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developing a vaccine against congenital cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection: what have we learned from animal models? where should we go next?congenital human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) infection can lead to long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, including mental retardation and sensorineural hearing loss. unfortunately, cmvs are highly adapted to their specific species, precluding the evaluation of hcmv vaccines in animal models prior to clinical trials. several species-specific cmvs have been characterized and developed in models of pathogenesis and vaccine-mediated protection against disease. these include the murine cmv (mcmv), the po ...024523827
immune parameters correlate with protection against ebola virus infection in rodents and nonhuman primates.ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever in susceptible hosts. currently, no licensed vaccines or treatments are available; however, several experimental vaccines have been successful in protecting rodents and nonhuman primates (nhps) from the lethal zaire ebolavirus (zebov) infection. the objective of this study was to evaluate immune responses correlating with survival in these animals after lethal challenge with zebov. knockout mice with impaired ability to generate normal t and/or b cell ...023115355
feeding preferences of lutzomyia longipalpis (diptera: psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for leishmania infantum (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae).leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly lutzomyia longipalpis (lutz & neiva). we trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near natal, brazil, where cases of human and dog vl were documented. amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. the most common source ofbloodmea ...024605474
feeding period required by amblyomma aureolatum ticks for transmission of rickettsia rickettsii to vertebrate hosts.rocky mountain spotted fever is endemic to the são paulo metropolitan area, brazil, where the etiologic agent, rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult amblyomma aureolatum ticks. we determined the minimal feeding period required by a. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit r. rickettsii to guinea pigs. unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit r. rickettsii. in contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to ...025148391
systemic immunity influences hearing preservation in cochlear implantation.to determine whether a systemic immune response influences hearing thresholds and tissue response after cochlear implantation of hearing guinea pigs.022470051
adjuvant-induced arthritis in guinea pigs.we propose a model of rheumatoid arthritis (ra) induced in outbred guinea pigs using a single subcutaneous injection of complete freund's adjuvant to the hind paw. histological examination of this model shows fibrin deposition on the surface of the synovial membrane, leukocyte infiltration of the synovial membrane and adjacent tissues, proliferation of the granulation tissue, and emergence of angioid areas, characteristic of ra. the cell response appears as an increase in the plasma cell count a ...028050272
effect of honey bee venom on lewis rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis.multiple sclerosis (ms) is a progressive and autoimmune neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (cns). this disease is recognized through symptoms like inflammation, demyelination and the destruction of neurological actions. experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae) is a widely accepted animal model for ms. eae is created in animals by injecting the tissue of myelin basic protein (mbp), cns, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (mog) along with the adjuvant. eae and ms are ...024250492
liver damage and mortality in a male lewis rat of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. this is due to migration of peripherally activated lymphocytes to central nervous system leading to inflammatory lesions. however, liver has an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. myelin expression in the liver of transgenic mice suppresses inflammatory lesions within central nervous system. considering the notion that the inflammatory events originate from periphery, we investigated if the liver was affected in an anim ...026516320
immunogenicity, efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action of epitope vaccine (lu af20513) for alzheimer's disease: prelude to a clinical trial.the alzheimer's disease (ad) process is understood to involve the accumulation of amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain. however, attempts at targeting the main culprits, neurotoxic aβ peptides, have thus far proven unsuccessful for improving cognitive function. recent clinical trials with passively administrated anti-aβ antibodies failed to slow cognitive decline in mild to moderate ad patients, but suggest that an immunotherapeutic approach could be effective in patients with mild ad. u ...023486963
negative inotropism of terpenes on guinea pig left atrium: structure-activity relationships.the aim of this work was to evaluate the pharmacological effect of seven structurally related terpenes on the contractility of cardiac muscle. the effect of terpenes was studied on isolated electrically driven guinea pig left atrium. from concentration-response curves for inotropic effect were determined the ec50 and relative potency of such terpenes. our results revealed that all terpenes, except phytol, showed ability to reduce the contractile response of guinea pig left atrium. further, relat ...028641448
in vivo cough suppressive activity of pectic polysaccharide with arabinogalactan type ii side chains of piper nigrum fruits and its synergistic effect with piperine.piper nigrum l. fruits are not only a prized spice, but also highly valued therapeutic agent that heals many ailments including asthma, cold and respiratory problems. herein, we have investigated structural features and in vivo antitussive activity of three fractions isolated from piper nigrum fruits. the water extract (pn-we) upon fractionation with etoh yielded two fractions: a soluble fraction (pn-esf) and a precipitated (pn-epf) one. the existence of a pectic polysaccharide with arabinogalac ...028254575
artificial production of epilepsy in guineapigs. 187229639972
a contribution to the history of development of the guinea-pig. 187617231124
a contribution to the history of development of the guinea-pig. 187717231152
the formation of the placenta in the guinea-pig. 187817231217
further observations on the formation of the placenta in the guinea-pig. 187917231247
the production of diphtheria toxin.toxin of sufficient strength to kill a 400-gramme guinea-pig in three days and a half in a dose of 0.cubic centimetre developed in suitable bouillon, contained in ordinary erlenmeyer flasks, within a period of twenty-four hours. in such boullon the toxin reached its greatest strength in from four to seven days (0.005 cubic centimetre killing a 500-gramme guinea-pig in three days). this period of time covered that of the greatest growth of the bacilli, as shown both by the appearance of the cultu ...189619866791
the histologigal lesions of acute glanders in man and of experimental glanders in the guinea-pig.the glanders nodule in the class of cases studied by us is in no sense analogous to the miliary tubercle in its histogenesis, and our studies afford no support to baumgarten's views. the primary effect of the bacillus of glanders on a tissue we found to be not a production of epithelioid cells, which undergo necrosis and invasion by leucocytes, as happens in the cases in which the bacillus of tuberculosis is concerned, but to be the production of primary necrosis of the tissue, followed by infla ...189619866814
on some cases of chronic non-tuberculous pneumonia and the clinical value of inoculation experiments in guinea-pigs in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. 189620756142
"spontaneous pseudo-tuberculosis in a guineapig, and the bacillus causing it." 189719971135
on the structure and morphology of the intromittent sac of the male guinea-pig (cavia cobaya). 189717232284
the fate of the giant cells in healing tuberculous tissue, as observed in a case of healing tuberculous meningitis.from the foregoing description of the histological changes in the leptomeninx it is quite evident that we are dealing with a chronic, stationary, healing form of tuberculous inflammation. this statement is substantiated, in the first place, by the clinical history. the only reasonable interpretation of the symptoms would establish the duration of the process as four months. the imaginable contingency that there existed first a meningeal syphilitic lesion that was dispersed by the iodide of potas ...189819866866
a case of pseudo-lupus vulgaris caused by a blastomyces.the case reported, in this article is one of a somewhat extensive cutaneous disease, which occurred in a man, 33 years of age, who gave the following history: the disease first made its appearance, eleven and a half years ago, at the back of the left ear, as a pimple which soon became pustular. the process extended forward, very slowly and gradually encroached upon and covered almost the entire face, the central portion of which now presents an atrophic cicatricial condition. another similar les ...189819866867
serum-globulin and diphtheric antitoxin.-a comparative study of the amount oe globulin in normal and antitoxic sera, and the relation of the globulins to the antitoxic bodies.the results of the foregoing experiments may be briefly summarized as follows: the amount of antitoxic substance obtained by precipitation with magnesium sulphate from the blood-serum of the horse corresponds, as nearly as can be determined by the use of test guinea-pigs, in full to the protective power of the serum from which it is obtained, i. e. the precipitate from 1 cc. of serum will protect against the same amount of toxin as 1 cc. of the serum itself. equal amounts of the precipitates by ...190019866935
a preliminary report on acid-resisting bacilli, with special reference to their occurrence in the lower animals.the results obtained in this study may be briefly summarized: 1. acid-resisting bacilli are found in many of the lower animals, more especially the horse, cow, dog, guinea-pig and white rat. in the case of the rabbit and cat no such organisms were detected. 2. many of these acid-resisting bacilli resemble the tubercle bacillus and the smegma bacillus of man. 3. the acid-resisting organisms are undoubtedly of different species and there is good reason to believe that the term smegma bacillus deno ...190019866944
a comparative study of the biological characters and pathogenesis of bacillus x (sternberg), bacillus icteroides (sanarelli), and the hog-cholera bacillus (salmon and smith).1. bacillus x (sternberg) belongs to the colon group. 2. bacillus icteroides (sanarelli) is a member of the hog-cholera group. 3. the various channels of infection, the duration of the disease and the gross and microscopical lesions in mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits are the same for bacillus icteroides and the hog-cholera bacillus. 4. the clinical symptoms and the lesions observed in dogs inoculated intravenously with bacillus icteroides, are reproduced in these animals by infection with the hog- ...190019866945
report of a laboratory epizootic among-guinea-pigs, associated with gaseous emphysema of the liver, spleen and kidneys, due to bacillus mucosus oapsulatus. 190119866951
a preliminary study of the ocular changes produced by the injection of pure cultures of the bacillus typhosus into the vitreous chambers of rabbits and guinea-pigs. 190216691957
a study of the blood of normal guinea-pigs. 190419971620
the post-natal changes in the thymus of guinea-pigs, and the effect of castration on thymus structure. 190516992768
degrees of susceptibility to diphtheria toxin among guinea-pigs. transmission from parents to offspring. 190519971673
further observations on a pathogenic mould formerly described as a protozoon (coccidioides immitis, coccidioides pyogenes).from the preceding i derive the following conclusions: 1. the disease which formerly has been described as a form of protozoon-infection is due to an infection with a pathogenic fungus. 2. the infection may primarily be either a cutaneous or a pulmonary one. 3. the lesions produced by this fungus fall under the general head of infectious granulomata and consist partly in nodules resembling altogether those produced by the tubercle bacilli and partly in chronic abscesses. 4. the adult forms of th ...190519866981
concerning the possibility of an antibody for the tetanophile receptor of erythrocytes: a receptor study.the treatment of washed erythrocytes of the guinea-pig by a heated immune hemolytic serum derived from the rabbit, and of washed erythrocytes of the sheep by a similar serum derived from the goat, renders the erythrocytes more or less resistant to the subsequent action of tetanolysin. if all the serum is removed from corpuscles treated in this manner, it can be determined that some of the protection is due to the agglutination of the cells. a certain amount of the protection afforded by agglutin ...190519867004
the toxic effects of formaldehyde and formalin.the results of this investigation may be summarized as follows: 1. the inhalation of formaldehyde gas in even small quantities is followed by bronchitis and pneumonia. pneumonia is due to the inhalation of the gas and not to secondary infection. 2. formalin belongs to that rare group of poisons which are capable of producing death suddenly when swallowed. 3. the introduction of formalin into the stomach is followed by the production of a gastritis which varies greatly in character. the duodenum ...190519866982
the effect of eosin upon tetanus toxin and upon tetanus in rats and guinea-pigs. 190619867022
therapeutic experiments with anticrotalus and antimoccasin sera.1. the action of different antivenins is highly, although not absolutely, specific for the venoms for which they are prepared. the antivenomous effect is demonstrable by experiments on toxicity (in vivo) and on haemolysis (in vitro). 2. anticrotalus and antimoccasin sera possess therapeutic properties of high degree. by their employment before the stage of extreme prostration has been reached, poisoned guinea-pigs can be saved. 3. the standardization of antivenins must be made separately for the ...190619867061
transmission of resistance to diphtheria toxine by the female guinea-pig to her young. 190619971729
simultaneous transmission of resistance to diphtheria toxine and hypersusceptibility to horse serum by the female guinea-pig to her young. 190619971730
diphtheria-toxon paralysis in the guinea-pig. 190619971745
i. experiments upon the transmission of plague by fleas: part iii. experimental production of epidemics among guinea-pigs. 190620474277
on the estimation of free diphtheria toxin: with reference to the relations existing between lethal doses, lethal times and loss in weight of the guinea-pig. 190720474326
on variation in weight of normal guinea-pigs in relation to the estimation of free diphtheria toxin. 190720474332
on serum anaphylaxis in the guinea-pig. 190719971760
the degree and duration of passive immunity to diphtheria toxin transmitted by immunized female guinea-pigs to their immediate offspring. 190719971771
toxins and antitoxins--snake venoms and antivenins.a specific antivenin against crotalus venom can be prepared bv the immunization of goats. a specific antivenin against water moccasin venom can be produced by the immunization of goats with this venom, modified by hydrochloric acid. immunization with the unmodified venom is very difficult. the toxicity of crotalus venom is diminished more than fifty percent. by passage through a chamberland filter. there is a simple relation between the toxicity and the body weight for guinea-pigs weighing from ...190719867071
on extracellular and intracellular venom activators of the blood, with especial reference to lecithin and fatty acids and their compounds.in normal serums of the majority of mammalian and avian blood there exists certain substances capable of activating venom haemolysin. they are extractable from serum by means of ether, and are capable of conferring upon the originally non-activating serum a power to activate venom, when mixed with the latter. the ethereal extract consists of fatty acids, neutral fats and possibly also some ether soluble organic soaps. the fatty acids and soaps, especially of the oleinic series, acquire certain c ...190719867102
biological relationships of diplococcus intracellularis and gonococcus.the most marked differences, exclusive of pathogenic effects in man, between gonococcus and diplococcus intracellulans are cultural ones, and consist chiefly in abundance of growth and choice of medium. relatively larger doses of gonococci than of diplococci are required to kill young guinea-pigs, but the lesions are very similar in the two cases, and both organisms lose pathogenic power rapidly when cultivated artificially. agglutinins, aggressins, protective power, and the amboceptors develope ...190719867113
the experimental vascular lesions produced by bacillus mallei.1. bacillus malleiand its poison produce a variety of vascular lesions in the rabbit and the guinea pig. 2. the type of the lesion depends upon, (a) the virulence of the culture, (b) the sex of the animal and (c) the degree of acquired immunity. 3. the vascular changes of a proliferative and degenerative nature produced by the slow action of the glanders poison in rabbits and guinea pigs are analogous to the vascular lesions caused by sub-acute glanders infection in man. 4. the most common site ...190719867086
rats and guinea-pigs in plague "barometers". 190729004930
a note on the total fat of rats, guinea-pigs and mice. 190816992914
the induced susceptibility of the guinea-pig to the toxic action of the blood serum of the horse.following the divisions before used, the results presented in the preceding pages may be briefly stated. i. the particular method of sensitization and the place where the test injection is made have an important bearing on the results obtained by various workers. comparing the results obtained by the various methods, we may conclude that the incubation period of the hypersensitive reaction is not sharply limited, but that there is a progressive increase in sensitiveness from the sixth day, and p ...190819867119
a study of natural and acquired immunity of guinea-pigs to gonococcus. 190819971830
further studies in anaphylaxis : i. on the mechanism of serum anaphylaxis and intoxication in the guinea-pig. 190819971833
further studies in anaphylaxis : ii. on recurrent anaphylaxis and repeated intoxication in guinea-pigs by means of horse serum. 190819971838
further studies in anaphylaxis : iv. the localization of cell and tissue anaphylaxis in the guinea-pig, with observations on the cause of death in serum intoxication. 190819971846
typhoid meningitis: cultivation of bacillus typhosus from meninges and mesenteric lymph node in a case of general paresis, with note on experimental typhoid meningitis in the guinea-pig. 190819971873
a new color variety of the guinea-pig. 190817820847
a successful ovarian transplantation in the guinea-pig, and its bearing on problems of genetics. 190917837460
guinea pig graft-hybrids. 190917792104
variation in susceptibility of guinea-pigs to diphtheria toxin. 190920474404
active immunity produced by so called balanced or neutral mixtures of diphtheria toxin and antitoxin.the foregoing and earlier data taken together demonstrate that an active immunity lasting several years can be produced in guinea-pigs, by the injection of toxin-antitoxin mixtures which have no recognizable harmful effect either immediate or remote. they also show, what might have been anticipated, that under the same conditions mixtures which produce local lesions and which, therefore, contain an excess of toxin produce a much higher degree of immunity than the neutral mixtures, and that an ex ...190919867246
studies in atypical forms of tubercle bacilli isolated directly from the human tissues in cases of primary cervical adenitis : with special reference to the theobald smith glycerine bouillon reaction.the four cultures which form the basis of this communication were recovered from peculiar cases of primary cervical adenitis in man, three of which terminated fatally of disseminated acute miliary tuberculosis in four to six weeks. a careful comparative study shows that culture ii corresponds closely with the "human" and culture iv with the "bovine" type of tubercle bacilli; while cultures i and iii present variations from the standard types and are to be retarded as "intermediate" or "atypical" ...190919867256
experimental sarcosporidiosis in the guinea-pig and its relation to a case of sarcosporidiosis in man.1. guinea-pigs, naturally uninfected by sarcosporidia, were infected by feeding them with rat's muscle that was naturally infected by sarcocystis muris, and by ripe mobile sporozoites from the same source. the infection was not visible grossly, but was detected upon very careful search through many sections of muscle. 2. sarcosporidia were not found in the guinea-pigs until after an interval of 164 days from the first feeding, or 152 days after the most favorable feeding, when many teased-out mo ...191019867309
the physiology of the immediate reaction of anaphylaxis in the guinea-pig.1. by an immediate anaphylactic reaction we mean the chain of symptoms which occur in highly sensitized guinea-pigs shortly after an intravenous or intracardiac injection of the toxic dose and usually end in death. 2. immediate anaphylactic death occurs three to five minutes after the toxic injection in highly sensitized guinea-pigs. 3. immediate anaphylactic death in guinea-pigs is caused by asphyxia; cessation of respiration is secondary to this asphyxia. 4. this asphyxia is apparently produce ...191019867320
an attenuated surra of mauritius with immunity tests after recovery.apparently as a result of repeated passages through guinea pigs, the virulence of surra of mauritius for mice became greatly attenuated. three mice recovered spontaneously and two remained carriers of tryanosomes for four to seven weeks after the parasites were last seen in their blood. the mice that recovered acquired no lasting immunity. while the virulence of the parasites decreased for mice, it increased for guinea pigs. by cultivating the parasites in mice the virulence for these animals wa ...191019867321
changes induced in the blood of rabbits by living in an atmosphere of water gas.1. rabbits living in an atmosphere of carbon monoxide react in general as guinea-pigs react. 2. the increased specific gravity of the blood in " carbon monoxide " rabbits is due wholly to the increase in the number of erythrocytes and of hemoglobin, and not to any change in the plasma. 3. weigert's law of inertia, that production would continue after the stimulus has ceased to act, does not hold in the case of carbon monoxide stimulated rabbits. 4. hemolysins, precipitins and agglutinins towards ...191019867328
the cultivation of the leprosy bacillus and the experimental production of leprosy in the japanese dancing mouse.pure cultures of an acid-fast bacillus were cultivated upon special media from the human tissues in four cases of leprosy. the nature of the growth, morphological characters and tinctorial properties do not differ for any of the cultures and correspond closely to the bacilli in the human leprous tubercles. that the bacillus of leprosy will multiply and continue to do so indefinitely outside of the animal body was first demonstrated by clegg who cultivated an acid-fast organism from leprosy tissu ...191019867351
the effect of vagus section upon anaphylaxis in guinea pigs : second communication.depriving the bronchial muscles of one side of the lungs of their motor innervation does not interfere with sensitization nor the production of the typical anaphylactic lung. there is, therefore, direct sensitization of the muscle substance. complete degeneration of the vagus nerve, after sensitization has occurred, interferes in no appreciable way with the course of immediate anaphylaxis. partial degeneration of the vagus nerve, so that the bronchodilator fibers are still physiologically active ...191019867350
a transmissible avian neoplasm. (sarcoma of the common fowl.).in this paper is reported the first avian tumor that has proved transplantable to other individuals. it is a spindle-celled sarcoma of the hen, which thus far has been propagated into its fourth tumor generation. this was accomplished by the use of fowls of pure blood from the small, intimately related stock in which the growth occurred. market-bought fowls of similar variety have shown themselves insusceptible, as have fowls of mixed breed, pigeons and guinea-pigs. the percentage of successful ...191019867354
guinea-pigs as chronic carriers of an organism belonging to the food-poisoning group. 191020474421
a guinea-pig epizootic associated with an organism of the food-poisoning group but probably caused by a filter-passer. 191020474423
(c.) note on the acquired general sensitiveness of normal guinea-pigs to tuberculo-protein as a result of preliminary intradermic injections. 191019971944
the embedding of the embryo guinea-pig in the uterine wall and its nutrition at that stage of development. 191017232840
the inheritance of tuberculo-protein hypersensitiveness in guinea-pigs. 191119971984
immunity of guinea-pigs to diphtheria toxin and its effect upon the offspring: part 1. 191120474451
immunity of guinea-pigs to diphtheria toxin and its effect upon the offspring: part 2. 191120474466
the symphysial ligament of the parturient guinea-pig. 191120765845
a chemo-biological study of the relations of pepsin to so-called anti-pepsin.1. fresh and inactivated animal serum under proper conditions will bind pepsin quantitatively in weak acid solution and will prevent it from digesting proteid even after the addition of free hydrochloric acid in excess. 2. this binding and inactivation of pepsin cannot be considered as due to a specific anti-pepsin. 3. the phenomenon has been named pepsin deviation in analogy with the deviation described for other ferments, notably trypsin. 4. the ability of animal serum to deviate pepsin has be ...191119867495
the comparative merits of various complements and amboceptors in the serum diagnosis of syphilis.1. the maximum activity of an antihuman hemolytic amboceptor may be obtained by employing the homologous or heterologous complement, according to the variable relations existing between the species furnishing the amboceptor and the one supplying the complement. thus, some amboceptors are best reactivated by the complement of the same species, while others may act most strongly when reactivated with the complements of certain suitable heterologous species. 2. from the above it is clear that the c ...191119867397
barium sulphate absorption and the serum diagnosis of syphilis.the so-called syphilitic antibodies can be removed from a serum by means of absorption with barium sulphate. the removal is due either to an adsorption or a mechanical absorption. the activity of the syphilitic antibodies is thereby unimpaired. the readiness with which the absorption is accomplished with barium sulphate varies considerably with different syphilitic sera. that barium sulphate exerts the same absorbing effect upon non-syphilitic serum components is made evident by the interfering ...191119867402
effects of mechanical agitation and of temperature upon complement.1. under certain conditions, mechanical agitation destroys the complementary activity of guinea pig serum. it is most injurious when carried out constantly at a temperature of 37 degrees c., but it is extremely insignificant at 10 degrees c. after the first few hours at 37 degrees c., the destruction of complement proceeded much more rapidly, and after six hours it was almost complete. on the other hand, within one hour shaking had almost no destructive effect on complement, even at 37 degrees c ...191119867403
the behavior of bacillus leprae in cold-blooded animals.before proceeding to a discussion of the experiments upon cold-blooded animals, it is necessary to review briefly some of the work recently done with the bacillus of leprosy. the appearance of the bacillus in man and its behavior under artificial cultivation, and in the tissues of lower animals, should be considered in order that comparisons may be drawn. in their studies with the organism under cultivation, duval and gurd pointed out that the long, slender, and beaded appearance of the leprosy ...191119867440
the cultivation of tissue in plasma from alien species.1. rat sarcoma may be cultivated in mouse plasma and guinea pig plasma, and the growth differs only in extent from that observed in rat plasma. the cells may show active wandering in guinea pig plasma after thirty days, if transferred at proper intervals to fresh medium. 2. rabbit plasma is less suitable than that of guinea pigs and mice for the growth of rat sarcoma; growth is slow, but it may continue for twelve days. 3. the duration of growth of rat sarcoma in dog plasma is from two to three ...191119867459
experimental immunity with reference to the bacillus of leprosy : part i. a study of the factors determining infection in animals.repeated experiments have proven that few, if any, of the ordinary laboratory and domestic animals are immune against infection by bacillus leprae. as previously reported, the goat, horse, guinea pig, and many cold-blooded animals (couret) have been found susceptible to invasion by this organism. two factors are of great importance in effecting infection. in the first place, a sufficiently large number of organisms must be employed, and, what is still more important, second and subsequent inocul ...191119867463
on heat-sensitive anticomplementary bodies in human blood serum.the work recorded above has served to corroborate the observations of other writers, notably of noguchi, that in many human sera, if not in all, there develop, on standing, anticomplementary bodies which are delicately thermolabile, being inactivated by heating to 56 degrees c. for fifteen to twenty minutes. it has appeared that these bodies may occasionally be present in sera which, after heating, may develop the thermostable anticomplementary body referred to by other authors. it has become ev ...191119867394
biochemical studies on so-called syphilis antigen.the liver tissues of man and certain animals (dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.) yield, upon alcoholic extraction, various substances which may be divided by their physical and chemical properties into several groups. while many substances are present in the alcoholic extract, the ones possessing antigenic properties are comparatively few. the latter are responsible for the antigenic properties exhibited by the whole alcoholic extract. the substances extracted with alcohol were fractionated into ...191119867395
the cultivation of tissues in vitro as a method for the study of cytotoxins.1. theoretically, the method of cultivating tissues outside the body offers an ideal technique for the demonstration and study of cytotoxins. 2. mouse sarcoma, which grows vigorously in the plasma of normal rats, shows little or no activity in the plasma of rats immunized by mouse sarcoma injections. 3. rat sarcoma, readily cultivated in the plasma of normal guinea pigs, either remains quite inactive, or presents a feeble growth in the plasma of guinea pigs previously treated with rat tissues. 4 ...191119867488
variations in the complement activity and fixability of guinea pig serum.the following conclusions may be drawn from the foregoing series of experiments. the complementary activity varies within a definite limit in different specimens of guinea pig serum. with sera which stood in contact with the clot for twenty hours, the strongest and weakest were in the ratio of 0.015 cubic centimeter to 0.04 cubic centimeter. the former was 2.66 times stronger than the latter. the variation observed with the same series of sera after forty-six hours was still more striking. the s ...191119867396
lethal cardiac anaphylaxis in the rabbit : fourth communication.acute lethal anaphylaxis in the intact rabbit is caused by a failure of the heart. this failure of the heart is due to a change in the heart itself; it is peripheral and independent of the central nervous system for its production. this change in the heart is shown anatomically and functionally by decreased translucency, change in consistency, and by failure to respond to stimuli, and is probably to be classed as a chemical rigor. the rigor of the heart is most pronounced in the right ventricle, ...191119867490
the antigenic properties of split products of casein.we draw the following conclusions from our experiments on the antigenic properties of chemically pure casein and some of its split products. casein and paranuclein have distinct antigenic properties, particularly as shown by their ability to sensitize guinea pigs for subsequent anaphylactic intoxication by each other or by milk. this sensitizing ability and a corresponding ability to intoxicate are indistinguishably equivalent, under the conditions employed. on immunizing rabbits by repeated inj ...191219867587
toxic substances produced by pneumococcus.1. the filtered blood serum of rabbits infected with pneumococci is not toxic. 2. extracts of pneumococci prepared by keeping emulsions of the bacteria in salt solution at 37 degrees c. for varying periods of time may be toxic, and when injected intravenously into guinea pigs, may produce a train of symptoms followed by acute death resembling that seen in acute anaphylaxis. such extracts, however, are not uniformly toxic and it has been impossible to discover the exact conditions under which suc ...191219867603
the effects of subdural injections of leucocytes on the development and course of experimental tuberculous meningitis.subdural inoculation of tubercle bacilli of established virulence for guinea pigs and rabbits, produces in the dog a tuberculous meningitis, followed by paralysis and death. when suspensions of canine leucocytes are injected subdurally, following such inoculations there occurs uniformly a delay in the development of the paralysis and a prolongation of the life of the treated animal. in dogs inoculated with small doses of tubercle bacilli of low virulence, the development of paralysis has been pr ...191219867502
the production of antibodies by tissues living outside of the organism.since guinea pig bone marrow and lymph gland cultivated for five days with goat blood generate substances that are hemolytic for goat red blood corpuscles, it can be concluded that tissues living outside of the organism react against an antigen by the production of an antibody.191219867523
the influence of heat on different sera as culture media for growing tissues.1. bone marrow of guinea pigs grows better in autogenic than in homogenic serum. 2. bone marrow of guinea pigs grows more extensively and rapidly in unheated than in heated autogenic and homogenic serum (56 degrees c. for half an hour). 3. in different heterogenic sera, there are differences in the growth of the tissue. in none of the sera examined, was the growth so extensive as in homogenic and autogenic serum. 4. heated heterogenic serum is a better culture medium and shows more extensive tis ...191219867533
the retention of foreign protein by the kidney : a study in anaphylaxis.extracts of the kidneys of normal rabbits prepared one, two, three, and four days after the intravenous injection of egg-albumin and horse serum have the power to sensitize guinea pigs to a second injection of these proteins. the sensitization by first and second day extracts was constant and intense, that by the third day extracts was less marked and sometimes was not evident, and that by the fourth day extracts was only occasional, and when present was always weak. comparative studies of the p ...191219867579
immunity of guinea-pigs to diphtheria toxin and its effect upon the offspring. 191220474486
the blood cell picture in horse serum anaphylaxis in the guinea-pig: note on kurloff's inclusion cells. 191219972082
the intertubercular or bicipital foramen of the humerus of the guinea-pig. 191217814437
the cultivation of an ectoparasitic nematode of a guinea-pig on bacteriologic media. 191217734054
on the origin of a pink-eyed guinea-pig with colored coat. 191217739758
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