[morphometry and histology of the eye of callimico goeldii (thomas 1904, callimiconidae primates) (author's transl)].the histologic anatomy of the eye of callimico goeldii is described and histometric data are communicated. the retina is treated with special attention. the eye of callimico features all characteristics of a visual organ adapted to diurnal activity as is known from many higher primates and man. the well-differentiated fovea centralis and the numerical relations of the three retinal neurons, which are clearly reduced from the periphery towards the center of the retina, indicate a particularly hig ...1978417982
myelolipomas in adult goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii). 19853930820
goeldi's monkey callimico goeldii thomas 1904 preying on snakes. 19715005741
polyspecific association between saguinus fuscicollis, saguinus labiatus, callimico goeldii and other primates in north-western bolivia.during a 5-month field study on the primates of northern bolivia, it was found that two callitrichid species, saguinus fuscicollis and saguinus labiatus, formed apparently stable mixed troops, sharing a common home range, and associating for approximately 50% of their day. the groups joined together each morning and sometimes stayed together for several hours, up until mid-afternoon. in some localities, a callimico goeldii group was also present, and they shared the same home range and associate ...19826813207
hand specialization, sympatry, and mixed-species associations in callitrichines.hand morphology in callitrichines (i.e., tamarins, marmosets, and goeldi's monkey) is correlated with positional and foraging behaviors. this study examines hand shape in callitrichines using an allometric approach. it addresses a series of questions relating hand anatomy, insect foraging behavior, and resource partitioning in callitrichines. the main questions are: 1. do the hands of leontopithecus differ in shape from all other callitrichine taxa allowing it to perform highly manipulative prey ...199910208791
comparative study of oestrogen excretion in female new world monkeys: an overview of non-invasive ovarian monitoring and a new application in evolutionary biology.oestrogen was measured in urine samples collected from captive females representing 7 species of new world monkey to provide an overview of the applicability of such formation in the noninvasive monitoring of ovarian function and to assess the potential applicability of such information in phylogenetic studies. species available for study were the pygmy marmoset, common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, cotton-top tamarin, golden lion tamarin, goeldi's monkey and the owl monkey. oestrone conjugates ...19958529968
determination of ovarian cycle in goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) via the measurement of steroids and peptides in plasma and urine.goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) is an endangered species of new world primate. the present study provides the first description of the non-conception ovarian cycle in this species based on circulating reproductive steroid and peptide hormones. the data obtained were used to validate a non-invasive system for monitoring cyclicity based on urinary reproductive steroid metabolites. nine sexually mature females were studied. in three females, matched blood and urine samples were collected once e ...19938107025
pseudotuberculosis in marmosets, tamarins, and goeldi's monkeys (callithrichidae/callimiconidae) housed at a european zoo.yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an insidious bacterial infectious agent distributed worldwide and endemic to european countries. it has caused several animal deaths and may threaten the effectiveness of breeding projects for endangered species. in this retrospective study, we examine the prevalence of pseudotuberculosis in jersey zoo (channel islands, u.k.) over a period of 16 yr to obtain information that can be applied to prevent the infection. the efforts made to control the disease through va ...199910749440
locomotion in captive leontopithecus and callimico: a multimedia studies, gait analysis, footprint tracks, and observational scan sampling show that, in comparably furnished enclosures, leontopithecus rosalia and callimico goeldii are superficially similar in their use of predefined locomotor patterns but differ profoundly in many underlying details which reflect differences in postcranial morphology. each uses pronograde arboreal quadrupedal walking, quadrupedal bounding, and vertical climbing with comparable frequency, and both shift to bounding while ...19947943192
a field study of the socio-ecology of the goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) in northern bolivia.a 5-month field study on both the distribution and ecology of callimico goeldii was carried out in the seasonally dry rain forest of north-western bolivia. the species was found to be very sparsely distributed (approximately one group per 4 km2) in isolated groups of about 6 animals throughout the study area. callimico was found to associate a great deal with two species of saguinus that inhabit the same region in greater densities. it appears to be a habitat specialist, preferring low-lying and ...19816792016
influence of season on birth distribution in marmosets and tamarins.the cotton-topped tamarin in captivity exhibits a seasonal influence on birth distribution, while the captive silvery marmoset, common marmoset, goeldi's monkey and red-mantled tamarin are not significantly affected.19806780724
goeldi's monkey callimico goeldii thomas 1904 preying on snakes. 19715003336
giant cell aortitis in a south american monkey (callimico goeldii). 19724210688
postpartum ovulation and conception in goeldi's monkey, callimico goeldii. 19892515133
aspects of urinary oestrogen excretion during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in goeldi's monkey, callimico goeldii. 19892515132
urinary excretion of oestradiol-17 beta in the female cycle of goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii). 19892515131
urinary excretion of oestrone conjugates and gonadotrophins during pregnancy in the goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii).oestrone conjugate and lh/cg were measured in the urine of 4 goeldi's monkeys during 6 pregnancies. the gestational length was a mean of 148.8 days from the post-partum lh/cg peak to parturition. cg was first detected a mean of 18.8 days after the lh/cg peak and values remained elevated for a mean of 44.8 days. three different gonadotrophin assays were used to detect lh/cg: the mouse in-vitro interstitial cell bioassay, a mixed heterologous lh ria, and a monkey cg ria. the mouse in-vitro interst ...19902165156
forest use and activity patterns of callimico goeldii in comparison to two sympatric tamarins, saguinus fuscicollis and saguinus labiatus.callimico goeldii, saguinus fuscicollis, and s. labiatus are sympatric in northern bolivia and differ from each other in patterns of spatial and structural use of their environment. c. goeldii has a home range five times larger than that of mixed-species troops of s. fuscicollis and s. labiatus. the larger overlapping home range of c. goeldii allows it to move among saguinus troops, giving it access to a wide range of different microhabitats. all three species use the most common microhabitat in ...200415160367
urinary endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii).a non-invasive study of urinary hormones in 6 captive female goeldi's monkeys provided accurate information on reproductive function. conjugated oestrone accounted for 80-85% of the urinary oestrone and oestradiol measured. radioimmunoassay measurements of conjugated oestrone provided a reliable indicator of cyclic ovarian function (mean cycle length: 24.1 +/- 0.9 days; n = 9) and pregnancy (gestation: 145, 155 days; n = 2). measurements of urinary progesterone and pregnanediol glucuronide were ...19902165155
field observations of goeldi's monkey, callimico goeldii, in northern bolivia. 19911786904
colonic adenocarcinoma and hepatic myelolipomas in a goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii). 19911743604
[taste thresholds and above-threshold responses to fructose solution in relation to diet in callitrichidae primates].taste thresholds and consumption responses to above-threshold concentrations of fructose solutions were determined in eight callitrichid primate species using the "two-bottle preference test". although taste thresholds are relatively similar across species, above-threshold responses may differ considerably between marmosets and tamarins. as fructose concentration increases, the rate of consumption increases less for most marmoset species (cebuella and callithrix spp.) than for goeldi's monkey (c ...19921450982
evaluation of control and treatment of gongylonema spp. infections in callitrichids.numerous cases of gongylonema spp. infection with associated pathological lesions and clinical signs were identified in a collection of goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) (gms) at a zoological park during a 3-yr period. an increase in the incidence of clinical signs in the gms and other callitrichid species prompted an investigation to determine the prevalence of infection within the collection and evaluate treatment protocols. twenty-one callitrichids [nine gms, four golden lion tamarins (leo ...200717469272
niche expansion of a cryptic primate, callimico goeldii, while in mixed species troops.we examined the effects of polyspecific associations on the behavior of one group of callimico goeldii in northwestern bolivia. data were collected for 1 year using focal animal sampling at 5-min intervals, for a total of 1,375 observation hours. in total, c. goeldii formed mixed species troops with five groups of saguinus fuscicollis and six groups of s. labiatus, and these were maintained during 81% of observations. c. goeldii rested more and traveled less while alone than while associated, bu ...200717486597
pasteurella haemolytica infection in a goeldie's adult male callimico goeldii died spontaneously. at necropsy, small whitish foci were found randomly distributed on the liver surface. histologically, the foci were composed of mixed inflammatory cells with predominant polymorphonuclear cell infiltration and central areas of necrosis. microbiological cultures revealed a gram-negative coccoid-bacilli with bipolar staining. biochemical analysis revealed that the microorganism was pasteurella haemolytica.19921307760
spontaneous colonic adenocarcinoma in marmosets.we find that colonic adenocarcinoma, which is an extremely rare neoplasm of all animals except man and carcinogen-treated rodents, occurs spontaneously in some marmosets. the cotton-topped saguinus oedipus oedipus is particularly prone to develop it, but we have found it also at necropsy in callimico goeldii (goeldi's marmoset). numerous metastases to regional lymph nodes develop. the cancers arise de novo in the mucosa and early invade the submucosa and lymphatic apparatus and paracolonic lymph ...1978417316
hematology and serum chemistry values in captive goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).hematologic and biochemical reference values were obtained from 27 healthy, captive, nonanesthetized goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii), a threatened south american primate, using automated techniques. the merits of nonparametric statistical analysis of values over the more common parametric method were demonstrated.199910572859
hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) in their family groups.the aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. to monitor ovarian activity in 14 female goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (pdg) was determined using radioimmunoassay. urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a me ...199910326772
expansion of the known distribution of goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) in south-western brazilian amazonia 199910085518
survey of goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) in northern bolivia 199910085517
synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (primates, platyrrhini).in order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. the dna libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of alouatta guariba clamitans, a. caraya, a. sara, ateles paniscus chamek, lagothrix lagothricha, brachyteles arachnoides, saguinus midas midas, leontopithecus chrysomelas, callimico goeldii, callithrix sp., cebus apella, aotus nig ...200921637455
a reexamination of the phylogenetic position of callimico (primates) incorporating new mitochondrial dna sequence data.the new world monkeys are divided into two main groups, callitrichidae and cebidae. callimico goeldii shares traits with both the cebidae and the callitrichidae. recent morphological phyletic studies generally place callimico as the most basal member of the callitrichidae. in contrast, genetic studies (immunological, restriction fragment, and sequence data) have consistently placed callimico somewhere within the callitrichidae, not basal to this clade. a dna sequence data set from the terminal 2 ...19989664694
physiological responses to parental separation and a strange situation are related to parental care received in juvenile goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).the relationship between parental care received and physiological and behavioral responses to parental separation, isolation, and reunion was investigated in seven juvenile goeldi's monkey living in their family groups. physiological responses were measured non-invasively: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via urinary cortisol output and the autonomic nervous system via piloerection on the tail. parent-infant aggression demonstrated high intergroup variation and predicted: (a) an increase ...19989664169
dna evidence on the phylogenetic systematics of new world monkeys: support for the sister-grouping of cebus and saimiri from two unlinked nuclear genes.previous inferences from epsilon-globin gene sequences on cladistic relationships among the 16 extant genera of ceboidea (the new world monkeys) were tested by strength of grouping and bootstrap values for the clades in the most parsimonious trees found: for this epsilon data set enlarged with additional cebus and saimiri orthologues; for another nuclear dna sequence data set consisting of irbp (interstitial retinol-binding protein gene) intron 1 orthologues; and for tandemly combined epsilon an ...19958845968
an investigation into sexual motivation and behavior in female goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii): effect of ovarian state, mate familiarity and mate choice.four adult female callimico were studied in terms of their sexual motivation relative to three unrelated adult males using an operant paradigm followed by a pair test or a two-male choice test. reductions in urinary cortisol concentrations and the duration of immobility were used as indicators of subjects' adjustment to the experimental situation. when females were tested with unfamiliar males there was no effect of ovarian state on operant or species-typical measures of female sexual motivation ...19958748512
sperm morphology assessment in captive neotropical primates.the main objective of this study was to evaluate sperm morphology in four neotropical primate species to compare the sperm morphological traits and the sperm morphometric parameters as a basis for establishing normative sperm standards for each species. data from 80 ejaculates collected from four primate species, callithrix jacchus, callimico goeldii, alouatta caraya and ateles geoffroyi, were analysed for detection of sperm morphological alterations using subjective world health organization (w ...201627260333
the place of callimico goeldii in the callitrichine phylogenetic tree: evidence from von willebrand factor gene intron ii sequences.sequences of a 0.9-kb dna segment spanning intron 11 of the von willebrand factor gene (vwf) were determined for 21 individuals of 19 primate species. the results of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of these vwf sequences are congruent with previous molecular findings from other nonlinked nuclear genomic loci which divide the platyrrhine superfamily ceboidea into three monophyletic families: cebidae, atelidae, and pitheciidae. the vwf results strongly support the taxon callitric ...199910603266
infant carrying in family groups of goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) is closely related to marmosets and tamarins. like marmosets and tamarins, c. goeldii lives in family groups, and fathers and older offspring (helpers) participate in infant carrying. in contrast to the typical twin births in marmosets and tamarins, c. goeldii has only single offspring, and paternal carrying is delayed. we studied infant carrying following 26 births in eight groups of c. goeldii, testing hypotheses proposed in the literature on infant carrying ...200111170167
first outbreak of callitrichid hepatitis in germany: genetic characterization of the causative lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains.callitrichid hepatitis (ch) is a highly fatal, rodent-borne zoonosis of new world primates (family callitrichidae) caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv). it is unclear whether virulence in callitrichidae is associated with specific genetic or phylogenetic markers of the virus as only a partial s rna sequence of a single ch-associated isolate is known. in a period of 10 months, three pygmy marmosets (cebuella pygmaea) and one goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) died from ch in a ger ...200111384220
benefits of polyspecific associations for the goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii).polyspecific associations are an important component of callimico goeldii behavior and ecology. on average, callimico goeldii was found in proximity to or in vocal contact with saguinus troops (s. fuscicollis and s. labiatus) during 53% of all time intervals sampled. polyspecific associations varied considerably between seasons, however, with association rates peaking during the wet-season month of february (89%) and declining in the dry season, with the lowest rate (13%) in july. the primary be ...200111443630
group demographics and dispersal in a wild group of goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii). 200111490139
molecular cytotaxonomy of new world monkeys (platyrrhini) - comparative analysis of five species by multi-color chromosome painting gives evidence for a classification of callimico goeldii within the family of callitrichidae.chromosome rearrangements are considered as "rare genomic changes" and can provide useful markers and even landmarks for reconstructing phylogenies complementary to dna sequence data and bio-morphological comparisons. here, we applied multi-directional chromosome painting to reconstruct the chromosome phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among the new world monkey (platyrrhini) species callithrix argentata, cebuella pygmaea, saguinus oedipus, callithrix jacchus and callimico goeldii. the res ...200111856883
basal rate of metabolism and temperature regulation in goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii).basal rate of metabolism (bmr) and temperature regulation are described for goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii), a threatened new world primate species of the family callitrichidae. measurements were conducted on sleeping individuals during the night, using a special nestbox designed to serve as a respirometry chamber, such that test animals remained undisturbed in their customary surroundings. oxygen consumption was measured at ambient temperatures between 17.5 and 32 degrees c for 10 individua ...200312781828
resting energy metabolism of goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) is similar to that of other callitrichids.the resting metabolic rates (rmrs) of six adult goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) were measured using standard methods of open circuit respirometry during both the active (daytime) and inactive (nighttime) circadian phases for this species. one subject was measured both while she was pregnant and after she delivered a full-term, stillborn infant. inactive-phase rmr within thermal neutrality (above 27.5 degrees c) averaged 288.5 +/- 30.8 ml o2/hr; active-phase rmr within thermal neutrality ave ...200312784286
prolactin and paternal care: comparison of three species of monogamous new world monkeys (callicebus cupreus, callithrix jacchus, and callimico goeldii).the authors explored whether prolactin is associated with paternal care in 3 monkey species: titi monkey (callicebus cupreus), common marmoset (callithrix jacchus), and goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii). they compared prolactin levels in fathers before and after infant birth as well as between fathers and nonfathers. c. cupreus fathers carry infants almost exclusively, have higher prolactin levels than nonfathers, but show no prolactin increase after infant birth. c. goeldii fathers carry infa ...200312856787
mothers, not fathers, determine the delayed onset of male carrying in goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii).in biparental species, females are thought to accept and even to seek male assistance in rearing of the young. in this study, we present data that suggests that goeldi's monkey females (callimico goeldii) actually reject male parental care for a certain period. in callimico, which have biparental care, mothers carry the infant exclusively for the first three weeks despite the fact that fathers are interested in their infants directly after birth. fathers initiated significantly more body contact ...200314624749
susceptibility of peritoneal macrophage from different species of neotropical primates to ex vivo leishmania (l.) infantum chagasi-infection.this study examined the susceptibility of peritoneal macrophage (pm) from the neotropical primates: callithrix jacchus, callithrix penicillata, saimiri sciureus, aotus azarae infulatus and callimico goeldii to ex vivo leishmania (l.) infantum chagasi-infection, the etiological agent of american visceral leishmaniasis (avl), as a screening assay for evaluating the potential of these non-human primates as experimental models for studying avl. the pm-susceptibility to infection was accessed by the ...201222499423
molecular analysis of sv-40-cal, a new slow growing sv-40 strain from the kidney of a caged new world monkey with fatal renal disease.a decline of the callimico goeldii population in american zoos is presently occurring due to glomerulonephritis of unknown etiology. we hypothesized that this emerging idiopathic fatal renal disease (ifrd) was caused by a virus. we therefore attempted to isolate virus from the kidneys three c. goeldi in illinois that had ifrd. along with other viruses, simian virus 40 (sv-40) strain cal was isolated. sv-40-cal is currently the slowest-growing natural isolate of sv-40 in cv-1 cells. inefficient s ...200415284478
distribution and density of callimico goeldii in the department of pando, bolivia.a survey of the distribution and density of callimico goeldii was conducted at five sites across northwestern bolivia, in the department of pando. c. goeldii was found at two sites north of the manuripi river, with high densities at one site located along the acre river. estimates of habitat availability at these sites suggest that c. goeldii reaches high densities in areas with low human density and well established and extensive bamboo forests. these results, when reviewed with those of prior ...200616477597
social organization, reproduction and rearing strategies of callimico goeldii: new clues from the wild.the callitrichines are a specialized radiation of primates that are characterized in part by variable social systems and cooperative infant care. callimico goeldii, unlike the other callitrichines, have single rather than twin offspring, reducing the need for allocare and permitting synchronous breeding within groups. low mortality rates among offspring and unstable social groups are suggested to be possible factors that have led to single births among c. goeldii. single offspring may benefit fr ...201011490131
patterns of positional behavior in mixed-species troops of callimico goeldii, saguinus labiatus, and saguinus fuscicollis in northwestern brazil.we present the results of a 4-month field investigation of positional behavior, vertical ranging, and species differences in limb proportions and body mass in a mixed-species troop of saguinus fuscicollis, saguinus labiatus, and callimico goeldii in northwestern brazil. despite certain similarities in overall positional repertoire, patterns of positional behavior varied significantly between species. travel in callimico occurred principally in the lowest levels of the canopy, and was characteriz ...200111329165
body mass of wild callimico goeldii. 19989885339
melanotic ependymoma in a goeldi's marmoset (callimico goeldii).a spontaneous melanotic ependymoma was observed in the brain of an adult female goeldi's marmoset (callimico goeldii). the mass completely occupied the left lateral ventricle, rupturing the fornix and corpus callosum, and compressing the adjacent neuropil. special histochemical techniques, including melanin bleach, periodic acid-schiff, perls iron and phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, demonstrated the neoplasms to be an ependymoma with a rare melanotic differentiation.19957563011
confirmation of the taxonomic position of callimico goeldi (primates, platyrrhini) on the basis of its highly repeated dna patterns.the systematic position of callimico goeldi has been analyzed by comparison of its highly repeated dna fragments with those of three species of callithricidae and two species of cebidae. our data, in agreement with those obtained by other authors by means of cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques, are in favour of the classification of c. goeldi in the family callithricidae.19938364762
radiographic evaluation of neonatal skeletal development in callimico goeldii reveals closer similarity to callithrix jacchus than to saguinus oedipus.the phylogenetic affinities of the neotropical goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) have long been a matter of debate. whereas most morphological evidence appears to place callimico in a sister group position relative to the callitrichidae, genetic studies place c. goeldii within the callitrichidae and suggest that it is more closely related to marmosets than to tamarins. the present study presents the first radiographic analysis comparing the secondary limb bone ossification of newborn c. goeldi ...200717146795
response to novel food and the role of social influences in common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).neophobia, defined as showing caution toward novel features of the environment, is widespread in birds and mammals; it can be affected by ecology, early experience, and social context. in this study, we aimed to (i) investigate the response to novel food in adult common marmosets and goeldi's monkeys and (ii) assess the role of social influences. we used an experimental paradigm employed previously with capuchin monkeys and children, in which a subject (observer) was presented with a novel food ...200717387731
exudates as a fallback food for callimico goeldii.fallback foods have been defined as resources for which a species has evolved specific masticatory and digestive adaptations, and are consumed principally when preferred foods are scarce. in the present field investigation, we examine fungi, fruit, and exudate consumption in one group of callimico goeldii in order to determine the importance of exudates as a fallback food for this species. based on a total of 1,198 hr of quantitative behavioral data collected between mid-november 2002-august 200 ...200918985770
structure of the oocyst and excystation of sporozoites of isospora endocallimici n. sp., from the marmoset callimico goeldii. 19744212356
isospora callimico n sp, (coccidia: eimeriidae) from goeldi's marmoset (callimico goeldii). 19744365335
maternal and paternal periods in the development of infant callimico goeldii. 19734632103
chromosomes of callithricidae with special reference to an xx-'xo' sex chromosome system in goeldi's marmoset (callimico goeldii thomas 1904). 19704992326
[contribution to the morphology and early body development of the marmoset callimico goeldii (thomas, 1904)]. 19674963047
life span, reproductive output, and reproductive opportunity in captive goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).in the absence of long-term field studies, demographic and reproductive records from animals housed in zoos and research laboratories are a valuable tool for the study of life history variables relating to reproduction. in this study, we analyzed studbook records of more than 2,000 individuals born over a 40-year period (1965-2004) to describe life history patterns of captive goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) housed in north america and europe. using kaplan-meier survival analysis methods, we ...201020131357
mycophagy and its influence on habitat use and ranging patterns in callimico goeldii.mycophagy has been documented in a number of species of marmosets and lion tamarins (callitrichinae) but its effect on ranging behavior is not known. we present the results of 10 years of research on five groups of goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) at a field site in northwestern bolivia. we studied the diet and ranging behavior of two of the groups. on average, groups contained 4.5 individuals (range 2.0-9.0), but they gradually decreased in size until only the breeding female remained in the ...201020209492
identification of sperm head subpopulations with defined pleiomorphic characteristics in ejaculates of captive goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pleiomorphisms and its influence on the distribution of sperm morphometric subpopulations in ejaculates from the vulnerable goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) by using a combination of computerized analysis system and principal component analysis (pca) methods. each sperm head was measured for four primary spermatozoal head dimensional parameters (area [a (μm(2))], perimeter [p (μm)], length [l (μm)] and width [w (μm)]) and three head shape ...201223294901
comment on the evolution of claw-like nails in callitrichids (marmosets/tamarins).a recently proposed scenario for the evolution of a unified complex of exudativory, vertical clinging, and claw-like nails in callitrichids is examined. consideration of behaviors and morphologies exhibited by callimico goeldii leads to a decoupling of this "complex," with the early occurrence of claws and vertical clinging in the callitrichid lineage and only later, in some descendents, the development of exudativory and possible related behaviors.20063089022
fatal angiostrongylus dujardini infection in callitrichid monkeys and suricates in an italian zoological garden.this paper reports four fatal cases of metastrongylid nematode angiostrongylus dujardini infection observed in a saguinus oedipus and a callimico goeldii monkey and in two suricates (suricata suricatta). all animals were kept in captivity in a zoo of central italy. the two monkeys died with no premonitory signs, while the two-month-old suricates showed malaise, anorexia and tachypnea for a few days prior to death. cardiomegaly and/or granulomatous pneumonia were the major anatomo-pathological fi ...201627094227
infection of a goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) with a european strain of echinococcus multilocularis in a canadian institution.a 12-yr-old female goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) in british columbia, canada was diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis (ae) on postmortem examination. echinococcus multilocularis has been identified in several species of nonhuman primates, most frequently old world primates, in zoos and research facilities in europe and asia. the strain affecting this monkey was identified as a european haplotype, indistinguishable from e. multilocularis recently identified in several canids in british co ...201526056899
mecp2, a gene associated with rett syndrome in humans, shows conserved coding regions, independent alu insertions, and a novel transcript across primate evolution.the methyl-cpg binding protein two gene (mecp2) encodes a multifunctional protein comprising two isoforms involved in nuclear organization and regulation of splicing and mrna template activity. this gene is normally expressed in all tissues, with a higher expression level in the brain during neuronal maturation. loss of mecp2 function is the primary cause of rett syndrome (rtt) in humans, a dominant, x-linked disorder dramatically affecting neural and motor development.201526148505
outer retinal degeneration in two closely related goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).this case report comprises studies of four goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) from the same enclosure. globe samples from two related c goeldii (the female c goeldii and her male offspring) were available for a histopathological evaluation. both cases presented histopathologically evident outer retinal degeneration with differences in severity. there was marked outer retinal atrophy characterized by loss of the outer and inner photoreceptor segments, and depletion of the outer retinal nuclear ...202031746085
evaluation of in-house urine dipstick, reference laboratory urinalysis, and urine protein: creatinine ratio from a colony of callimicos (callimico goeldii).this study evaluated results from an in-house (ih) laboratory dipstick, a reference laboratory (rl) urinalysis, and urine protein : creatinine (upc) ratios from callimicos ( callimico goeldii ). urine was collected from 25 individuals comprising a single colony under professional care in north america and compared based on laboratory, sex, age class, and presence or absence of a normal urinalysis. urine specific gravity and ph between laboratories were statistically different. overall, 56% to 10 ...201628080911
fecal glucocorticoid metabolite responses to management stressors and social change in four species of callitrichine monkeys.the use of enzyme immunoassays (eia) for the non-invasive measurement of glucocorticoids provides a valuable tool for monitoring health and welfare in sensitive species. we validated methods for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fgm) using the response to veterinary exams for four species of callitrichine monkeys: golden lion tamarin (leontopithecus rosalia, n = 7), callimico (callimico goeldii, n = 2), pied tamarin (saguinus bicolor, n = 2), and white-fronted marmoset (callithrix geof ...201626831854
retrospective review of the prevalence of myelolipoma in goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).myelolipomas are mesenchymal tumors composed of adipose and hematopoietic tissue. they have been reported in many species, including domestic dogs and cats, birds, mustelids, wild felids, and nonhuman primates. myelolipomas in callitrichidae have been reported at postmortem examination and rarely antemortem. multiple cases of hepatic myelolipomas associated with morbidity in chicago zoological society's collection of goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) prompted a global retrospective study to d ...201526056879
environmental complexity and feeding enrichment can mitigate effects of space constraints in captive callitrichids.non-human primates housed in zoos and laboratories often exhibit reduced activity and this poses welfare concerns. we examined the effects of enclosure types of differing size and environmental complexity on the activities of two species of callitrichids. we found that cotton-top tamarins housed in an enclosure of larger size and more environmental complexity showed higher activity levels, which was mainly contributed by more feeding/foraging activity. by contrast, goeldi's monkeys housed in an ...201626025915
determination of vertebral heart score in goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) are callitrichid primates commonly kept in zoological collections, and to date, no cardiac parameters have been recorded. the vertebral heart score (vhs) is an objective method of evaluation of cardiac size well documented in domestic mammals, and the aim of this study was to determine the vhs in goeldi's monkeys.201525912407
lost and found: the third molars of callimico goeldii and the evolution of the callitrichine postcanine dentition.this study tests the hypothesis that the third molars of callimico goeldii represent a reversal in evolutionary tooth loss within the callitrichinae. loss of third molars is part of a suite of unusual characters that has been used to unite marmosets and tamarins in a clade to the exclusion of callimico. however, molecular phylogenetic studies provide consistent support for the hypothesis that marmosets are more closely related to callimico than to tamarins, raising the possibility that some or a ...201525887279
evolutionary genetics and implications of small size and twinning in callitrichine world monkeys (nwms) are characterized by an extensive size range, with clawed nwms (subfamily callitrichinae, or callitrichines) such as the common marmoset manifesting diminutive size and unique reproductive adaptations. perhaps the most notable of these adaptations is their propensity toward multiple gestations (i.e., dichorionic twins and trichorionic triplets). indeed, with the exception of goeldi's monkey (callimico), callitrichine singleton pregnancies rarely occur. multiple gestation ...201424379383
isolation and characterization of chitin-degrading micro-organisms from the faeces of goeldi's monkey, callimico goeldii.the objective of this study was the isolation and characterization of chitin-degrading micro-organisms from the faeces of the insectivorous goeldi's monkey, callimico goeldii.201424033399
positive selection along the evolution of primate mitogenomes.the mitochondrial genomes of four neotropical primates, aotus infulatus, chiropotes israelita, callimico goeldii and callicebus lugens were sequenced and annotated. phylogenetic reconstructions with mitochondrial genes of other 66 primates showed a similar arrangement to a topology based on nuclear genes. screening for positive selection identified 15 codons in 7 genes along 9 independent lineages, three with two or more genes and five in internal nodes, ruling out false positive estimates. mito ...201323756226
why feed on fungi? the nutritional content of sporocarps consumed by buffy-headed marmosets, callithrix flaviceps (primates: callitrichidae), in southeastern brazil.the typical diet of callithrix marmosets is based on gums, although fungi are the dietary staple of a single group of callithrix flaviceps studied in the augusto ruschi biological reserve, in southeastern brazil. here, we present the nutritional composition of two species of mycocitrus fungi consumed by c. flaviceps, and discuss possible determinants of the preference of the marmosets for fungi over gums. the fungi were high in sugar/fiber and poor in proteins, and were similar in composition to ...201121271277
maternal care and infant development in callimico goeldii and callithrix jacchus.callimico goeldii gives birth to single offspring, whereas other callitrichids, including callithrix jacchus, twin. this study compares maternal effort and infant development in c. goeldii and c. jacchus; it is the first study to look at nursing frequency. infants were observed from birth for 7 weeks in two captive groups each of c. goeldii and c. jacchus. c. goeldii mothers physiologically invested the same or less than c. jacchus mothers. c. goeldii mothers gained the same amount of weight dur ...201020339900
phylogenomics of species from four genera of new world monkeys by flow sorting and reciprocal chromosome painting.the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of new world monkeys (platyrrhini) are difficult to distinguish on the basis of morphology and because diagnostic fossils are rare. recently, molecular data have led to a radical revision of the traditional taxonomy and phylogeny of these primates. here we examine new hypotheses of platyrrhine evolutionary relationships by reciprocal chromosome painting after chromosome flow sorting of species belonging to four genera of platyrrhines included in the c ...200717767727
different ovarian responses to potential mates underlie species-specific breeding strategies in common marmoset and goeldi's monkey.callitrichids are cooperative breeders, characterized by obligate twinning, extensive paternal care, and monopolization of reproduction by the dominant female. this is the case in the common marmoset, and in common marmoset groups of more than one adult female, subordinate females are typically acyclic consistent with infertility. however, one callitrichid, goeldi's monkey, gives birth to singletons and exhibits low paternal care. given these reproductive traits of goeldi's monkey, we hypothesiz ...200818471815
fatal disseminated encephalitozoonosis in a captive, adult goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) and subsequent serosurvey of the exposed conspecifics.a captive, adult male goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) (gm) presented in acute respiratory distress 4 yr after importation into the united states from europe. radiographs and echocardiogram were consistent with heart failure. the monkey died within 24 hr of presentation. necropsy findings included multicentric arteritis and aortitis with aneurysm associated with microsporidian organisms morphologically consistent with encephalitozoon species. polymerase chain reaction confirmed organisms were ...200818634213
identification and characterization of a subtelomeric satellite dna in callitrichini monkeys.repetitive dnas are abundant fast-evolving components of eukaryotic genomes, which often possess important structural and functional roles. despite their ubiquity, repetitive dnas are poorly studied when compared with the genic fraction of genomes. here, we took advantage of the availability of the sequenced genome of the common marmoset callithrix jacchus to assess its satellite dnas (satdnas) and their distribution in callitrichini. after clustering analysis of all reads and comparisons by sim ...201728854689
comparison of 3 methods for preventing perianesthetic hypothermia in callimicos (callimico goeldii).perianesthetic hypothermia is one of the most common complications in veterinary anesthesia, especially in small patients with a large body surface area to mass ratio. during anesthesia, body heat can be lost through 4 mechanisms-radiation, convection, conduction, and evaporation-but anesthetists frequently address only one mechanism at a time. here we sought to evaluate 3 methods of preventing perianesthetic hypothermia in callimicos (callimico goeldii). in our experience, these small nhp routi ...201728535867
comparison of 3 methods for preventing perianesthetic hypothermia in callimicos (callimico goeldii).perianesthetic hypothermia is one of the most common complications in veterinary anesthesia, especially in small patients with a large body surface area to mass ratio. during anesthesia, body heat can be lost through 4 mechanisms-radiation, convection,conduction, and evaporation-but anesthetists frequently address only one mechanism at a time. here we sought to evaluate 3 methods of preventing perianesthetic hypothermia in callimicos (callimico goeldii). in our experience, these smallnhp routine ...201728417829
hepatic myelolipoma in two goeldi's monkeys from south america held captive.two cases of hepatic myelolipoma in goeldi's monkeys from south america are described. one was a female evaluated due progressive abdominal distension. ultrasound and computed tomography detected hepatic mass. partial hepatectomy was performed, but the monkey died after surgery. case 2 was a male that died suddenly, showing non-specific clinical signs.201627386798
a comparative study of litter size and sex composition in a large dataset of callitrichine many birds and mammals, the size and sex composition of litters can have important downstream effects for individual offspring. primates are model organisms for questions of cooperation and conflict, but the factors shaping interactions among same-age siblings have been less-studied in primates because most species bear single young. however, callitrichines (marmosets, tamarins, and lion tamarins) frequently bear litters of two or more, thereby providing the opportunity to ask whether variati ...201931389057
angiostrongylus cantonensis central nervous system infection in captive callitrichids in texas.angiostrongylus cantonensis is a tropical lungworm of rats known for central nervous system migration in aberrant primate hosts. here, we describe a. cantonensis infection in three captive callitrichids from a texas zoo. the affected animals included a goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii), a cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), and a pied tamarin (saguinus bicolor) that ranged from 8 to 18 years old. clinical signs included lethargy, ataxia, and seizures. histologically, these animals had an eo ...202032057389
characterization of the phylogenetic diversity of two novel species belonging to the genus bifidobacterium: bifidobacterium cebidarum sp. nov. and bifidobacterium leontopitheci sp. nov.two bifidobacterium strains, i.e., 2176bt and 2177bt, were isolated from golden-headed lion tamarin (leontopithecus chrysomelas) and goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii). isolates were shown to be gram-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating, facultative anaerobic and d-fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive. phylogenetic analyses based on 16s rrna sequences, multilocus sequences (including hsp60, rpob, dnaj, dnag and clpc genes) and the core genome revealed that bifidobacterial strains 2176 ...202032065574
cutaneous demodicosis and uv-induced skin neoplasia in two goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii).two nonrelated goeldi's monkeys (callimico goeldii) from the same enclosure developed multifocal alopecia with hyperkeratotic to ulcerative skin lesions on the lower abdomen and inner thighs. necropsy samples of the first animal showed hyperplastic dermatitis together with in situ carcinoma and intralesional demodex organisms. the second monkey developed similar lesions 2.5 yr later. skin scrapings and biopsies also revealed demodex mites within hyperplastic dermatitis. long-term treatment with ...201931260217
characterization of the phylogenetic diversity of five novel species belonging to the genus bifidobacterium: bifidobacterium castoris sp. nov., bifidobacterium callimiconis sp. nov., bifidobacterium goeldii sp. nov., bifidobacterium samirii sp. nov. and bifidobacterium dolichotidis sp. nov.five bifidobacterium strains, i.e. 2020bt, 2028bt, 2033bt, 2034bt and 2036bt, were isolated from european beaver (castor fiber), goeldi's marmoset (callimicogoeldii), black-capped squirrel monkey (saimiriboliviensissubsp. peruviensis) and patagonian mara (dolichotispatagonum). all of these isolates were shown to be gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, d-fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive, non-motile and non-sporulating. phylogenetic analyses based on 16s rrna gene sequences, multiloc ...201930789326
transmission of pterygodermatites nycticebi in a colony of goeldi's monkeys ( callimico goeldii) and evaluation of treatment and control.over a 2-yr period, four goeldi's monkeys ( callimico goeldii) died in a private zoo due to infections with the spirurid nematode pterygodermatites nycticebi. therapeutic measures with different anthelmintics were not successful. due to the severe consequences caused by these infections, different actions were initiated, including sanitation measures and controlling of potential intermediate hosts (coprophagous arthropods). to identify possible intermediate hosts, arthropod species detected in t ...201830592931
comparison of transcutaneous ultrasound and computed tomography evaluation of kidney size and evaluation of adrenal gland size using ultrasound in a colony of callimicos ( callimico goeldii).both kidney and adrenal gland disease have been identified in callimicos ( callimico goeldii). ultrasonography (us) and computed tomography (ct) are routinely utilized in veterinary patients with suspected renal or adrenal disease to determine size, shape, and echogenicity of these organs. no previous us and ct kidney and adrenal gland measurements have been published for callimicos. in this study, 14 callimicos were anesthetized using isoflurane via facemask to evaluate kidney and adrenal gland ...201830592929
collection, evaluation, and coagulum dissolution of semen from goeldi's monkey, callimico goeldii.research on neotropical primates' reproduction is necessary due to the lack of available information and the increasing threat to these species. callimico goeldii is listed as vulnerable on the iucn red list of threatened species. this study aimed to test rectal electrostimulation for semen collection and evaluate seminal characteristics. therefore, semen from 6 captive goeldi's monkeys was collected and, for the first time, seminal characteristics are described. coagulum formation was noted in ...201729017150
non-invasive detection and monitoring of pregnancy and the postpartum period in goeldi's monkey (callimico goeldii) using urinary pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide.pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide (pdg) was measured in the urine of six goeldi's monkeys during pregnancy and the postpartum period. a stress-free, non-invasive urine sampling technique permitted frequent collection of urine from members of the breeding group. a comparison of the periovulatory profiles of pdg and estrone conjugates revealed close agreement. the day of ovulation was defined as that immediately preceding a 2-4 day period with two consecutive urine samples for which the pdg content was ...199431936962
the callimico goeldii (primates, platyrrhini) genome: karyology and middle repetitive (line-1) dna sequences.callimico goeldii (goeldi's marmoset) is a neotropical primate with 2n = 47,x1x2y in the male, and 2n = 48,x1x1x2x2 in the female, due to a y-autosome translocation. karyological comparisons of callimico, callithrix jacchus and cebus apella suggest that callimico is a member of the callitrichidae. isozyme data and restriction mapping of line-1 repetitive elements in these species and in a variety of other neotropical primates confirm these findings and supply strong evidence for including callim ...19892560695
satellite dna sequences in the neotropical marmoset callimico goeldii (primates, platyrrhini).two families of tandemly repeated satellite dnas were isolated from the neotropical primate callimico goeldii (goeldi's marmoset). one satellite, cgoa, is over 70% a + t and has a monomer length of 338 bp. the other satellite, cgob, is 50% a + t and has a monomer length of 916 bp. both cgoa and cgob hybridize strongly with callimico dna, but not with the dna of other new and old world primates. based upon a neutral substitution rate of 1.5 x 10(-9)/site per year for primates, sequence data from ...19892516790
chromosomal affinities of callimico goeldii (platyrrhini) and characterization of a y-autosome translocation in the male. 19883149256
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