prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in kuala lumpur, malaysia.a survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of kuala lumpur, malaysia. a total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from sentul and chow kit areas. five species of rats were captured and supplied by kuala lumpur city hall. the most common was rattus rattus diardii (malayan black rat), 67%, followed by rattus norvegicus (norway rat), 10%, rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, rattus tiomanicus ...201223202599
coxiella burnetii genotypes in iberian investigate if coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever, genotypes circulating in wildlife are associated with those infecting livestock and humans, multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (mlva-6-marker) was carried out over c. burnetii obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus), eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa), european wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), black rat (rattus rattus), and wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus). mlva typing was performed by using six variable loc ...201627216529
serological survey of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii and coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western african islands (canary islands and cape verde).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. the aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the north-western african archipelagos of the canary islands and cape verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. between 2 ...201526244685
serological survey of antibodies to <i>toxoplasma gondii</i> and <i>coxiella burnetii</i> in rodents in north-western african islands (canary islands and cape verde).coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. the aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of c. burnetii and t. gondii in the north-western african archipelagos of the canary islands and cape verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. between 2 ...201528235262
a survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by non-indigenous rodents at the interface of the wet tropics of north queensland, 1964, brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in wooroonooran national park (wnp), in northern queensland, australia. genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel brucella species. this study attempted to reisolate this species of brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to wnp and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. seventy non-indigenous rodents wer ...201725906923
genotyping and subtyping of giardia and cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in china.cryptosporidium and giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of cryptosporidium and giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. in the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in china. we collected 33 asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents ...201525579244
detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis st6-vanb2 and e. faecium st915-vana in faecal samples of wild rattus rattus in spain.the detection of vancomycin-resistant-enterococci (vre) among wild animals represents a worrisome public health concern. the objectives of the study were to determine the possible presence of vre in faecal samples of wild small mammals in spain, to characterize the vancomycin resistance mechanisms and genetic lineages of recovered isolates and to know the diversity of enterococcal species in these animals. a total of 155 faecal samples from small mammals were inoculated in slanetz-bartley agar s ...201525795517
prevalence and characteristics of escherichia coli and salmonella spp. in the feces of wild urban norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus) from an inner-city neighborhood of vancouver, canada.although rat feces are widely suspected to be a source of pathogenic bacteria, few investigators have studied fecal pathogens in rats. we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of escherichia coli and salmonella spp. in norway and black rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus, respectively) from an urban neighborhood of vancouver, canada, collected september 2011-august 2012. colon content was cultured for e. coli and salmonella spp. and screened for the seven most-common enteropathog ...201525932669
clonal diversity of ctx-m-producing, multidrug-resistant escherichia coli from rodents.this territory-wide study investigated the occurrence of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl)-producing escherichia coli among wild rodents from the 18 districts in hong kong. individual rectal swabs were obtained from the trapped animals and cultured in plain and selective media. a total of 965 wild rodents [148 chestnut spiny rats (niviventer fulvescens), 326 indo-chinese forest rats (rattus andamanensis), 452 brown rats (rattus norvegicus) and 39 black rats (rattus rattus)] ...201525627207
intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of gongylonema pulchrum and two rodent gongylonema spp. (g. aegypti and g. neoplasticum), with the proposal of g. nepalensis n. sp. for the isolate in water buffaloes from nepal.the gullet worm (gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide. in an earlier study, we demonstrated two separate transmission cycles in cattle (bos taurus) and wild mammals in japan based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal rna gene (rdna) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox-1) region of mitochondrial dna of multiple isolates of different origins. our earlier study additionally demonstrated two major cox-1 haplotypes of g. pulchrum prevalent in cattle in j ...201626531300
hantavirus infection among wild small mammals in vellore, south india.wild indigenous small mammals including 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats, and house mice) and a shrew captured from multiple sites in vellore, south india, were tested for serological and molecular evidence of hantavirus infection. indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using hantaan virus (htnv) antigen indicated hantavirus-reactive antibodies in 16 (19.3%) of 83 rodents (bandicoot and black rats). western blot (wb) using thailand virus (thaiv) antigen confirmed hantavirus-reactive antibod ...201322856552
rat hepatitis e virus derived from wild rats (rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.although rat hepatitis e virus (hev) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. a recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat hev in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat hev in human cells. when liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (rattus rattus) in indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat hev replicated efficiently in plc/prf/5, huh-7 and hepg2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group ...201424631787
marked genomic heterogeneity of rat hepatitis e virus strains in indonesia demonstrated on a full-length genome analysis.rat hepatitis e virus (hev) strains have recently been isolated in several areas of germany, vietnam, the united states, indonesia and china. however, genetic information regarding these rat hev strains is limited. a total of 369 wild rats (rattus rattus) captured in central java (solo) and on lombok island, indonesia were tested for the presence of rat hev-specific antibodies and rna. overall, 137 rats (37.1%) tested positive for rat anti-hev antibodies, while 97 (26.3%) had rat hev rna detecta ...201424231359
high prevalence of rat hepatitis e virus in wild rats in china.serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in zhanjiang city in china from december 2011 to september 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis e virus (hev) by exploring rat hev-specific antibodies and rna. by an elisa based on recombinant rat hev-like particles (hev-lps), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-hev igg, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-hev igm. the igg-positive rates in rattus norvegicus, bandicota indica, rattus flavipectus, rattu ...201323623690
frequent detection and characterization of hepatitis e virus variants in wild rats (rattus rattus) in hundred sixteen rats (rattus rattus) captured in indonesia from 2011 to 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of hepatitis e virus (hev)-specific antibodies and hev rna. using an elisa based on hev genotype 4 with an ad hoc cutoff value of 0.500, 18.1 % of the rats tested positive for anti-hev igg. by nested rt-pcr, 14.7 % of the rats had rat hev rna, and none were positive for hev genotype 1-4. a high hev prevalence among rats was associated with lower sanitary conditions in areas with ...201322983110
leishmaniasis in thailand: a review of causative agents and situations.before 1999, leishmaniasis was considered an imported disease in thailand. since then, autochthonous leishmaniasis was reported in both immmunocompetent and immmunocompromised patients especially in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). a new species was identified and named as leishmania siamensis consisting of two lineages, that is, lineages tr and pg. analysis of isoenzymes has clarified the more commonly detected l. siamensis lineage pg as leishmania m ...201728093539
condition factor and organosomatic indices of parasitized rattus rattus as indicators of host health.this study describes the influence of parasitism (trypanosoma lewisi and cysticercus fasciolaris) on the condition factor, hepato and splenosomatic indices of the common house rat, rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758 from rohilkhand, uttar pradesh, india. examination of r. rattus (n = 389) revealed t. lewisi (prevalence 12.40 %; intensity14 parasites/1000 rbc) from the blood and c. fasciolaris (larval taenia taeniaeformis) (prevalence 46.70 %; intensity 2-4 par/host) from the liver. condition factor (k ...201728316383
infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in yucatan, mexico.the aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (mus musculus) and the black rat (rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of yucatan, mexico. sampling was conducted during the rainy season from october to december 2011 and the dry season from january to march 2012. a total of 154 m. musculus and 46 r. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of m. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence ...201524000977
gastrointestinal helminth fauna of rodents from cambodia: emphasizing the community ecology of host-parasite associations.extensive field surveys of rodents were conducted in cambodia from 2008 to 2014 to study the diversity and ecology of helminth infection in wild rodent populations. gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 14 species of rodents (569 individuals) trapped from different habitats (forest, dry land, rain-fed land and human settlements) in four provinces of cambodia (krong preah sihanouk, mondolkiri, pursat and steung treng). the average prevalence of parasitic infection was 58.5% (range, 16.0-6 ...201627905270
helminth parasites in black rats (rattus rattus) and brown rats (rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the netherlands.rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode trichinella spiralis to farm animals. we aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health.201627193418
helminth infections in rattus ratus and rattus norvigicus in tehran, iran.the aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in rattus rodents in tehran iran.201725759736
gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of rattus rattus trapped from khan younis and jabalia in gaza strip, palestine.this study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of rattus rattus. a total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of gaza strip. after dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. the results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. a high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to othe ...201323697031
survey of house rat intestinal parasites from surabaya district, east java, indonesia that can cause opportunistic infections in humans.the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from surabaya district, east java, indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. house rat fecal samples were collected from an area of surabaya district with a dense rat population during may 2015. intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with lugol's iodine and modified ziehl-neelsen stains. the fecal samples were a ...201627244955
at home with mastomys and rattus: human-rodent interactions and potential for primary transmission of lassa virus in domestic spaces.the multimammate mouse (mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for lassa virus (lasv). zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. we use semi-structured interviews (n = 51), a quantitative survey ( ...201728167603
leishmania in synanthropic rodents (rattus rattus): new evidence for the urbanization of leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis.this study aimed to detect parasites from leishmania genus, to determine the prevalence of anti-leishmania spp. antibodies, to identify circulating species of the parasite, and to determine epidemiological variables associated with infection in rats caught in urban area of londrina, paraná, brazil. animal capture was carried out from may to december 2006, serological and molecular methods were performed. dna was extracted from total blood, and nested-pcr, targeting ssu rrna from leishmania genus ...201728177041
small mammals as hosts of leishmania spp. in a highly endemic area for zoonotic leishmaniasis in north-eastern brazil.leishmania parasites cause leishmaniasis in humans and animals worldwide. these parasites are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, which become infected upon feeding on an infected mammalian host. we assessed the occurrence of leishmania infection in small mammals in an area of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemicity.201323868744
leishmania infantum in wild rodents: reservoirs or just irrelevant incidental hosts?wild rodents constitute a very large biomass of potential reservoirs for leishmania spp. therefore, an epidemiological study was carried out in a well-known focus of canine leishmaniasis from southern spain, with the objective of detecting and characterizing leishmania infantum infection in wild rodents. blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and skin from 37 rodents (24 apodemus sylvaticus, 9 rattus rattus, and 4 mus musculus) were analyzed by optical microscopy, culture, and two different polymera ...201525797596
role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmania infantum infection in europe.although dogs are considered the main reservoir of leishmania infantum infection in endemic areas in europe, the existence of other wild vertebrate reservoirs has been proposed as a possible cause of the lack of success of control measures. evidence of l. infantum infection in european wildlife has been reported in carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents. the red fox (vulpes vulpes) received most attention, probably due to its taxonomic relationship with the dog and because it is the most abundant w ...201424804923
epidemiology of leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum in rattus rattus in absence of domestic reservoir and definitive hosts.isolated environments are privileged settings to study transmission of infection. montecristo is a small island where no wild or domestic carnivores are present. invasive black rats rattus rattus (n=78) were captured and tested by pcr for leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. we wanted to test, for these parasites, the existence of a sylvatic cycle independent of reservoir or definitive hosts. none of the rats tested positive by pcr for either t. gondii or n. caninum. we r ...201424295953
molecular survey on detection of leishmania infection in rodent reservoirs in jahrom district, southern iran.zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) is endemic in many parts of iran. recently its incidence is considerable in different parts of jahrom district, in fars province, southern iran. the aims of our study were to investigate the prevalence of leishmania infection, and identify and characterize the leishmania species present, among the rodents by molecular methods in a new endemic focus of zcl, in an urban and rural area of the jahrom district, fars province, southern iran.201426114127
molecular characterization of leishmania spp. in reservoir hosts in endemic foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran.zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) is an expanding disease and a public health issue in iran. in the present study, rate of natural infection of rodent populations with leishmania was investigated in six endemic foci including 28 villages in golestan, esfahan, yazd, fars, khuzestan and ilam provinces. a total of 593 rodents were captured and identified as rhombomys opimus (n = 325), meriones libycus (n = 171), meriones persicus (n = 27), tatera indica (n = 37), nesokia indica (n = 12), rattu ...201323951928
leptospira interrogans in rodents from cape verde.leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. in most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. this study was carried out in santiago island, cape verde, in 2012-2013. a total of 62 wild rodents (rattus rattus and mus domesticus) were analyzed. the lipl32 gene, present only in pathogenic leptospira spp., was amplified by pcr, and 16 samples were positive (25. ...201627482622
serologic evidence for circulating orthopoxviruses in peridomestic rodents from rural uganda.the prevalence of orthopoxviruses (opxv) among wildlife, including monkeypox virus (mpxv), remains largely unknown. outbreaks of human monkeypox in central africa have been associated with hunting, butchering, and consuming infected forest animals, primarily rodents and primates. monkeypox cases have not been reported in east africa, where human contact with wildlife is more limited. whether this lack of human disease is due to the absence of mpxv in rodents is unknown. however, testing of wildl ...201323307378
verification of natural infection of peridomestic rodents by pcv2 on commercial swine farms.the porcine circovirus-2 (pcv2) is the main agent responsible for porcine circovirus associated diseases (pcvad). few studies have been done regarding pcv2 infection in other species. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of pcv2 infection in the peridomestic rodent species mus musculus and rattus rattus on commercial pig farms in brazil. immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated pcv2 in the spleen, lung and kidney. viral dna was detected in tissues by nested pcr assay. parti ...201323141170
molecular and serological evidence of flea-associated typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsial infections in madagascar.rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for many febrile syndromes around the world, including in sub-saharan africa. vectors of these pathogens include ticks, lice, mites and fleas. in order to assess exposure to flea-associated rickettsia species in madagascar, human and small mammal samples from an urban and a rural area, and their associated fleas were tested.201728259176
rickettsia and bartonella species in fleas from reunion island.rickettsia felis, rickettsia typhi, and bartonella dna was detected by molecular tools in 12% of rattus rattus fleas (xenopsylla species) collected from reunion island. one-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. as clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed.201525646263
the role of wild mammals in the maintenance of rift valley fever virus.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting primarily domestic ruminants and humans. numerous vector species are known or implicated in the transmission of rvfv. the role of mammals in the maintenance of rvfv, and the existence of a wild mammal reservoir in the epidemiologic cycle of rvfv, remain largely unknown. our objective is to present a detailed review of studies undertaken on rvfv, often associated with wild mammals, with the aim of focusing future research on potenti ...201222493102
prevalence of schistosoma japonicum in wild rodents in five islands of the west dongting lake, estimate the prevalence of schistosoma japonicum in field rodents, we conducted surveys of s. japonicum infection on 5 islands in the west dongting lake, china: julinyuan, jiangjiazui, longwangmiao, goutouzhou, and niujiaojian. thirty-five rattus flavipectus, 43 rattus norvegicus, 42 rattus rattus , and 48 microtus fortis were captured and examined from july to august 2011. schistosoma japonicum was found in the 3 rat species but not in the vole m. fortis . no statistically significant differ ...201323259921
a new chronotype of schistosoma mansoni: adaptive optimise host-to-host transmission, digenean trematodes (parasites) synchronize their cercarial emission patterns with the aquatic activities of their vertebrate hosts. schistosoma mansoni has a strictly diurnal shedding pattern involving two circadian chronotypes: an early shedding pattern with a mean peak occurring at 11:00 h and a late pattern with a mean peak occurring at 16:00 h. we analysed the cercarial emergence pattern of three schistosome populations from oman where s. mansoni is re ...201222512397
serologic evidence of flavivirus infections in peridomestic rodents in merida, mexico.we conducted surveillance for flavivirus infection in peridomestic rodents in merida, mexico in 2011-12. we captured 161 rodents inside private residences, using sherman traps, including 86 house mice (mus musculus) and 75 black rats (rattus rattus). serum from each animal was assayed by plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt) using two vertebrate-specific flaviviruses (apoi and modoc viruses) and five mosquito-borne flaviviruses (dengue 2, dengue 4, st. louis encephalitis virus, west nile, ...201626540177
streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., isolated from a black rat (rattus rattus).an indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain ogs16t, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (rattus rattus) in 2007 in japan. it stained gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analyses, strain ogs16t was assigned to the genus streptobacillus, with 16s rrna gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5% to the type strains of streptobacillus moniliformis, streptobacillus notomytis, ...201626705259
streptobacillus notomytis sp. nov., isolated from a spinifex hopping mouse (notomys alexis thomas, 1922), and emended description of streptobacillus levaditi et al. 1925, eisenberg et al. 2015 emend.a pleomorphic, gram-negative, rod-shaped, indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium was isolated in 1979 from the heart of a spinifex hopping mouse (notomys alexis thomas, 1922) with septicaemia and stored as streptobacillus moniliformis in the strain collection of the animal health laboratory, south perth, western australia (ahl 370-1), as well as under ccug 12425. on the basis of 16srrna gene sequence analyses, the strain was assigned to the genus strepto ...201526438009
discovery of hantavirus circulating among rattus rattus in french mayotte island, indian ocean.hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause human diseases. in this study, sera from 642 mammals from la réunion and mayotte islands (indian ocean) were screened for the presence of hantaviruses by molecular analysis. none of the mammals from la réunion island was positive, but hantavirus genomic rna was discovered in 29/160 (18 %) rattus rattus from mayotte island. the nucleoprotein coding region was sequenced from the liver and spleen of all positive individuals allowing epidemiologi ...201626932442
anjozorobe hantavirus, a new genetic variant of thailand virus detected in rodents from madagascar.until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from madagascar. to assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between october, 2008, and march, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the anjozorobe-angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city antananarivo. a hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (rattus rattus) and of the endemic major's tufted-tailed rat (eliurus ma ...201424575755
isolation and genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in seronegative urban rats and presence of antibodies in communicating dogs in brazil.the role of rodents in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in londrina, paraná state, brazil. one hundred and eighty-one rattus rattus and one mus musculus were caught in 37 places. blood and tissues were collected and submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) and the bioassay. serum samples from 61 contacting dogs were also collected. sixteen rats (8.8%) were positive for toxoplasma gondii, but just two of them were positive by serology and bioassay test. antibo ...201627074322
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in rodents from various locations in peninsular malaysia.numerous studies have reported the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among malaysians and various domestic animals; but there is paucity of information on its prevalence among rodents which could potentially contribute to the transmission of toxoplasma gondii in both domestic and sylvatic fauna. five hundred twenty-six rodents were captured from six locations in malaysia and identified to species. serum samples were collected from these rodents and tested for t.gondii antibodies using an immunofluores ...201526521512
genotyping of toxoplasma gondii from rats (rattus rattus) in riyadh, saudi arabia.toxoplasma 3 main clonal lineages are designated as type i, ii, and iii; however, atypical and mixed genotypes were also reported. this study was conducted for detection of toxoplasma gondii genotypes in rats (rattus rattus) in riyadh region, saudi arabia. pcr test on t. gondii b1 gene was conducted on elisa igm positive samples for confirmation of the infection. however, genetic analysis of the sag2 locus was performed to determine t. gondii genotypes using pcr-rflp technique. pcr test on t. go ...201425031465
detection of toxoplasma gondii by pcr and mouse bioassay in rodents of ahvaz district, southwestern iran.toxoplasma gondii is obligate coccidian zoonotic parasite. felidae family is definitive and wide ranges of warm-blooded vertebrates are intermediate hosts for the parasite. rodents are measured as an important source of t. gondii infection for the definitive host. thus, this study aimed to investigate toxoplasm infection in rodents of ahvaz district, southwest of iran. a total of 100 rodents (73 rattus norvegicus, 21 rattus rattus, and 6 mus musculus) were collected and studied by gra6pcr and mo ...201424605327
toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in urban rodents: a survey in niamey, niger.a serological survey of toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of niamey, niger. a low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. however, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal mastomys natalensis, rattus rattus and mus musculus, while garden-associated arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. ...201323828008
ecological, social and biological risk factors for continued trypanosoma cruzi transmission by triatoma dimidiata in guatemala.chagas disease transmission by triatoma dimidiata persists in guatemala and elsewhere in central america under undefined ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social) conditions.201425170955
validation of a poisson-distributed limiting dilution assay (lda) for a rapid and accurate resolution of multiclonal infections in natural trypanosoma cruzi populations.trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of american trypanosomiasis, a complex zoonotic disease that affects more than 10million people in the americas. strains of this parasite possess a significant amount of genetic variability and hence can be divided into at least six discrete typing units (dtus). the life cycle of this protist suggests that multiclonal infections may emerge due to the likelihood of contact of triatomine insects with more than 100 mammal species. to date, there have been a ...201323159798
southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus) from southern texas are important reservoirs of two genotypes of trypanosoma cruzi and host of a putative novel trypanosoma species.trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas' disease, is an important public health and veterinary pathogen. although human cases are rare in the united states, infections in wildlife, and in some areas domestic dogs, are common. in 2008 and 2010, we investigated t. cruzi prevalence in possible vertebrate reservoirs in southern texas, with an emphasis on southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus). infection status was determined using a combination of culture isolation, polymerase chain re ...201323127189
is the oriental house rat (rattus tanezumi) a potential reservoir for trypanosoma evansi in thailand?trypanosoma evansi is a protozoan blood parasite and etiologic agent of "surra," a disease affecting a wide range of domestic and wild mammals, some identified as potential reservoirs. although t. evansi has been detected in several small wild rodent species, their role in the epidemiology of surra is unclear. there is molecular evidence of t. evansi in wild rodents in asia, but it is not known whether they can carry the parasite for sufficient time to significantly contribute to the epidemiolog ...201525932666
rodent-borne trypanosoma from cities and villages of niger and nigeria: a special role for the invasive genus rattus?although they are known to sometimes infect humans, atypical trypanosomes are very poorly documented, especially in africa where one lethal case has yet been described. here we conducted a survey of rodent-borne trypanosoma in 19 towns and villages of niger and nigeria, with a special emphasis on niamey, the capital city of niger. the 1,298 rodents that were captured yielded 189 qpcr-positive animals from 14 localities, thus corresponding to a 14.6% overall prevalence. rats, especially black rat ...201728373037
fleas and trypanosomes of peridomestic small mammals in sub-saharan mali.fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. during investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in mali, west africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest.201627724960
surveillance of trypanosoma spp of rodents and studies in their transmission probability by fleas in some rural egyptian areas.a new public health problem arises from animal trypanosomes that afflict human by a disease called atypical human trypanosomiasis. although humans have an innate protection against most trypanosoma species, nineteen cases of atypical human trypanosomiasis caused by the animal trypanosome as t. b. brucei, t. vivax, t. congolense, t. evansi and t. lewisi have been recorded. some of theserecorded cases were transient, six required trypanocidal treatments however two patients died. rodent trypanosom ...201627363052
comparison between quantitative buffy coat (qbc) and giemsa-stained thin film (gtf) technique for blood protozoan infections in wild rats.the quantitative buffy coat (qbc) technique and conventional giemsa thin blood smear was compared to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in detecting blood parasitic infection of the rodent populations from four urban cities in peninsular malaysia. a total of 432 blood samples from four rat species (rattus norvegicus, rattus rattus diardii, rattus exulans and rattus argentiventer) were screened using both techniques and successfully detected two blood protozoan species (tr ...201425382468
epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular malaysia.a total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (kuala lumpur), east (kuantan), north (georgetown) and south (malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular malaysia. five rat species were recovered with rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by rattus norvegicus, rattus exulans, rattus annandalei and rattus argentiventer. two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent ...201425134892
effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against xenopsylla cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in madagascar.fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), the main vector of yersinia pestis (yersin), the causative agent of plague, in madagascar. the effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against x. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "lethal dose 50" (ld50). two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil m ...201728122816
seasonal fluctuations of small mammal and flea communities in a ugandan plague focus: evidence to implicate arvicanthis niloticus and crocidura spp. as key hosts in yersinia pestis transmission.the distribution of human plague risk is strongly associated with rainfall in the tropical plague foci of east africa, but little is known about how the plague bacterium is maintained during periods between outbreaks or whether environmental drivers trigger these outbreaks. we collected small mammals and fleas over a two year period in the west nile region of uganda to examine how the ecological community varies seasonally in a region with areas of both high and low risk of human plague cases.201525573253
pneumonic plague outbreak, northern madagascar, 2011.yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. although plague has not been previously reported in northern madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. molecular typing of y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 rattus rattus rat samples identified the madaga ...201525530466
identification of risk factors for plague in the west nile region of uganda.plague is an often fatal, primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis caused by yersinia pestis. we sought to identify risk factors for plague by comparing villages with and without a history of human plague cases within a model-defined plague focus in the west nile region of uganda. although rat (rattus rattus) abundance was similar inside huts within case and control villages, contact rates between rats and humans (as measured by reported rat bites) and host-seeking flea loads were higher ...201424686743
understanding the persistence of plague foci in madagascar.plague, a zoonosis caused by yersinia pestis, is still found in africa, asia, and the americas. madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. the black rat rattus rattus, the m ...201324244760
factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent species in mbulu and karatu districts, northern tanzania.flea infection with the bacterium, yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. in areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. the objective of this cross sectional study was to investigate the magnitude and factors associated with flea infestation among different rodent species of northern tanzania, where outbreaks of plague have been recently r ...201326591705
plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the madagascan focus.landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. plague (yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in africa. human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. plague is primarily a disease of rodents. we therefore investigated ...201323755317
beyond an aflp genome scan towards the identification of immune genes involved in plague resistance in rattus rattus from madagascar.genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. this study follows on from an aflp genome scan in the black rat (rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection) in madagascar. we successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with ...201323237097
immune responses to plague infection in wild rattus rattus, in madagascar: a role in foci persistence?plague is endemic within the central highlands of madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, rattus rattus. typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. however, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. immunity against plague a ...201222719908
contrasted patterns of selection on mhc-linked microsatellites in natural populations of the malagasy plague reservoir.plague (yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. the black rat (rattus rattus) is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of madagascar. black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of madagascar) are susceptible. various lines of evidence suggest a role for the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) in pla ...201222403713
occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in hail region northern saudi arabia.ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the saudi fauna. due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of hail region of northern saudi arabia for the first time. ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. these ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodent ...201424838257
experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaivs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. it has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of hpaivs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming ...201626711036
proposal for 'candidatus mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi' in mice, and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti' in rats.mycoplasma haemomuris is causative of infectious anaemia or splenomegaly in rodents. we examined the nucleotide sequences of the non-ribosomal genes, rnpb and dnak, in strains of the species m. haemomuris detected in small field mice and black rats. rnpb nucleotide sequences in strains of the species m. haemomuris isolated from small field mice and black rats had only 89 % sequence similarity, suggesting their separation into two distinct subgroups. dnak had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 8 ...201525406232
novel murine norovirus-like genes in wild rodents in japan.novel murine norovirus (mnv)-like sequences were detected in 7 (14.9%) of 47 fecal and intestinal samples obtained from wild rodents in japan. sequencing and genetic analyses of the 7 mnv-like genes, 6 derived from apodemus speciosus and 1 from rattus rattus, suggested that these sequences form a cluster distinct from known mnv within genogroup v and differed even among clusters of wild rodents. considering these results, mnv might be genetically diverse depending on the host species or distribu ...201222673564
finch numbers, owl predation and plant dispersal on isla daphne major, galápagos.populations of 4 geospizine finches were studied on isla daphne major in april and december 1973. finches were captured, banded, measured and released in both months, and censused in december. 1640±711 finches were estimated to be present in december, of which probably more than 1000 belonged to geospiza fortis. g. fortis were 4 times more numerous than g. scandens. the overal density at this time was 27-54/ha. this is the first quantitative estimate of finch population sizes for a whole island ...197528309237
post-harvest impacts of rodents in myanmar; how much rice do they eat and damage?we undertook studies on post-harvest losses by rodents in two townships in the ayeyarwady delta, myanmar. farmers harvest their monsoon rice crop and then stack it on levee banks to await threshing 4-6 weeks later. after threshing and drying, paddy rice is stored in granaries. the amount of grain stored in burrows was collected 4 weeks after harvest by excavating burrows. in grain stores, we quantified the weight of grain consumed by rodents for 3-6 months post-harvest.201727061129
rats: if you can't beat them eat them! (tricks of the trade observed among the adi and other north-east indian tribals).since outside the tribal areas of north-east india it is not widely known, neither in the world nor in india itself, that rats are considered a delicious food item, this was one of several reasons why we decided to present this ethnographic account of rat procurement and preparation (together with some additional comments on the cultural role that rats have especially amongst members of the adi tribe). consumption of rats by humans as a biological control method far superior to the use of rodent ...201526024664
distinct genetic characteristics of sri lankan rattus and bandicota (murinae, rodentia) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.we examined genetic variation in black rats (the rattus rattus complex) from kandy district, sri lanka using mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb, 1140 bp) and nuclear melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r, 954 bp) gene sequences together with database sequences. we confirmed the existence of two divergent mitochondrial lineages in sri lankan black rats, with genetic distance of 2.2% and estimated divergence time of 0.3 million years ago. because one lineage is unique to the island and the other is closely ...201425224973
detection of enzootic plague foci in peninsular india.a continuous serological and bacteriological surveillance in rodents was carried out in peninsular india i.e. andhra pradesh, karnataka and tamil nadu to detect the role of different species of rodents in the maintenance of active enzootic plague foci. live rodents were collected from wild and ruderal/peri-domestic situations by digging and trapping for sera and organ samples. during 1989 to 2007 serological evidence of plague was detected in different species of rodents in peninsular india. pla ...201123781629
fragmented mitochondrial genomes of the rat lice, polyplax asiatica and polyplax spinulosa: intra-genus variation in fragmentation pattern and a possible link between the extent of fragmentation and the length of life cycle.blood-sucking lice (suborder anoplura) parasitize eutherian mammals with 67% of the 540 described species found on rodents. the five species of blood-sucking lice that infest humans and pigs have fragmented mitochondrial genomes and differ substantially in the extent of fragmentation. to understand whether, or not, any life-history factors are linked to such variation, we sequenced the mt genomes of polyplax asiatica and polyplax spinulosa, collected from the greater bandicoot rat, bandicota ind ...201424438034
molecular phylogenetic characterization of common murine rodents from manipur, northeast india.the indian subcontinent and southeast asia are hotspots of murine biodiversity, but no species from the arakan mountain system that demarcates the border between the two areas has been subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses. we examined the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in six murine species (the rattus rattus species complex, r. norvegicus, r. nitidus, berylmys manipulus, niviventer sp. and mus musculus) from manipur, which is located at the western foot of the mountain range. ...201526119663
review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.we have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. anthraquinone (aq) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. avian repellent research with aq began in the 1940s. in the context of pest management, aq is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. criteria for evaluation of e ...201627252044
a quantitative ethnozoological assessment of traditionally used animal-based therapies in the tropical island of mauritius.there is currently a dearth of documentation on the use of animal-based therapies (abt) in mauritius. this study was therefore designed to gather primary folk knowledge on the different abt used by mauritians. failure to document such knowledge can results in losses in both the use of such remedies and in the scientific documentation of the cultural traditions of animals used in the treatment and/or management of human diseases. the aim of the study is to collect, analyze, document and dissemina ...201424824877
how important are seabirds in the diet of black rats on islands with a superpredator?this study assessed the impact of introduced black rats (rattus rattus) on cory's shearwater (calonectris diomedea borealis) in a multi-invaded insular ecosystem where rats are mesopredators. we hypothesized that black rats should have little impact on cory's shearwaters in the presence of cats as superpredators. stomach contents and stable isotope analysis (sia) in tissues of black rats were analyzed to assess the trophic ecology and the importance of cory's shearwater in their diet. we also st ...201424726532
[cockroaches and co. the role of health pests as allergen source].in most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. what is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (blattaria), mosquitos (culiciformia), lice (pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (siphonaptera) and ticks (argasidae). in the group of vertebrates rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus), house m ...201424781916
morphometrical and genetic comparison of two nematode species: h. spumosa and h. dahomensis (nematoda, heterakidae).heterakis is a genus of parasitic nematodes, the majority of which are found in ground-feeding birds and only rarely in mammals. the best-known species is heterakis spumosa, a parasite associated with the cosmopolitan invasive rodent rattus rattus of asiatic origin. heterakis dahomensis was described in 1911 as a parasite of the gambian giant rat (cricetomys gambianus) from benin (africa), subsequently synonymized to h. spumosa by hall (1916). the study of helminths in african rodents is scarce ...201323990438
comparative hepatic in vitro depletion and metabolite formation of major perfluorooctane sulfonate precursors in arctic polar bear, beluga whale, and ringed seal.perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) has been reported to be among the most concentrated persistent organic pollutants in arctic marine wildlife. the present study examined the in vitro depletion of major pfos precursors, n-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide (n-etfosa) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (fosa), as well as metabolite formation using an assay based on enzymatically viable liver microsomes for three top arctic marine mammalian predators, polar bear (ursus maritimus), beluga whale (delphina ...201425048910
exploiting interspecific olfactory communication to monitor predators.olfaction is the primary sense of many mammals and subordinate predators use this sense to detect dominant species, thereby reducing the risk of an encounter and facilitating coexistence. chemical signals can act as repellents or attractants and may therefore have applications for wildlife management. we devised a field experiment to investigate whether dominant predator (ferret mustela furo) body odor would alter the behavior of three common mesopredators: stoats (mustela erminea), hedgehogs (e ...201727983773
monthly abundance of rodent and their ectoparasites in newly settled areas, east of lakes, ismailia governorate, egypt.rodents and their ectoparasites were studied inside and outside houses in the newly settled areas, east of lakes, ismailia governorate, egypt. forty traps per month in each of the two sides were used for collecting rodent during 2009. from 221 rodent were collected from inside houses; mus musculus n=115 (52.04%), rattus rattus. frugivorous n=54 (24.43%), r. r. alexandrinus n=40 (18.10%) and r. norvegicus n=12 (5.43%). from 177 rodent were collected from outside houses; m musculus n=4 (2.3%), r. ...201324260816
musserellus gen. nov., and five new species of fleas (siphonaptera: stivaliidae) from murid rodents in sulawesi and west papua, indonesia.a new stivaliid flea genus, musserellus, and five new species are described. the new genus is compared with its closest morphological relatives, the genera rectidigitus holland and metastivalius holland. musserellus vanpeeneni sp. nov., musserellus wattsi sp. nov., musserellus whitei sp. nov., and musserellus marshalli sp. nov. are described from endemic murid rodents in sulawesi, indonesia, while musserellus dunneti sp. nov. is described from rattus rattus in west papua, indonesia. host associa ...201627073227
tooth wear patterns in black rats (rattus rattus) of madagascar differ more in relation to human impact than to differences in natural habitats.dietary characteristics and environmental variables are important selective factors directing ecological diversification in rodents. on madagascar, the introductions and spread of the commensal black rat (rattus rattus) can be seen as example cases to study dietary niche occupation and dietary adaptation in an insular environment. we investigate how tooth wear as a measure of dietary adaptation of black rats differs between four distinct habitats (village, manioc fields, spiny forest, and rainfo ...201627069577
ectoparasites of rodents captured in hamedan, western iran.rodents with a population greater than the entire population of other mammals on earth are the source of economic losses and health conflicts. one of the major health problems with the rodents is their role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases. the aim of this study was to assess the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in hamedan city, western iran.201526623438
respiratory pathology and pathogens in wild urban rats (rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus).norway (rattus norvegicus) and black rats (rattus rattus) are common peridomestic species, yet little is known about wild rat ecology, including their natural diseases. we describe gross and histological lesions in the respiratory tract of a sample of 711 wild urban rats. a subset was examined for 19 distinct categories of histological lesions in the respiratory tract. testing for known respiratory pathogens included serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of lung samples. grossly evident l ...201526169386
characterization of leishmania (leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae), the parasite responsible for diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the dominican republic.leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late bryce walton, from dominican republic (dr) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna), and multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa). the isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the mlsa results showed that the dominican republic parasites were distinct from other described leishmania species. this new species be ...201526149864
breinlia (breinlia) jittapalapongi n. sp. (nematoda: filarioidea) from the asian house rat rattus tanezumi temminck in lao pdr.a new species of filarioid nematode of the genus breinlia yorke & maplestone, 1926 (nematoda: filarioidea) is described from rodents in lao pdr and according to its morphology, is placed in the subgenus breinlia. breinlia (breinlia) jittapalapongi n. sp. occurs in the asian house rat (rattus tanezumi temminck) and the sikkim rat (rattus andamanensis blyth) and is reported from two localities (luang prabang and champasak). the new species can be distinguished from all other congeners, which are m ...201525693458
a new set of primers directed to 18s rrna gene for molecular identification of cryptosporidium spp. and their performance in the detection and differentiation of oocysts shed by synanthropic rodents.cryptosporidium spp. are cosmopolitan protozoa that infect fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. more than 20 species are recognized within this genus. rodents are a group of abundant and ubiquitous organisms that have been considered reservoirs of cryptosporidium for humans and livestock. the aim of this study was to design specific primers for the gene encoding 18s rrna, potentially capable of amplifying any species or genotype of cryptosporidium spp. and evaluate the diagnostic att ...201324036321
metal contaminated soil from mining area caused metal accumulation and biological responses in order to assess the effects of metal contamination on wildlife, we collected wild black rats (rattus sp.) from mining areas (kabwe and chingola) and a control area (lusaka) in zambia and compared metal and metallothionein (mt) levels in their tissues. furthermore, we exposed metal-contaminated soil from kabwe to laboratory wistar rats (rattus norvegicus) for one year in order to determine the accumulation factors and effects of metals caused by soil exposure. results of both the field and lab ...201323631162
spotted fever group rickettsia in small rodents from areas of low endemicity for brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of minas gerais state, brazil.we investigated the humoral immune response against different species of rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of minas gerais state, brazil. sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. in santa cruz do escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples c ...201323509125
[association of the morphophysiology and the ectoparasite load found in two rat populations (rattus sp.) in la habana province].some physioecological responses from rodents may be registered through the study of morphological indexes, which is an important factor for the control of rodents.201323424799
multiple cryptosporidium genotypes detected in wild black rats (rattus rattus) from northern part of a broader investigation into the potential role of black rats (rattus rattus) as disease vectors into native small mammal populations of northern australia, blood and faecal samples from wild black rats were screened by molecular methods, for piroplasms (babesia and theileria), trypanosomes and the enteric parasite cryptosporidium. while piroplasms and trypanosomes were not detected in the blood of these animals, the overall prevalence of cryptosporidium 18s rdna in faecal samples was ...201222659228
plague in tanzania: an overview.human plague remains a public health concern in tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in tanzania. this work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. plague is bel ...201326591701
body composition and amino acid concentrations of select birds and mammals consumed by cats in northern and central california.the diet of the feral domestic cat consists of primarily birds and small mammals, but the nutritional composition is relatively unknown. because of the increasing popularity of natural diets for cats and other wild captive carnivores, the purpose of this study was to describe the body composition and aa concentrations of select birds and small mammals in northern and central california: wild-caught mice (n = 7), norway rats (n = 2), roof rats (n = 2), voles (n = 4), moles (n = 2), gophers (n = 3 ...201323348686
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