contact zones between chromosomal races of mus musculus domesticus. 1. temporal analysis of a hybrid zone between the cd chromosomal race (2n=22) and populations with the standard karyotype.a temporal analysis of a hybrid zone between chromosomal races of mus musculus domesticus was performed to evaluate its dynamics over a 20-year period. the transect chosen was one previously analysed by spirito et al. (1980) across the hycbrid zone between the chromosomal race cd 2n=22 (central italy) and the surrounding populations with standard karyotype (2n=40). the results show that 20 years of hybridization have not had any significant effect on the position of this hybrid zone, nor on the ...199910504430
evolutionary rate of a gene affected by chromosomal position.genes evolve at different rates depending on the strength of selective pressure to maintain their function. chromosomal position can also have an influence [1] [2]. the pseudoautosomal region (par) of mammalian sex chromosomes is a small region of sequence identity that is the site of an obligatory pairing and recombination event between the x and y chromosomes during male meiosis [3] [4] [5] [6]. during female meiosis, x chromosomes can pair and recombine along their entire length. recombinatio ...199910508587
panel of microsatellite markers for whole-genome scans and radiation hybrid mapping and a mouse family facilitate whole-genome scan experiments, we selected a panel of 128 microsatellite markers on the basis of spacing and polymorphism in the strains dba/2, balb/c, akr, c57bl/6, c57bl/10, a/j, c3h, 129/j, sjl/j, jf1, and pwb. many of the primer pairs were redesigned for better performance. the last four strains were not characterized previously using these markers. jf1 and pwb are particularly interesting for intersubspecific crosses offering high polymorphism. we provide allele size data for ...199910508847
water and sodium requirements of field populations of house mice (mus domesticus) and short-tailed mice (leggadina lakedownensis) on thevenard island, in the arid pilbara region of western australia.the coexistence of the lakeland downs short-tailed mouse leggadina lakedownensis and house mouse mus domesticus on thevenard island, in the arid north of western australia, prompted a study to compare their seasonal water and sodium metabolism using tritiated water and sodium-22 as tracers. fractional water influx rates for m. domesticus (40.3 +/- 1.6% total body-water day-1) were significantly higher than those for l. lakedownensis (25.3 +/- 1.2% total body-water day-1). water effluxes were hig ...199910549142
fertility of y(tir).b6 sex-reversal females with xx orthotopic ovarian transplants.when the y chromosome of mus musculus domesticus (y(tir)) was introduced onto the c57bl/6j (b6) mouse background, testis development was impaired and half of the xy progeny (y(tir).b6) developed a female phenotype. y(tir).b6 fetal ovaries showed massive death of medullary oocytes and, after birth, produced abnormal levels of steroid hormones, exhibited irregular estrous cycles, and failed to become fertile. in this study we examined whether alterations during perinatal development observed in y( ...199910569985
sex reversal caused by mus musculus domesticus y chromosomes linked to variant expression of the testis-determining gene sry.when the y chromosomes from certain populations of mus musculus domesticus are introduced into the mouse strain c57bl/6 (b6), testis determination can fail, resulting in gonads developing either as ovotestes (with both ovarian and testicular components) or as ovaries. not all y(dom) chromosomes cause sex reversal. y(dom) chromosomes are divided into three classes based upon their ability to induce testes in b6. the molecular basis underlying the three y(dom) classes is an enigma. the simplest ex ...199910588871
unravelling the chemical basis of competitive scent marking in house mice.major urinary proteins (mups) in the urine of male house mice, mus domesticus, bind the male signalling volatiles 2- sec -butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (thiazole) and 3,4-dehydro- exo -brevicomin (brevicomin) and slowly release these volatiles from urinary scent marks. to examine the role of urinary proteins and volatiles, either attached or unattached to the proteins, in competitive scent marking, we fractionated urine from isolated male balb/c laboratory mice, mus musculus, by size-exclusion chrom ...199910600138
an axonemal dynein at the hybrid sterility 6 locus: implications for t haplotype-specific male sterility and the evolution of species barriers.poor sperm motility characterized by a distinct aberration in flagellar waveform known as "curlicue" is a hallmark of t haplotype (t) homozygous male sterility. previous studies have localized "curlicue" and a flagellar developmental defect, "whipless", to the hybrid sterility 6 locus (hst6), between the markers pim1 and crya1. more recent heterospecific breeding experiments between mus spretus (spretus) and mus musculus domesticus (domesticus) have mapped the primary source(s) of both "curlicue ...200010602986
the origin of a robertsonian chromosomal translocation in house mice inferred from linked microsatellite markers.the western european house mouse, mus domesticus, includes many distinct robertsonian (rb) chromosomal races. two competing hypotheses may explain the distribution of rb translocations found in different populations: they may have arisen independently multiple times, or they may have arisen once and been spread through long-distance dispersal. we investigated the origin of the rb 5.15 translocation using six microsatellite loci linked to the centromeres of chromosomes 5 and 15 in 84 individuals ...199910605117
water and sodium balances and metabolic physiology of house mice (mus domesticus) and short-tailed mice (leggadina lakedownensis) under laboratory conditions.a laboratory study investigated the metabolic physiology, and response to variable periods of water and sodium supply, of two arid-zone rodents, the house mouse (mus domesticus) and the lakeland downs short-tailed mouse (leggadina lakedownensis) under controlled conditions. fractional water fluxes for m. domesticus (24 +/- 0.8%) were significantly higher than those of l. lakedownensis (17 +/- 0.7%) when provided with food ad libitum. in addition, the amount of water produced by m. domesticus and ...199910633560
breast cancer incidence highest in the range of one species of house mouse, mus domesticus.incidence of human breast cancer (hbc) varies geographically, but to date no environmental factor has explained this variation. previously, we reported a 44% reduction in the incidence of breast cancer in women fully immunosuppressed following organ transplantation (stewart et al (1995) lancet 346: 796-798). in mice infected with the mouse mammary tumour virus (mmtv), immunosuppression also reduces the incidence of mammary tumours. dna with 95% identity to mmtv is detected in 40% of human breast ...200010646903
spontaneous mutation in the db gene results in obesity and diabetes in cd-1 outbred mice.five allelic mutants of the diabetes (db) gene have been previously described in mice and rats causing obesity, infertility, and varying degrees of diabetes. we have identified a new, spontaneous mutation resulting in obesity and diabetes in a colony of cd-1 outbred mice, mus musculus domesticus. genetic complementation studies indicated that the new mutation was an allele of the diabetes locus. sequence analysis of cdna fragments showed a deletion of one g residue located in exon 12 of the lept ...200010666131
both nuclear and cytoplasmic components are defective in oocytes of the b6.y(tir) sex-reversed female the mammalian gonadal primordium, activation of the sry gene on the y chromosome initiates a cascade of genetic events leading to testicular organization whereas its absence results in ovarian differentiation. an exception occurs when the y chromosome of mus musculus domesticus from tirano, italy (y(tir)), is placed on the c57bl/6j (b6) genetic background. the b6.y(tir) progeny develop only ovaries or ovotestes despite sry transcription in fetal life. consequently, the xy offspring with bilat ...200010694422
gene flow of unique sequences between mus musculus domesticus and mus spretus.allelic diversity has been examined from a variety of mus musculus subspecies and mus spretus strains by sequencing at a 453-bp unique sequence locus. one m. m. domesticus classic inbred strain, c57bl/ksj, contained a sequence identical to that in the m. spretus wild-derived inbred strain seg, and other wild m. spretus isolates. such a result should have been precluded by the expected divergence between the species unless there has been interspecies gene flow. examination of c57bl/ksj for m. spr ...200010723728
line-1 (l1) lineages in the mouse.recently, a rapidly amplifying family of mouse line-1 (l1) has been identified and named t(f). the evolutionary context surrounding the derivation of the t(f) family was examined through phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the 3' portion of the repeat. the mus musculus domesticus t(f) family was found to be the terminal subfamily of the previously identified l1md4 lineage. the l1md4 lineage joins the other prototypical mouse line-1 lineage (the l1mda2 lineage) approximately 1 mya at about the ...200010742052
complete repopulation of mouse mitochondrial dna-less cells with rat mitochondrial dna restores mitochondrial translation but not mitochondrial respiratory the fusion of mtdna-less (rho(0)) cells of mus musculus domesticus with platelets from different species, mtdna repopulated cybrids were obtained for finding the mtdna species that could induce mitochondrial abnormalities. expression of mitochondrial dysfunction might be expected in these cybrids due to incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes from different species. the results showed that mouse rho(0) cells could receive mtdna from a different mouse species, m. spretus, or ...200010790404
a new family of genes and pseudogenes potentially expressing testis- and brain-specific leucine zipper proteins in man and mouse.we have characterized a new mouse gene highly transcribed in the testis, and a derived intronless gene expressed in the embryo. the latter gene is present in mus musculus domesticus and in mus musculus castaneus but is absent in mus spretus. the sequencing of different clones from a testis cdna library reveals a complex transcriptional regulation for the intron-containing gene. the use of several promoters, alternative splicing and trans-splicing, and of two different polyadenylation sites accou ...200010831844
effect of somatostatin on electrogenic ion transport in the duodenum and colon of the mouse, mus this study, we have used the mouse intestine and the ussing short circuit technique to compare the effects and mechanism of action of somatostatin (sst, 0.1 microm) on camp- and ca(2+)-mediated ion secretion in the duodenum and colon of the swiss-webster mouse. the camp-dependent secretagogues, prostaglandin e(2) (1 microm) and dibutyryl-camp (150 microm) increased short circuit current (i(sc)) in both regions, but only the colonic response was inhibited by sst. this inhibition was independen ...200010840221
mitochondrial dna and chromosomal studies of wild mice (mus) from turkey and iran.complete d-loop sequences of 20 mus from three localities in turkey and seven in iran were characterized. these countries are thought to be close to the place of origin of the subspecies mus musculus domesticus. five new m. m. domesticus haplotypes were added to the nine already known for the region. four of these 14 haplotypes were very similar to the consensus d-loop sequence for western europe defined by nachman et al. (1994), which may represent the ancestral condition for m. m. domesticus. ...200010849070
conspecific and heterospecific behavioural discrimination of individual odours by mound-building mice.we have tested the ability of male mound-building mice, mus spicilegus, to discriminate on the basis of their social odours a) two males of their own species; and b) two males of the house mouse, mus musculus domesticus. an habituation-dishabituation procedure was used. an experimental animal was presented with the scent from the same stimulus animal for four trials; on the fifth trial, scent from a second stimulus animal was presented. male mus spicilegus were able to discriminate the olfactory ...199810877600
functional constraints of nuclear-mitochondrial dna interactions in xenomitochondrial rodent cell lines.the co-evolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in vertebrates led to more than 100 specific interactions that are crucial for an optimized atp generation. these interactions have been examined by introducing rat mtdna into mouse cells devoid of mitochondrial dna (mtdna). when mtdna-less cells derived from the common mouse (mus musculus domesticus) were fused to cytoplasts prepared from mus musculus, mus spretus, or rat (rattus norvegicus), a comparable number of respiring clones could be ...200010908562
defective mesonephric cell migration is associated with abnormal testis cord development in c57bl/6j xy(mus domesticus) mice.during the critical period of mouse sex determination, mesenchymal cells migrate from the mesonephros into the adjacent developing testis. this process is thought to initiate cord development and is dependent on sry. the presence of sry, however, does not always guarantee normal testis development. for example, transfer of certain mus domesticus-derived y chromosomes, i.e., m. domesticus sry alleles, onto the c57bl/6j (b6) inbred mouse strain results in abnormal testis development. we tested the ...200010964462
learning to cope with two different food distributions: the performance of house mice (mus musculus domesticus).search abilities of mice (mus musculus domesticus) were evaluated using an arena closed by a ceiling in which 9 food sources (which mice could reach standing on their hind legs) could be arranged according to 2 configurations: a 3 x 3 square matrix and 3 clusters each containing 3 food sources. testing conditions prevented olfactory and visual cues from being left after visits to food sources, and mice were able to choose alternative routes between food sources. results showed that mice were mor ...200010994843
detection of quantitative trait loci for body weight at 10 weeks from philippine wild mice.a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (qtls) controlling body weight at 10 weeks after birth was carried out in a population of 387 intersubspecific backcross mice derived from a cross between c57bl/6j inbred mice (mus musculus domesticus) and wild mice (m. m. castaneus) captured in the philippines, in order to discover novel qtls from the wild mice that have about 60% lower body weight than c57bl/6j. by interval mapping, we detected four qtls: a highly significant qtl on chromosome (ch ...200011003694
effects of voluntary activity and genetic selection on muscle metabolic capacities in house mice mus domesticus.selective breeding is an important tool in behavioral genetics and evolutionary physiology, but it has rarely been applied to the study of exercise physiology. we are using artificial selection for increased wheel-running behavior to study the correlated evolution of locomotor activity and physiological determinants of exercise capacity in house mice. we studied enzyme activities and their response to voluntary wheel running in mixed hindlimb muscles of mice from generation 14, at which time ind ...200011007602
mhc-mediated fetal odourtypes expressed by pregnant females influence male associative behaviour.mice can recognize one another by individually characteristic phenotypic body odours (odourtypes) that reflect their genetic constitution at the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (mhc) of genes on chromosome 17. we have shown previously that mhc-determined odours are produced by fetuses: house mice, mus domesticus, can be trained to discriminate between genetically identical pregnant females carrying 9-18-day-old fetuses of differing mhc type. theoretically, it should be possib ...200011007637
intestinal nutrient uptake measurements and tissue damage: validating the everted sleeves method.the reliability of methods for nutrient uptake measurements across the intestinal epithelium relies on the integrity of the mucosal epithelium and the enterocytes. we tested effects of tissue handling during the "everted sleeves method" on the length of intestinal villi, the surface magnification, the circumference of the gut, and the thickness of the muscle layer in sunbirds (nectarinia osea), chicken (gallus gallus), and mice (mus domesticus). the sunbird has thin and delicate intestinal villi ...200011009399
contact zone between chromosomal races of mus musculus domesticus. 2. fertility and segregation in laboratory-reared and wild mice heterozygous for multiple robertsonian rearrangements.litter size, anaphase i nondisjunction and x-y dissociation at metaphase i were studied in homozygous and heterozygous house mice from a central italian chromosomal hybrid zone between the cd (2n=22) race and the standard race (2n=40). we also observed the segregation of the two chromosomal forms (robertsonian and non-robertsonian) in male and female multiple heterozygotes from the karyotype of their offspring and chromosomal arm counts of metaphase ii. litter size was significantly reduced in t ...200011012717
selective and continuous elimination of mitochondria microinjected into mouse eggs from spermatids, but not from liver cells, occurs throughout embryogenesis.exclusion of paternal mitochondria in fertilized mammalian eggs is very stringent and ensures strictly maternal mtdna inheritance. in this study, to examine whether elimination was specific to sperm mitochondria, we microinjected spermatid or liver mitochondria into mouse embryos. congenic b6-mt(spr) strain mice, which are different from c57bl/6j (b6) strain mice (mus musculus domesticus) only in possessing m. spretus mtdna, were used as mitochondrial donors. b6-mt(spr) mice and a quantitative p ...200011063701
a comparative study of parental care between two rodent species: implications for the mating system of the mound-building mouse mus spicilegus.paternal care is uncommon in mammals where males are more often involved in sexual competition than in providing care for their own offspring. however some species present some form of paternal care and, most of the time, this phenomenon is associated with a monogamous mating system. mice of the genus mus, such as the house mouse mus musculus domesticus, are commonly considered to be polygamous-polygynous species. in mus spicilegus, the mound-building mouse, previous results on female sexual pre ...200011074310
ultrasonic vocalization by female mice in the presence of a conspecific carrying food female mice, mus domesticus, reunion with a same-sex conspecific is associated with intense ultrasonic vocalization. we examined whether the palatability of a familiar food eaten by a demonstrator mouse and the motivational state of the conspecific observer could modulate the number of ultrasonic calls uttered during female-female interaction in nmri mice. a pilot study indicated that these calls were uttered almost exclusively by the observer member of the pair. observers were either food de ...200011082239
spontaneous occurrence of a robertsonian fusion involving chromosome 19 by single whole-arm reciprocal translocation (wart) in wild-derived house mice.chromosomal races of the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) bear robertsonian (rb) fusions, which consist of centric translocations between two non-homologous acrocentric chromosomes. the high level of diversity of these fusions in house mice is generated by de-novo formation of rb fusions and subsequent whole-arm reciprocal exchanges (warts). this paper describes the spontaneous occurrence of a new rb fusion, rb(4.19), in progeny of wild-derived house mice segregating for rb(4.12). the chrom ...200011117355
genome organization and phylogenetic distribution of a novel family of ancient murine endogenous proviruses with evidence for transposition-mediated proliferation.a new family of murine endogenous proviruses (vl6.0) is described here. the intact provirus is near 6 kb in length and shows a genomic organization of 5' ltr, gag, pol, env, and 3' ltr. the primer binding site (pbs) is that of a trna(gly). the lack of functional open reading frames and occurrence of significant gaps in most, if not all, members of this group show it to be ancient. our estimate of copy number per haploid genome is 30+. members of this group have been isolated from mus musculus do ...200011131339
attractivity and social preferences in mice (mus musculus domesticus): the role of prepubertal sexual segregation and of precocious weaning.mice (mus musculus domesticus) were raised (postnatal day 15 to 25) in single- or mixed-sex litters and precociously (day 15) or regularly (day 25) weaned. when they were faced as adults with a basic social choice--between two stimulus mice raised in litters of different sex composition but both of the same sex as the chooser--mice raised in mixed-sex litters were preferred. in the sociosexual choice-between a male and a female, both from the single- or the mixed-sex group--the opposite-sex pref ...200011149536
susceptibility of natural hybrids between house mouse subspecies to sarcocystis muris.a previous study showed that the susceptibility of hybrids between two mus musculus musculus and mus musculus domesticus did not apply to every parasite. the authors proposed that only parasites which exerted enough constraints would induce the selection of poorly compatible systems of resistance in the subspecies. this study completes the previous work. experimental infections of mice of the two subspecies and their hybrids with the tissue-dwelling protozoan sarcocystis muris show that hybrids ...200111165266
[new discoveries in experimental cancer].this 7th international symposium organized by the national academy of medicine on new directions in cancer management, was sponsored by iucc (international union against cancer) and received important financial assistance from the fritz bender foundation. in 1996 and 97, the first two symposia also dealt with cancer, specifically with tumor immunology and with the relation of human breast cancer with mmtv (murine mammary tumor virus). the aim of these introductory remarks is to emphasize recent ...200011188923
the prevalence of viral antibodies during a large population fluctuation of house mice in australia.we studied the seroprevalence of three viruses (mouse cytomegalovirus (mcmv), minute virus of mice (mvm), and mouse parvovirus (mpv)) in house mice (mus domesticus) in 1995 7. in the first year average mouse density was less than 1 mouse/ha. from november 1995 to may 1996 the population increased at an average rate of 7% per week, a doubling time of about 10 weeks. from august 1996 to may 1997 the population increased at an average rate of 10% per week, a doubling time of about 7.5 weeks. from a ...200011218223
urine marking and social dominance in male house mice (mus musculus domesticus).house mice use urine marking for a variety of forms of social communication. urine marking varies with dominance status; socially dominant male house mice urine mark more than those that are socially subordinate. experiment i was designed to confirm this previous finding. experiment ii was designed to test whether urine marking, measured prior to testing males for aggression, could be used to predict social dominance. mice were tested for urine marking in 20 cmx40 cm rectangular cages with filte ...200111254998
clinal analysis of a chromosomal hybrid zone in the house mouse.these studies centre on the 'barcelona' karyotypic race of the western house mouse (mus musculus domesticus), first described by adolph & klein (1981). this is one of many races within m. m. domesticus characterized by metacentric chromosomes that have originated by repeated robertsonian fusions, with perhaps further modification by whole-arm reciprocal translocations. data on 111 mice from 20 sites show that the race is centred 24 km to the west of barcelona city and has a homozygous metacentri ...200111279829
gallegostrongylus australis n. sp. (nematoda: angiostrongylidae) from muridae in australia, with zoogeographical considerations.gallegostrongylus australis n. sp. (nematoda: angiostrongylidae) is described from subpleural nodules in the lungs of rattus fuscipes, r. lutreolus and mus domesticus in australia. it is distinguished from g. andersoni occurring in gerbillids in west africa by the shorter lengths of spicules and gubernaculum, and from g. ibicensis occurring in microtids and murids in spain by the greater lengths of spicules and gubernaculum and the shorter distances from vulva and from anus to the caudal extremi ...200111304950
female preference for male saliva: implications for sexual isolation of mus musculus subspecies.we studied the effects of a single genetic change on a complex mammalian behavior using animals congenic for two variants of abpa, the gene for the alpha subunit of mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (abp), in two-way preference tests. females exhibited a preference for investigating salivas of males of their own genetic type of abp but not for urines of either type of male. this preference behavior is consistent for samples of mice from geographically diverse populations of mus musculus do ...200111327170
patterns of infection by salmonella and yersinia spp. in commensal house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) populations.this study sought to examine the risk posed by house mice transmitting pathogens to livestock on typical mixed-agriculture farms in the uk.200111348436
low levels of sry transcripts cannot be the sole cause of b6-y(tir) sex reversal.sry, a single-copy gene on the y-chromosome, triggers the fetal gonad to begin testis differentiation in mammals. on the other hand, mutation or absence of sry results in ovary differentiation and the female phenotype. however, cases of xy sex reversal in the presence of wild-type sry exist in mice and man. one such example is the b6-y(tir) mouse, whose autosomes and x-chromosome are from the c57bl/6j mouse (an inbred strain of mus musculus molossinus), whereas the y-chromosome is from a mus mus ...200111353512
rodents and leptospira transmission risk in terceira island (azores).the role of rodents as leptospira renal carriers in terceira island was evaluated (1993-1995) through kidney culture and serology [microscopic aglutination test (mat)] of 94 mice and rats. fifty-nine animals were positive (n = 41 by serology + culturing; n = 11 serology; n = 7 culturing), presenting a wide distribution in man-made and natural areas. house mice had the highest bacteriological (82.9%) and serological (90.9%) rates, being strictly related to serovar arborea. black rats were involve ...200011484805
reproductive changes in fluctuating house mouse populations in southeastern mice (mus domesticus) in the victorian mallee region of southeastern australia show irregular outbreaks. changes in reproductive output that could potentially drive changes in mouse numbers were assessed from 1982 to 2000. litter size in females is positively correlated with body size. when standardized to an average size female, litter size changes seasonally from highest in spring to lowest in autumn and winter. litter size is depressed throughout breeding seasons that begin when the abu ...200111506689
c57bl/6j-t-associated sex reversal in mice is caused by reduced expression of a mus domesticus sry allele.c57bl/6j-t-associated sex reversal (b6-tas) in xy mice results in ovarian development and involves (1) hemizygosity for tas, a gene located in the region of chromosome 17 deleted in t(hp) and t(orl), (2) homozygosity for one or more b6-derived autosomal genes, and (3) the presence of the akr y chromosome. here we report results from experiments designed to investigate the y chromosome component of this sex reversal. testis development was restored in b6 t(orl)/+ xy(akr) mice carrying a mus muscu ...200111514455
molecular studies on the colonization of the madeiran archipelago by house study the colonization history of the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) on the madeiran archipelago, complete mitochondrial d-loop sequences were obtained for 44 individuals from madeira, porto santo and ilhas desertas. altogether, 19 d-loop haplotypes were identified which formed part of a single clade in a phylogeny incorporating haplotypes from elsewhere in the range of m. m. domesticus, indicating that the madeiras were colonized from a single source. similarities between the sequence ...200111555245
the effects of robertsonian fusions on chiasma frequency and distribution in the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) from a hybrid zone in northern scotland.chiasma frequency and distribution were studied in male mus musculus domesticus from the john o'groats-standard chromosomal hybrid zone in northern scotland. individuals of the john o'groats race (2n=32; homozygous for the robertsonian fusions 4.10, 6.13, 9.12 and 11.14) and the standard race (2n=40, all telocentric), and hybrids with various karyotypes, were examined. chiasma frequency was significantly negatively correlated with the number of robertsonian configurations in the meiotic cell. th ...200111737277
individual recognition in mice mediated by major urinary proteins.the ability to recognize individuals is essential to many aspects of social behaviour, such as the maintenance of stable social groups, parent-offspring or mate recognition, inbreeding avoidance and the modulation of competitive relationships. odours are a primary mediator of individuality signals among many mammals. one source of odour complexity in rodents, and possibly in humans, resides in the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (mhc). the olfactory acuity of mice and rats al ...200111740558
sry promoters from domesticus (tirano) and c57bl/6 mice function similarly in embryos and adult animals.introduction of the y chromosome from a mus musculus domesticus (tirano) subspecies into the mus musculus musculus c57bl/6 (b6) inbred strain background results in sex reversal in xy offspring. it has been hypothesized that the domesticus testis-determining y (tdy) locus is misregulated in b6 genome, thereby impairing sex determination in b6.y(dom) animals. the identification of a gene in the sex-determining region on the y chromosome (sry) as the tdy has provided a means to experimentally exami ...200111748612
[isolation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from human individuals].the activity of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) in argentina has been previously reported on the basis of serological evidence in rodents and humans and the isolation of only one strain of lcmv from a mus domesticus captured in the province of córdoba. the aim of this paper was to register patients with serological diagnosis of lcm, to isolate and to identify human strains of lcmv in argentina. during the last 19 years, 15 cases were diagnosed as lcm by immunoflourescent indirect assay ...200111808424
genomic organization of the mouse src gene. sequencing of src introns revealed a new chromosome 2 microsatellite marker.ten introns interrupting the coding sequence of the mouse src protooncogene were sequenced (in total 11260 bp) and their general characteristics compared with the homologous genes in human and chicken. while the study of genome organization of the src gene was performed only in the inbred mouse strain balb/chea (mus musculus domesticus), one special region in the intron 5 was also sequenced in additional mouse strains (m. musculus musculus and m. spretus), because the discovered ca and gt repeat ...200211871859
respiratory mechanics in mice: strain and sex specific assess the contribution of genetic background to respiratory mechanics, we developed a ventilator unit to measure lung function parameters in the mouse. we studied two commonly used inbred mice strains originating from mus musculus domesticus (c57bl/6 and c3heb/fej) and a third strain derived from mus musculus molossinus [japanese fancy mouse 1 (jf1)]. the ventilator allows for accurate performance of the different breathing manoeuvres required for measuring in- and expiratory reserve capacit ...200211942924
[natural hybridization between 2 sympatric species of mice, mus musculus domesticus l. and mus spretus lataste].using protein loci and dna markers, we show by a multilocus genetic analysis that certain populations of the two sympatric mouse species mus musculus domesticus and mus spretus show clear signs of partial introgression. given the sterility of f1 males and the known partial genetic incompatibilities between the genomes of the two species, our finding does not invalidate the biological species complex, but allows to think that very limited genetic exchanges remain possible even long after the dive ...200211980180
chiasma repatterning across a chromosomal hybrid zone between chromosomal races of mus musculus domesticus.chiasma number and distribution were analysed in male house mice from a karyotypic hybrid zone between the cd race (2n = 22) and the standard race (2n = 40) located in central italy. chiasma repatterning occurs across the transect. the overall trend produces a diminution of chiasmata in the mice with cd chromosomal background. the progressive reduction of chiasmata indicates that genes could pass from one race to another in an asymmetrical way: from metacentric races to the standard population.200211990757
neural critical bands and inhibition in the auditory midbrain of the house mouse (mus domesticus). 200211998757
foraging behavioural changes induced by conspecific and heterosubspecific odours in two strains of wild mice.mice in wild populations of the two subspecies mus musculus domesticus and mus musculus musculus may potentially compete for food. because of the importance of olfaction in mice, we hypothesised that the presence of unfamiliar conspecific or heterosubspecific chemical cues could play a role in access to and use of food resources. we used an experimental design that tested this assumption with males from two strains, originated from wild populations of these subspecies, as subjects. exploratory a ...200212044688
scaling of rotational inertia in murine rodents and two species of lizard.because the force required to rotate a body about an axis is directly proportional to its rotational inertia about the axis, it is likely that animals with high rotational inertia would be constrained in their turning abilities. given that rotational inertia scales with mass(1.67) in geometrically similar animals, whereas the ability to apply torque scales with mass(1.00), larger animals would be expected to have more difficulty turning than smaller animals of similar shape. to determine how rot ...200212089217
the gene for ciliary neurotrophic factor (cntf) maps to murine chromosome 19 and its expression is not affected in the hereditary motoneuron disease 'wobbler' of the mouse.the cdna for ciliary neurotrophic factor (cntf), a polypeptide involved in the survival of motoneurons in mammals, has recently been cloned (stöckli et al., nature, 342, 920 - 923, 1989; lin et al., science, 246, 1023 - 1025, 1989). we have now localized the corresponding gene cntf to chromosome 19 in the mouse, using an interspecific cross between mus spretus and mus musculus domesticus. the latter was carrying the gene wobbler (wr) for spinal muscular atrophy. dna was prepared from backcross i ...199112106247
hantaan virus infection causes an acute neurological disease that is fatal in adult laboratory mice.hantaan virus, the etiological agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, is transmitted to humans from persistently infected mice (apodemus agrarius), which serve as the primary reservoir. here we demonstrate that several strains of adult mus musculus domesticus (c57bl/6, balb/c, akr/j, and sjl/j) were susceptible to hantaan virus infection when infected intraperitoneally. first clinical signs were loss of weight, ruffled fur, and reduced activity, which were followed by neurological symptoms, such as ...200212163608
antioxidant gene expression in active and sedentary house mice (mus domesticus) selected for high voluntary wheel-running behavior.we present liver mrna levels of the two antioxidant enzymes catalase (cat) and mn-superoxide dismutase (sod2) in four treatment groups of house mice assayed by rnase protection at 20 months of age. these groups were mice from four replicate selection and four replicate control lines from the sixteenth generation of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running, housed with or without running wheels from age 3 weeks through 20 months. exercising control females had induced cat expression; s ...200212196416
epizootiology of syphacia obvelata from a domestic mouse population on the subantarctic kerguelen archipelago.the effects of abundance, age, and sex of feral domestic mice mus musculus domesticus on infections with the nematode parasite syphacia obvelata were analyzed during a long-term study of the mouse population on guillou island (1.45 km2), a part of the subantarctic kerguelen archipelago. the population dynamics of the nematode did not follow the variation in host abundance. however, depending on the year, differences in pinworm abundance were found between the age classes and sex. such patterns s ...200212197108
contact zones between chromosomal races of mus musculus domesticus. 3. molecular and chromosomal evidence of restricted gene flow between the cd race (2n = 22) and the acr race (2n = 24).the contact zone between the ancarano (acr; 2n = 24) and cittaducale (cd; 2n = 22) races of mus musculus domesticus was studied. we used chromosomes and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequences of the control region as genetic markers to detect introgression between races. in total, 76 mice were trapped at 17 localities. cytogenetic analysis was performed on 73 mice. a segment of the control region (468 bp) was sequenced in 41 specimens. the two races are distributed parapatrically and the contact zo ...200212209393
ecological basis for fertility control in the house mouse (mus domesticus) using immunocontraceptive vaccines.laboratory studies confirm the potential for fertility control in the house mouse mus domesticus using mouse cytomegalovirus (mcmv) as a vector for an immunocontraceptive vaccine. this article presents an overview of key results from research in australia on enclosed and field populations of mice and the associated epidemiology of mcmv. the virus is geographically widespread in australia. it also persists in low population densities of mice, although if population densities are low for at least ...200212220162
risk assessment for release of genetically modified organisms: a virus to reduce the fertility of introduced wild mice, mus domesticus.risk assessment is a key task in developing genetically modified organisms (gmos) intended for release into the environment. a risk assessment protocol is described, focusing on genetically modified biological control agents intended to reduce fertility in mammalian pests. the protocol is being applied to development of an immunocontraceptive murine cytomegalovirus vaccine intended to reduce the frequency and extent of costly troublesome plagues of introduced house mice, mus domesticus, in south ...200212220167
dependence of population response to fertility control on the survival of sterile animals and their role in regulation.the species for which fertility control is presently used, or for which it is being developed, range from small mammal pests, such as the house mouse (mus domesticus), to large mammals, such as the african elephant (loxodonta africana). however, the possibility of a population response other than a reduction in abundance proportional to the fraction of animals rendered infertile has been shown in field trials. for example, when intermediate levels of sterility were imposed on wild populations of ...200212220168
pattern of segmental recombination in the distal inversion of mouse t examine genetic exchange between t haplotypes and their wild-type homologs, four previously identified mouse chromosome (chr) 17 variants termed mosaic haplotypes were analyzed in detail. three of these haplotypes-one from a mus musculus population in bulgaria, one from a mus domesticus population in chile, and one from a m. domesticus population in germany-display properties indicative of the t complex. all four haplotypes are exceptional because they are characterized by the presence of a f ...200212226709
aspects of the life history of muspicea borreli (nematoda: muspiceidae), parasite of the house mouse (mus domesticus) in australia.prevalence of muspicea borreli (nematoda) infection in wild populations of mus domesticus in forests in southeastern new south wales and in rural canberra, australia was variable, relatively low and the parasite occurred predominantly in male mice. experimental infection of balb/c mice occurred only via subcutaneous inoculation but was achieved using i) adults containing embryonating eggs, ii) adults containing active larvae and iii) active larvae dissected from the uterus of female worms. exper ...200212375362
the murine alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor gene family: polymorphism, chromosomal location, and structure.alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (alpha(1)-pi) is a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors, which function in maintaining homeostasis through regulation of numerous proteolytic processes. in laboratory mice (mus musculus domesticus), alpha(1)-pi occurs in multiple isoforms encoded by a family of three to five genes that are polymorphic among inbred strains and that are located at the serpina1 locus on chromosome 12. in the present study, we have characterized the alpha(1)- ...200212408969
lifelong voluntary exercise in the mouse prevents age-related alterations in gene expression in the heart.we present the first quantitative gene expression analysis of cardiac aging under conditions of sedentary and active lifestyles using high-density oligonucleotide arrays representing 11,904 cdnas and expressed sequence tags (ests). with these data, we test the hypothesis that exercise attenuates the gene expression changes that normally occur in the aging heart. male mice (mus domesticus) were sampled from the 16th generation of selective breeding for high voluntary exercise. for the selective b ...200312429864
sex chromosome aneuploidy in wild small mammals.we describe four examples of the xo condition in wild mammals. one xo house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) was caught in nature and subsequently gave birth to three litters in captivity, confirming for wild mice the fertility observed for xo laboratory mice. two other xo house mice were produced from laboratory crosses of wild-caught mice. an immature xo common shrew (sorex araneus) was caught in nature; this appears to be the first xo recorded in the order insectivora. we collected data from r ...200212438805
the effect of multiple simple robertsonian heterozygosity on chromosome pairing and fertility of wild-stock house mice (mus musculus domesticus).the influence of robertsonian (rb) heterozygosity on fertility has been the subject of much study in the house mouse. however, these studies have been largely directed at single simple heterozygotes (heterozygous for a single rb metacentric) or complex heterozygotes (heterozygous for several to many metacentrics which share common chromosome arms). in this paper we describe studies on male multiple simple heterozygotes, specifically the f(1) products of crosses between wild-stock mice homozygous ...200212438809
analysis of candidate imprinted genes linked to dlk1-gtl2 using a congenic mouse line.the study of genomic imprinting requires the use of dna sequence polymorphisms between interfertile mouse species or strains. most commonly, crosses between mus musculus domesticus and mus musculus castaneus or mus spretus animals are used. difficulties arise in the maintenance of these wild-derived mice in conventional animal facilities, however, and can be overcome by the use of a congenic strain for the region under study. we describe here the generation of a new mouse line, congenic for a re ...200212461649
the mosaic structure of variation in the laboratory mouse genome.most inbred laboratory mouse strains are known to have originated from a mixed but limited founder population in a few laboratories. however, the effect of this breeding history on patterns of genetic variation among these strains and the implications for their use are not well understood. here we present an analysis of the fine structure of variation in the mouse genome, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps). when the recently assembled genome sequence from the c57bl/6j strain is aligned ...200212466852
studies of mitochondrial dna, allozyme and morphometric variation in a house mouse hybrid unusual chromosomal hybrid zone of the house mouse, mus musculus domesticus, exists in upper valtellina, northern italy, consisting of four robertsonian (rb) races and the standard (all-acrocentric, or 2n = 40) race, all hybridizing freely within 10 km2. the hybrid zone in valtellina provides an excellent opportunity to study the role of rb fusions in reproductive isolation and speciation. this hybrid zone has already been well studied for the distribution of rb fusions and the fertility of h ...200212534215
multiple roles of major urinary proteins in the house mouse, mus domesticus.the urine of the house mouse, mus domesticus, contains large amounts of proteins that are specifically synthesized in the liver to be secreted in the urine. these proteins, termed major urinary proteins (mups), have multiple roles in the communication of information in urine-derived scent marks. they bind low-molecular-mass volatile pheromones, and effect their delivery to the scent mark, followed by a slow release that is controlled by the rate of dissociation from the mups. however, this famil ...200312546672
short report: distribution and feeding preference of the sand flies phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in sanliurfa, turkey.sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) and rodents were collected in the endemic focus of urban cutaneous leishmaniasis in sanliurfa, turkey. phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi represented 99% of the sand fly population. these flies were trapped in highest numbers in animal sheds, followed by cellars. however, p. sergenti was relatively more abundant in rooms. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the gut contents from blood-fed females detected immunoglobulins specific to birds and mammals, sugg ...200312556140
differential sensitivity to acute administration of ritalin, apomorphine, sch 23390, but not raclopride in mice selectively bred for hyperactive wheel-running behavior.previous studies of mice ( mus domesticus) selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running have suggested that the hyperactivity is associated with dysfunction in the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system and that high-running mice may represent a useful genetic model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd).200312669177
is reproduction of the australian house mouse (mus domesticus) constrained by food? a large-scale field quantity and especially food quality are thought to be key factors driving reproductive changes in the house mouse, mus domesticus, leading to outbreaks of house mouse populations in the australian grain-growing region. characteristic changes during an incipient mouse plague are an early start of breeding, a high proportion of females breeding at a young age and a prolonged breeding season. we conducted a large-scale food manipulation during an incipient mouse plague, which started with ear ...200312721826
sry expression level and protein isoform differences play a role in abnormal testis development in c57bl/6j mice carrying certain sry alleles.transfer of certain mus domesticus-derived y chromosomes (sry(dom) alleles, e.g., sry(pos) and sry(akr)) onto the c57bl/6j (b6) mouse strain causes abnormal gonad development due to an aberrant interaction between the sry(dom) allele and the b6-derived autosomal (tda) genes. for example, b6 xy(pos) fetuses develop ovaries and ovotestes and b6 xy(akr) fetuses have delayed testis cord development. to test whether abnormal testis development is caused by insufficient sry(dom) expression, two approa ...200312750339
functional respiratory chain analyses in murid xenomitochondrial cybrids expose coevolutionary constraints of cytochrome b and nuclear subunits of complex iii.the large number of extant muridae species provides the opportunity of investigating functional limits of nuclear/mitochondrial respiratory chain (rc) subunit interactions by introducing mitochondrial genomes from progressively more divergent species into mus musculus domesticus mtdna-less (rho0) cells. we created a panel of such xenomitochondrial cybrids, using as mitochondrial donors cells from six murid species with divergence from m. m. domesticus estimated at 2 to 12 myr before present. spe ...200312777531
physical performance and soleus muscle fiber composition in wild-derived and laboratory inbred mouse strains.we compared four inbred mouse strains in their physical performance, measured as a maximal treadmill running time, characteristics of soleus muscle, anatomic character, and growth. the strains used were mus musculus domesticus [c57bl/6 (b6) and balb/c], mus musculus molossinus (msm/ms), and mus spretus. maximal running time was significantly different among these four mouse strains. running time until exhaustion was highest in msm/ms and lowest in m. spretus. maximal times for the laboratory mou ...200312851421
identification and characterization of t haplotypes in wild mice populations using molecular part of a population genetics survey of the hybrid zone between mouse subspecies mus musculus domesticus and m. m. musculus, we identified and characterized the t haplotypes in 1068 mice from 186 different populations in a 2500 km2 area in central jutland. on the basis of two t-specific pcr markers, 130 mice possessed this haplotype. the allele frequencies at six microsatellites on the third and fourth chromosomal inversions of the t region were sufficiently different between t-bearing and no ...200312872912
syphacia obvelata infections and reproduction of male domestic mice mus musculus domesticus on a sub-antarctic island.the reproductive activity of feral male mice on an island of the sub-antarctic kerguelen archipelago was influenced by biological factors depending on periods within the breeding season. after having controlled host reproductive activity indices for body size, i.e. age, and body condition effects, syphacia obvelata prevalence did not vary with host reproductive status or age either during the beginning or the middle-end of the reproductive season. considering the beginning of the breeding season ...200312895284
onset and progress of meiotic prophase in the oocytes in the b6.ytir sex-reversed mouse ovary.when the y chromosome of a mus musculus domesticus male mouse (caught in tirano, italy) is placed on a c57bl/6j genetic background, approximately half of the xy (b6.ytir) progeny develop into normal-appearing but infertile females. we have previously reported that the primary cause of infertility can be attributed to their oocytes. to identify the primary defect in the xy oocyte, we examined the onset and progress of meiotic prophase in the b6.ytir fetal ovary. using bromo-deoxyuridine incorpora ...200312904311
disturbed expression of sox9 in pre-sertoli cells underlies sex-reversal in mice b6.ytir.sry in some varieties of mus musculus domesticus fails to form normal testis when introduced into the c57bl/6j (b6) strain. we studied the developmental pattern of pre-sertoli cells that express sox9 by immunofluorescence and the profile levels of sox9 transcripts by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in developing gonads of b6-ytir mice. sox9-positive cells (pre-sertoli cells) appeared in all b6.ytir genital ridges at 11.5 and 12.5 days po ...200413679320
[on the genetic determinism of acoustic epilepsy in mus musculus domesticus (swiss/rb)]. 196414143657
haemoglobin types of the wild house mouse (mus musculus domesticus rutty 1772). 196414243394
gene expression, cell localization, and evolution of rodent submandibular gland androgen-binding protein.a small dimeric androgen-binding protein (abp) secreted by mouse (mus) submandibular salivary glands has been hypothesized to function in mate-selection. the alpha-subunit (abpa) evolves rapidly under natural selection. however, cellular site(s) of synthesis, mode of function, and patterns of evolution of this biologically important protein are otherwise unknown. we used a radiolabeled riboprobe and in situ hybridization to mouse (mus) abpa mrna to localize abpa synthesis to submandibular gland ...200214566605
cosegregation of robertsonian metacentric chromosomes in the first meiotic division of multiple heterozygous male mice as revealed by fish analysis of spermatocyte ii metaphases.contrasting results (random segregation or cosegregation of isomorphic chromosomes) have been reported up to now on the segregation pattern of robertsonian metacentric chromosomes of mus musculus domesticus in multiple heterozygotes, using different approaches (karyotypical analysis of the progeny or of second meiotic metaphases). in the present contribution data are presented based on fish (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) analysis with telomeric probes, which allowed us to distinguish metac ...200314610354
do precocial mammals develop at a faster rate? a comparison of rates of skull development in sigmodon fulviventer and mus musculus domesticus.variation in neonatal maturity among mammals is often explained by variation in gestation length, but species may also differ in developmental rate, a quantity that is difficult to measure because the conventional formalism makes two important and potentially unrealistic assumptions: (1) ontogeny of form can be described by a single line, and (2) species have the same ontogeny of form. we examine two species, one precocial (sigmodon fulviventer), the other altricial (mus musculus domesticus), an ...200314632234
[probable origin of the robertsonian phenomena in domestic mice in tunisia].the robertsonian phenomenon in house mice (mus musculus domesticus) from tunisia consists in the presence of only one 22-chromosome robertsonian race (22rb) carrying the maximum number of fusions observed until now. the 22rb populations exclusively occupy urban centers in the eastern-central region of tunisia where standard population with 40-all acrocentric chromosomes (40std) occur in surrounding neighborhoods and rural environments. in addition to the habitat partition, allozyme and mitochond ...200114658237
[genetic and molecular characteristics of a new natural haplotype twmp1 of the house mouse (mus domesticus r.) from peru].a new natural haplotype, twwp1, found in a population of house mouse mus domesticus from peru, was subjected to genetic and molecular analyses. experiments were performed to study the complementation of the new haplotype, fertility of twmp1/tx heterozygotes, and transmission ratio distortion (trd) of the t-carrying chromosome in the progeny of heterozygous males. molecular analysis included blot hybridization with t-specific probes tu48, tu66, and tu119. the results were collated with the struct ...200314714460
pathogens of house mice on arid boullanger island and subantarctic macquarie island, australia.studies on island populations of house mice (mus domesticus) and their viruses reveal insights into viral persistence in isolated communities. we surveyed the ectoparasites, endoparasites, and antiviral antibodies for 11 murine viruses and two bacteria of house mice inhabiting two islands off australia. house mice on boullanger island were seropositive to two viruses, murine cytomegalovirus and epizootic diarrhea of infant mice. on subantarctic macquarie island, house mice were seropositive for ...200314733270
production of homoplasmic xenomitochondrial mice.the unique features of mtdna, together with the lack of a wide range of mouse cell mtdna mutants, have hampered the creation of mtdna mutant mice. to overcome these barriers mitochondrial defects were created by introducing mitochondria from different mouse species into mus musculus domesticus (mm) mtdna-less (rho(0)) l cells. introduction of the closely related mus spretus (ms) or the more divergent mus dunni (md) mitochondria resulted in xenocybrids exhibiting grossly normal respiratory functi ...200414745024
polymorphisms of mouse apolipoprotein a-ii: seven alleles found among 41 inbred strains of mice, apolipoprotein a-ii (apoa-ii) associates to form amyloid fibrils in an age-associated manner. we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the apoa-ii gene (apoa2) cdna in 41 inbred strains of mice including mus musculus domesticus (laboratory mouse), mus musculus castaneus, mus musculus molossinus, mus musculus musculus and mus spretus. among these strains we identified 7 alleles (apoa2a1, apoa2a2, apoa2b, apoa2c, apoa2d, apoa2e and apoa2f). polymorphisms of nucleotides at 15 pos ...200314986479
detection of high levels of congenital transmission of toxoplasma gondii in natural urban populations of mus domesticus.the relative importance of different transmission routes of toxoplasma gondii has been a matter for debate. this ubiquitous parasite is generally thought to be transmitted by infective oocysts excreted by the definitive host, the cat. ingestion of undercooked meat has also been considered an important route of transmission in many mammals while congenital transmission has generally been considered relatively rare. experimental studies demonstrate the ability of t. gondii to be transmitted congen ...200415002902
hybrid breakdown caused by substitution of the x chromosome between two mouse subspecies.hybrid breakdown is a type of reproductive failure that appears after the f2 generation of crosses between different species or subspecies. it is caused by incompatibility between interacting genes. genetic analysis of hybrid breakdown, particularly in higher animals, has been hampered by its complex nature (i.e., it involves more than two genes, and the phenotype is recessive). we studied hybrid breakdown using a new consomic strain, c57bl/6j-x(msm), in which the x chromosome of c57bl/6j (deriv ...200415020476
meiotic recombination and spermatogenic impairment in mus musculus domesticus carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.we quantitatively analyzed the spermatogenic process, including evaluation of seminiferous tubules with defective cycles, rates of germ cell death and sperm morphology, in adult male mice with standard telocentric chromosomes (2n = 40, cd1 strain), homozygous (2n = 24, mil ii population) and heterozygous (2n = 24 x 40) for robertsonian (rb) rearrangements. the animals were analyzed at three different ages: three, five and seven months after birth. the number and position of crossover events were ...200315051955
mapping major quantitative trait loci for postnatal growth in an intersubspecific backcross between c57bl/6j and philippine wild mice by using principal component analysis.a number of quantitative trait loci (qtls) for postnatal growth have previously been reported in mice. as effects of the qtls are usually small and similar to one another in magnitude, it is generally difficult to know which loci are major contributors to postnatal growth. we applied principal component analysis to a genome-wide search for qtls affecting postnatal growth in body weight weekly recorded from 3 to 10 weeks of age in an intersubspecific backcross population of c57bl/6j inbred mice ( ...200415056934
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