PMID(sorted descending)
habitat selection during ungulate dispersal and exploratory movement at broad and fine scale with implications for conservation management.dispersal has a critical influence on demography and gene flow and as such maintaining connectivity between populations is an essential element of modern conservation. advances in satellite radiotelemetry are providing new opportunities to document dispersal, which previously has been difficult to study. this type of data also can be used as an empirical basis for defining landscapes in terms of resistance surfaces, enabling habitat corridors to be identified. however, despite the scale-dependen ...201427148450
serological survey of coxiella burnetii at the wildlife-livestock interface in the eastern pyrenees, spain.coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease q fever. both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiology of c. burnetii infection. in order to investigate the significance of the ruminant host community in the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the eastern pyrenees, northeastern spain, in the epidemiology of q fever, a serological survey was performed on samples from 599 wild and 353 sympatric domestic ruminants.201627121001
the effect of oxidative stress on thawed bulk-sorted red deer sperm.the aims of this study were to assess the effects of the sex-sorting process on post-thaw sperm quality as well as on induced oxidative stress damage (h2 o2 0 mm = h000; h2 o2 50 mm = h050; h2 o2 100 mm = h100) and the protective action of reduced glutathione (gsh) and trolox, when comparing sorted (bss) and non-sorted (ns) red deer spermatozoa incubated at 37°c. sperm samples from three stags were collected by electroejaculation and frozen. immediately after thawing, sperm motility was higher ( ...201627103320
population dynamics of a natural red deer population over 200 years detected via substantial changes of genetic variation.most large mammals have constantly been exposed to anthropogenic influence over decades or even centuries. because of their long generation times and lack of sampling material, inferences of past population genetic dynamics, including anthropogenic impacts, have only relied on the analysis of the structure of extant populations. here, we investigate for the first time the change in the genetic constitution of a natural red deer population over two centuries, using up to 200-year-old antlers (30 ...201627096075
mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (cervus elaphus and sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.mercury (hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these hg containing biomolecules. however, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. new ana ...201627093497
morphological and molecular characterization of sarcocystis taeniata and sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. from the sika deer (cervus nippon) in lithuania.the diaphragm muscles of eight sika deer (cervus nippon) bred in lithuania were examined for sarcocystis cysts. two sarcocystis species, sarcocystis taeniata, which were previously reported in canadian moose (alces alces) and argentinean red deer (cervus elaphus), and sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. were described using light microscopy (lm), transmission electron microscopy (tem), 18s ribosomal dna (rdna), and subunit i of cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) sequences analysis. by lm, cysts of s. taeniata we ...201627086872
pestivirus in alpine wild ruminants and sympatric livestock from the cantabrian mountains, spain.bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and border disease virus (bdv) were investigated at the wildlife-livestock interface in the distribution area of chamois in the cantabrian mountains, north-western spain. from 2010 to 2014, sera from sympatric wild (n=167) and domestic (n=272) ruminants were analysed for pestivirus antibodies by celisa, virus neutralisation test (vnt) and for the presence of pestiviral rna using a reverse transcription (rt)-pcr. results showed a higher seroprevalence in cattle ...201627083871
wild boar (sus scrofa) - reservoir host of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and anaplasma phagocytophilum in central europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently cf foodborne infections. in this study serological and molecular detection of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum. blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from southern slovakia were examined for antibodies to t. gondii by indirect and to n. caninum by ...201627078648
technological analysis of the world's earliest shamanic costume: a multi-scalar, experimental study of a red deer headdress from the early holocene site of star carr, north yorkshire, uk.shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the early holocene site of star carr (c. 11 kya). more than 90% of the examples from prehistoric europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, ...201627073850
the bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (capreolus capreolus l.), red deer (cervus elaphus l.), and wild boar (sus scrofa l.) from poland.the aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from poland, with regard to the differences in tissue pb content between the species. the research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (capreolus capreolus), red deer (cervus elaphus), and wild boar (sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of poland. the concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emissio ...201627068893
colonization of the scottish islands via long-distance neolithic transport of red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. this relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. studying such translocations allows us to better u ...201627053752
detection of wide genetic diversity and several novel strains among non-avium nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from farmed and wild animals in hungary.besides mycobacterium avium numerous nontuberculous mycobacterium (ntm) species exist, which pose constant health risk to both humans and animals. the aim of our study was to identify non-avium ntm isolates from veterinary origin in hungary, and to detect the occurrence of rifampicin resistance among them.201627038193
oral administration of heat-inactivated mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. as the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated mycobacterium bovis. thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (tb) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). immunized hinds were ...201627032499
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes that are potentially virulent for human in wild ruminants and ixodes ricinus in central italy.human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide. as is the case for many tick-borne diseases, the epidemiological cycle is associated to the environmental conditions, including the presence of wild vertebrate reservoir hosts, vectors, climate and vegetation. in this study a total number of 87 spleen samples of wild ruminants carcasses from central italy, and 77 ixodes ricinus collected from the same dead animals were screened for anaplasma phagocytophilum by us ...201627020736
simulation of potential habitat overlap between red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in northeastern china.background. understanding species distribution, especially areas of overlapping habitat between sympatric species, is essential for informing conservation through natural habitat protection. new protection strategies should simultaneously consider conservation efforts for multiple species that exist within the same landscape, which requires studies that include habitat overlap analysis. methods. we estimated the potential habitat of cervids, which are typical ungulates in northern china, using t ...201627019775
antimicrobial resistance in faecal escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. detection of a multiresistant e. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.eighty-nine escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. an e. coli strain carrying blactx-m-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (intl1-dfra16-blapse-1-a ...201627012919
antibody response to epsilon toxin of clostridium perfringens in captive red deer (cervus elaphus) over a 13-month period.deer are sensitive to clostridial diseases, and vaccination with clostridial toxoids is the method of choice to prevent these infections in ruminants. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses in red deer (cervus elaphus) over a 13-mo period after vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine, containing an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. antibody production to the clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin component of the vaccine was measured using an indirect enzy ...201627010263
identification of host blood-meal sources and borrelia in field-collected ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western poland.forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of ixodes ricinus and borrelia species in the forest biotope. to identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for i. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 i. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western poland were analysed. nested pcr was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12s rrna gene for the identification of the hosts species. t ...201627007518
linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape.animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. we hypothesized that strength of selection by north american elk (cervus elaphus) for areas that reduced costs of thermoregulation and activity, and increased access to high-qualit ...201627003702
inbreeding depression across the lifespan in a wild mammal population.inbreeding depression is of major concern for the conservation of threatened species, and inbreeding avoidance is thought to be a key driver in the evolution of mating systems. however, the estimation of individual inbreeding coefficients in natural populations has been challenging, and, consequently, the full effect of inbreeding on fitness remains unclear. genomic inbreeding coefficients may resolve the long-standing paucity of data on inbreeding depression in adult traits and total fitness. h ...201626979959
effect of different ecosystems and management practices on toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in wild ruminants in spain.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. however, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. we studied the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four nat ...201626967135
testosterone and cortisol concentrations vary with reproductive status in wild female red deer.although hormones are key regulators of many fitness and life history traits, the causes of individual level variation in hormones, particularly in wild systems, remain understudied. whilst we know that androgen and glucocorticoid levels vary within and among individuals in mammalian populations, how this relates to key reproductive processes such as gestation and lactation, and their effects on a female's measurable hormone levels are poorly understood in wild systems. using fecal samples colle ...201626941946
genetic structure and effective population sizes in european red deer (cervus elaphus) at a continental scale: insights from microsatellite dna.we analyzed more than 600 red deer (cervus elaphus) from large parts of its european distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. populations were clearly differentiated (overall f st = 0.166, jost's d est = 0.385), and the baps clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. when forced into only 3 genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as pr ...201626912909
a non-destructive method for distinguishing reindeer antler (rangifer tarandus) from red deer antler (cervus elaphus) using x-ray micro-tomography coupled with svm classifiers.over the last decade, biomedical 3d-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. while initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. the distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. in addit ...201626901355
tall grass invasion after grassland abandonment influences the availability of palatable plants for wild herbivores: insight into the conservation of the apennine chamois rupicapra pyrenaica ornata.invasion of the tall grass brachypodium genuense was observed in an area of the central apennines (italy) where the population size of apennine chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) was in strong decline. since this dominant tall grass threatens biodiversity and forage quality, our hypothesis was that b. genuense abundance influenced that of palatable species for the chamois, depending on their functional traits and distribution patterns. our sampling design used plots of 10 × 10 m and 1 × 1 m to ...201626899738
expression of regulatory neuropeptides in the hypothalamus of red deer (cervus elaphus) reveals anomalous relationships in the seasonal control of appetite and deer are seasonal with respect to reproduction and food intake, so we tested the hypothesis that their brains would show seasonal changes in numbers of cells containing hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate these functions. we examined the brains of male and female deer in non-breeding and breeding seasons to quantify the production of kisspeptin, gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (gnih), neuropeptide y (npy) and γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-msh - an index of pro-opiomelanocortin pro ...201626899722
seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in colorado and wyoming and has since been detected across north america and the republic of korea. the expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, w ...201626888899
elemental composition of game meat from austria.concentrations of 26 elements (b, na, mg, p, s, k, ca, v, cr, mn, fe, co, ni, cu, zn, as, se, rb, sr, mo, cd, sb, ba, hg, pb, u) in wild game meat from austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. all investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (sus scrofa ...201626886253
absence of circulation of pestivirus between wild and domestic ruminants in southern spain.ruminant pestiviruses (family flaviviridae) affect both wild and domestic ruminants worldwide, causing reproductive disorders and severe economic losses. wild (n=1442) and domestic (n=373) ruminants from southern spain were tested for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses. seropositivity was detected by both elisa and virus neutralisation test in 1/892 (0.1 per cent) red deer, 29/125 (23.2 per cent) cattle and 17/157 (10.8 per cent) sheep. pestivirus-specific antibodies to bovine viral diar ...201626864026
characteristics of antioxidant systems of yellow fraction of red deer's (cervus elaphus l.) semen during the rutting period.the objective of this study was to make the preliminary characterization of the antioxidant defence systems of the yellow fraction (yf) of red deer's (cervus elaphus l.) semen during the rutting period. the semen was collected using artificial vagina (av). the studies included spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx). we also analysed the contents of low-molecular antioxidants such as l- ...201626854018
iberian red deer: paraphyletic nature at mtdna but nuclear markers support its genetic deer populations in the iberian glacial refugium were the main source for postglacial recolonization and subspecific radiation in north-western europe. however, the phylogenetic history of iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) and its relationships with northern european populations remain uncertain. here, we study dna sequences at the mitochondrial control region along with str markers for over 680 specimens from all the main red deer populations in spain and other west european area ...201626843924
[identification of antler powder components based on dna barcoding technology].in order to authenticate the components of antler powder in the market, dna barcoding technology coupled with cloning method were used. cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) sequences were obtained according to the dna barcoding standard operation procedure (sop). for antler powder with possible mixed components, the cloning method was used to get each coi sequence. 65 coi sequences were successfully obtained from commercial antler powders via sequencing pcr products. the results indicates that o ...201526837186
dioxins and pcbs in game animals: interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-pcb) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-pcb) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. dioxins and pcbs enter the animal organisms through foraging. due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. the ...201726826359
heterogeneity in primary productivity influences competitive interactions between red deer and alpine chamois.habitat heterogeneity can promote coexistence between herbivores of different body size limited to different extents by resource quantity and quality. red deer (cervus elaphus) are known as superior competitors to smaller species with similar diets. we compared competitive interactions and habitat use between red deer and alpine chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) in two adjacent valleys in a strictly protected area in the central alps. red deer density was higher in the valley with higher primary pro ...201626824867
foraging ecology of three sympatric ungulate species - behavioural and resource maps indicate differences between chamois, ibex and red deer.the spatial distribution of forage resources is a major driver of animal movement patterns. understanding where animals forage is important for the conservation of multi-species communities, since interspecific competition can emerge if different species use the same depletable resources. however, determining forage resources in a spatially continuous fashion in alpine grasslands at high spatial resolution was challenging up to now, because terrain heterogeneity causes vegetation characteristics ...201526807258
behavioural flexibility in migratory behaviour in a long-lived large herbivore.migratory animals are predicted to enhance lifetime fitness by obtaining higher quality forage and/or reducing predation risk compared to non-migratory conspecifics. despite evidence for behavioural flexibility in other taxa, previous research on large mammals has often assumed that migratory behaviour is a fixed behavioural trait. migratory behaviour may be plastic for many species, although few studies have tested for individual-level flexibility using long-term monitoring of marked individual ...201626790111
sarcocystosis in wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in patagonia, argentina.sarcocystis spp. are protozoan parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle, which produce cysts in the muscle of herbivorous animals. in these animal species, sarcocystosis is frequently asymptomatic, although it may occur with high prevalence. seven sarcocystis spp. have been described in red deer (cervus elephus). the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcocystosis, and to perform the morphological and molecular characterization of sarcocystis spp. found in wild red deer of the ...201626779923
influence of evisceration time and carcass ageing conditions on wild venison quality. preliminary study.the influence of common carcass preparation practices of wild red deer on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of venison was assessed by varying evisceration time and ageing method. deer were head shot; half were eviscerated 30 min and the other half 4 h post mortem. in both groups (n=18), 6 carcasses were skinned immediately after evisceration and aged for 24 h; 6 were aged unskinned for 24 h and 6 were aged unskinned for 72 h at 10°c. ageing method had a significant effect ...201626773970
evidence of shared bovine viral diarrhea infections between red deer and extensively raised cattle in south-central spain.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a pestivirus that affects cattle production worldwide and that can infect other ungulates such as cervids and even wild boar (sus scrofa). it is believed that domestic livestock can become infected through contact with wild animals, though it is known that infection can spread among wild animals in the absence of contact with livestock. little is known about the sharing of bvdv infection between wild and domestic animals in the same habitat, which is importa ...201626767363
sarcocystosis in cervus elaphus: comparison of diagnostic deer (cervus elaphus) from a national wildlife reserve near toledo in central spain were surveyed for sarcocystis infection. a total of 61 deer were examined. tissue compression and histology were used to examine samples from diaphragm and heart from each animal included in the study, and results from the two techniques and the two tissues were compared to determine the tissue and technique that provide the most accurate measure of prevalence and intensity. prevalence and intensity were then ...201526767167
the odocoileus virginianus femur: mechanical behavior and morphology.biomechanical research relies heavily on laboratory evaluation and testing with osseous animal structures. while many femora models are currently in use, including those of the european red deer (cervus elaphus), the odocoileus virginianus femur remains undocumented, despite its regional abundance in north america. the objective of this study was to compare biomechanical and morphological properties of the odocoileus virginianus femur with those of the human and commonly used animal models. sixt ...201626757205
post-entry blockade of small ruminant lentiviruses by wild ruminants.small ruminant lentivirus (srlv) infection causes losses in the small ruminant industry due to reduced animal production and increased replacement rates. infection of wild ruminants in close contact with infected domestic animals has been proposed to play a role in srlv epidemiology, but studies are limited and mostly involve hybrids between wild and domestic animals. in this study, srlv seropositive red deer, roe deer and mouflon were detected through modified elisa tests, but virus was not suc ...201626738942
serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in xinjiang, china.we conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (aiv) in gazella subgutturosa, canis lupus, capreolus pygargus, sus scrofa, cervus elaphus, capra ibex, ovis ammon, bos grunniens and pseudois nayaur in xinjiang, china. two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against h5, h7 and h9 aivs using hemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests and a pan-influenza competitive elisa. across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored ...201626733295
long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (cervus elaphus) in a meso-mediterranean deer (cervus elaphus l.) are very valuable in trophy-hunting but also contribute to the preservation of natural areas. they are affected by many parasites and pathogens, including hard ticks that are not only important parasites themselves but can also act as vectors and/or reservoirs of pathogens. tick phenology is complex insofar as population dynamics depend on environmental conditions, vegetation, host availability and their own intrinsic characteristic. ticks were collected monthly from ...201626715543
long-term dynamics of coxiella burnetii in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).several aspects of the dynamics of coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic q fever are unknown. we designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to c. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of q fever-specific control approaches. other relevant aspects of the dynamics of c. burnetii - the effect of herd immune status, age, season, and early infection on exposure, t ...201526697437
mhc, parasites and antler development in red deer: no support for the hamilton & zuk hypothesis.the hamilton-zuk hypothesis proposes that the genetic benefits of preferences for elaborated secondary sexual traits have their origins in the arms race between hosts and parasites, which maintains genetic variance in parasite resistance. infection, in turn, can be reflected in the expression of costly sexual ornaments. however, the link between immune genes, infection and the expression of secondary sexual traits has rarely been investigated. here, we explored whether the presence and identity ...201626687843
exploring the potential of laser ablation carbon isotope analysis for examining ecology during the ontogeny of middle pleistocene hominins from sima de los huesos (northern spain).laser ablation of tooth enamel was used to analyze stable carbon isotope compositions of teeth of hominins, red deer, and bears from middle pleistocene sites in the sierra de atapuerca in northern spain, to investigate the possibility that this technique could be used as an additional tool to identify periods of physiological change that are not detectable as changes in tooth morphology. most of the specimens were found to have minimal intra-tooth variation in carbon isotopes (< 2.3‰), suggestin ...201526673156
intramale variation in sperm size: functional significance in a polygynous mammal.studies concerning the relationships between sperm size and velocity at the intraspecific level are quite limited and often yielded contradictory results across the animal kingdom. intramale variation in sperm size may represent a meaningful factor to predict sperm velocity, due to its relationship with the level of sperm competition among related taxa. because sperm phenotype is under post-copulatory sexual selection, we hypothesized that a reduced intramale variation in sperm size is associate ...201526664807
mycobacterium spp. in wild game in slovenia.wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis. slovenia is officially free of btb, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. in this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in slovenia belonging to the families cervidae, suidae, canidae, mustelida ...201626639827
detection and characterisation of yersinia enterocolitica strains in cold-stored carcasses of large game animals in poland.yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen. the aim of the present study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of y.enterocolitica strains isolated from three different anatomical regions of cold-stored carcasses of large game animals intended for human consumption. y.enterocolitica strains were found in 12/20 (60%) of the roe deer carcasses examined, 7/16 (43.8%) of red deer carcasses and 11/20 (55%) of wild boar carcasses. of the 52 y.enterocolitica strains, 19 ...201626626093
solid sage sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (cervus elaphus) challenged with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.this study compared in vivo lymph node gene expression levels between six young red deer that were either relatively resistant (r) or susceptible (s) to paratuberculosis following experimental challenge with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. intestinal lymph nodes were biopsied at 4, 12 and 50 weeks post challenge (pc) and parallel changes in histopathology, immunology and bacterial load monitored. solid sage (serial analysis of gene expression) next generation sequencing of biopsied ...201626620077
circannual changes in serum concentrations of thyroxine, calcitonin and parathormone in immature and mature red deer females (cervus elaphus).the aim of this study was to determine circannual changes in the serum concentrations of thyroxine, calcitonin and parathormone in mature and immature red deer females. blood samples from 8 hinds were collected monthly for 26 months. secretions of thyroxine and calcitonin showed circannual rhythms with significantly higher levels in the immature hinds compared to the mature animals (p<0.05). for thyroxine, the concentration was higher in the winter/spring period than in summer/autumn (p<0.05), w ...201526618595
the larger mammal fauna from the lower paleolithic schöningen spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence.the locality schöningen (germany) is an important source of knowledge about lower paleolithic hominin subsistence. the locality includes a series of sites dated to the late middle pleistocene with a holsteinian (mis 11) and reinsdorf interglacial (mis 9) age. one of the youngest sites is schöningen 13 ii-4, the spear horizon site also known as the horse butchery site. the organic remains excavated here are exceptionally well-preserved as they were embedded in anaerobic, waterlogged sediments in ...201526607346
anaplasmataceae in wild ungulates and carnivores in northern spain.wild vertebrates are essential hosts for tick-borne diseases but data on the prevalence and diversity of anaplasma spp. in wildlife are scarce. in this study, we used real-time pcr to investigate the distribution of anaplasma species in spleen samples collected from 625 wild animals (137 cervids, 227 wild boar, and 261 carnivores) in two regions in northern spain. a first generic real-time pcr assay was used to screen for the presence of anaplasma spp. followed by a second species-specific multi ...201626596894
state-space modelling of the drivers of movement behaviour in sympatric species.understanding animal movement behaviour is key to furthering our knowledge on intra- and inter-specific competition, group cohesion, energy expenditure, habitat use, the spread of zoonotic diseases or species management. we used a radial basis function surface approximation subject to minimum description length constraint to uncover the state-space dynamical systems from time series data. this approximation allowed us to infer structure from a mathematical model of the movement behaviour of shee ...201526580801
rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 - a novel deltapapillomavirus inducing endemic papillomatosis in the endangered visayan spotted deer.we describe a novel papillomavirus - rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 (ralpv1) - which causes endemic fibropapillomatosis in the european conservation breeding population of the highly endangered visayan spotted deer (rusa alfredi). degenerated papillomavirus-specific primers were used to amplify and sequence parts of the viral dna. subsequently, the complete genomic dna was cloned and the sequence was determined. the ralpv1 genome has a length of 8029 bp, encodes the early proteins e6, e7, e1, e2 ...201626555294
production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (cervus elaphus).prostaglandins (pgs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (ptgs2) and specific terminal pg synthases such as pges and pgfs. the role of pgs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. the aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and sec ...201626553568
papillomavirus in healthy skin and mucosa of wild ruminants in the italian alps.we investigated healthy skin and mucosal specimens of wild ruminants in the italian alps. we identified bovine papillomavirus (bpv)-2 dna in the healthy skin of wild ruminants and documented coinfection of bpv-1 and cervus elaphus papillomavirus (cepv)-1 in a healthy red deer (cervus elaphus). we also demonstrated cross-infections of bpvs of the genus xipapillomavirus, both as single virus infection and also in association with deltapapillomavirus types 1 and 2, confirming that host tropism of p ...201626540178
serologic and molecular survey of hepatitis e virus in german deer populations.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a human pathogen that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes a usually self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. the virus is endemic in developing countries of africa, asia, and latin america and is responsible for sporadic cases in industrialized countries. in western europe, an increasing number of autochthonous cases have been associated with zoonotic transmissions of hev from domestic and wild animals. in germany, animal reservoirs for hev have bee ...201626528571
factors that influence mycobacterium bovis infection in red deer and wild boar in an epidemiological risk area for tuberculosis of game species in portugal.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a worldwide zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals. eradication has proved elusive in those countries with intensive national programmes but with ongoing transmission between wildlife and cattle. in portugal, a high-risk area for btb was defined and specific measures implemented to assess and minimize the risk from wildlife. data from the 2011 to 2014 hunting seasons for red deer (cervus elaphus) and wild boar (sus scrofa) were analysed with bovine demographic ...201526519121
the region of difference four is a robust genetic marker for subtyping mycobacterium caprae isolates and is linked to spatial distribution of three subtypes.alpine mycobacterium caprae isolates found in cattle and red deer display at least three genetic variations in the region of difference four (rd4) that can be used for further differentiation of the isolates into the subtypes 'allgäu', 'karwendel' and 'lechtal'. each genomic subtype is thereby characterized by a specific nucleotide deletion pattern in the 12.7-kb rd4 region. even though m. caprae infections are frequently documented in cattle and red deer, little is known about the transmission ...201526518998
belgian wildlife as potential zoonotic reservoir of hepatitis e virus.hepatitis e is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals but may become chronic in immunocompromised patients. it is caused by the hepatitis e virus (hev) and can have a zoonotic origin, particularly in high-income countries. in this study, 383 sera from wild boars were selected for serology; for virological analyses, 69 sera and 61 livers from young wild boars were used. a total of 189 and 235 sera of, respectively, red deer and roe deer were collected for serological analysis. for vi ...201526518619
patterns of mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex excretion and characterization of super-shedders in naturally-infected wild boar and red deer.wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) are the main maintenance hosts for bovine tuberculosis (btb) in continental europe. understanding mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc) excretion routes is crucial to define strategies to control btb in free-ranging populations, nevertheless available information is scarce. aiming at filling this gap, four different mtc excretion routes (oronasal, bronchial-alveolar, fecal and urinary) were investigated by molecular methods in naturally inf ...201526518244
correction: toxoplasma gondii infection in alpine red deer (cervus elaphus): its spread and effects on fertility. 201526517869
sensitivity of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in wildlife in france: a scenario tree approach.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with an impact on animal and human health, and economic implications. infected wild animals have been detected in some european countries, and btb reservoirs in wildlife have been identified, potentially hindering the eradication of btb from cattle populations. however, the surveillance of btb in wildlife involves several practical difficulties and is not currently covered by eu legislation. we report here the first assessment ...201526517372
[morphometry in development of red deer's adrenal glands].histological structures and morphometric and some histochemical indicators of elk's adrenal gland development as subspecies of red deer in prenatal and postnatal ontogenies stages was studied. it was found that the growth of the fetus adrenal glands weight and the thickness of the structures adrenal glands fragments continue throughout the prenatal period of ontogeny. the cells of androgenic zone with single wandering sympathogoniae are differentiated in the adrenal glands in the second month of ...201526480487
reduced glutathione addition improves both the kinematics and physiological quality of post-thawed red deer sperm.the potential protective effect of reduced glutathione (gsh) and trolox (trx), an analogue of vitamin e, supplementation during in vitro culture (2h, 39°c) of electroejaculated frozen/thawed red deer sperm was investigated. cryopreserved sperm were thawed and incubated with no additive (control) and 1mm or 5mm of each antioxidant to find out whether these supplementations can maintain the sperm quality, considering the use of thawed samples for in vitro techniques such as in vitro fertilisation ...201526474690
parasite load and seasonal migration in red deer.northern deer populations are typically partially migratory, but the relationship between migratory movements and parasites has received little attention. migration often involves movement from a low-elevation winter range towards a summer range at higher elevation. in europe these movements may also involve a gradient in abundance of ixodes ricinus ticks, but whether tick loads on deer differ depending on migration tactic has not been quantified. based on the examination of ears from 49 red dee ...201626450650
characterization, thermochemical conversion studies, and heating value modeling of municipal solid waste.a study was carried out to examine the characteristics of municipal solid waste (msw) from the city of red deer, alberta, canada. experiments were performed for determining the moisture content, proximate and ultimate compositions, heating value of fourteen wastes in different categories. their thermal weight loss behaviors under pyrolysis/torrefaction conditions were also investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (tga). an empirical model was developed for the high heating value (hhv) estima ...201626445363
beyond testis size: links between spermatogenesis and sperm traits in a seasonal breeding mammal.spermatogenesis is a costly process that is expected to be under selection to maximise sperm quantity and quality. testis size is often regarded as a proxy measure of sperm investment, implicitly overlooking the quantitative assessment of spermatogenesis. an enhanced understanding of testicular function, beyond testis size, may reveal further sexual traits involved in sperm quantity and quality. here, we first estimated the inter-male variation in testicular function and sperm traits in red deer ...201526430740
how many routes lead to migration? comparison of methods to assess and characterize migratory movements.decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. the main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterizing migration at the individual and population level on the basis of an ...201626412564
cohort variation in male survival and lifetime breeding success in red deer.we investigated cohort differences in the lifetime breeding success and survival of male red deer cervus elaphus l. in an increasing population on the isle of rum, scotland. there were significant differences in survival through different stages of the life span between 15 cohorts of males, ranging between: 0.26-1.00, calf survival through first winter; 0.56-1.00, yearling survival; 0.44-0.94, adult survival. this variation in survival was related to environmental conditions in the cohorts' year ...199826412376
toxoplasma gondii infection in alpine red deer (cervus elaphus): its spread and effects on fertility [corrected].in contrast to the depth of knowledge on the pathological effects of parasitism in domestic animals, the impact of the vast majority of parasites on wildlife hosts is poorly understood and, besides, information from domestics is rarely usable to disclose the parasites' impact on free-ranging populations' dynamics. here we use toxoplasmosis as a study model since, until now, the infection process and the protozoan's effects in natural conditions has received little attention. we analysed 81 sera ...201526405785
micness: genotyping microsatellite loci from a collection of (ngs) reads.microsatellites are widely used in population genetics to uncover recent evolutionary events. they are typically genotyped using capillary sequencer, which capacity is usually limited to 9, at most 12 loci for each run, and which analysis is a tedious task that is performed by hand. with the rise of next-generation sequencing (ngs), a much larger number of loci and individuals are available from sequencing: for example, on a single run of a gs junior, 28 loci from 96 individuals are sequenced wi ...201626400716
combining small-vertebrate, marine and stable-isotope data to reconstruct past environments.three very different records are combined here to reconstruct the evolution of environments in the cantabrian region during the upper pleistocene, covering ~35.000 years. two of these records come from antoliñako koba (bizkaia, spain), an exceptional prehistoric deposit comprising 9 chrono-cultural units (aurignacian to epipaleolithic). the palaeoecological signal of small-vertebrate communities and red deer stable-isotope data (δ(13)c and δ(15)n) from this mainland site are contrasted to marine ...201526391668
patterns of lynx predation at the interface between protected areas and multi-use landscapes in central central europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. in the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. we investigated the predation patterns of eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) on roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in both protected areas an ...201526379142
lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern italy.the objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (cd), lead (pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (cervus elaphus) and wild boar (sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of cd, pb and organochlorine pesticides we ...201526365428
relationship between velvet antler ossification and pth and androgen serum levels in tarim red deer (cervus elaphus).ossification degree is one of the primary variables affecting the medicinal value of velvet antler. multiple factors regulate the calcification of velvet antler. we studied the relationship between the ossification of velvet antlers and the serum levels of parathyroid hormone (pth) and androgen (adg) in tarim red deer. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and atomic absorption spectrometry demonstrated that the changes in serum pth and adg levels nearly paralleled antler ossification durin ...201526351085
extension of occurrence area of the american fluke fascioloides magna in south-western poland.liver fluke fascioloides magna is a typical parasite of american cervids. the reason for f. magna to appear in poland territory was bringing the american wapiti deer to those forests around 1850. along with these deer the aforementioned fluke was also introduced. the aim of this study was to present the case of finding of this species in cervids in bory zielonogórskie. samples of deer feces were collected in february 2015 in forest district krzystkowice. a total of 16 samples of feces were exami ...201526342504
incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator-prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape.apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. however, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. in particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predato ...201526336169
[bovine tuberculosis still not to be forgotten even in the czech republic].bovine tuberculosis is caused by two obligate pathogenic species, mycobacterium bovis and m. caprae, that cause severe disease in animals and humans. the oral route of infection causing extrapulmonary forms of the disease in humans is more common than aerogenic infection causing pulmonary tuberculosis. significant risk factors for the development of diseases in humans are mainly consuming insufficiently heat-treated milk or meat from infected animals. since 2004, the czech republic has been list ...201526312376
characteristics of pcr-sscp and rapd-hpce methods for identifying authentication of penis et testis cervi in traditional chinese medicine based on cytochrome b gene.the use of penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious traditional chinese medicine (tcm), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in china. there are abundant species of deer in china, the penis et testis from species of cervus nippon and cervus elaphusl were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controll ...201626309015
prevalence and molecular typing of giardia duodenalis in wildlife from eastern poland.faecal samples from 162 wild animals were collected from 32 distinct sites of łęczyńsko-włodawskie lakeland (eastern poland). the presence of giardia duodenalis (stiles, 1902) was assessed by a direct fluorescence assay (dfa) and by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequencing of a fragment of the beta-giardin gene. dfa showed the presence of cysts of g. duodenalis in 12 of 162 faecal samples (7%), namely in four wild boars (15%), four foxes (19%), two roe deer (4%), and two wolves (29%). pcr ...201526278650
development of a multiplex pcr for identification of dictyocaulus lungworms in domestic and wild ruminants.dictyocaulus lungworms are the causative agents of parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis) characterised by coughing and severe lung pathology in domestic and wild ruminants. the objective of this study was to design a simple molecular test that could detect of lungworm dna from both adult and larval lungworms and could distinguish between the most common dictyocaulus species found in cattle and in some species of wild ruminants. a multiplex pcr test with four novel primers targeting species-speci ...201526266883
temporal dynamics of seed excretion by wild ungulates: implications for plant dispersal.dispersal is a key process in metapopulation dynamics as it conditions species' spatial responses to gradients of abiotic and biotic conditions and triggers individual and gene flows. in the numerous plants that are dispersed through seed consumption by herbivores (endozoochory), the distance and effectiveness of dispersal is determined by the combined effects of seed retention time in the vector's digestive system, the spatial extent of its movements, and the ability of the seeds to germinate o ...201526257875
relationship between the electroglottographic signal and vocal fold contact area.electroglottography (egg) is a widely used noninvasive method that purports to measure changes in relative vocal fold contact area (vfca) during phonation. despite its broad application, the putative direct relation between the egg waveform and vfca has to date only been formally tested in a single study, suggesting an approximately linear relationship. however, in that study, flow-induced vocal fold (vf) vibration was not investigated. a rigorous empirical evaluation of egg as a measure of vfca ...201626256493
wear fast, die young: more worn teeth and shorter lives in iberian compared to scottish red deer.teeth in cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environ ...201526252380
recovering aspen follow changing elk dynamics in yellowstone: evidence of a trophic cascade?to investigate the extent and causes of recent quaking aspen (populus tremuloides) recruitment in northern yellowstone national park, we measured browsing intensity and height of young aspen in 87 randomly selected aspen stands in 2012, and compared our results to similar data collected in 1997-1998. we also examined the relationship between aspen recovery and the distribution of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) on the yellowstone northern ungulate winter range, using ...201526236910
experimental studies of microbial populations and incidence of zoonotic pathogens in the faeces of red deer (cervus elaphus).wild animals can serve as hosts, amplifiers or reservoirs for various zoonotic diseases. most species of deer in highly fragmented agricultural landscapes, search out maximum cover from intrusive human activity. hence, the likelihood of zoonosis transmission is likely to increase the more humans and wildlife interact. in our study, we conducted a comparative analysis of bacteria isolated from the faeces of red deer (cervus elaphus) living in their natural environment in south-western poland and ...201526222832
cortisol but not testosterone is repeatable and varies with reproductive effort in wild red deer stags.although it is known that hormone concentrations vary considerably between individuals within a population, how they change across time and how they relate to an individual's reproductive effort remains poorly quantified in wild animals. using faecal samples collected from wild red deer stags, we examined sources of variation in faecal cortisol and androgen metabolites, and the potential relationship that these might have with an index of reproductive effort. we also biologically validated an as ...201526209865
molecular characterization of fascioloides magna (trematoda: fasciolidae) from south-western poland based on mitochondrial markers.the giant liver fluke, fascioloides magna, is a veterinary important liver parasite of free living and domestic ruminants. this originally north american parasite was introduced along with its cervid hosts to europe where it has established three permanent natural foci - in northern italy, central and southern parts of the czech republic and the danube floodplain forests. the first record on fascioloidosis in poland originated from the lower silesian forest in south-western poland and since then ...201526204195
aboriginal overkill overstated : errors in charles kay's this article i critique charles kay's aboriginal overkill hypothesis, which states that native americans numbered 100 million or more in precolumbian north america, extensively humanized the landscape, and suppressed wildlife numbers, thus allowing wildlife browse to proliferate. by examining kay's source use and pertinent information, i find that he makes four kinds of significant mistakes: exaggerations, failure to provide necessary data, errors of omission, and errors of logic. through exa ...200126192167
aboriginal overkill in the intermountain west of north america : zooarchaeological tests and implications.zooarchaeological evidence has often been called on to help researchers determine prehistoric relative abundances of elk (cervus elaphus) in the greater yellowstone ecosystem. some interpret that evidence as indicating elk were abundant; others interpret it as indicating elk were rare. wildlife biologist charles kay argues that prehistoric faunal remains recovered from archaeological sites support his contention that aboriginal hunters depleted elk populations throughout the intermountain west, ...200426190412
progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (prp(cwd)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (cwd). a section of obex from 85 cwd-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) in 10 axonal tract ...201526185123
manganese supplementation in deer under balanced diet increases impact energy and contents in minerals of antler bone tissue.bone ash, collagen, ca and p composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. however, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. a previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cort ...201526177083
bluetongue in europe and the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of disease.the article reviews a current bluetongue (bt) epidemiological situation in europe, bt restricted zones and the role of wild ungulates as a reservoir for bluetongue virus (btv) and its transmission. bt has been eradicated from central and northern europe, however it is still circulating in some regions of southern and south-eastern europe. according to the recent information of the directoriate general for health and consumer affairs (dg sanco) disease caused by btv1 was spreading at the beginnin ...201526172200
vocal activity of the red deer and the acoustic structure of its rutting calls in the russian far east. 201526164336
mercury species accumulation and trophic transfer in biological systems using the almadén mining district (ciudad real, spain) as a case of study.the impact of mercury (hg) pollution in the terrestrial environments and the terrestrial food chains including the impact on human food consumption is still greatly under-investigated. in particular, studies including hg speciation and detoxification strategies in terrestrial animals are almost non-existing, but these are key information with important implications for human beings. therefore, in this work, we report on hg species (inorganic mercury, ihg, and monomethylmercury, mehg) distributio ...201626160125
host and environmental factors modulate the exposure of free-ranging and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) to coxiella burnetii.the control of multihost pathogens, such as coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. we aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (cervus elaphus) in the ecology of c. burnetii. we predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a european context would be exposed to c. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to c. burnetii. to test this hypoth ...201526150466
[molecular identification of hairy antler by analysis of high resolution melting].high resolution melting (hrm) , an important technology for genotyping and mutation scanning, has broad prospects in the authenticity of traditional chinese medicine. this paper selected universal co i primers and used hrm to establish a new method for authenticity of hairy antler. pcr was conducted at the annealing temperature of 60 °c and 45 cycles. the range of the dna template concentration, the primer concentration and the mg2+ ion concentration were further optimized. the results showed th ...201526137679
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