated whole cells were extracted with aqueous acetone, the delayed skin reactivity was found mostly in the acetone insoluble (lipid-deplete ...197550469
antigenic relationships between candida albicans and various yeasts as reflected by immunoglobulin-class specificity.a group of guinea pigs was inoculated into the foot pads with a single dose of candida albicans in complete freund's adjuvant, while another group was similarly inoculated once in the foot pads but also several times intramuscularly, with candida alone. all guinea pigs were bled at different intervals after immunization and sera were separated chromatographically into igg and igm fractions. in order to study the antigenic relationships as reflected by immunoglobulin-class specificity, igg and ig ...197550586
induction of hypersensitivity to carboxymethylcellulose in cattle.cattle were more readily sensitised than guinea pigs to carboxymethylcellulose. freund's complete adjuvant enhanced, but was not essential for, sensitisation. schultz-dale responses were obtained from pulmonary tissues of sensitised cattle but their sera failed to induce passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. cattle could possibly be sensitised by carboxymethylcellulose contained in drug formulations.197550616
specificity and sensitivity of skin test reactions to extracts of toxocara canis and ascaris suum ii. homologous 48-hour passive cutaneous anaphylaxis tests with sera from infected guinea pigs.the specificity and sensitivity of adult and larval somatic antigens and perienteric fluid of toxocara canis and ascaris suum were investigated by using a modified passive cutaneous anaphylaxis procedure in guinea pigs. pooled sera from animals infected with low doses (0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 egg/g) were most reactive with the homologous larval antigen preparation. however, the toxocara antisera were highly reactive with this antigen only, whereas the ascaris antisera reactions could not be interprete ...197550748
innervation of the cochlea of the guinea pig by use of the golgi stain.nerve fibers with distinctive branching patterns have been demonstrated in guinea pigs by use of the golgi stain. the cochlear nerve fibers in the basal turn tend to supply a limited segment of the basilar membrane and have most endings on a single row of hair cells. the efferent olivocochlear nerve fibers ramify in a manner which varies from base to apex. some efferents which terminate on outer hair cells also give branches which course in the inner spiral bundle. other nerve fibers were studie ...197550759
[effect of ajmaline and its therapeutically used derivatives n-propylajmaline and di-monochloracetylajmaline on the functional refractory period and contractility of guinea pig atrium and aconitine arrhythmia in the rat].1. in the isolated left atrium of the guinea pig ajmaline and di-monochloracetylajmaline (dcaa) show almost the same activity concerning prolongation of the functional refractory period. 2. in contrast to this n-propylajmaline (npa) is much more effective than ajmaline. 3. npa as compared to ajmaline and dcaa, however, shows a considerably smaller difference between the concentrations prolonging refractory period (i) and those decreasing contractility (ii) in the guinea pig atrium (ec25). the qu ...197550847
study of the antigenic cross reactivity between carcinoembryonic antigen and "nonspecific cross reacting antigens" (nca and nca 2).the immunochemical relationship between cea, nca and nca 2 was studied in guinea-pigs. strong cross reactions were found between these antigens, either in delayed or anaphylactic reactions. some specific determinants for each antigen could still be demonstrated. delayed hypersensitivity is likely to be due to the protein moiety of the molecules while anaphylactic reactivity could probably be related to their glucidic parts. consequently, cea and nca have common antigenic determinants on their gl ...197550854
the interaction of concanavalin a and the surface coat of stratified squamous epithelium.the interaction of concanavalin a (con a) and the surface membranes of the epithelial cells of human oral mucosa, epidermis and guinea-pig lip was studied. two methods were used: fluorescent con a and con a in combination with horse radish peroxidase. with both methods the surface coat of epithelial cells was stained. the specificity of the staining methods could be demonstrated. the interaction between pemphigus antibodies and the surface membranes of epithelial cells could be blocked by con a.197550858
partial characterization of c-type particles in a cell line (wr-9) derived from a rat epidermoid carcinoma of spontaneous origin.a c-type virus continuously released from a cell line (wr-9) derived from a spontaneous epidermoid carcinoma was purified by means of large-scale tissue culture techniques and high-volume zonal centrifuges. with the use of relatively pure virus concentrates, partial characterization of the virus has been accomplished. up to 60 liters of spent culture medium from relatively low virus-yielding cultures were processed at a time through the model k ultracentrifuge in order to obtain quantities of vi ...197550883
specificity of antigens in aqueous phenol extracts of skin examined by means of guinea pig and rabbit immune sera.human, guinea pig and rabbit skin homogenates were digested with trypsin and extracted with phenol water. antisera were raised in guinea pigs and rabbits by immunization with extract recovered from the water phase (tpw extract). all sera showed increased titres in indirect haemagglutination tests. the results of absorption and inhibition experiments indicated antibodies against a common antigenic determinant. these antibodies also agglutinated erythrocytes sensitized with autologous antigen. in ...197551011
experimental exophthalmos. binding of thyrotropin and an exophthalmogenic factor derived from thyrotropin to retro-orbital tissue plasma membranes.biologically active preparations of 125i-thyrotropin, [3h]thyrotropin, and the [3h]exophthalmogenic factor derived from thyrotropin by partial pepsin digestion have been used to study the binding properties of the thyrotropin receptor on guinea pig retro-orbital tissue plasma membranes. in regard to the optimal conditions of binding, ph, buffer, salt concentrations, and temperature, these properties are the same as those described in any accompanying report concerning thyrotropin binding to bovi ...197551021
detection of a tl(+) murine leukemia cell line that resists the cytotoxic effects of guinea pig complement and specific antiserum.rada-1 cells [h-2a thy-1b; thymus-leukemia (tl) 1, 2, 3], a radiation-induced murine leukemia cell line maintained by serial transfer in histocompatible recipients, resisted lysis by guinea pig complement (gpc) and tl 1, 3; tl 2; or tl 1, 2, 3 antiserum. the cells expressed tl antigenic specificities as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody methods, the direct isolation of tl antigens from the cells, and the capacity of the cells to reduce known titers of tl antisera. gpc was consumed to t ...197551085
complement sensitivity of somatic hybrids of a complement-resistant murine leukemia cell line.rada-1 cells (h-2a), a murine leukemia cell line maintained by serial transfer in histocompatible recipients expressing thymus-leukemia (tl) 1, 2, 3 antigenic determinants, resisted the cytotoxic effects of guinea pig complement (gpc) and tl antiserum. the cells expressed a lower density of tl antigens than did asl-1 cells, another tl(+) leukemia cell line expressing the same determinants and susceptible to complement (c)-mediated lysis. stable somatic cell hybrids of rada-1 cells and lm(tk)- ce ...197551086
production of antibody to individual polypeptides derived from purified hepatitis b surface antigen.purified preparations of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) were solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea under reducing conditions and subsequently fractionated by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). pools of the individual fractions eluted from the preparative page were concentrated and purified further by analytical page. five purified polypeptides were isolated from hbsag, types adw and ayw, with molecular weights of 19,000, 24,000, 27, ...197551098
[sensitization against the antigens of the brain after experimental vaccinia infection. i. evidence for cell-mediated immune response to brain-antigens (author's transl)].vaccinia virus infection was performed by scarification of the shaved skin (5 times 5 cm2) on the back of pirbright guinea pigs. the macrophage migration inhibition test was performed with peritonealexudate cells 7, 11, 14 and 21 days after infection. macrophage migration inhibition occurred after exposure of the cells to whole brain tissue antigen on the 7th, 11th, 14th day after infection (s. table 1). lymphocyte transformation responses were examined by 14c-2-thymidin uptake using blood cultu ...197551549
[sensitization against the antigens of the brain after experimental vaccinia infection. ii. humoral anti-brain antibodies and morphological changes in the cns (author's transl)].29 guinea pigs, strain pirbright, were infected with vaccinia virus, strain elstree, by the dermal route. the observation period was 14 days. thereafter, the animals were killed and their central nervous systems (cns) histologically and immunohistologically, the blood fluorescence-serologically examined. histological examination revealed meningitis, ependymitis or disseminated meningoencephalitis with slight perivascular cuffing in 72% of the animals. the viral antigen was found in 3 animals (10 ...197551552
characterization of murine sarcoma virus transformation of guinea pig cells and activation of an rna tumor-like virus from nonproducer guinea pig cells.guinea pig embryo (gep) cells were transformed in vitro by the kirsten strain of mouse sarcoma virus (ki-msv). the transformed cells were found to release infectious virus continuously and produced high titers of group-specific (gs) complement-fixing (cf) antigen characteristics of the murine sarcoma-leukemia virus complex. foci of transformed cells were similar in appearance to those obtained with ki-msv in mouse and rat cells. the transformed cells produced rna dependent dna polymerase and typ ...197551621
an endogenous oncornavirus of guinea pigs: its expression in leukemic cells.guinea pigs do not have any known infectious oncornaviruses. we have recently activated an endogenous oncornavirus (gpv) from cultured guinea pig cells after bromodeoxyuridine riboside (budr) treatment. gpv is noninfectious for guinea pig cells and is inducible from any guinea pig cell in culture. although the morphogenesis of the activated virus is unique, it has the morphology and density (1.16 g/ml) of type c oncornaviruses. it contains an oncornavirus specific reverse transcriptase and a hig ...197551631
inhibitory effects of superoxide dismutases and various other proteins on the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by phagocytizing guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes. 197551640
anti-synaptic antibody in allergic encephalomyelitis. i. neurophysiological studies, in guinea pigs, on the exposed cerebral cortex and peripheral nerves, following immunological challenges with myelin and synaptosomes.the potential evoked at the surface of the cerebral cortex of a guinea pig, by stimulation of the contralateral forepaw, usually consists of an initial double positive wave whose waveform remains unchanged during rapid stimulation. in a guinea pig with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae) the response is attenuated at low frequencies of stimulation. observations were also made on animals with experimental allergic neuritis (aen). these animals showed a peripheral specificity for decreas ...197551670
anti-synaptic antibody in allergic encephalomyelitis. ii. the synapse-blocking effects in tissue culture of demyelinating sera from experimental allergic has been suggested that demyelination cannot account for all of the observed clinical symptoms of multiple sclerosis (ms), in particular the rapidity of onset and remission of the disease, and attention has been focussed on the role of the synapse in 'demyelinating diseases'. in the present paper we have attempted to resolve the fundamental question of the site of action of a demyelinating disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae), by the use of cultures of neonatal rat cerebellu ...197551671
the influence of complement on the neutralization of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by globulins derived from early and late bovine antisera.calves were inoculated at four week intervals with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv). sera were obtained at eight days (early sample) and 21 days (late sample) after each inoculation. kinetic neutralization was carried out with 7s and 19s globulins derived from these sera, both in the presence and in the absence of guinea pig complement (c). in all instances the 19s neutralizing antibody (ab) was dependent on c for neutralization of ibvr. however, c dependency was not observed with ...197551677
inhibition of t- and b-lymphocyte functions by normal immunosuppressive protein.normal immunosuppressive protein (nip) isolated from human plasma was studied in two well defined systems. (1) spontaneous rosettes of sheep red blood cells with human peripheral blood lymphocytes and pha-induced lymphocyte cytotoxicity as indicators for t-cell function. (2) rosette formation tests of human lymphocytes with antibody-coated erythrocytes or erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement as well as antibody-induced lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity represented non-t-cell activity. ...197551828
the contribution of phosphorylation and loss of cooh-terminal arginine to the microheterogeneity of myelin basic protein.two guinea pig myelin basic protein preparations which differed markedly in their contents of high ph electrophoretic or chromatographic forms were studied in an attempt to elucidate the causes of their microheterogeneity. both total preparations and components isolated therefrom were examined for their amino acid compositions, nh2-terminal and cooh-terminal residues, total phosphorus contents, amd contents of phosphamino acids. the results showed that the five components differed sequentially b ...197551849
effect of decalcifying agents on the staining of mycobacterium tuberculosis.lymph nodes from guinea pigs inoculated with mycobacterium tuberculosis were fixed in buffered formalin, then treated for the recommended times in gooding and stewart's fluid, edta, aqueous nitric acid, von ebner's fluid, and rapid decalcifier (rdc). the blocks were processed to paraffin wax and sections were stained by the ziehl-neelsen technique. only in sections of the blocks treated with rdc were no acid alcohol fast bacilli demonstrable. hydrochloric acid is a known constituent of rdc and i ...197551859
glycogenolysis and control of anaphylactic histamine release by cyclic adenosine monophosphate--related agents.the relationship of glycogen and glucose to anaphylactic histamine release from chopped sensitized guinea pig lung in vitro was studied. a parallelism was observed between the total amount of glycogen in the sensitized lung and the total amount of histamine released from the lung by antigen-antibody reactions. removal of glucose from the medium for tissue suspension resulted in reduction in histamine release. depletion of glycogen and/or glucose from the system was associated with (1) abolition ...197551861
glycogenolysis and control of anaphylactic histamine release by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-related agents. ii. modification of histamine release by glycogenolytic metabolites.d-glucose-6-phosphate (less than or equal to 5 x 10(-3) m), pyruvate, lactate (less than or equal to 1 x 10(-2) m), and dibutyryl cyclic amp (less than 5 x 10(-3) m) were capable of inhibiting anapylactic histamine release in vitro from chopped guinea pig lung. in lower concentrations, pyruvic acid and lactate, as well as dibutyryl cyclic amp, enhanced the release. significant synergism was observed betweenpyruvate (5 x 10(-3) m) and isoproterenol (1 x 10(-8) m) in the inhibition of histamine re ...197551862
studies on the mechanism of suppression of delayed hypersensitivity by the antischistosomal compund niridazole.niridazole given in a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg to guinea pigs sensitized to ortho-chlorobenzoyl chloride-bovine gamma-globulin (ocb-bgg) regularly abolished delayed cutaneous reactivity. little effect was observed, however, when cells from these animals were tested in vitro with either direct or indirect assays for migration inhibitory factor (mif). on the other hand, sera taken from nonsensitized guinea pigs after they had received 100 mg/kg of niridazole markedly diminished antigen-induce ...197551891
the immune response against an encephalitogenic fragment of guinea pig basic protein in the lewis and brown norway strains or rat.lewis rats which have ir-eae gene develop eae after challenge with either gpbp or gpef, a 42-residue fragment. bn rats which lack the ir gene do not develop eae after challenge with these proteins. the immune response against gpef was compared in these two strains of rats. it was found that le rats produce small amounts of antibody and a cell-mediated immune response against gpef; in contrast bn rats did neither. these findings support the concept that the ir-eae gene exerts its effect by contr ...197551892
inverse relationship between net electric charge on the antigen and that on the sensitized cell in cellular immune response: demonstration with basic encephalitogen of the inverse relationship exists between the net-electrical charge of immunogens and the antibodies elicited (1). the cellular basis of the net charge phenomenon has been established for both positively and negatively charged immunogens, by cell separation techniques over columns of opposite charge (7, 8). to establish whether this phenomenon can be extended to include cell-mediated immunity, the response to basic encephalitogenic protein (be) which induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis ...197551899
biochemical properties of the bromodeoxyuridine-induced guinea pig virus.the biophysical and biochemical properties of the virus particles released by guinea pig embryo cells treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (budr) have been compared to those of the b-type mouse mammary tumor virus (mmtv) and the c-type rauscher murine leukemia virus. the high-molecular-weight (60 to 70s) rna of the budr-induced guinea pig virus (gpv) has a molecular weight of 8 x 106 when measred by mixed agarose polyacylamide gel electrophoresis. the virus particles isolated from the tissue cul ...197551933
disease-inducing activity of different parts of bovine encephalitogenic protein in guinea-pigs.the encephalitogenic activity of different parts of bovine encephalitogenic protein (bep) has been tested in guinea-pigs, mainly at a dose equimolar to 32 mug of intact protein. a high activity was found with complete protein and with region 89-169; both peptide 43-115, tyr (modified at the tyrosine residue 67) and hnb-89-169 (modified at the tryptophan residue 115) showed a moderate but clear-cut activity, whereas that of peptide 1-42 was very faint. no qualitative differences in the disease in ...197552129
immunologic differentiation of proteins in the surfactant system of the lung.immunoelectrophoresis revealed the following four protein components in the lung surfactant system of guinea-pigs: albumin, transferrin, igg, and an organ-specific protein migrating in the beta-globulin range. these proteins probably take part in the formation of the hypophase of the alveolar lining layer and thereby influence the surface properties of the alveolar air-liquid interface.197552192
further studies on the specificity of the n- and c-terminal antigenic determinant of hen egg-white lysozyme.the specificity of the n- and c-terminal antigenic determinant (p17: sequence lys1-cys6-asn27, trp123-cys127-leu129) of hen egg-white lysozyme (hl) was studied in more detail. in a scatchard plot of the binding of 14c-acetyl hl with guinea pig purified anti-p17 antibody experimental values bent sharply near r=1. this suggests the presence of two antibody populations with different affinities for hl or possible steric hindrance in the binding of a second hl molecule to the second binding site of ...197552358
enhancing effect by metabolic inhibitors on the killing of tumor cells by antibody and complement.two chemically induced, antigenically distinct guinea pig hepatoma cell lines, line 1 and line 10, which are resistant to killing by rabbit anti-forssman or specific antitumor antibody and complement, can be rendered susceptible when the cells are pretreated with metabolic inhibitors and drugs commonly used for the treatment of cancer patients. the effect appears within 7 hr after initial contact with the inhibitors and is dependent on temperature and on inhibitor concentration; the effect is re ...197552404
effect of metabolic inhibitors on the ability of tumor cells to express antigen and bind complement components c4 and c3.metabolic inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of cancer increase the ability of antibody and complement to kill guinea pig tumor cells in vitro. no correlation was found between increased killing and changes in cell surface antigen concentration or binding of complement components c4 and c3.197552405
accelerated cytodifferentiation of antibody-secreting cells in guinea-pig lymph nodes stimulated by sheep erythrocytes and lymphokines.lymphokines, produced in response to structurally unrelated antigens, altered the course of a primary anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque-forming cell response within the regional lymph nodes of normal guinea-pigs. intralymphatic injection of a small dose of lymphokines (0-5-8 mug) 1 day after antigen priming accelerated the rate of indirect plaque-forming cell cytodifferentiation between the 5th and the 9th days of the response. this effect was not related to changes in the level of antigen trapping ...197552424
isolation of parietal cells from guinea-pig gastric mucosa and the immunological characterization of their antigenic structure.a method is described for the isolation of parietal cells from the gastric mucosa of the guinea pig by enzymatic digestion with collagenase. a suspension was obtained that contained 70-80% parietal cells. about 80% of the cells were viable immediately after incubation, but viability dropped sharply after one hour. parietal cells were identified by their morphology on light and electron microscopy, by their uptake of neutral red, by immunofluorescent staining and by carbonic anhydrase activity. a ...197552572
induction of allergic encephalomyelitis using hydrosoluble adjuvant and the tryptophan region of myelin basic protein.experimental allergic encephalomyelitis has been induced in guinea pigs using the encephalitogenic tryptophan peptide as antigen and a hydrosoluble adjuvant extracted from mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. hominis, strain h37ra. the maximum response was observed using 100mug of adjuvant per animal. this is a quantity of adjuvant substantially higher than was necessary to induce disease utilizing the whole myelin basic protein as antigen.197552609
antigen-induced inhibition of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. iv. studies of the c-terminal end of the myelin basic protein molecule (1).the c-terminal end of the myelin basic protein (bp) molecule (peptide 117.170) was obtained by cleavage with bnps-skatole, and purified by gel filtration. peptide 117-170 from guinea pig bp induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae) in lewis rats, whereas the corresponding peptide from bovine bp was inactive. neither peptide showed more than trace activity when tested in guinea pigs. guinea pigs and rats treated with peptide 117-170 in incomplete freund adjuvant were not rendered unre ...197552611
the effect of alloantisera on antigen-induced t cell the guinea pig, alloantisera raised by cross-immunization of strain 2 and strain 13 animals are capable of specifically inhibiting the in vitro proliferative response of (2 x 13)f1 t lymphocytes to those antigens the response to which is controlled by ir genes linked to the genes controlling the alloantigens against which the serum is directed. however, in similar studies performed in the two parental strains, the responses to antigens not known to be under unigenic control were also markedly ...197552669
the major histocompatibility complex of the guinea pig. i. serologic and genetic studies.serologic and genetic studies of the antigens which comprise the guinea pig mhc have demonstrated three distinct but linked genetic regions. antisera to the b region were raised by cross-immunization of random-bred animals; this region controls antigens b.1, b.2, b.3, and b.4 which behave as alleles at a single locus and which resemble the products of the murine d or k region genes in their tissue distribution and molecular characteristics. cross-immunization of inbred strain 2 and strain 13 ani ...197552675
in vitro selection and extended culture of antigen-specific t lymphocytes. ii. mechanisms of selection.functional selection of antigen-specific t lymphocytes can be achieved by culturing thymus-dependent (t) lymphocytes from immunized guinea pigs on "monolayers" of antigen-pulsed adherent peritoneal exudate cells (pec) from nonimmune syngeneic donors. several aspects of the in vitro selection of t lymphocyte-rich peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (pel) were studied. it was shown that irradiated adherent pec were equivalent to nonirradiated adherent pec in supporting selection cultures, indicating th ...197552677
effect of ascorbic acid on histamine metabolism in scorbutic guinea-pigs.1. in guinea-pigs fed an ascorbic-acid-free diet, as the ascorbic acid levels decreased the histamine levels in blood and urine rose steadily to maxima in about 10-12 days. the elevated histamine levels persisted in the blood and urine of scorbutic guinea-pigs and the histamine levels in lung, gastric mucosa and spleen also increased. the increased histamine content of the urine, blood and other tissues in the ascorbic-acid-depleted condition could be brought back to normal levels by administrat ...197552707
multiple in vitro mechanisms of tumor cytotoxicity demonstrated in the line-1 guinea pig hepatoma model.the line-1 guinea pig hepatoma was used to study in vitro tumor cytotoxicity. cytotoxicity was determined by measurement of the loss of tritiated thymidine-labeled target cells from culture vessels. with this technique, we demonstrated that significant tumor cytotoxicity was caused by lymphoid cells from tumor-immune guinea pigs, by cells from guinea pigs immunized against an antigen urelated to the tumor target, and by cell-free supernatants rich in lymphocyte mediators. addition of normal peri ...197552720
prostaglandin, slow-reacting substance, and histamine release from anaphylactic guinea-pig hearts, and its pharmacological modification.prostaglandins (pgs), slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (srs-a), and histamine were released from anaphylactic isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. pgs were to the greatest part of the f2alpha-type. pge2 was found in traces only. neither pga2, nor the metabolites 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-pgf2alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-pge2 were detected in the perfusates. isoproterenol reduced the pgf2alpha output significantly. this effect was increased by the addition of theophylline. propranolol did no ...197552849
the acute actions of automotive exhaust gas and its components on guinea pig tracheal pressure. 197552912
[experiences with the macrophage electrophoresis mobility test (mem test) in the diagnosis of malignant gynecological diseases].in 1970, field and caspary reported that lymphocytes from patients with a malignant disease could be stimulated by an encephalitogenic factor, the myelin basic protein from human brain. after in vitro incubation with this protein the stimulated lymphocytes release a factor ("macrophage slowing factor") which reduces the electrophoretic mobility of guinea-pig macrophages. in general, this effect was not found in lymphocytes from patients with non-malignant disease. on the base of this unexpected ...197552961
comparison between narcotic "receptors" in the guinea-pig ileum and the rat brain. 197552996
biophysical and biochemical properties of purified preparations of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag).two antigenically distinct subtypes, adw and ayw, of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag), have been purified from the plasma of anicteric hepatitis patients. biophysical studies of these purified preparations revealed considerable heterogeneity in their overall surface charge, morphology and molecular weights. chemical studies revealed that the composition of the particles is complex in that four to six different polypeptides and three glycoproteins were identified. in addition, cholesterol, th ...197553005
[neoantigens on cells transformed by sv40. iv. - a quantitative study of antigenic sites in a cell line (tsv5c12) (author's transl)].the antigenic sites at the membrane of sv40-transformed hamster fibroblasts (tsv5c12) were studied using isotope techniques. a specific fixation of antibodies directed against sv40 coded antigen had previously been shown using a cytotoxicity test in presence of fresh guinea pig complement. using the "paired-label" technique, described by boone et al., approximatively 7.2. 10(7) fixing site for the specific antibodies against sv40 coded antigen(s), were found. the fixation of antibodies onto the ...197553030
[disodiumcromoglycate and histamine liberation by cotton dust extract in the rat (author's transl)].1. disodiumcromoglycate (dscg) had no influence on the microscopical appearance of rat peritoneal mast cells either by i.p. injection (2 times 10(-5) g/ml) or by i.v. infection (10 mg/kg) nor by local application (2 times 10(-5)/1 times 10(-4) g/ml). 2. a particular effect of dscg (2 times 10(-6)/2 times 10(-5) on the tonus of guinea pig ileum or an interaction with contractor activity due to histamine (3 times 10(-8)/1 times 10(-7) g/ml) has not been established. 3. histamine liberation from ra ...197553054
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