PMID(sorted ascending)
in vitro responses of cervine macrophages to bacterial stimulants.the function of cervine (deer) mononuclear phagocytes is poorly defined. in the present study, the potential of cervine macrophages to generate phagocytic and immunoregulatory responses following stimulation with bacterial products was investigated. blood-derived macrophages of red deer were cultured in vitro with particulate stimulants (mycobacterium bovis bcg and staphylococcus aureus sac) or soluble stimulants (m. bovis ppd and escherichia coli lps), prior to assessment of phagocytic response ...19968969045
synergistic interactions between overlapping binding sites for the serum response factor and elk-1 proteins mediate both basal enhancement and phorbol ester responsiveness of primate cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoters in monocyte and t-lymphocyte cell types.cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection is nonpermissive or persistent in many lymphoid and myeloid cell types but can be activated in differentiated macrophages. we have shown elsewhere that both the major immediate-early gene (mie) and lytic cycle infectious progeny virus expression can be induced in otherwise nonpermissive monocyte-like u-937 cell cultures infected with either human cmv (hcmv) or simian cmv (scmv) by treatment with the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa). two mul ...19968970984
the p38 and erk map kinase pathways cooperate to activate ternary complex factors and c-fos transcription in response to uv light.we investigated the activation of c-fos transcription following uv irradiation, a 'stress' stimulus. in both hela tk- and nih 3t3 cells the serum response element is required for efficient uv-induced c-fos transcription, and in hela tk- cells the ternary complex factor (tcf) binding site contributes substantially to activation. consistent with this, uv irradiation activates lexa-tcf fusion proteins more strongly in hela tk- than in nih 3t3 cells. the tcf c-termini of the tcfs are substrates for ...19968978682
[changes in the number of deer louse-flies lipoptena cervi (hippoboscidae) in the forests of northwestern russia].long term observations of the abundance fluctuations of the deer louse-fly lipoptena cervi were carried out in forest areas of the leningrad, novgorod and pskov provinces in 1988-1995. the registration of the winged individuals was held in the period of the mass flight in august by the number of deer louse-flies attacking a collector man during 1 km of the pathway. the abundance of deer louse-flies was being high everywhere up to 1993, while it decreased by 8-29 times in 1994-1995. the reason of ...19968984438
prolactin does not enhance glucose-stimulated insulin release in red deer deer stags have a seasonal pattern of insulin secretion that is characterized by both elevated basal and glucose-stimulated insulin release in summer compared with winter. since the seasonal timing of this pattern is similar to that of prolactin and growth rate, the objectives of this study were: first, to determine whether prolactin is associated with the enhanced secretion of insulin during the summer growth period, and second, to determine whether a chronic reduction in plasma prolactin l ...19978985669
plasma cortisol responses to remote adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) infusion in free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus).a remote infusion and blood collection device (dracpac) was used on free-ranging red deer stags to deliver i.v. a range of acth1-24 doses and collect blood for cortisol determination. in experiment 1, conducted in september, saline and 1, 4, and 16 iu acth/100 kg bodyweight were infused (n = 5-7 per treatment). in experiment 2 (november), 16 and 64 iu acth/100 kg were infused (n = 5 per treatment); and the response of animals to restraint was also assessed (n = 6). pre-infusion concentrations of ...19978985670
age-associated changes in basal c-fos transcription factor binding activity in rat hearts.the early response proto-oncogene c-fos is expressed at very low levels in the mammalian heart at baseline. to further investigate the mechanism of altered c-fos expression with age, we studied in the basal state the binding of five transcription proteins to their cognate sites in the c-fos promoter/enhancer region, in adult and old f344 rats. our results show a reduced binding of e2f and ap1 proteins to the c-fos promoter in aging hearts. the major calcium/cyclic amp response element (cre) and ...19968986626
the drosophila erg k+ channel polypeptide is encoded by the seizure locus.the eag family of k+ channels contains three known subtypes: eag, elk, and erg. genes representing the first two subtypes have been identified in flies and mammals, whereas the third subtype has been defined only by the human herg gene, which encodes an inwardly rectifying channel that is mutated in some cardiac arrhythmias. to establish the predicted existence of a drosophila gene in the erg subfamily and to learn more about the structure and biological function of channels within this subfamil ...19978994042
distinct ras effector pathways are involved in fc epsilon r1 regulation of the transcriptional activity of elk-1 and nfat in mast cells.activation of ras gtpases is a conserved feature of antigen receptor signaling, including fc epsilon r1 activation of mast cells. antigenic cross-linking of the fc epsilon r1 on mast cells results in secretion of allergic mediators and induction of immediate early and cytokine genes. here we examine the role of ras in coupling the fc epsilon r1 to transcriptional regulation. the transcription factors elk-1, an immediate early gene regulator and the nuclear factor of activated t cells (nfat), in ...19978996240
effects of the duration of lairage following transportation on the behaviour and physiology of farmed red deer.eight groups of five farmed red deer were transported by road for three hours, after which they were either slaughtered immediately (to) or held in lairage for three, six or 18 hours (t3, t6 and t18). liveweight loss increased with lairage time but hot carcase weight was unaffected. deer spent much of the initial period in lairage standing stationary in 'alert' postures. after eight to 10 hours the proportions of time spent in various postures (standing stationary, moving and lying down) were si ...19979004474
fli1 and ews-fli1 function as ternary complex factors and elk1 and sap1a function as ternary and quaternary complex factors on the egr1 promoter serum response elements.the ets gene products are a family of transcriptional regulatory proteins that contain a highly conserved and structurally unique dna binding domain, termed the ets domain. several ets proteins bind to dna as monomers, however it has been shown that the dna binding activity is enhanced or modulated in the presence of other factors. by differential display and whole genome pcr techniques, we have recently shown that the erg1 gene is a target for ets proteins. the egr1 promoter contains multiple e ...19979010223
[further studies on parasitic arthropods of the elk alces alces in poland].in the northeastern part of poland, 239 elks (5% of the polish population) were examined and 7 species of ectoparasites were found. the most frequent included: lipoptena cervi (94%) and chorioptes texanus is new species in poland and it was noted at 50 sites from warmia and the mazurian lake district.19969012137
synthesis of early pregnancy factor using red deer (cervus elaphus) as a delayed implantation model.this study measured serum early pregnancy factor (epf) in pregnant red deer (cervus elaphus) and ascertained whether epf synthesis is associated with implantation.19979013310
impaired induction of c-fos/c-jun genes and of transcriptional regulatory proteins binding distinct c-fos/c-jun promoter elements in activated human t cells during aging.the activation of transcriptional factor c-fos/c-jun ap-1 is essential for normal t cell responsiveness and is often impaired in t cells during aging. in the present study, we investigated whether aberrancies in the regulation of c-fos/c-jun at the mrna or protein level might underlie the age-associated impairments of ap-1 in human t cells. whereas t cells from young subjects stimulated with cross-linked anti-cd3epsilon mab okt3 plus pma or with the lectin pha plus pma demonstrated considerable ...19979015187
activation of the sap-1a transcription factor by the c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk) mitogen-activated protein kinase.ternary complex factors (tcfs) bind to the serum response element in the c-fos promoter and mediate its activation by many extracellular stimuli. some of these stimuli activate the erk subclass of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) that target the tcf sap-1a. we show that sap-1a is also phosphorylated by the stress-activated jnk subclass of mapks leading to stimulation of both c-fos serum response element and e74-site-dependent transcription in rk13 cells. several jnk-1 phosphorylation si ...19979020136
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
activation of stress-activated protein kinase-3 (sapk3) by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated via sapkk3 (mkk6); comparison of the specificities of sapk3 and sapk2 (rk/p38).stress-activated protein kinase-3 (sapk3), a recently described map kinase family member with a wide-spread tissue distribution, was transfected into several mammalian cell lines and shown to be activated in response to cellular stresses, interleukin-1 (il-1) and tumour necrosis factor (tnf) in a similar manner to sapk1 (also termed jnk) and sapk2 (also termed p38, rk, csbp and mxi2). sapk3 and sapk2 were activated at similar rates in vitro by sapkk3 (also termed mkk6), and sapkk3 was the only a ...19979029150
use of an indwelling peripheral catheter for 3-5 day chemotherapy administration in the outpatient setting.registered nurses (rns) and clinical pharmacists in the hematology-oncology clinic at walter reed army medical center conducted a descriptive study to determine the effectiveness and safety of using indwelling peripheral intravenous catheters (pics) for daily administration of various chemotherapeutic agents given intermittently over a 3-5 day period to outpatients. eighty-nine adult outpatients requiring daily doses of chemotherapy including fluorouracil (5-fu) (solopak, elk grove village, il), ...19969060358
hypobiosis in the ostertagids of red deer and the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole against abattoir survey was carried out during the 1991 to 1992 slaughter season to examine the structure of the ostertagid populations in red deer. most of the animals were 15- to 22-month-old stags, but there were also hinds on two occasions and calves on one. ostertagids of mixed species were present in all of the animals, and 43 of 120 (35.8 per cent) stags and 10 of 17 (58.8 per cent) hinds, but no calves, also carried small numbers of trichostrongylus axei. most animals carried adult and develo ...19979061873
antioxidants as well as oxidants activate c-fos via ras-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2 and elk-1.intracellular reactive oxygen intermediate (roi) levels play an important role in numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. apart from causing oxidative stress and damage, roi changes differentially activate gene expression. however the proto-oncogene encoding the ap-1 transcription factor subunit c-fos is induced by both prooxidants and antioxidants. here, the transcription factor elk-1 is identified as being responsible for c-fos serum response element (sre) induction in respon ...19979063444
the short- and long-term consequences of corporal punishment. proceedings of a conference. elk grove village, illinois, february 9-10, 1996. 19969064635
fluoride content and mineralization of red deer (cervus elaphus) antlers and pedicles from fluoride polluted and uncontaminated regions.fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus content as well as ashpercentage and ash density of primary antlers and pedicle bones were studiedin nine yearling red deer stags from a fluoride polluted region in northbohemia (czech republic) and in nine control animals from two uncontaminatedareas in west germany. fluoride levels in antlers (845 +/- 257 mgf-/kg ash, mean +/- sd) and pedicles (1,448 +/- 461 mgf-/kg ash) of the n-bohemian specimens exceeded that of thecontrols (antlers: 206 +/- 124 mg f-/kg as ...19979069201
study of gene regulation by nf-kappa b and ap-1 in response to reactive oxygen intermediates.reactive oxygen intermediates (rois), such as hydrogen peroxide or superoxide, are an evolutionarily ancient threat to all organisms. exposure of bacteria to rois initiates a genetic program that coordinates the production of novel proteins with protective functions. this genetic response is mediated by regulatory proteins that have the potential to initiate transcription of genes when the levels of the rois increase. in plant cells, a variety of viral pathogens increase hydrogen peroxide produc ...19979073573
a comparative ultrastructural study of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminant species (mammalia, artiodactyla).the ultrastructural similarities and differences of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminants (roe deer, nyala, tahr, eld's deer, red deer, pere david's deer, european mouflon, african buffalo, sable antelope) representing three feeding types i.e. concentrate selectors (cs), grass and roughage eaters (gr) and intermediate feeders (im) were compared. the parotid acinar cells of the cs contained more granular endoplasmic reticulum, golgi-complexes and secretory granules than those of t ...19969090994
camp activates map kinase and elk-1 through a b-raf- and rap1-dependent pathway.cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) has tissue-specific effects on growth, differentiation, and gene expression. we show here that camp can activate the transcription factor elk-1 and induce neuronal differentiation of pc12 cells via its activation of the map kinase cascade. these cell type-specific actions of camp require the expression of the serine/threonine kinase b-raf and activation of the small g protein rap1. rap1, activated by mutation or by the camp-dependent protein kinase pka, is a ...19979094716
reversion of ras- and phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase c-mediated transformation of nih 3t3 cells by a dominant interfering mutant of protein kinase c lambda is accompanied by the loss of constitutive nuclear mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity.the transformed phenotype of v-ras- or bacillus cereus phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase c (pc-plc)-expressing nih 3t3 cells is reverted by expressing a kinase-defective mutant of protein kinase c lambda (lambdapkc). we report here that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk)-1 and -2 are constitutively activated in v-ras- and pc-plc-transformed cells in the absence of added growth factors. interestingly, the activated erks were exclusively localized to the cell nucleus. consiste ...19979111071
role of p38 and jnk mitogen-activated protein kinases in the activation of ternary complex factors.the transcription factors elk-1 and sap-1 bind together with serum response factor to the serum response element present in the c-fos promoter and mediate increased gene expression. the erk, jnk, and p38 groups of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases phosphorylate and activate elk-1 in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. in contrast, sap-1 is activated by erk and p38 map kinases but not by jnk. the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (il-1) activates jnk and p38 map kinases and ...19979111305
the red deer (cervus elaphus) contains two expressed major histocompatibility complex class ii dqb genes.the highly variable second exons of the red deer (cervus elaphus) major histocompatibility complex (mhc) dqb genes were cloned and sequenced. eight different expressed dqb sequences were isolated from four unrelated red deer. either two or three different dqb sequences were isolated from each individual, demonstrating that more than one dqb gene is expressed in red deer. this is consistent with other ruminant, which also have multiple expressed copies of the dqb gene. the sequences ranged in sim ...19979124708
role of rho gtpase in the endothelin-1-induced nuclear signaling.binding of endothelin-1 (et-1) to its heterotrimeric g protein-coupled receptors stimulates various signaling cascades involving the activation of phospholipase c-beta, phospholipase d, protein kinase c (pkc), tyrosine kinases, ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (camks), and ras, a small molecular weight g-protein, but, the role of rho gtpase remains unclear. in this project, we examined whether rhoa contributes to the et-1-induced signaling cascade to c-fos sre activation in rat-2 fibroblast cell ...19979125136
convergence of map kinase pathways on the ternary complex factor sap-1a.the serum response element (sre), which is pivotal for transcriptional up-regulation of the c-fos protooncogene, is constitutively occupied by a protein complex comprising the serum response factor and a ternary complex factor (tcf). phosphorylation of the tcfs elk-1 and sap-1a by the erk and jnk subclasses of map kinases triggers c-fos transcription. we demonstrate here that elk-1 is barely activated by a third subclass of map kinases (p38), most likely because the critical residues ser383 and ...19979130707
survey of free-ranging elk from wyoming and montana for selected pathogens.from december 1991 through january 1995, a disease survey was conducted on herds of free-ranging, hunter-killed elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from three areas in proximity to yellowstone national park (ynp), wyoming (usa), after tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was discovered in a captive herd of elk in the area. complete or partial sets of specimens from 289 elk collected between december 1991 and january 1993 were examined histologically; no mycobacterial lesions were observed. lesion ...19979131561
comparison of some blood parameters of captured and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) studies on the adaptation of red deer (cervus elaphus) to farm conditions, some blood parameters of 3- to 9-year-old captured and farmed hinds were compared. the test variable included blood plasma creatine kinase (ck), alanine aminotransferase (alt), and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) activities, the concentrations of glucose, urea, total protein (tp), serum cortisol, haemoglobin (hb), and the blastogenic transformation of lymphocytes upon stimulation by the nonspecific mitogens phaseolus vulga ...19969141279
molecular mechanisms for somatostatin inhibition of c-fos gene expression.we reported previously that somatostatin inhibits the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos. accordingly, we characterized the molecular mechanisms by which somatostatin inhibits c-fos gene expression. because growth factors activate c-fos through a region of its promoter known as the serum response element [sre; base pairs (bp) -357 to -276] we transfected rat pituitary adenoma cells (gh3) with plasmids containing the sre or the sre core fragment (bp -320 to -298) upstream of the lucifer ...19979142901
[changes in the placenta of the elk alces alces l. during pregnancy (morphometric research)].elk placentomes were studied during different stages of pregnancy using morphometry and optico-structural computerised analysis. histological sections and smears from the surface of placentome section were made for that. placentome were obtained from animals subjected to legal shooting in hunting districts of novosibirsk. the attention was focused on the examination of cellular elements that constitute a trophoblastic lining and on distribution of capillaries maximally close to trophoblast in ch ...19979156763
domain exchanges between knat3 and knat1 suggest specificity of the kn1-like homeodomains requires sequences outside of the third helix and n-terminal arm of the homeodomain.domain exchange constructs that traded regions surrounding the homeodomain were constructed for two kn1-like genes, knat1 and knat3, and introduced into arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the 35s camv promoter. the kn1-like homeodomain proteins all have the homeodomain located near the c-terminus of the protein, and also share a second conserved domain (the elk domain) immediately n-terminal to the homeodomain. progeny were scored for the appearance of the knat1 overexpression phenotype. ...19979161041
growth factor-induced transcription via the serum response element is inhibited by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in mcf-7 breast cancer cells.the effect of increased intracellular camp on mcf-7 breast cancer cell growth was examined by treating cells with either forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, or 8-[4-chlorophenylthio]-camp (8-cpt-camp), a camp analog. compared to cells maintained in control medium, treatment with either 1 or 10 microm forskolin decreased cell growth by 17% and 68%, respectively, whereas treatment with 250 microm 8-cpt-camp decreased cell growth by 29%. to determine whether this effect of camp on cell gr ...19979165004
the chiropractic outcome study: pain, functional ability and satisfaction with examine changes in pain experienced, changes in functional ability and degree of patient satisfaction with chiropractic care. patient characteristics influencing these parameters were also explored.19979168407
molecular characterization of the b-box protein-protein interaction motif of the ets-domain transcription factor elk-1.the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily of ets-domain transcription factors form ternary complexes with the serum response factor (srf) and the c-fos sre. extracellular signals are relayed via map kinase signal transduction pathways through the tcf component of the ternary complex. protein-protein interactions between tcfs and srf play an essential role in formation of this ternary complex. a 30 amino acid sequence encompassing the tcf b-box is sufficient to mediate interactions with srf. in ...19979171356
physiological responses of red deer (cervus elaphus) to conditions experienced during road transport.remote heart rate and blood sampling devices were attached to transported red deer stags to assess the effects of several road transport parameters on physiological responses associated with welfare. stocking density had a significant influence on heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations. heart rates of deer transported at a high density (0.38 m2 per 84 kg animal) were 10-13% higher than those of deer transported at medium (0.62 m2) or low densities (0.85 m2). lactate concentrations of anim ...19979177568
disturbances of the secretory stage of amelogenesis in fluorosed deer teeth: a scanning electron-microscopic study.structural changes resulting from fluoride-induced disturbances of the secretory stage of amelogenesis were studied in fluorosed dental enamel of ten permanent premolars and molars from roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus). the fluorosed enamel exhibited surface hypoplasias of different depths and extents and an associated loss of its normal prism/interprism structure. the occurrence of such aprismatic enamel either was restricted to grossly accentuated and hypomineralize ...19979182607
yersinia enterocolitica promotes deactivation of macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, p38, and c-jun nh2-terminal kinase. correlation with its inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha production.the enteropathogenic bacterium yersinia enterocolitica counteracts host defense mechanisms by interfering with eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. in this study, we investigated the mechanism by which y. enterocolitica prevents macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnfalpha) production. murine j774a.1 macrophages responded to y. enterocolitica infection by rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk), p38, and c-jun nh2-terminal ...19979188492
extensive splice variation and localization of the ehk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase in adult human brain and glial tumors.ehk-1 is a neuronal elk-related receptor tyrosine kinase which interacts with multiple, membrane-anchored ligands. recent experiments have suggested a role for some of these ligands in the formation of neuronal pathways. here, we report the isolation of human ehk-1 cdnas and the localization of the human ehk-1 gene to chromosome 4q12. six ehk-1 mrna splice variants encoding cell-surface receptors with catalytic domains were identified in adult human brain where a 120-kda ehk-1 protein predominat ...19979191074
the regulation of tcf transcription factors by map kinase cascades. 19979191197
the dengue virus nonstructural-1 protein (ns1) generates antibodies to common epitopes on human blood clotting, integrin/adhesin proteins and binds to human endothelial cells: potential implications in haemorrhagic fever pathogenesis.antibody responses generated by mice to the dengue-2 virus ns1 protein (d-2v ns1) were influenced by mhc class ii (i-a) haplotype but each antiserum cross-reacted with human fibrinogen, thrombocytes and endothelial cells. to investigate these findings, a highly avid subclone (mab 1g5.4-a1-c3) was selected from a parent hybridoma that secreted a monoclonal antibody (mab) specific for the native dimeric form of d-2v ns1. when mab reactions were compared using a panel of overlapping synthetic pepti ...19979191856
conditional expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) phosphatase mkp-1 preferentially inhibits p38 mapk and stress-activated protein kinase in u937 cells.phorbol ester tumor promoters, such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma), are potent activators of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (erk2), stress-activated protein kinase (sapk), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) in u937 human leukemic cells. these kinases are regulated by the reversible dual phosphorylation of conserved threonine and tyrosine residues. the dual specificity protein phosphatase mapk phosphatase-1 (mkp-1) has been shown to dephosphorylate and inactivate e ...19979202001
blastocyst development and conceptus sex selection in red deer cervus elaphus: studies of a free-living population on the isle of rum.skewing of the sex ratio at birth occurs in red deer in response to dominance status, with dominant hinds giving birth to a higher proportion of male calves than subordinates. to investigate the physiological basis for this phenomenon, reproductive tracts were collected from red deer during a cull for management purposes carried out on the island of rum, scotland. blastocysts were flushed from the uterus and sexed by polymerase chain reaction using y chromosome-specific primers. concentrations o ...19979204371
descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in michigan, usa.a study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in michigan. this is the first description of cervid farming in the united states. data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from march 3 through june 28, 1993. completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) ...19979208449
the effect of formalin on rumen surface area in red deer.previously published studies have related the surface area of rumen wall to diet. the validity of studies that utilize preserved material depends upon the predictability of any change in rumen dimension brought about by preservation. changes in the surface are of different sections of the rumen wall of red deer (cervus elaphus) were monitored after immersion in 10% formal saline solution at room temperature for 2, 7 and 14 days. there was a high degree of variability (0-39.5%) in wall-area reduc ...19979210784
behavioral dominance and corpus luteum function in red deer cervus elaphus.times of the ovulatory lh surge and characteristics of the rise in circulating progesterone concentrations after ovulation in red deer hinds were investigated in relation to each animal's dominance status. observations were made during the 1992 (experiment 1) and 1993 (experiment 2) breeding seasons, while the same 12 hinds were held in a pen in the absence of a stag. ovulation was synchronized by administration of progesterone followed by luteolytic prostaglandin f2 alpha analogue. social statu ...19979213143
specific activation of a c-jun nh2-terminal kinase isoform and induction of neurite outgrowth in pc-12 cells by staurosporine.staurosporine, a protein kinase inhibitor, is known to mimic the effect of nerve growth factor (ngf) in promoting neurite outgrowth. to elucidate the mechanism by which staurosporine induces neurite outgrowth in pc-12 cells, we performed an in-gel kinase assay using myelin basic protein as a substrate, and found that staurosporine induced the activation of a kinase with an apparent molecular mass of 57 kda. the dose of staurosporine required to activate this kinase was consistent with that requi ...19979218464
activation of the novel stress-activated protein kinase sapk4 by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated by skk3 (mkk6); comparison of its substrate specificity with that of other sap kinases.a cdna was cloned that encodes human stress-activated protein kinase-4 (sapk4), a novel map kinase family member whose amino acid sequence is approximately 60% identical to that of the other three sap kinases which contain a tgy motif in their activation domain. the mrna encoding sapk4 was found to be widely distributed in human tissues. when expressed in kb cells, sapk4 was activated in response to cellular stresses and pro-inflammatory cytokines, in a manner similar to other sapks. sapk4 was a ...19979218798
transmission of louping ill virus between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on mountain hares.most of the data on oral infection of ticks by louping ill virus have been obtained from experiments in which animals were infected by syringe inoculation with infectious material. using infected ticks to mimic the natural situation, we have demonstrated that louping ill (li) virus transmission can occur from infected to uninfected ixodes ricinus feeding in close proximity on mountain hares (lepus timidus). under these conditions the hares developed either low or undetectable viraemias. highest ...19979226648
melatonin receptors in red deer fetuses (cervus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus) exhibit highly seasonal rhythms in physiology and behaviour. the influence of photoperiod on the timing of these changes begins in utero where the fetus receives photoperiodic information via the diurnal pattern of maternal melatonin secretion. the potential sensitivity of deer fetuses to melatonin was ascertained by mapping specific receptors and characterizing them using 2-[125i]iodomelatonin and quantitative autoradiography in vitro. specific binding occurred from da ...19979227368
decreased potassium stimulates bone resorption.metabolic acidosis induces net calcium efflux (jca+) from cultured bone, in part, through an increase in osteoclastic resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic formation. in humans provision of base as potassium (k+) citrate, but not sodium (na+) citrate, reduces urine ca (uca), and oral khco3 decreases bone resorption and uca in postmenopausal women. potassium deprivation alone leads to an increase in uca. to determine whether decreased extracellular k+ concentration ([k+]) at a constant ph, pc ...19979227639
juxtamembrane tyrosine residues couple the eph family receptor ephb2/nuk to specific sh2 domain proteins in neuronal cells.eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the control of axonal navigation and fasciculation. to investigate the biochemical mechanisms underlying such functions, we have expressed the ephb2 receptor (formerly nuk/cek5/sek3) in neuronal ng108-15 cells, and have observed the tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple cellular proteins upon activation of ephb2 by its ligand, ephrin-b1 (formerly elk-l/lerk2). the activated ephb2 receptor induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 62-64 ...19979233798
calcium controls gene expression via three distinct pathways that can function independently of the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases (erks) signaling cascade.calcium ions are the principal second messenger in the control of gene expression by electrical activation of neurons. however, the full complexity of calcium-signaling pathways leading to transcriptional activation and the cellular machinery involved are not known. using the c-fos gene as a model system, we show here that the activity of its complex promoter is controlled by three independently operating signaling mechanisms and that their functional significance is cell type-dependent. the ser ...19979236230
lerk-7: a ligand of the eph-related kinases is developmentally regulated in the brain.the eph family is the largest subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (rtks). members of this subfamily display specific expression in the developing and adult brain. recently, cdnas encoding membrane bound ligands for these receptors have been identified which we have termed lerks (ligand for eph-related kinases). we report here the isolation of lerk-7 from a human fetal brain cdna library. lerk-7 encodes a protein of 228 amino acids and is anchored to the membrane by glycosyl-phosphatidylinosit ...19979245480
detection of mycobacterium bovis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of cattle and elk by pcr amplification of an is6110 sequence specific for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms.a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis can be made if a tissue has characteristic histopathologic changes and acid-fast organisms. however, definitive diagnosis requires culture and species identification of the causative mycobacterium, a process that takes several weeks to complete. the purpose of work reported here was to determine if formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues could be tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to provide a more rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. nondecalcified t ...19979249162
radiometric culture of mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis from the feces of tule determine if mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis has persisted in tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) at point reyes national seashore (california, usa), 100 fresh fecal samples were collected. feces were cultured on a modified bactec 12b radiometric medium for detection of m. avium paratuberculosis. four samples, coming from two separate groups of elk tested positive for m. avium paratuberculosis. thus, a noninvasive technique was used to document the continued presence of m. avium paratuber ...19979249713
abnormal antler growth associated with testicular hypogonadism in red deer.a wild 5-yr-old red deer (cervus elaphus) was eulled from a privately owned herd because of deformed antlers, retained velvet and bilateral symmetrical testicular hypogonadism. the clinical and pathological changes seen in this deer were most consistent with congenital hypoplasia, but testicular atrophy was an alternative possibility for the etiology of their condition.19979249723
high sequence homology of the prp gene in mule deer and rocky mountain elk. 19979250209
insulin-like growth factor-i-mediated neurite outgrowth in vitro requires mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) induces neuronal differentiation in vitro. in the present study, we examined the signaling pathway underlying igf-i-mediated neurite outgrowth. in sh-sy5y human neuroblastoma cells, treatment with igf-i induced concentration- and time-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the type i igf receptor (igf-ir) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (erk) 1 and 2. these effects of igf-i were blocked by a neutralizing antibody against igf-ir. whereas igf- ...19979261137
why do animals repeat displays?both agonistic and sexual animal displays often involve more than one performance of some specific display action. since repetition is energetically costly there must be good reasons why a signaller should carry out such repetitive actions, rather than simply displaying once. we briefly review three different 'reasons' which arise from three different receiver assessment rules: when assessment is based on the average magnitude of all display actions so far, the reason for the repetition is to im ...19979268441
some haematological and immunological parameters of farmed deer in hungary.a haematological survey of farmed fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus) was carried out. in the winter period the red blood cell (rbc) count was 9.0 x 10(12)/l in adult fallow-does, and 6.1 x 10(12)/l in fawns. the haemoglobin (hb) level and mean corpuscular volume (mcv) were also significantly (p < 0.05) lower in fawns than in adult fallow deer. in blood samples taken from red deer in different physiological and nutritional periods, the stags showed the lowest mean rbc count in ...19979270131
formate and ethanol are the major products of glycerol fermentation produced by a klebsiella planticola strain isolated from red deer.the rumen contents of red deer (cervus elaphus) were used to isolate bacterial capable of fermenting glycerol. the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and phylogeny of one isolate were studied in detail. the isolate (dr3) was tentatively identified as a strain of the species klebsiella planticola as based on phenotypic characterization. the data obtained from 16s rrna sequence analysis showed that the deer rumen isolate dr3 was 99.7% similar to the type strain of kl. planticola (dsm 3069t), thu ...19979281820
hypoxia induces c-fos transcription via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.hypoxia is a pathophysiological condition that occurs during injury, ischemia, and stroke. it is characterized by a decrease of reactive oxygen intermediates and a change of the intracellular redox level. in tumors hypoxia is regarded as a trigger for enhanced growth and metastasis. here we report that in hela cells, hypoxic conditions induce the transcriptional activation of c-fos transcription via the serum response element. mutations in the binding site for the ternary complex factor elk-1 an ...19979287359
nuclear signalling by rac gtpase: essential role of phospholipase a2.rac, one member of rho family gtpases, stimulates c-fos serum response element (sre)-luciferase reporter gene in rat-2 fibroblast cells. by transient transfection analysis, we demonstrated that the activation of phospholipase a2 (pla2) and the subsequent production of arachidonic acid (aa) are essential for rac-induced c-fos sre activation, implying a critical role for pla2 in the rac-signalling pathway to the nucleus. either pretreatment with mepacrine, a specific inhibitor of pla2, or co-trans ...19979291101
effects of season, protein and nutritional state on glucose tolerance during an annual cycle of growth in young red deer stags.two hypotheses were tested in gonad-intact, young (aged 6-18 months), growing red deer stags during an annual growth cycle. first, that glucose clearance rate is faster during summer than during winter. secondly, that increased dietary protein availability will enhance winter growth. stags were randomly assigned into one of two groups: group 1 (n = 5) had 16% while group 2 (n = 6) had 48% of dietary protein naturally protected against fermentative degradation in the rumen. total crude protein an ...19979291838
[the finding of eimeria alces (eucoccidiida) in the elk alces alces of bryansk province].the microsporidia eimeria alces, arnastauskiene, 1971 has been recorded from fecal probes of elks (alces alces) in bryansk province. the oocyst measure 40.6 + 2.0 x x 28.6 + 1.0 mkm.19979304107
expression and localization of prolactin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in red deer ovary during the estrous cycle and this study, expression of the prolactin receptor (prl-r) gene in the ovaries of cycling and pregnant red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds was investigated. a 1.9-kilobase (kb) cdna encoding the cervine long-form prl-r was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from corpus luteum (cl) and liver poly(a)+ rna. northern hybridization revealed a major mrna transcript of 3.5 kb in both tissues. prl-r mrna transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization in 15-micron frozen secti ...19979314591
ets oncogene family.first member of ets gene family was discovered a decade ago by studying avian erythroblastosis virus, e26. this virus encodes a tripartite protein gag-myb-ets with a molecular weight of 135 kda. subsequently, a series of cellular ets genes were isolated (ets-1, ets-2, erg, elk-1, sap-1, pea-3, pu.1, fli-1, pok/yan, etv-1 etc.). these genes share sequence homology to e26 ets gene (v-ets or viral ets). ets genes are highly conserved in phylogenetically divergent species from drosophila to man. mam ...19979315229
net-b, a ras-insensitive factor that forms ternary complexes with serum response factor on the serum response element of the fos promoter.the ras signalling pathway targets transcription factors such as the ternary complex factors that are recruited by the serum response factor to form complexes on the serum response element (sre) of the fos promoter. we have identified a new ternary complex factor, net-b. we report the features of the net gene and show that it produces several splice variants, net-b and net-c. net-b rna and protein are expressed in a variety of tissues and cell lines. net-c rna is expressed at low levels, and the ...19979315625
growth hormone regulates ternary complex factors and serum response factor associated with the c-fos serum response element.for insight into the mechanisms of gene regulation by growth hormone (gh), the regulation of transcription factors associated with the serum response element (sre) located upstream of c-fos was examined. the sre can mediate induction of reporter expression in response to gh. for insight into the mechanism by which gh regulates transcription factors, regulation of sre-associated proteins by gh was examined. in nuclear extracts from 3t3-f442a fibroblasts, several sre-binding complexes were identif ...19979325329
global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts.the variability of two fitness-related phenotypic traits (body weight and a mandibular skeletal ratio) was analysed among cohorts and age-classes of red deer in norway. phenotypic variation among cohorts was pronounced for calves, yearlings and reproductively mature adults. fluctuations in cohort-specific mean body weights and skeletal ratios of adults correlated with global climatic variation in winter conditions influenced by the north atlantic oscillation while cohorts were in utero. red deer ...19979332016
gastrin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate regulate the human histidine decarboxylase promoter through raf-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-related signaling pathways in gastric cancer cells.gastrin stimulates transcription of the human histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene through binding to the g-protein-coupled cholecystokinin-b/gastrin receptor. we have explored the possibility that mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades play a role in mediating the effects of gastrin on transcription in a gastric cancer (ags-b) cell line. gastrin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma) treatment of ags-b cells was found to increase the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of extracellular sig ...19979341140
a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study of hypomineralization and hypoplasia in fluorosed dental enamel of deer.mineral content and distribution of fluorosed and unfluorosed (control) dental enamel of roe deer and red deer cheek teeth were analyzed using digital backscattered electron (bse) imaging of pmma-embedded specimens. compared to the controls, the fluorosed enamel exhibited various aberrations resulting from a fluoride-induced disturbance of the processes involved in enamel formation. thus, the presence of surface hypoplasias and an enhancement of the incremental pattern in the fluorosed enamel ar ...19979341947
expression of neurotrophin-3 in the growing velvet antler of the red deer cervus elaphus.antlers are organs of bone which regenerate each year from the heads of male deer. in addition to bone, support tissues such as nerves also regenerate. nerves must grow at up to 1 cm/day. the control of this rapid growth of nerves is unknown. we examined the relative expression of neurotrophin-3 (nt-3) mrna in the different tissues of the growing antler tip and along the epidermal/dermal layer of the antler shaft of the red deer cervus elaphus, using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polym ...19979343309
characterization of the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase allozymes in the deer cervus elaphus.the cdna sequences for cu,zn superoxide dismutase from two cervus elaphus subspecies, north american wapiti and european red deer, were determined. the derived amino acid sequences showed two differences: residue 8 was leu in wapiti and met in red deer and residue 25 was his in wapiti and asn in red deer. the extra positive charge at position 25 in the wapiti isoform accounted for its greater mobility towards the cathode during non-denaturing electrophoresis, a procedure widely used in the genet ...19979345726
activation of the c-fos sre through sap-1a.tcfs, which are members of the ets family of transcription factors, are recruited to the serum response element (sre) in the c-fos promoter by srf. these ets proteins, which are substrates for the map kinases, are direct targets of the ras/map kinase signal transduction pathway. in this paper, we demonstrate that one of the tcfs, sap-1a, displays a significant level of autonomous binding to the sre ets box. in contrast to previous observations, deletion of the srf binding domain did not modulate ...19979349499
characterisation of the human cd30 ligand gene structure.the gene for the human cd30 ligand was molecularly cloned, sequenced and characterised. the gene structure consisted of four exons and three intervening introns spaced over 17.1 kb of genomic dna. the 5' flanking region of the cd30l gene was sequenced and analysis of the region revealed the presence of several regulatory regions including a poly-dt element directly upstream from the transcription start site and consensus sequences for ap4, ik2, mzf1, e47 and elk/cets1. the absence of a canionica ...19979349718
isolation and characterization of a coronavirus from elk calves with diarrhea.this is the first report of the isolation of a coronavirus from elk calves. two fecal samples from elk calves with diarrhea were shown to be positive for coronavirus-like particles by electron microscopy, and the particles were propagated in the human rectal tumor-18 cell line. after 24 h, syncytia were observed, and cell culture supernatants from both samples showed hemagglutinating activity with mouse erythrocytes. cells infected with both elk coronavirus (ecv) isolates reacted with z3a5, a mo ...19979350763
cross-cascade activation of erks and ternary complex factors by rho family proteins.mitogens promote cell growth through integrated signal transduction networks that alter cellular metabolism, gene expression and cytoskeletal organization. many such signals are propagated through activation of map kinase cascades partly regulated by upstream small gtp-binding proteins. interactions among cascades are suspected but not defined. here we show that rho family small g proteins such as rac1 and cdc42hs, which activate the jnk/sapk pathway, cooperate with raf-1 to activate the erk pat ...19979351825
molecular mechanisms for the growth factor action of gastrin.we have previously observed that gastrin has a cholecystokinin b (cck-b) receptor-mediated growth-promoting effect on the ar42j rat pancreatic acinar cell line and that this effect is paralleled by induction of expression of the early response gene c-fos. we undertook these experiments to elucidate the mechanism for induction of c-fos and the linkage of this action to the trophic effects of gastrin. gastrin (0.1-10 nm) dose dependently induced luciferase activity in ar42j cells transfected with ...19979357832
sequencing analysis of prion genes from red deer and abnormal isoform of the prion protein (prp) appears to be the agent responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse). the normal isoform of prp is host-encoded and expressed in the central nervous system. the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) epidemic in the uk and the incidence of prion-related diseases in other animals could indicate that ruminants are highly susceptible to infection via ingestion of prion-contaminated food. sequence analysis of prp gene open read ...19979358067
mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus) as experimental definitive hosts for fascioloides august 1992, six mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) fawns and four elk (cervus elaphus) calves (n = 2) or yearlings (n = 2) each were inoculated orally with 50, 250, or 2,000 metacercariae of the liver fluke fascioloides magna to evaluate their potential to serve as definitive hosts. animals were maintained for up to 403 days. three mule deer each inoculated with 50 metacercariae survived the infection and shed eggs in feces; thus mule deer can function as definitive hosts for f. magna. ...19969359058
wegener's granulomatosis.since its first description by wegener in 1936, wegener's granulomatosis has undergone significant changes in terms of clinical scope, diagnosis, and treatment. it is no longer tenable to insist on the fulfillment of the wegener's triad to make the diagnosis. the wide range of clinical presentations is encompassed by the elk (ear, nose, and throat; lung; kidney) classification in which any combination or singular involvement of the major sites can be considered within the wegener's spectrum if s ...19959363097
density-related changes in sexual selection in red sexually dimorphic mammals, high population density is commonly associated with increased mortality of males relative to females and with female-biased adult sex ratios. this paper investigates the consequences of these changes on the distribution of male breeding success, the intensity of competition for females and the opportunity for sexual selection. after the red deer (cervus elaphus l.) population of the north block of rum (inner hebrides) was released from culling, female numbers rose ...19979364790
the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is the major elk-1 phosphatase.the transcription factor elk-1 is a component of ternary complex factor and regulates gene expression in response to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. phosphorylation of the c-terminal domain of elk-1, especially at serine 383, is important for its transactivation activity. recently mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, stress-activated protein kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase have been demonstrated to be elk-1 kinases. however, ...19979367995
documenting the educational content of morning document the educational content of a pediatric morning report and to determine if it represents a curriculum.19979369878
ultrasonographic monitoring of antral follicle development in red deer (cervus elaphus).ovarian follicular dynamics were monitored in 12 surgically modified red deer hinds (ovaries adhered to vaginal wall) by transvaginal real-time ultrasonography during the luteal cycle, anoestrus and induction of superovulation. all 12 hinds showed evidence of regular luteal (plasma progesterone) cyclicity during the breeding season, although luteal tissue was not observed on the ultrasonograms. during the normal luteal cycle (14-22 days) total numbers of follicles > 3 mm did not vary significant ...19979370972
biomechanical implications of mineral content and microstructural variations in cortical bone of horse, elk, and sheep calcanei.artiodactyl and perissodactyl calcanei have been recently introduced as models for examining bone for mechanically mediated adaptation. we have reported substantial regional variations in cortical bone microstructure and mineral content within the same cross-section of mule deer calcanei. in part, these variations may be adaptations accommodating the customary presence of predominantly tension, compression, and shear strain modes in mutually exclusive cortical locations. calcanei from skeletally ...19979372164
two naturally occurring insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain mutants provide evidence that phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation alone is not sufficient for the mediation of insulin's metabolic and mitogenic effects.we have recently reported (1) that two naturally occurring mutants of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain, arg-1174 --> gln and pro-1178 --> leu (gln-1174 and leu1178, respectively), both found in patients with inherited severe insulin resistance, markedly impaired receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation, with both mutant receptors being unable to mediate the stimulation of glycogen synthesis or mitogenesis by insulin when expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells. however, these mutations ...19979374504
restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mycobacterium bovis isolates from captive and free-ranging animals.mycobacterium bovis isolates from cattle, captive elk, and free-ranging mule deer and coyotes were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. dna extracted from each isolate was digested with restriction endonucleases alui and pvuii. dna probes used for southern hybridizations were a 37-base oligonucleotide and a 123-base-pair sequence specific for the insertion sequence is6110 and a plasmid, ptbn12, which contains a polymorphic gc-rich repetitive sequence present in s ...19979376427
genetic analysis of père david's x red deer interspecies hybrids.interspecies hybrids provide unique opportunities for fundamental genetic analyses and for genetic improvement of farmed deer. we have bred f1 hybrids by artificial insemination of red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) with semen from père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus). the male and female f1 père david deer x red deer hybrids were fertile and in matings with red deer have produced over 300 viable backcross hybrids. dna was collected from the backcross progeny as an international reference panel ...19979378910
sambar deer (cervus unicolor) x red deer (c. elaphus) interspecies hybrids.the artificial insemination of 400 red deer hinds with sambar deer semen resulted in 31 pregnancies at day 40 (24 at day 100) and the birth of four calves. only one female calf was born alive. the artificial insemination of 10 sambar deer hinds with red deer semen resulted in five pregnancies at day 40, of which none went to term. gel electrophoresis of three blood proteins confirmed the live calf as the first documented sambar deer x red deer hydrid. g-banded karyotypes were consistent with the ...19979378911
functional inactivation of signalling molecules via transdominant negative mutants. 19979386981
rhob encoding a uv-inducible ras-related small gtp-binding protein is regulated by gtpases of the rho family and independent of jnk, erk, and p38 map kinase.the small gtpase rhob is immediate-early inducible by dna damaging treatments and thus part of the early response of eukaryotic cells to genotoxic stress. to investigate the regulation of this cellular response, we isolated the gene for rhob from a mouse genomic library. sequence analysis of the rhob gene showed that its coding region does not contain introns. the promoter region of rhob harbors regulatory elements such as tata, caat, and sp1 boxes but not consensus sequences for ap-1, elk-1, or ...19979388198
phosphorylation of recombinant n-syndecan (syndecan 3) core protein.the cytoplasmic domain of the syndecan family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans is punctuated by the presence of four regularly spaced tyrosine residues. in this report, we explore the possibility of whether the four tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of n-syndecan (syndecan 3) are potential substrates for phosphorylation by a tyrosine kinase. bacterially expressed elk kinase was used to phosphorylate a series of bacterially expressed n-syndecan fusion proteins. our results clearly demon ...19979388509
vitreous humor analysis for selected biochemical parameters from cervids in idaho.vitreous humor and liver samples were collected from hunter-harvested elk (cervus elaphus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in idaho (usa). concentrations of calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, urea nitrogen and selenium were determined and evaluated according to species, age, gender, geographic location, and time elapsed following death. vitreous humor analysis yielded reliable biochemical information for < or = 96 hr subsequent to the death of the animal. vitreous potassium concentration ...19979391961
fascioloidiasis in game-ranched elk from montana.the distribution of fascioloides magna in game-ranched elk and the potential for spread of the parasite through movement of infected animals was examined in montana (usa). fecal samples (n = 448) collected from captive elk on 29 game ranches were examined for eggs of f. magna by fecal sedimentation. eggs were detected in elk on 5 ranches. this suggests that f. magna has been translocated by infected game-ranched elk. the wide distribution of snail intermediate hosts for f. magna in montana indic ...19979391977
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