PMID(sorted ascending)
wild mice in the cold: some findings on adaptation.the house mouse, mus domesticus, can thrive in natural environments much below its optimum temperature. thermogenesis is then above that at more usual temperatures. in addition, body weight, and the weights of brown adipose tissue and the kidneys, may be higher than usual. in free populations of house mice cold lowers fertility and may prevent breeding. other possible limiting factors on breeding are food supply, shelter for nesting and social interactions. in captivity, wild-type house mice exp ...19892696561
molecular genetics of androgen-inducible rp2 gene transcription in the mouse kidney.androgen control of the rp2 gene in the mouse kidney has been modified during evolution. in inbred mice (mus domesticus), the concentrations of mrnas encoded by rp2 undergo a 10- to 12-fold induction in response to testosterone; in other mus species (e.g., mus hortulanus and mus caroli), induction ranges from none to about two- to fourfold. in this communication, we show that androgens induced rp2 transcription in m. domesticus, although this induction may not have fully accounted for the increa ...19892710112
genic differentiation and origin of robertsonian populations of the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus rutty).this paper examines the relation between chromosomal and nuclear-gene divergence in 28 wild populations of the house mouse semi-species, mus musculus domesticus, in western europe and north africa. besides describing the karyotypes of 15 of these populations and comparing them to those of 13 populations for which such information was already known, it reports the results of an electrophoretic survey of proteins encoded by 34 nuclear loci in all 28 populations. karyotypic variation in this taxon ...19892714644
evolution of mouse chromosome 17 and the origin of inversions associated with t haplotypes.mouse t haplotypes are variant forms of chromosome 17 that exist at high frequencies in worldwide populations of several species of house mouse. they are known to differ from wild-type chromosomes with respect to two relative inversions referred to as proximal and distal. an untested assumption has been that these two inversions originated in the chromosomal lineage leading to present-day t haplotypes. to investigate the evolutionary origins of these inversions and the possibility of additional ...19892717616
a repeated segment on the mouse y chromosome is composed of retroviral-related, y-enriched and y-specific sequences.we report the isolation and characterization of two recombinant clones containing dna derived from the y chromosome of the c57bl/10 inbred mouse strain. both clones were isolated from a lambda phage library derived from a partial ecori digest of c57bl/10 male dna using the murine retrovirus m720. characterization of these clones showed they were derived from a repeated segment present on the c57bl/10j y chromosome that contains sequences found elsewhere in the genome. in addition, one clone cont ...19892731728
genetic analysis of an avoidance-avoidance response in mus domesticus.latency to leave a lighted platform and enter a novel chamber in which other mice had received shock was measured in 2592 mice from eight inbred strains and all 56 f1 crosses. an analysis of the diallel matrix indicated a clear genetic architecture, although genetic effects accounted for only 10% of the total phenotypic variance. dominance favoring a slight delay in chamber entry suggested a selective advantage in spending a longer time on some elements in the behavioral chain involved in avoida ...19892757591
burrowing behavior in wild house mice: variation within and between populations.burrowing behavior was assessed on 120 lab-reared house mice (mus domesticus) derived from five geographic populations representing a north-south cline along the east coast of the united states. mice were placed individually into plexiglas containers filled with sand and peat moss, and their burrows were excavated 24 h later. seven measures were taken and reduced by principal-components analysis to two factors for further analysis. marked differences existed within, but not between populations, ...20082757595
the production of and sensitivity to cues that delay puberty and prolong subsequent oestrous cycles in female mice are influenced by prior intrauterine position.four experiments were conducted with cf-1 house mice (mus domesticus) to examine the relationship between a female's prior intrauterine position (2m = between 2 male fetuses, 1m = next to one male fetus, 0m = not next to a male fetus) and the timing of puberty and length of subsequent oestrous cycles under a variety of housing conditions. the results of exp. 1 confirmed that the presence of males was required for females to enter puberty and exhibit regular oestrous cycles, regardless of prior i ...19892760875
identification of two murine loci homologous to the v-cbl oncogene.the virally transduced oncogene v-cbl transforms fibroblasts in vitro and induces early b-cell-lineage lymphomas in vivo. a series of probes derived from a molecular clone of v-cbl were used to map related sequences in the mouse genome. analyses of chinese hamster x mouse somatic-cell hybrids showed that two related genes, cbl-1 and cbl-2, were located on chromosomes 6 and 9, respectively. restriction enzyme studies of dna from hybrid cells containing either chromosome 6 or 9 suggested that cbl- ...19892760978
models to assess the potential of capillaria hepatica to control population outbreaks of house mice.population outbreaks of house mice (mus domesticus) occur periodically in the wheatlands of southeastern australia. this paper uses mathematical models to assist in the evaluation of the potential of a nematode, capillaria hepatica, as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of these 'plagues'. c. hepatica is unique amongst helminths of mammals in that its eggs are released only upon the death of an infected host. the major goal of the modelling in this paper is to determine the impact ...19892771448
the alpha 2 chain of type 1 collagen does not map to mouse chromosome 16 but maps close to the met proto-oncogene on mouse chromosome 6.the gene locus for the alpha 2 chain of type 1 collagen (cola-2) was previously assigned to chromosome 16. here we demonstrate, utilising both somatic cell hybrid analysis and genetic linkage analysis, in an interspecific mus domesticus x mus spretus cross that cola-2 fails to cosegregate with mouse chromosome 16, but is linked to the met proto-oncogene on chromosome 6.19892776477
the y chromosome, social signals, and offense in mice.offense is one type of aggression in mice (mus musculus/mus domesticus). offense was measured in a panel of testers design for two congenic strains of mice. the two congenic strains were dba1bg and dba1. c57bl10-ybg. these differ in the y chromosome. offense was measured for the following dyadic pairs: group 1 (dba1 tested against a dba1 opponent); group 2 (dba1 tested against a dba1.c57bl10-y opponent); group 3 (dba1.c57bl10-y tested against a dba1.c57bl10-y opponent); and group 4 (dba1.c57bl10 ...19892803176
genetic influences on behavior of infant mus domesticus: a comparison of results from diallels derived from single and multiple populations.a complete diallel cross was generated from six jax inbred strains of mus domesticus from diverse origins and a second 6 x 6 diallel generated from strains derived from a single wild population. during their second day of life, infants from both diallels were tested for latency to orient toward and root beneath mothers and, in a separate test, for latency to attach to mother's nipple. rooting latency showed a significant additive maternal strain effect but little systematic effect of pup genotyp ...19892803182
distributions of two recently inserted long interspersed elements of the l1 repetitive family at the alb and beta h3 loci in wild mice populations.the presence of the l1 sequences, l1md4 next to the pseudogene beta h3 and i12 found in the twelfth intron of the albumin gene, in certain strains of laboratory mice but not of others has led to the suggestion that these sequences were recent insertions into the mus mus domesticus genome. to be sure that they are really recent insertions and not relics of an ancestral chromosome, we investigated the presence or absence of these sequences in populations of wild mice belonging to the semispecies m ...19872833674
evolution of the iga heavy chain gene in the genus examine questions of immunoglobulin gene evolution, the iga alpha heavy chain gene from mus pahari, an evolutionarily distant relative to mus musculus domesticus, was cloned and sequenced. the sequence, when compared to the iga gene of balb/c or human, demonstrated that the iga gene is evolving in a mosaic fashion with the hinge region accumulating mutations most rapidly and the third domain at a considerably lower frequency. in spite of this pronounced accumulation of mutations, the hinge re ...19882842228
possible derivation of the laboratory mouse genome from multiple wild mus species.laboratory strains of mice are thought to be derived from wild populations of mus domesticus. many instances of non-domesticus genetic information fixed in these strains have been described, however, and the amount of strain-to-strain genetic variation exceeds that found in wild domesticus populations. in order to estimate the extent of the non-domesticus contribution to laboratory mouse genomes, and to determine whether it could account for observed variation, we have used computer simulations ...19862879770
t-cell receptor vt beta genes in natural populations of mice.the composition of 15 vt beta gene subfamilies has been examined by southern hybridization among a broad spectrum of colony bred rat and mouse species extending phylogenetically from rattus to mus musculus domesticus. most mouse species contain a similar content of vt beta genes as determined by the number of hybridizing restriction fragment (rf) bands. furthermore, the extent of restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) appears to be limited. some vt beta gene families, however, are missi ...19882890577
myc-1 is centromeric to the linkage group ly-6--sis--gdc-1 on mouse chromosome 15.a survey of wild mouse dna with a c-myc exon 1 probe revealed a taq i restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) among mus species. as a result of this taq i rflp, a cross between mus musculus domesticus and balb/cj permitted the positioning of myc-1 on chromosome 15 with respect to ly-6, sis, and gdc-1. compilation of the recombination frequency generated from this cross with published cytogenetic and plasma-cytoma somatic cell hybrid data suggests the following chromosome 15 orientation: ...19882892786
molecular evidence for the rapid propagation of mouse t haplotypes from a single, recent, ancestral chromosome.mouse t haplotypes are variant forms of chromosome 17 that exist at high frequencies in worldwide populations of two species of commensal mice. to determine both the relationship of t haplotypes to each other and the species within which they exist, 35 representative t haplotypes were analyzed by means of 10 independent molecular probes, including five dna clones and five polypeptide spots identified by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. all of the tested haplotypes were found to shar ...19872897062
chromosomal mapping of the structural gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin.the gene coding for the mouse cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin has been mapped to chromosome 8. uvomorulin cdna clone f5h3 identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms in southern blots of genomic dna from mouse species mus musculus domesticus and mus spretus. by analyzing the segregation pattern of the gene in 75 offspring from an interspecific backcross a single genetic locus, um, was defined on chromosome 8. recombination frequency between um and the co-segregating loci serum esteras ...19882897121
genes that modify expression of major urinary proteins in mice.a survey of major urinary proteins (mups) from eight balb/c mouse substrains by isoelectric focusing identified a common pattern with about 10 protein bands in males. one substrain, balb/cjpt, differed in that it expressed two variant mup patterns, designated 4.1lo and null. to find the chromosomal location of the gene which determines the 4.1lo phenotype, balb/cjpt-mup-4.1lo was crossed with a wild-derived mus musculus domesticus inbred strain (cla) that expresses the common balb/c mup pattern. ...19882900461
extensive movement of lines one sequences in beta-globin loci of mus caroli and mus domesticus.lines one (l1) is a family of movable dna sequences found in mammals. to measure the rate of their movement, we have compared the positions of l1 elements within homologous genetic loci that are separated by known divergence times. two models that predict different outcomes of this analysis have been proposed for the behavior of l1 sequences. (i) previous theoretical studies of concerted evolution in l1 have indicated that the majority of the 100,000 extant l1 elements may have inserted as recen ...19882905421
autosomal genes involved in mammalian primary sex determination.beginning with findings made during the late 1950s and early 1960s, evidence continues to accumulate in support of the hypothesis that the mammalian y chromosome carries a gene that induces the undifferentiated foetal gonad in xy individuals to develop as a testis. recently a dna sequence has been isolated from the human y chromosome that appears to be the hypothesized y-linked testis-determining gene, and advances have also been made toward identifying genes that interact with the y-linked test ...19882907793
allelic variation linked to adenine phosphoribosyltransferase locus in mouse teratocarcinoma cell line and feral-derived mouse strains.southern blot analysis reveals two distinct adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) alleles in the p-19 mouse teratocarcinoma cell line. one allele is identical to that observed in common laboratory mouse strains (mus musculus domesticus). the restriction enzyme site variations between the two alleles occur in sequences located both upstream and downstream of the aprt gene, but not within it. although the p-19 cell line was established from a c3h strain embryo (mus musculus domesticus), a sixth ...19892928841
duplicated region of the mouse genome containing a cytoplasmic gamma-actin processed pseudogene associated with long interspersed repetitive elements.the structures of two cloned recombinants of bacteriophage lambda and mouse genomic dna (lambda ma14 and lambda ma36) were compared by electron microscopic analysis of various heteroduplex dnas, restriction endonuclease mapping and nucleotide sequence determination. each clone was shown to be derived from a distinct region of the mouse genome, but the two exhibited structural similarity over a region of at least 11,000 bases which included a cytoskeletal gamma-actin processed pseudogene of appro ...19882974886
investigation of genetic linkage between myosin and actin genes using an interspecific mouse back-cross.the introduction of cloned probes to follow the segregation of dna restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps) has led to a revival of mendelian genetics in attempts to map the human genome. in the mouse, however, it has often proved difficult to detect an rflp with a dna probe between different inbred strains of the laboratory mouse. to circumvent this problem, we have used two species, mus musculus domesticus and mus spretus which interact as sympatric species but can be interbred under ...19852983233
retroviral spongiform polioencephalomyelopathy.aging wild mice (mus musculus domesticus) from several different trapping areas in southern california are uniquely prone to a naturally occurring hind-leg paralytic disease and/or lymphoma. both conditions are caused by an indigenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (mulv). these mice have a lifelong persistent viremia with total immunologic tolerance to the virus. the characteristic pathologic features are centered on the anterior-lateral horns of the lumbosacral spinal cord and consist primari ...19852984760
most classical mus musculus domesticus laboratory mouse strains carry a mus musculus musculus y chromosome.restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflps) of maternally inherited mitochondrial dna have revealed that genetic exchanges can occur between populations, subspecies or even species. from the point of view of population genetics the mammalian y chromosome represents a genomic analogue of the mitochondrion; it is inherited only paternally and remains perpetually monosomic, showing little meiotic recombination with other chromosomes. using a y-specific genomic dna probe obtained from a flow-s ...19852986012
evolution of mouse major histocompatibility complex genes borne by t chromosomes.virtually all wild mouse populations carry t haplotypes that cause embryonic lethality or semilethality, distortion of segregation ratios, suppression of crossing-over, and male sterility. the t complex of genes is located on chromosome 17, closely linked to the h-2, the major histocompatibility complex of the mouse. the t haplotypes differ from each other not only in lethal genes they carry but also in their linked h-2 haplotypes. in this study, we compared the class ii h-2 genes present on 31 ...19852986138
analysis of wild-derived mice for fv-1 and fv-2 murine leukemia virus restriction loci: a novel wild mouse fv-1 allele responsible for lack of host range restriction.wild-derived mice originally obtained from asia, africa, north america, and europe were typed for in vitro sensitivity to ecotropic murine leukemia viruses and for susceptibility to friend virus-induced disease. cell cultures established from some wild mouse populations were generally less sensitive to exogenous virus than were cell cultures from laboratory mice. wild mice also differed from inbred strains in their in vitro sensitivity to the host range subgroups defined by restriction at the fv ...19852991555
transposition of a long member of the l1 major interspersed dna family into the mouse beta globin gene locus.a long member of the highly repeated long interspersed dna family l1md (for l1 in mus domesticus) has integrated by transposition into a target site which lies between the two adult beta globin genes of mouse. dna hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis show that this target site, which is part of the single copy dna flanking the globin genes, is interrupted by the l1 element in one chromosome but is uninterrupted in both allelic and ancestral chromosomes. other large dna rearrangements o ...19852991851
segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphism in an interspecies cross of laboratory and wild mice indicates tight linkage of the murine ifn-beta gene to the murine ifn-alpha genes.southern blot analysis with murine (mu) interferon (ifn)-alpha cdna of restricted genomic dna of three inbred strains of mice belonging to the species mus musculus domesticus (balb/c, c57bl/6, and dba/2) revealed only a limited degree of polymorphism. for example, with hindiii there were only two polymorphic bands out of 14 hybridizing fragments. with mu ifn-beta cdna there was no polymorphism at all between balb/c and c57bl/6 in dna restricted with seven different enzymes. in contrast, hindiii- ...19852993652
mys, a family of mammalian transposable elements isolated by phylogenetic has recently been demonstrated both emperically and mathematically that transposable elements may spread rapidly throughout a population once introduced even when they dramatically reduce the fitness of individuals that carry them. such events result in pronounced differences in the phylogenetic distribution of genetic elements capable of rapid genome invasion. using a simple and general procedure to screen the genome of the white-footed mouse peromyscus leucopus, we have isolated a family of ...19852993916
maternal inheritance of mitochondrial dna during backcrossing of two species of judged by restriction analysis, mitochondrial dna shows strictly maternal inheritance during 6-8 generations of backcrossing in both directions between mus domesticus and mus spretus. the average number of paternal mitochondrial genomes contributed to the next generation is estimated to be no more than one per thousand maternal mitochondrial genomes contributed. despite the estimated accumulation of over 2000 mutational differences between m. spretus and m. domesticus mtdnas since their diver ...20062997326
endogenous mmtv proviral genomes in feral mus musculus domesticus. 19863015501
chromosomal localization of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the mouse.the chromosomal localization of the genes encoding the four subunits of muscle nicotinic receptor was determined by analyzing restriction fragment length polymorphisms between two mouse species mus musculus domesticus (dba/2) and mus spretus (spe). analysis of the progeny of the interspecies mouse backcross (dba/2 x spe) x dba/2 showed that the alpha-subunit gene cosegregates with the alpha-cardiac actin gene on chromosome 17, that the beta-subunit gene is located on chromosome 11, and that the ...19863022377
lipoprotein-associated oncornavirus-inactivating factor in the genus mus: effects on murine leukemia viruses of laboratory and exotic mice.high titers of oncornavirus-inactivating factor (oif) were found previously in sera of laboratory mice. oif is highly active against mouse xenotropic and polytropic envelope recombinant murine leukemia viruses (mulvs) but not against ecotropic mulvs. of the 20 different mouse species or subspecies currently tested, that represent 4 subgenera, no oif was found in the 3 subgenera more distant to the laboratory mouse. in the subgenus mus, 7 of the 8 most distant species had no oif, whereas all the ...19873026614
molecular characterization of the akvr-1 restriction gene: a defective endogenous retrovirus-borne gene identical to fv-4r.a dominant restriction allele, akvr-1r, from california wild mice (mus musculus domesticus) confers resistance to exogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (mulv) infection. the presence of an ecotropic mulv envelope-related glycoprotein in uninfected virus-resistant cells suggests that viral interference is a possible mechanism for this resistance. we molecularly cloned the ecotropic mulv envelope-related sequence from the genomic dna of a wild mouse homozygous for the akvr-1r locus. the cloned ...19873027362
polymorphism and gene conversion in mouse alpha-globin haplotypes.we have cloned and characterized three distinct alpha-globin haplotypes obtained from inbred strains of the mouse, mus domesticus. we report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the six alpha-globin genes that the haplotypes contain. our analysis of these genes and those from one other previously described haplotype indicates that recurrent gene conversion events have played a major role in their history. the pattern of nucleotide substitutions suggests that conversions have occurred both wi ...19873032738
diverse wild mouse origins of xenotropic, mink cell focus-forming, and two types of ecotropic proviral genes.we analyzed wild mouse dnas for the number and type of proviral genes related to the env sequences of various murine leukemia viruses (mulvs). only mus species closely related to laboratory mice carried these retroviral sequences, and the different subclasses of viral env genes tended to be restricted to specific taxonomic groups. only mus musculus molossinus carried proviral genes which cross-reacted with the inbred mouse ecotropic mulv env gene. the ecotropic viral env sequence associated with ...19873041030
evolution of a v kappa gene examine the evolution of multigene families we have selected as an example an immunoglobulin light chain variable region subgroup (v kappa 24) which has been extensively characterized in inbred mice (mus musculus domesticus). homologous genes have been isolated and sequenced from mus pahari, a genetically and geographically isolated species believed to be the oldest living representative of the genus. southern blot analysis using probes corresponding to individual genes in this subgroup revea ...19863093373
[genetic analysis of the hybridization zone between two subspecies mus musculus domesticus and mus musculus musculus in bulgaria].the hybrid zone between the two subspecies of mice mus musculus domesticus and mus musculus musculus, which has been studied extensively in denmark, crosses europe to the black sea through the alps and the balkans. two hundred and seventy-nine animals were captured in 22 localities along a transect across the balkans. the animals were characterized for seven diagnostic nuclear loci by protein electrophoresis and by restriction pattern analysis of their mitochondrial dna. the nuclear data show a ...19883169546
acceleration and delay of sexual maturation in female house mice (mus domesticus) by urinary chemosignals: mixing urine sources in unequal proportions.urine from male mice, from estrous female mice, and from pregnant or lactating female mice accelerate first vaginal estrus in females, whereas urine from grouped female mice delays first estrus. nine experiments were used to test the effects of treatment of young female mice with urinary chemosignals that influence the onset of first estrus using unequal proportions of urine from the different sources. at ratios of 10-20 parts acceleratory chemosignal to 1 part delay chemosignal the acceleratory ...19883180729
different patterns of biting attack employed by lactating female mice (mus domesticus) in encounters with male and female conspecific intruders.attacks by resident lactating female mice were examined in a variety of situations. relatively few attack bites to vulnerable body regions were seen when pairs of unfamiliar lactating females fought, establishing social status prior to communal nesting. sexually naive male and female intruders were equally prone to attack by lactating females, but patterns of bite attack generated by them were very different; males received the more damaging attacks. more signs of "fear" were seen in the lactati ...19883180736
a threshold model for vocalization to handling in mus domesticus. 19883190641
localization of the human x-linked gene for chronic granulomatous disease to the mouse x chromosome: implications for x-chromosome evolution.the gene encoded at the human x-linked chronic granulomatous disease locus (cytochrome b245 beta subunit) has been mapped to the mouse x chromosome using an interspecific mus domesticus x m. spretus cross. the localization of this gene provides detailed information on one of the proposed ancestral breakpoints that account for the divergent evolution of the mouse and human x chromosomes.19883197451
fertility in intersubspecific hybrids of laboratory mice (mus musculus domesticus) and molossinus mice (m. m. molossinus).we studied the reproductive performance of f1 and f2 hybrids of laboratory mice (c57bl/6, b6 and balb/c) and molossinus mice (mom and mol-a). the f1 x f1 crosses were fully fertile. in the f2 x f2 crosses, the copulation rate was slightly lower and the pregnancy rate was markedly depressed: only 5 out of 18 copulated females (27.8%) became pregnant in the f2 hybrids derived from the reciprocal crosses of b6 x mom, and in the f2 hybrids from balb/c x mol-a crosses, the pregnancy rate was 51.4% (1 ...19883240777
tissue- and species-specific regulation of murine alpha 1-antitrypsin gene transcription.previous studies from our laboratories have shown that the tissue specificity of alpha 1-antitrypsin (at) expression differs among closely related mouse species. in laboratory mice (mus domesticus), at mrna is found almost exclusively in the liver. in the wild-derived species mus caroli, the mrna is expressed not only in the liver but also in the kidney, where it is regulated by androgens during post-natal development. we presently show that the tissue specificity, the species specificity, and t ...19883262614
microdissection and microcloning from the proximal region of mouse chromosome 7: isolation of clones genetically linked to the pudgy locus.microdissection and microcloning have been utilized in order to create a bank of clones from the proximal region of mouse chromosome 7. several important loci map to this area, including the albino locus (c), pink-eye dilution (p), and the developmental mutant, pudgy (pu). by use of interspecific crosses between mus musculus domesticus and mus spretus, we have generated backcross progeny segregating for the mutations chinchilla (cch) and pink-eye dilution (p). exploiting the evolutionary diverge ...19873319884
a unique alpha chain in hemoglobin of "skive" danish mus musculus.the primary structures of the alpha chains in hemoglobins from three stocks of mice with the hbaw2, hbaw3, and hbaw4 haplotypes were determined to establish whether the tentative alpha-chain assignments based on the results of isoelectric focusing patterns were correct. these hba haplotypes were identified in laboratory descendants of feral mice captured in different parts of the world. hemoglobin from "centreville", maryland, mus musculus domesticus (hbaw2) contains equal amounts of alpha chain ...19883377753
tracing the evolution of h-2 d region genes using sequences associated with a repetitive element.the class i genes in the murine mhc are genetically divided into the k, d, qa, and t1a region subfamilies. these genes presumably arose by duplication from a common class i ancestor. oligonucleotide probes specific for sequences associated with a moderately repetitive b2 sine element, which is inserted into the 3' untranslated region of the h-2d and h-2l genes, were used to examine the evolutionary relationship between these classically defined d region genes (h-2d and h-2l) and the other member ...19883379308
pairing alters the effect of progesterone on nesting in female c57bl/10sn mice.progesterone treatments have been shown to increase nesting levels of isolated female mice. here we compared the effect of exogenous progesterone on the nesting behavior of c57bl/10sn female mus domesticus housed individually to nesting levels of the same mice housed in pairs. progesterone increased nesting by isolated females but had no significant effect on the nesting scores of the same mice when they were grouped into pairs. the effect of exogenous progesterone on nesting levels in c57bl/10s ...20123406155
three new t-haplotypes of mus musculus reveal structural similarities to t-haplotypes of mus domesticus. 19883410314
effects of donor age on urinary chemosignals that influence the timing of first oestrus in young female house mice, mus domesticus.the effects of donor age on the effectiveness of puberty-influencing urinary chemosignals in wild house mice was tested in a series of 3 experiments. the chemosignal from male mice that accelerates puberty was present in the urine from about the time of puberty and throughout the normal lifespan, but declined about 1 year of age. oestrous females released a substance in their urine that accelerates puberty in young females. this substance remained effective from first oestrus until over 1 year o ...19883411573
[drainage of the thoracic duct in the house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) in starvation]. 19873445705
the molecular organization of the beta-globin complex of the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus.recombinant dna clones have been isolated that contain 80 kb of the beta-globin complex from the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus. comparisons of this complex with that from the laboratory mouse, mus domesticus (with an order 5'-hbby, hbb-bho, hbb-bhl, hbb-bh2, hbb-bh3, hbb-bl, hbb-b2 3') highlight organizational trends in the beta-globin complex since the two species diverged. unlike other mammals studied thus far, the deer mouse possesses three adult genes. partial sequence analysis indicate ...19873447002
p450 genes: evolution, regulation, and relationship to human cancer and pharmacogenetics.three pharmacogenetic differences (the acetylation, debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, and ah locus polymorphisms) appear to be associated with increased risk of environmentally caused human cancer. the latter two polymorphisms represent differences in p450 gene expression. it is predicted that molecular biological studies will soon provide a means (rflp patterns or expression vector assays) of predicting individual cancer risk related to these polymorphisms. at the present time, only the ah locus poly ...19863472766
developmental expression, cellular localization, and testosterone regulation of alpha 1-antitrypsin in mus caroli kidney.alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-protease inhibitor), an essential plasma protein, is synthesized predominantly in the liver of all mammals. we have previously shown that mus caroli, a southeast asian mouse species is exceptional in that it expresses abundantly alpha 1-antitrypsin mrna and polypeptide, in the kidney as well as the liver (berger, f.g., and baumann, h. (1985) j. biol. chem. 260, 1160-1165) providing a unique model for examination of the evolution of genetic determinants of tissue-spec ...19873497926
absence of y-chromosome introgression across the hybrid zone between mus musculus domesticus and mus musculus musculus. 19863569903
chromosomal polymorphism in the house mouse (mus domesticus) of greece and yugoslavia.a total of 88 wild mice from the dalmatian coast of yugoslavia (35 animals), and peloponnesus (30 animals) and thebes (23 animals) on mainland greece were karyotyped. in all but five animals robertsonian translations were found. mice from the dalmatian region were homozygous for translocations rb(5.15), rb(6.12), rb(8.17), rb(9.13), and rb(10.14); they were homo- or heterozygous for the translocation rb(1.11). some of them lacked the rb(1.11) translocation altogether so that the diploid numbers ...19873581997
morphological development of the mouse gonad in tda-1 xy sex reversal.tda-1 xy sex reversal occurs when the y chromosome of at least some populations of wild mus musculus domesticus is placed on the c57bl/6j genomic background. gross anatomical observations have previously revealed morphological similarities among fetal ovotestes of tda-1 and tas-inherited xy sex reversals and balb/cwt mosaic hermaphrodites. we studied the histology of tda-1 xy sex-reversed gonads, ranging in age from day 14 of gestation to adult. the obtained data revealed additional similarities ...19873596083
studies on the genetics of tda-1 xy sex reversal in the mouse.when the y chromosome of at least some populations of the house mouse of western europe and the mediterranean, mus musculus domesticus, is placed into the c57bl/6j (b6) inbred mouse genome, xy fetuses develop into hermaphrodites or females. it has been hypothesized that the testis-determining gene on the y chromosome of m. m. domesticus (tdydom) interacts improperly with a putative b6/j recessive, testis-determining, autosomal gene (tda-1). the present study extended these earlier findings. the ...19873596084
altered turnover of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase in erythroid cells of mice expressing hprt a and hprt b alleles.we have previously shown that mice expressing hprt a allele(s) have erythrocyte hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) levels that are approximately 25-fold (mus musculus castaneus) and 70-fold (mus spretus) higher than in mice that express the hprt b allele (mus musculus domesticus; c57bi/6j; c3h/heha), and that these differences in erythrocyte hprt levels are due to differences in the turnover rates of the hprt a and b proteins as reticulocytes mature to erythrocytes. we show here that: ...19873609725
pineal indole metabolism in the mouse.the activity of two pineal enzymes serotonin n-acetyltransferase (snat) and hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase, (hiomt) and the pineal content of serotonin (5-ht) and n-acetylserotonin (nas) were measured in several strains of mice (mus domesticus) in order to compare melatonin synthetic pathways among them. of the strains we examined, c57bl/6j, akr/j, balb/c, nzb/blnj and wild mice, only wild mice synthesize pineal melatonin. wild mice had high activity of both snat and hiomt; nzb had snat activ ...19873620949
differences in patterns of pup care in mus musculus domesticus. viii. effects of previous experience and parity in xlii inbred improvement in two variables of a retrieving test has been shown in eight inbred strains of mice following the second parturition. to test the possible contribution of presence at birth and/or caregiving to a cohabitation effect, retrieval behavior was measured in four groups of xlii inbred mice: one group of biparas, and three groups of primiparas; one without any previous maternal experience, one previously exposed to parturition and caregiving by an alien female, and one exposed to a femal ...19873628525
intermittent stimulation and acceleration of puberty by urinary chemosignals in female mice (mus musculus domesticus).a sequence of 17 experiments was used to test the effects of intermittent stimulation with urinary chemosignals on the age of puberty in young female mice. the three chemosignals tested all accelerate the age of sexual maturation: urine from adult males, urine from females in estrus, and urine from females that are pregnant or lactating. the basic technique involved presenting the prepubertal females with 'nestlets' on which the urine was placed. the 'nestlets' were placed in the cages of the te ...19873651554
polymorphism of unique noncoding dna sequences in wild and laboratory mice.two dna probes, d17tu1 and d17tu2, were isolated from a genomic dna library containing only two mouse chromosomes, one of which is chromosome 17, carrying the major histocompatibility complex (h-2), as well as the t complex genes. the d17tu1 probe was mapped to the centromeric region of chromosome 17 and the d17tu2 probe to the s region of the h-2 complex. neither of the two probes appeared to detect any genes, but both contained unique, nonrepetitive sequences. typing of dna obtained from a lar ...19873666438
influenza virus resistance of wild mice: wild-type and mutant mx alleles occur at comparable frequencies.the laboratory-reared progeny of wild mus musculus domesticus from several places in europe and from california were tested for resistance to experimental infection with influenza viruses and for the ability of their explanted macrophages to synthesize mx protein in response to type i interferon. about 75% of these mice were resistant to influenza viruses and were able to synthesize mx protein, as expected for mice carrying the influenza virus resistance allele mx+ in either homozygous or hetero ...19873681017
descriptive kinetics of spermatogenesis in four chromosomal species of the spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in israel.the descriptive kinetics of the spermatogenic process has been studied in the four chromosomal species of spalax ehrenbergi between november and march, the active period of reproduction. spermatid development can be subdivided into 16 steps in which the acrosome formation is clearly distinguishable and the golgi, cap and acrosomic phases are identifiable. the first 12 steps of spermiogenesis can be utilized for the definition of characteristic time-dependent relationships among different germ ce ...20133711819
70-khz vocalizations by male mice do not inhibit aggression in lactating mice.two experiments investigated the relationship between adult male 70-khz vocalizations and aggression by lactating female mice (mus domesticus). intact, vocalizing males, surgically devocalized males, and naturally nonvocalizing males were used to assess the effects of high frequency vocalizations on maternal aggression. the emission of high frequency vocalizations promoted aggressive behavior by the females. in both experiments, lactating females attacked the vocalizing males more rapidly and sh ...19863729895
gene-specific structures within class i genes from mus musculus domesticus are conserved in class i genes from mus pahari. 19863731845
tempo and mode of concerted evolution in the l1 repeat family of mice.a 300-bp dna sequence has been determined for 30 (10 from each of three species of mice) random isolates of a subset of the long interspersed repeat family l1. from these data we conclude that members of the l1 family are evolving in concert at the dna sequence level in mus domesticus, mus caroli, and mus platythrix. the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon may be either duplicative transposition, gene conversion, or a combination of the two. the amount of intraspecies divergence averages 4 ...19853870857
genetic control of melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland of the mouse.pineal melatonin may play an important role in regulation of vertebrate circadian rhythms and in human affective disorders. in some mammals, such as hamsters and sheep, melatonin is involved in photoperiodic time measurement and in control of reproduction. although wild mice (mus domesticus) and some wild-derived inbred strains of mice have melatonin in their pineal glands, several inbred strains of laboratory mice (for example, c57bl/6j) were found not to have detectable melatonin in their pine ...19863941912
frequency of polymorphisms for alleles encoding for liver proteins of domesticated mice.three different inbred strains of mice have been crossed with a lethal albino line (cch/c3h) and the liver polypeptides of the parents and offspring examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for evidences of protein polymorphisms, different alleles of which have gone to fixation in different strains. in the battery of polypeptides considered most favorable for scoring, 3.3 +/- 1.6 percent of the battery exhibited paired variants and 1.6 +/- 1.2 percent, unpaired. an adjustme ...19854056362
comparison of the mouse p(1)450 gene and flanking sequences from a mopc 41 plasmacytoma and normal liver.the murine p(1)450 gene is inducible by foreign chemicals such as dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; tcdd). the induction process appears to involve binding of tcdd to the ah receptor, interaction of the inducer-receptor complex with chromatin, and transcriptional activation of the p(1)450 gene. p(1)450 gene expression did not occur in the mopc 41 plasmacytoma transplanted intra-abdominally in the balb/c mouse. by southern blot analysis, the p(1)450 gene restriction patterns are simila ...19854075955
[experiments on the possibility of influencing radiation-induced cerebellar defects in domestic mice (mus musculus domesticus rutty 1772) by chemical radiation-protective agents]. 19665947722
hyperplastic and neoplastic changes in the mammary glands of feral mice free of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus provirus.laboratory colonies of feral mice (mus musculus domesticus) have been established with specific mouse mammary tumor virus (mumtv) genotype, including colonies lacking any proviral dna (ev-) or carrying only a single copy of mumtv dna (ev+). no evidence of a decline in reproductive capacity has been observed in the first 8 generations. both the ev- and ev+ mice showed normal mammary gland development and the development of hyperplastic lesions in the older females. the mice were very resistant to ...19846090752
beta-2 microglobulin types in mice of wild determine the distribution of beta-2 microglobulin (b2m) alleles in wild mice we have typed mice derived from natural populations in europe, north africa, south america, and east asia. mus musculus domesticus mice from germany, france, italy, and peru were all b2ma as were most from the united kingdom. m.m. musculus mice from denmark and czechoslovakia, several stocks of m.m. molossinus from japan, and m.m. castaneus from china, thailand, and the philippines were of b2mb type. this is consist ...19846096267
evolutionary relationships between the t and h-2 haplotypes in the house mouse.thirty-three mouse strains carrying t haplotypes were typed with a large battery of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific for class i and class ii antigens controlled by the h-2 complex. among these t haplotypes were representatives of the six complementation groups defined previously and of eight new groups defined by us recently. the typing resulted in the identification of the h-2 haplotypes of these strains and of their alleles at k, d, a, and e loci. nineteen of the 33 strains prove ...19846201441
akvr-1, a dominant murine leukemia virus restriction gene, is polymorphic in leukemia-prone wild mice.we describe a restriction gene (akvr-1, for akr virus restriction) that is polymorphic for two alleles, akvr-1r (restrictive) and akvr-1r (susceptible), in a feral population of mice (mus) musculus domesticus) at a squab farm near lake casitas (lc) in southern california. akvr-1k is a dominant allele that exhibits 100% penetrance in prevention of viremia of akr endogenous retrovirus and of virus-mediated lymphoma in lc (akvr-1rr) x akr f1 hybrids. the restriction phenotype segregates as a single ...19806244564
endogenous type c retroviral sequences of mice are organized in a small number of virus-like classes and have been acquired recently.we studied endogenous type c virus-related sequences of mice by annealing moloney murine leukemia virus dna to agarose gel blot transfers of uninfected mouse cell dna which had been cleaved with restriction enzymes. we found that many of the endogenous murine leukemia virus-related sequences in mice consist of two organizational classes that are integrated into many different loci. both of these classes resemble standard murine leukemia virus proviral dna in both size and sequence organization. ...19816270388
mitochondrial dna evolution in mice.this study extends knowledge of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) diversity in mice to include 208 animals belonging to eight species in the subgenus mus. highly purified mtdna from each has been subjected to high-resolution restriction mapping with respect to the known sequence of one mouse mtdna. variation attributed to base substitutions was encountered at about 200 of the 300 cleavage sites examined, and a length mutation was located in or near the displacement loop. the variability of different fun ...19836315529
polymorphism of c lambda genes and units of duplication in the genus mus.the number of ig c lambda genes in nine geographically widespread species from the four subgenera in the genus mus was estimated from the number of bam hi and eco ri restriction fragments that hybridize under high stringency conditions to cdna probes of balb/c inbred mouse origin (mus musculus domesticus). three closely related species in the subgenus mus, m. musculus, m. spretus, and m. spicelegus, show considerable variation in the number of c lambda genes. estimates of gene numbers in these a ...19846325541
h-y typing of karyotypically abnormal has been proposed that the male-specific transplantation antigen h-y is the trigger for testis formation (ohno's hypothesis). we have tested this hypothesis by examining the h-y status of a number of mice with abnormal or aberrant karyotypes relative to their gonad development. this analysis includes the discussion of published results of xx males carrying the sxr mutation and xo females, and the presentation of unpublished data from xy females carrying the ypos or yorb chromosome, xy females ...19836444167
esterase-13 of the rat (rattus norvegicus) and its homology with esterase-3 of the house mouse (mus musculus).a new allele of esterase-13 was detected in various laboratory inbred strains of rattus norvegicus and designated es-13c. the activity of es-13 towards a range of chromogenic substrates, inhibitor profile, isoelectric points and retardation coefficients on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were determined. the organ specific expression of es-13 alleles was investigated and it was shown that kidney homogenates contained a factor which modified the liver enzyme banding pattern in vitro. the featu ...19846478802
genetic polymorphism of the sixth component of complement (c6) in mice.immunofixation after isoelectric focusing revealed two forms of mouse c6, c6a and c6m, both of which consist of two major protein bands and one or more acidic minor bands. they were distinguishable by their different isoelectric point (pi) ranges: c6m has more acidic pi ranges (ph less than 6.2) than c6a (ph less than 6.3). c6a was found in common inbred mice of mus musculus domesticus, while c6m was found in inbred and wild mice of m. m. molossinus (japanese wild mice, an asian subspecies). bre ...19846510993
inherited sex reversal in mice: identification of a new primary sex-determining gene.we present evidence that the inbred mouse strain c57bl/6j (b6) differs from mus domesticus (dom) at a locus involved in gonad determination and development as well as at the testis-determining locus on the y chromosome (tdy). this newly identified gene is named testis-determining, autosomal-1 (tda-1). although the inheritance of tda-1 suggests it is located on an autosome, its location on the x and y chromosome in their pairing-recombination region is not excluded. when mice are homozygous for t ...19836663259
amplification of immunoglobulin lambda constant genes in populations of wild mice.the lambda immunoglobulin light chain (ig lambda) locus of balb/c inbred mice consists of two variable region gene segments (v lambda)1-3, and four constant region gene segments (c lambda)1,2,4,5. each c lambda gene segment is associated with a unique joining segment (j lambda)2,4-7, and they are organized in two paired units, j3c3-j1c1 and j2c2-j4c4 (refs 4, 8). using cdna probes specific for c lambda 1 and c lambda 2 (ref. 9) we have analysed the genomic organization of the c lambda gene segme ...19826817142
biochemical comparison of major histocompatibility complex molecules from different subspecies of mus musculus: evidence for trans-specific evolution of alleles.h-2 haplotypes were extracted from wild mice of three subspecies, mus musculus domesticus, m. m. molossinus, and m. m. castaneus, that are known to have been separated from one another for some 1 to 2 million years. serologically indistinguishable molecules controlled by some of the polymorphic h-2 loci were compared by tryptic peptide mapping, and the maps were found to be identical. in addition, a number of instances of biochemically indistinguishable h-2 molecules were found among wild mice a ...19826954545
differences in patterns of pup care in mus musculus domesticus l-comparisons between eleven inbred strains. 19827150186
effect of nembutal anaesthesia on male induction of estrus (the whitten effect) in the wild mouse mus musculus domesticus. 19807190548
artificial selection for short and long attack latencies in wild mus musculus domesticus.artificial selection for short and long attack latency levels in wild male mus musculus over 11 generations was successful for short latencies. the realized heritability of 0.30 is comparable to those found in other selection studies on aggression. in part selection may have been for faster onto-genetic development of short attack latencies. four attempts to select for longer attack latencies failed because the lines died out immediately or within two generations for unknown reasons. but neither ...19817196726
y chromosome short arm-sxr recombination in xsxr/y males causes deletion of rbm and xy female sex reversal.we earlier described three lines of sex-reversed xy female mice deleted for sequences believed close to the testes-determining gene (sry) on the y chromosome short arm (yp). the original sex-reversed females appeared among the offspring of xy males that carried the yp duplication sxr on their x chromosome. earlier cytogenetic observations had suggested that the deletions resulted from asymmetrical meiotic recombination between the y and the homologous sxr region, but no direct evidence for this ...19957479793
inactivation of e alpha and e beta expression in inbred and wild mice by multiple distinct mutations, some of which predate speciation within mus species.the h-2 mhc of mice encodes two functional class ii heterodimeric proteins: a alpha a beta (a) and e alpha e beta (e). while failure to express the a protein has not been reported, a significant proportion of of h-2 haplotypes in both inbred and wild mice do not express e proteins. we and others have previously characterized the molecular basis for defective e expression in haplotypes from mus domesticus (b, f, q, s, from inbred strains) and m. castaneus (w17, wild-derived) species, identifying ...19957495754
aminotransferase activities in mouse, mus domesticus, erythrocytes separated according to age.erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (ast) and alanine aminotransferase (alt) activities are often used as indices of vitamin b-6 nutritional status; however, results using a mixed population of erythrocytes can be quite variable. erythrocytes from two strains of mice (mus domesticus), a/ibg and dba/ibg, were separated according to age by centrifugation through discontinuous percoll density gradients into three fractions: top (least dense, youngest), middle and bottom (most dense, oldest). a s ...19947553357
origin of the north american house mouse.the house mouse, mus domesticus, was introduced to the american continent in the post-columbian era. we have used mouse chromosome 17 dna probes to trace the origin of the wild house mice on the east coast of the united states. of the four probes used, one in particular proved to be informative in this regard. the d17tu20 probe defines a polymorphism at a locus telomeric of the h-2 complex. taqi restriction enzyme digests of genomic dna blotted and hybridized with the d17tu20 probe revealed the ...19947589706
sound pressure transformation at the pinna of mus domesticus.sound pressure transformation properties at the pinna of laboratory mice mus domesticus were studied by measuring the sound pressure level of a continuous tone at a series of frequencies at the tympanic membrane as a function of the position of a sound source under free-field stimulation conditions. the spectral transformation, the interaural spectral difference, the isopressure contours and the interaural pressure difference contours were plotted. sound pressure transformation functions showed ...19957595162
spontaneous and ionizing radiation induced mutations involve large events when selecting for loss of an autosomal locus.the mouse p19h22 embryonal carcinoma cell line contains two distinct chromosome 8 homologs, one derived from mus musculus domesticus (m. domesticus) and the other derived from mus musculus musculus (m. musculus). it also contains a deletion for the m. musculus aprt allele, which is located on chromosome 8. in this study, cells with spontaneous or induced aprt deficiencies were isolated from p19h22 and examined to determine the nature of the mutational events that had occurred. ultraviolet radiat ...19957603506
characterization of polymorphism within the h2-m mhc class ii loci.the products of the class ii-like h2-m genes of the major histocompatibility complex are required for class ii antigen processing. we sequenced h2-ma and mb from several mouse strains to determine whether these genes are polymorphic like the classical h2-a and e genes, or are oligomorphic, like h2-o. both mb loci appear to be transcribed and are distinct from each other. mb1 and mb2 differ by about 11% at the nucleotide level and are most dissimilar in their second exons (corresponding to the be ...19957607704
a nuclear factor (nf2d9) that binds to the male-specific p450 (cyp 2d-9) gene in mouse liver.expression of the cyp 2d-9 (steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase) gene in mouse liver is male specific in such mus musculus domesticus strains as fvb/n, whereas the corresponding p450 genes in the wild mouse species mus spretus are not sex specific in their expression. these parental differences in the gene expressions were independently inherited in f1 offspring from crosses of fvb/n and m. spretus. a 5' flanking sequence (-110ctc ctccctattccgggcc-92) was defined as a regulatory element (named sdi-a1) ...19957623810
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