route of bcg administration in possums affects protection against bovine tuberculosis.the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is the major wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis in new zealand. control of bovine tuberculosis in farmed animals requires measures to reduce the transmission of m. bovis from wildlife. possums were vaccinated with bcg intranasally by aerosol spray, orally or subcutaneously to compare the efficacy of these three routes on protection against challenge with virulent m. bovis. possums vaccinated with bcg by the intranasal or subcutaneous ...199516031880
effects of experimental infection with leptospira interrogans serovar balcanica on the health of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).data on changes in the condition and feeding behaviour of captive brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) following an experimental infection with leptospira interrogans serovar balcanica are presented. the daily food intake of nine experimentally infected possums was recorded for 47 days before and 24 days after balcanica inoculation (0.5 ml intraperitoneally containing about 10(8) organisms). body weight was recorded seven times between 42 days before and 96 days after inoculation. the mean ...199716031939
broad-scale possum and ferret correlates of macroscopic mycobacterium bovis infection in feral ferret examine the relationships between the prevalence of macroscopic mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis) in feral ferrets (mustela furo), the abundance of ferrets, and the abundance of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) .199816032040
temporal patterns in bovine tuberculosis in a brushtail possum population contiguous with infected cattle in the ahaura valley, determine temporal and spatial patterns of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in a population of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) free from commercial and recreational hunting and living contiguously with livestock, and to relate these patterns to measures of possum health and density.199916032087
effects of sustained control of brushtail possums on levels of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and brushtail possum populations from hohotaka, new examine the effect of reducing the abundance of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) on the distribution and prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis, tb) in possums and the incidence of tb in domestic cattle on a group of farms in the central north island, new zealand.199916032090
the pathogenesis of experimental endo-bronchial mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).to study the nature and development of experimentally induced respiratory tuberculosis in possums and compare the lesions observed with those seen in the natural disease.199916032101
a behaviour study on the potential for direct transmission of tuberculosis from possums (trichosurus vulpecula) to alpacas (lama pacos), and the converse from alpacas to evaluate the potential for the direct transmission of tuberculosis from possums to alpacas, and vice versa.199916032104
the scavenging behaviour of ferrets (mustela furo), feral cats (felis domesticus), possums (trichosurus vulpecula), hedgehogs (erinaceus europaeus) and harrier hawks (circus approximans) on pastoral farmland in new zealand: implications for bovine tuberculosis identify species that scavenge carcasses in pastoral habitats in new zealand; to determine whether there were interspecific or intraspecific differences in scavenging behaviour and; to document any interspecific or intraspecific interactions occurring at carcasses.200016032148
anthelmintics for the control of nematode infections in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).to determine the efficacy of eprinomectin, doramectin and a combination of albendazole and levamisole in suppressing or eliminating nematode infections or faecal egg counts (fec) in possums naturally or experimentally infected with parastrongyloides trichosuri, paraustrostrongylus trichosuri and trichostrongylus colubriformis.200116032166
habitat-related prevalence of macroscopic mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), hohonu range, westland, new identify broadscale habitat factors influencing the prevalence of macroscopic mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) at a site in westland, new zealand.200116032168
the relationship between prevalence of mycobacterium bovis infection in feral ferrets and possum determine the relationship between the prevalence of macroscopic mycobacterium bovis infection in feral ferrets (mustela furo) and the abundance of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).200116032192
natural transmission of mycobacterium bovis infection in captive brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).to examine natural transmission of bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis infection) in captive brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) and to determine if this mode of transmission could be employed to challenge possums in vaccination studies.200216032262
resolution of mycobacterium bovis infection in wild brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is the principal wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis in new zealand (morris and pfeiffer 1995). tuberculosis in possums is a progressive, fatal infection. the complete resolution of infection in possums has not been reported. the purpose of this communication is to present two cases of complete and spontaneous resolution of tuberculosis in wild, naturally infected possums. during an 11-year (1989-2000) longitudinal study of a possum population a ...200316032289
the re-emergence of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) after localised possum examine the spatial and temporal pattern of mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) infection in a population of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) after localised possum eradication.200316032303
experimental infection with bcg as a model of tuberculosis in the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).to study the development and progression of lesions produced following experimental inoculations of possums with bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) pasteur strain 1173p2 and to compare these with lesions that occurred following natural mycobacterium bovis infection.200316032312
mortality rate and movements of brushtail possums with clinical tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) describe the mortality rate and movements of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with clinical tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) from a site in native podocarp/hardwood forest, in the orongorongo valley, wellington.200316032321
ecotoxicity of sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) to soil organisms.sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) is applied as a vertebrate pesticide in new zealand for control of introduced mammalian pests. despite its widespread use, little is known about the soil ecotoxicity of 1080. therefore, the hazard of 1080 to soil invertebrates, plants, and soil microorganisms was evaluated in a series of controlled laboratory tests. no earthworm (eisenia fetida) mortality was reported with 1080 exposures up to 865 mg/kg soil. the lowest-observable-effect concentration and the ...200516111002
ranging behaviour and duration of survival of wild brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) infected with mycobacterium quantify the duration of survival of possums (trichosurus vulpecula) infected with mycobacterium bovis, and identify aspects of their behaviour which may influence the likelihood of disease transmission to domestic stock or wildlife.200516220120
uptake and persistence of the vertebrate pesticide, sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080), in plants of cultural importance.field research was undertaken to determine if naturally occurring plants utilised by a maori (the indigenous people of new zealand) community for food and medicine would take up the toxin sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080) from baits used to control the brush-tailed possum trichosurus vulpecula. single baits were placed at the base of individual plants of two species, pikopiko (asplenium bulbiferum) and karamuramu (coprosma robusta). plants were sampled at various times up to 56 days, and ...200616317481
the role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk.tuberculosis is present in wild animal populations in north america, europe, africa and new zealand. some wild animal populations are a source of infection for domestic livestock and humans. an understanding of the potential of each wild animal population as a reservoir of infection for domestic animals is reached by determining the nature of the disease in each wild animal species, the routes of infection for domestic species and the risk of domestic animals encountering an infectious dose. the ...200616326039
infection of naïve, free-living brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with the nematode parasite parastrongyloides trichosuri and its subsequent spread.despite the importance of spatial processes in host-parasite interactions, parasite dispersal has been the subject of few experimental studies. introduced marsupial common brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) are a major environmental and agricultural pest in new zealand. parastrongyloides trichosuri, an intestinal rhabdiasoid nematode parasite specific to possums, is being evaluated as a self-disseminating delivery system for engineered fertility control vaccines. this study addressed whet ...200616442541
trends in the incidence of tuberculosis in possums and livestock, associated with differing control intensities applied to possum determine the trap-catch index (an estimate of abundance) of brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) populations infected with bovine tuberculosis (tb; mycobacterium bovis) that must be achieved, and the length of time such an index must be maintained, for tb to be eliminated from possum populations and adjacent livestock.200616596155
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) from urban sydney, australia.the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) has well adapted to increasing urbanization, resulting in greater interaction with humans and their domestic pets. wildlife species in urban areas face a higher risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens and may be affected by parasites hosted by cats (toxoplasma gondii) or dogs (neospora caninum), yet it is unknown to what extent urban t. vulpecula are exposed to these parasites. antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum were assayed in sera of 142 a ...200616729682
characterisation of two enteroviruses isolated from australian brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand.two enteroviruses, designated w1 and w6, were isolated from intestinal contents of australian brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand. the genomic sequences of w1 and w6 were 7390 and 7391 nucleotides (nt), respectively. genetically, possum isolates w1 and w6 were related to bovine enterovirus serotype 2 (bev-2) strains, especially to the strain ps87/belfast, based on the capsid protein sequence. however, w1 and w6 formed a clade that was distinct from ps87belfast based on nucle ...200716906477
the effect of fertility control on the transmission of bovine tuberculosis in wild brushtail determine the effect of fertility control on the rate of transmission of bovine tuberculosis (tb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).200617028658
blowfly succession from possum (trichosurus vulpecula) carrion in a sheep-farming zone.the significance of brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula kerr (diprotodontia: phalangeridae) carcasses to the succession and production of diptera species and its relevance to fly strike management in tasmania, australia was examined. calliphora stygia (fabricius), lucilia sericata (meigen) and calliphora vicina robineau-desvoidy (diptera: calliphoridae) were found to be the most abundant and lucilia cuprina (wiedemann) (diptera: calliphoridae) always the least abundant (< 1%) of the putative ...200617199756
tissue distribution of cytochrome p450 3a (cyp3a) in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) exposed to eucalyptus terpenes.we evaluated the distribution pattern of a specific xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome p450 3a (cyp3a) in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). western blot studies using cyp3a antibodies were used to compare cyp3a levels in the intestine, liver, kidney, brain, testes and adrenal gland in possums fed diets with and without a mixture of terpenes. possums appear to produce at least 3 different cyp3a-like isoforms that are differentially expressed in various tissues. the live ...200717292676
development and evaluation of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to identify mosquito (diptera: culicidae) bloodmeals originating from native australian mammals.real-time taqman polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were developed for the identification of mosquito (diptera: culicidae) bloodmeals originating from three groups of native australian mammals. primers and probes were designed to amplify a partial fragment of the cytochrome b gene of the agile wallaby, macropus agilis (gould); brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula (kerr); and the consensus sequence of the four species of australian flying fox: pteropus alecto temminck, pteropus conspicilla ...200717294925
a descriptive spatial analysis of bovine tuberculosis in intensively controlled cattle farms in new zealand.we describe the temporal and geographical distribution of confirmed cases of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in a population of cattle in the south-east of the north island of new zealand. data were derived from routine tb testing conducted between 1980 and 2003 and included details for 69 farms. four six-year periods were defined to coincide with changes in depopulation strategies against the wildlife tb reservoir, the brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula. for the periods 1980 to 1985 and 1986 to 19 ...200717425934
organic osmolytes in the developing kidney of the australian brush-tailed possum, trichosurus vulpecula.developmental changes in the plasma and urine composition of 120 immature possums, trichosurus vulpecula, were investigated and correlated with changes in the osmolyte composition of the kidneys. in early life, when the animal is confined in the pouch, the urine is more or less isosmotic with the plasma (300+/-70 mosm kg(-1)), but rises steeply in animals more than 90 days old, up to 667+/-53 mosm kg(-1) in the oldest age group. in parallel with this change there are corresponding increases in m ...200717428718
a new attenuated mycobacterium bovis vaccine protects brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) against experimental tuberculosis infection.vaccination of wildlife against bovine tuberculosis is being actively considered in countries that have wildlife reservoirs of mycobacterium bovis infection. a newly attenuated strain of m. bovis (wag533) was produced as part of a programme to develop a better vaccine than bcg to control tuberculosis in brushtail possums in new zealand. the vaccine efficacy of wag533 in possums was compared to bcg using three different methods of inoculation (conjunctival/intranasal, oral and sub-cutaneous) foll ...200717498852
uterine and vaginal insemination optimised in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin and porcine luteinising hormone.artificial insemination of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) is being developed as an assisted breeding model for endangered marsupials, as well as a bioassay for testing fertility control vaccines to manage overabundant populations. procedures were optimised in animals superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (pmsg) and porcine luteinising hormone (plh). of three intervals examined, yields were maximal following uterine insemination at 27-29.5 h after plh treatment (four egg ...200717524296
three-dimensional structure and ligand binding properties of trichosurin, a metatherian lipocalin from the milk whey of the common brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula.lipocalins are extracellular proteins (17-25 kda) that bind and transport small lipophilic molecules. the three-dimensional structure of the first lipocalin from a metatherian has been determined at different values of ph both with and without bound ligands. trichosurin, a protein from the milk whey of the common brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula, has been recombinantly expressed in escherichia coli, refolded from inclusion bodies, purified and crystallized at two different ph values. the ...200717685895
leptospirosis serology in the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) from urban sydney, australia.the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is indeed a common marsupial in major cities of australia. this species is known to be susceptible to leptospirosis and often lives in close contact with humans, raising concerns about the potential for transmission of this disease in urban areas. a total of 192 brushtail possum blood samples were collected from 136 individuals in suburban areas of metropolitan sydney from november 2002 to november 2004. sera were screened against a reference p ...200717699087
physiology and pharmacology of the brushtail possum gastrointestinal tract: relationship to the human gastrointestinal tract.oral formulations are typically based on studies from eutherian animal models. this review introduces information relating to oral formulations for a marsupial species, the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) that has arisen from research into new methods for controlling this species - a major vertebrate pest in new zealand. morphologically, the gastrointestinal tract of the brushtail possum is similar to that of hindgut fermenting eutherian species, but there are some striking d ...200717870201
measuring degradation of zinc phosphide residues in possum stomach contents.zinc phosphide (znp) has been identified as a potentially cost-effective vertebrate pesticide for possum (trichosurus vulpecula) control in new zealand. we established methodology for analysis of microencapsulated znp formulations (mzp) and investigated the half-life of residual znp in the stomach contents of poisoned possums. an interlaboratory study was conducted to compare results of znp analysis in stomach contents. the half-life of znp was 3.4 days for znp in possum stomach contents and 6.7 ...200717874024
oral challenge of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with possum enteroviruses: clinical observation, antibody response and virus excretion in investigate the pathogenesis of two cytopathic enteroviruses, w1 and w6, isolated from possums, to evaluate their potential as vectors for biological management of possums.200717928897
mosquitoes feeding on brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) and humans in a native forest fragment in the auckland region of new zealand.a study was carried out to identify the native and exotic mosquito species that feed on possums (and also humans) during daytime in a native forest fragment in the auckland region. twenty-two possums were handled in spring 2005, and 21 in the following summer. a total of 32 female mosquitoes were collected while handling the possums (22 mosquitoes were on humans--all introduced aedes notoscriptus; 10 on possums--9 ae. notoscriptus and 1 native coquillettidia iracunda). these results support prev ...200718264199
influence of contact heterogeneity on tb reproduction ratio r0 in a free-living brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula network analyses were used to investigate contact patterns in a free-living possum trichosurus vulpecula population and to estimate the influence of contact on r(0) for bovine tuberculosis (tb). using data collected during a five-year capture-mark-recapture study of a free-living possum population, observed estimates of r(0) were computed and compared with r(0) computed from random networks of similar size that approximated a random mixing process. all networks displayed a heterogeneous p ...200818275805
do free-ranging common brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) play a role in the transmission of toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment?to investigate the possible role of common brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in the transmission of toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment, a serological survey of a free-ranging population resident within taronga zoo, sydney, australia was undertaken using the modified agglutination test (mat). for comparison, the seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies was also assessed in a possum population inhabiting a felid-free, non-urban woodland habitat. six of 126 possums (4.8%) from the zoo ...200818281157
spermatozoa from a marsupial, the brushtail possum, contain beta1,4-galactosyltransferase.beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-i (galtase-i) is one of the key molecules on the sperm surface of eutherian mammals that is likely to be involved in binding to the egg coat, the zona pellucida, to mediate sperm-egg interaction. in laboratory mice, the species for which most data are available, this protein functions as a receptor for the zona pellucida protein zp3 of the oocyte and, upon binding, triggers the sperm acrosome reaction. in the present study, we investigated the presence and abundance ...200818402760
risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in new zealand cattle farms and their relationship with possum control strategies.this paper reports the investigation of farm-level risk factors for confirmed bovine tuberculosis (tb), based on a retrospective cohort study of a population of cattle in the lower north island of new zealand. data were obtained from the tb testing surveillance programme operational in this area since the mid-1970s and comprised 190,665 cattle-years at risk from july 1980 to june 2004 (inclusive). a mixed-effects poisson regression model was used to investigate the influence of farm-level covari ...200818479769
novel immunocontraceptive targets in mammals: uterine secretions and the conceptus; a marsupial approach.we report the first immunocontraceptive trial in mammals using a uterine-secreted protein, the marsupial shell coat protein 4 (cp4). the marsupial shell coat, which surrounds the conceptus for 60-80% of gestation, is secreted by the uterine epithelium. following immunization against glutathione s-transferase (gst)-cp4, the fertility of female common brushtail possums (n=6) was significantly reduced (p=0.000), and this reduction in fertility was positively correlated with the maximum gst-cp4 humo ...200818614625
prevalence and genetic characterization of cryptosporidium isolates from common brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) adapted to urban settings.the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is one of the most abundant native marsupials in urban australia, having successfully adapted to utilize anthropogenic resources. the habituation of possums to food and shelter available in human settlements has facilitated interaction with people, pets, and zoo animals, increasing the potential for transmission of zoonotic cryptosporidium pathogens. this study sought to examine the identity and prevalence of cryptosporidium species occurring i ...200818641156
oral toxicity of p-aminopropiophenone to brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), dama wallabies (macropus eugenii), and mallards (anas platyrhynchos).development of p-aminopropiophenone (papp) as a toxicant for pest predator management in new zealand and australia prompted investigation of its toxicity to potential nontarget species. acute oral toxicity of papp in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), dama wallabies (macropus eugenii), and mallards (anas platyrhynchos) was estimated in pen trials, carried out between february 2000 and september 2001. the susceptibility of possums (ld50>or=500 mg kg(-1)) and wallabies (ld50 89 mg kg(-1)) ...200818689651
vesicle-associated protein 1: a novel ovarian immunocontraceptive target in the common brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula.ovarian-based immunological research is currently restricted to proteins of the zona pellucida. this study examined the immunocontraceptive potential of a novel vesicle-associated protein, vap1, previously isolated from the vesicle-rich hemisphere of the brushtail possum oocyte. seven female possums were immunized against recombinant glutathione s-transferase-vap1 fusion protein. control animals (n=3) received antigen-free vaccinations. following immunization, regular blood sampling determined t ...200818713812
bacterial ghosts as a delivery system for zona pellucida-2 fertility control vaccines for brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).the introduced brushtail possum is a serious pest in new zealand and there is much interest in the development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine for population control. immunisation of female possums against recombinant possum zona pellucida protein-2 (zp2) is known to reduce embryo production by 72-75% but successful development of fertility control will depend on a delivery system that is effective for field use. bacterial ghost vaccine technology is a promising system to formulate a non-livin ...200818948157
protection of free-living and captive possums against pulmonary challenge with mycobacterium bovis following oral bcg new zealand, possums (trichosurus vulpecula) are the main wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (tb), which they transmit to livestock. this study investigated oral vaccination with lipid-formulated mycobacterium bovis bcg and subsequent protection against virulent m. bovis challenge in wild-caught possums. possums were trapped from the field and either hand-vaccinated and released back into the wild, or acclimatised to captive conditions prior to voluntary uptake of flavoured vaccine. p ...200919136301
a redescription of trichosurolaelaps dixous domrow, 1972 (acari: laelapidae), from trichosurus cunninghami (marsupialia: phalangeridae) from southern australia.the adults of trichosurolaelaps dixous domrow, 1972 are redescribed from a population of trichosurus cunninghami lindenmayer, dubach et viggers, 2002 in south-eastern australia. the nymphal stages are described for the first time. morphologically, t. dixous is similar to trichosurolaelaps crassipes womersley, 1956. morphological differences between the prefemale deutonymphs and adult females of the two mite species are the presence of a single large ventral spur on tibia i of t. dixous. males of ...200819175208
immunocontraception of eastern grey kangaroos (macropus giganteus) with recombinant brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) zp3 protein.this study examined the potential of a recombinant marsupial zona pellucida 3 protein as a contraceptive vaccine for the eastern grey kangaroo, a marsupial that is locally overabundant in several regions of eastern australia. first, a pilot study using porcine zona pellucidae (pzp) demonstrated that zp proteins, primarily the zp3 component of pzp, are highly immunogenic in the grey kangaroo and produce a long-lasting humoral response to a single immunisation, as found in other marsupials. immuni ...200919215986
oral vaccination reduces the incidence of tuberculosis in free-living brushtail possums.bovine tuberculosis (tb) caused by mycobacterium bovis has proved refractory to eradication from domestic livestock in countries with wildlife disease reservoirs. vaccination of wild hosts offers a way of controlling tb in livestock without wildlife culling. this study was conducted in a tb-endemic region of new zealand, where the introduced australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is the main wildlife reservoir of tb. possums were trapped and vaccinated using a prototype oral-deliver ...200919493904
lipid-formulated bcg as an oral-bait vaccine for tuberculosis: vaccine stability, efficacy, and palatability to brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand.bovine tuberculosis (tb), due to infection with virulent mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to new zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). an oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against tb, based on formulation of the human tb vaccine (m. bovis bcg) in edible lipid matrices. here bcg bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix form ...200919617486
isolation of mycobacterium bovis from brushtail possums with non-visible determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) that did not have macroscopic lesions of bovine tuberculosis, and to evaluate culture of pooled tissues from multiple possums as a method for determining the m. bovis-infection status of wildlife populations in new zealand.200919649016
abdominal muscle and epipubic bone function during locomotion in australian possums: insights to basal mammalian conditions and eutherian-like tendencies in trichosurus.mammals have four hypaxial muscle layers that wrap around the abdomen between the pelvis, ribcage, and spine. however, the marsupials have epipubic bones extending anteriorly into the ventral hypaxial layers with two additional muscles extending to the ventral midline and femur. comparisons of south american marsupials to basal eutherians have shown that all of the abdominal hypaxials are active bilaterally in resting ventilation. however, during locomotion marsupials employ an asymmetrical patt ...201019862837
polymeric nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for biocontrol agents for the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).to investigate polymeric nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for protein biocontrol agents for control of the brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula.200919966898
identification and evaluation of an infertility-associated zp3 epitope from the marsupial brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).immunologically based fertility control vaccines against zona pellucida (zp) proteins are being developed in new zealand for biocontrol of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), an introduced australian marsupial pest. we have shown that immunization of female possums with recombinant possum zp3 protein (rzp3) reduced fertility by 79%. to enhance the specificity of possum immunocontraceptive vaccines, b-cell epitopes on possum zp3 protein were mapped using sera of female possums immunized ...201019969120
molecular and functional characterization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator from the australian common brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula.unlike eutherian mammals, the colon of the australian common brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula, a metatherian mammal, is incapable of electrogenic cl(-) secretion and has elevated levels of electrogenic na(+) absorption, while the ileum secretes hco (3) (-) rather than cl(-). in eutherian mammals, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) is essential for both cl(-) and hco (3) (-) secretion and the regulation of na(+) absorption. therefore, we have sequenced possum (p ...201020012660
a marsupial, trichosurus vulpecula, ddx4/vasagene (tvddx4) of the dead box protein family: molecular conservation and germline expression.the ddx4/vasa gene plays an important role in germ cell development in animals. we cloned and characterized a marsupial ddx4/vasa homolog (tvddx4, 2,769 bps) from the possum and examined its expression in adult tissues at mrna and protein levels. the isolated cdna had a deduced 704 amino acid residues with significant homology to ddx4 from other animals, including mouse (86%) and human (87%). the ddx4 transcript was detected in the ovary and testis, and was undetectable in somatic tissues. the r ...200920016130
a serological survey of the prevalence of antibodies against enteroviruses in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand: enteroviruses have a limited distribution in brushtail establish an immunoassay to detect antibodies against enteroviruses in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), and to determine the prevalence of seropositive samples of antibodies to enteroviruses in wild possums in new zealand.201020200572
humoral immune responses in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) induced by bacterial ghosts expressing possum zona pellucida 3 protein.the introduced common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is a major pest in new zealand and immunocontraceptive vaccines are being developed for biocontrol of possum populations, with bacterial ghosts (bgs) being evaluated as a means of oral delivery. recombinant bgs expressing possum zona pellucida 3 protein (zp3) as an l' membrane-anchored protein (zp3-l') or as an s-layer sbsa-fusion protein (mbp-sbsa-zp3) were produced by the expression of the cloned bacteriophage phix174 lysis gene e ...201020434548
a major role for mammals in the ecology of mycobacterium ulcerans.mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of buruli ulcer (bu), a destructive skin disease found predominantly in sub-saharan africa and south-eastern australia. the precise mode(s) of transmission and environmental reservoir(s) remain unknown, but several studies have explored the role of aquatic invertebrate species. the purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental distribution of m. ulcerans in south-eastern australia.201020706592
epigenetic modifications on x chromosomes in marsupial and monotreme mammals and implications for evolution of dosage compensation.x chromosome dosage compensation in female eutherian mammals is regulated by the noncoding xist rna and is associated with the differential acquisition of active and repressive histone modifications, resulting in repression of most genes on one of the two x chromosome homologs. marsupial mammals exhibit dosage compensation; however, they lack xist, and the mechanisms conferring epigenetic control of x chromosome dosage compensation remain elusive. oviparous mammals, the monotremes, have multiple ...201020861449
detection, isolation, and characterization of helicobacter species from the gastrointestinal tract of the brushtail possum.the presence of helicobacter species in australian marsupials was examined systematically using microscopy, culture, and pcr in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (git) and in the liver of brushtail possums (btps) (trichosurus vulpecula), a common australian marsupial that feeds on eucalyptus leaves. the spatial distribution of helicobacter species in the git sections also was examined microscopically in silver-stained sections and by fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) using a ...201121216901
development of a new humane toxin for predator control in new zealand.the endemic fauna of new zealand evolved in the absence of mammalian predators and their introduction has been responsible for many extinctions and declines. introduced species including possums (trichosurus vulpecula kerr), ship rats (rattus rattus l.) and stoats (mustela erminea l.) are targeted to protect native birds. control methodologies currently rely largely on labor-intensive trapping or the use of increasingly unpopular poisons, or poisons that are linked with low welfare standards. he ...201021392319
recent advances in the management of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging wildlife.established foci of mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis [btb]) in free-ranging wildlife are currently under various stages of management on three continents (africa, europe and north america) and in new zealand. other, as yet undiagnosed, foci seem likely to exist elsewhere. the complex roles that these wildlife foci play in the ecology of btb remain among the greatest challenges facing btb control globally. conceptually, management of btb in free-ranging wildlife can ...201121420260
contact patterns as a risk factor for bovine tuberculosis infection in a free-living adult brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula population.the aim of this study was to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (tb) in a free-roaming, capture-mark-recapture monitored possum trichosurus vulpecula population in a 22-ha study site at castlepoint, new zealand from 1 april 1989 to 31 march 1994. a matched case-control design was used to evaluate the influence of sex, habitat and contact opportunities on tb risk. cases comprised possums identified as tb-positive throughout the study period. controls were selected from the group of pos ...201121550126
vaccinia virus as a vaccine delivery system for marsupial wildlife.vaccines based on recombinant poxviruses have proved successful in controlling diseases such as rabies and plague in wild eutherian mammals. they have also been trialled experimentally as delivery agents for fertility-control vaccines in rodents and foxes. in some countries, marsupial mammals represent a wildlife disease reservoir or a threat to conservation values but, as yet there has been no bespoke study of efficacy or immunogenicity of a poxvirus-based vaccine delivery system in a marsupial ...201121570435
seasonal changes in morphology and steroid receptor expression in the prostate of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula): an animal model for the study of prostate growth?the prostate of the brushtail possum undergoes growth and regression during the year. the present study investigated the morphological changes and expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. prostate tissue was collected from adult possums at 2-monthly intervals. the periurethral and outer glandular areas were separated and the volume of stromal, epithelial and luminal tissues measured in each area. immunohistochemistry was used to investigate cel ...201121635819
identification of novel trypanosome genotypes in native australian the present study, the occurrence and molecular phylogeny of trypanosome parasites were studied in both wild and captive marsupials from western australia and queensland. blood samples were screened by pcr at the 18s rdna locus, and the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase gene. overall, 5.3% of the blood samples were positive at the 18s rdna locus. all positives belonged to wild-captured western australian individuals, where trypanosome-specific dna was detected in 9.8% of the s ...201121802854
molecular identification of interleukin-2 in the lymphoid tissues of the common brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula.the common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is an australian marsupial. here we describe the identification of possum interleukin-2 in mitogen-stimulated lymph node cells. we used a strategy of rapid amplification of cdna ends using probes designed from recently-sequenced marsupial genomes to identify the il2 gene and then confirmed that il-2 expression in possum immune tissue occurs in a similar manner to that in their eutherian counterparts. the predictive possum il-2 peptide showed 28 ...201121683733
Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) carcasses, and contact rates between possums and carcasses.To determine, for a variety of environmental conditions, how long Mycobacterium bovis might remain viable inside the carcass of a brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) that died of bovine tuberculosis (Tb), and to measure the rate of contact between free-ranging possums and possum carcasses.201121851297
serological evidence of coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in queensland, australia.summarythe state of queensland has the highest incidence of q fever in australia. in recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of coxiella burnetii in australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern queensland. australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and common no ...201121892986
editorial note.abstract in the article "experimental infection of the possum (trichosurus vulpecula) with leptospira interrogans serovar balcanica. i. a comparison of laboratory techniques for the detection of leptospiraemia and leptospiruria" by s. c. hathaway ( 121-5) tables ii and iii did not relate to the text. all reprints of this article will contain the correct tables.198122133070
Reduced spillover transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to feral pigs (Sus scofa) following population control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).SUMMARYIn New Zealand, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is present in domestic cattle and deer herds primarily as the result of on-going disease transmission from the primary wildlife host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). However, bTB is also present in other introduced free-ranging mammalian species. Between 1996 and 2007, we conducted a series of studies to determine whether poison control of possum populations would have any effect on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in ...201121849098
long spinal and pyramidal actions on hindlimb motoneurons of the marsupial brush-tailed possum, trichosurus vulpecula.the existence of descending propriospinal reflex linkages between forelimbs and hindlimbs has been established in the brush-tailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula). in animals under chloralose anesthesia and with intact brain stem, forelimb volleys evoked facilitation of flexor and extensor monosynaptic reflexes of both hindlimbs, more pronounced on the ipsilateral side. powerful inhibition of briefer latency and restricted to ipsilateral flexor digitorum longus (fdl) motoneurons was also brought ...19861255227
cortico-cortical connections of the motor cortex in the brushtailed possum (trichosurus vulpecula).cortico-cortical connections of motor cortex in the marsupial brushtailed possum were traced by making injections of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) into two parts of motor cortex: the rostral agranular part which does not overlap somatosensory cortex, and the caudal part which does. following injections in motor cortex, labelled neurons were observed on the same side of the brain within somatosensory areas 1 and 2 and in parietal cortex just caudal to s1, with most neurons in cortical layers 2-4. ...20113115935
the coronary vessels in the heart of a marsupial, trichosurus vulpecula. 20144596335
ratio of inferior olivary cells to purkinje cells in a marsupial (trichosurus vulpecula).an indirect estimate of the extent of branching of the olivary axons in the cerebellum in a marsupial (trichosurus vulpecula) was carried out. the cells in the inferior olivary nuclear complex (ioc) of both sides were estimated (mean = 57,200), as were the cerebellar purkinje cells (mean = 881,300). assuming that all climbing fibers arise from ioc cells and that each purkinje cell receives a climbing fiber input, each ioc cell sends climbing fiber terminals to 15 purkinje cells.2004525234
motilin and erythromycin enhance the in vitro contractile activity of the sphincter of oddi of the australian brush-tailed possum.erythromycin has been shown to interact with gastrointestinal smooth muscle in a similar manner to motilin, and has been postulated as a motilin receptor agonist. we report that in isolated preparations from the biliary tract of thirty one australian brush-tailed possums (trichosurus vulpecula) erythromycin acts in a similar manner to motilin. in all muscle strips from the sphincter of oddi, prepared in both the circular and longitudinal orientation, both synthetic porcine motilin (10(-10) m-10( ...20061538793
effects of oestradiol, the oestrous cycle and pregnancy on weight, metabolism and cytosol receptors in the oviduct and vaginal complex of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula).weight, rna, dna and protein content of the oviduct, vaginal cul-de-sac, lateral vagina and urogenital sinus and oestradiol and progesterone cytosol receptor concentrations in vaginal cul-de-sac, lateral vagina and urogenital sinus were examined after administration of oestradiol to ovariectomized animals and on days 0, 5, 9 and 13 of the non-pregnant cycle and on day 13 of the pregnant cycle. in ovariectomized animals, oestradiol induced an increase in weight, rna:dna and protein:dna ratios and ...20123442515
an exploration of the microrheological environment around the distal ileal villi and proximal colonic mucosa of the possum (trichosurus vulpecula).multiple particle-tracking techniques were used to quantify the thermally driven motion of ensembles of naked polystyrene (0.5 µm diameter) microbeads in order to determine the microrheological characteristics around the gut mucosa. the microbeads were introduced into living ex vivo preparations of the wall of the terminal ileum and proximal colon of the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). the fluid environment surrounding both the ileal villi and colonic mucosa was heterogeneous; probably ...201323389898
development of the new zealand strategy for local eradication of tuberculosis from wildlife and livestock.we describe the progressive development of new zealand's national strategy for control of tuberculosis (tb) in its agricultural sector over the last four decades. the strategy is globally unique, reflecting the need for effective and co-ordinated management of tb in a wildlife maintenance host, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), in addition to controlling infection in cattle and farmed deer herds. since the early 1990s, the strategy has been developed by the animal health board (ahb), ...201525651829
toward eradication: the effect of mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife on the evolution and future direction of bovine tuberculosis management in new zealand's bovine tuberculosis (tb) control programme has greatly reduced the burden of tuberculosis on the farming industry, from 11% of mature cattle found with tb at slaughter in 1905 to <0.003% in 2012/13. new zealand implemented tb control measures in cattle from the mid-twentieth century, and later in farmed deer. control was based on established methods of tuberculin testing of herds, slaughter of suspect cases, and livestock movement control. unexplained regional control failures and ...201525273888
the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis in wild deer and feral pigs and their roles in the establishment and spread of bovine tuberculosis in new zealand new zealand, wild deer and feral pigs are assumed to be spillover hosts for mycobacterium bovis, and so are not targeted in efforts aimed at locally eradicating bovine tuberculosis (tb) from possums (trichosurus vulpecula), the main wildlife host. here we review the epidemiology of tb in deer and pigs, and assess whether new zealand's tb management programme could be undermined if these species sometimes achieve maintenance host status. in new zealand, tb prevalences of up to 47% have been re ...201525295713
managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in new zealand.tuberculosis (tb) due to mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) in new zealand in the late 1960s. since the early 1970s, possums in new zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. the tb management authority (tbfree new zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly tb eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from live ...201525582863
development of integrated surveillance systems for the management of tuberculosis in new zealand wildlife.disease surveillance for the management of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in new zealand has focussed, to a large extent, on the development of tools specific for monitoring mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife. diagnostic techniques have been modified progressively over 30 years of surveillance of tb in wildlife, from initial characterisation of gross tb lesions in a variety of wildlife, through development of sensitive culture techniques to identify viable mycobacteria, to molecular identificat ...201525263814
feral ferrets (mustela furo) as hosts and sentinels of tuberculosis in new zealand.the control and eventual eradication of bovine tuberculosis (tb) poses major challenges in new zealand, given the variety of wildlife species susceptible to tb, many of which are capable of onwards transmission of mycobacterium bovis infection. here we discuss the role of feral ferrets (mustela furo), focussing on potential transmission or risk pathways that have implications for management of tb. firstly inter-specific transmission to ferrets. ferrets scavenge potentially infected wildlife, inc ...201525495945
assessing the effectiveness of tuberculosis management in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), through indirect surveillance of mycobacterium bovis infection using released sentinel new zealand, wild pigs acquire mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). we investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (tb) following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, tb prevalence and the incidence rate of m. bovis infection in rele ...201424804148
field trial of an aerially-distributed tuberculosis vaccine in a low-density wildlife population of brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula).oral-delivery mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against m. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (tb) when fed to brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), the major wildlife vector of bovine tb in new zealand. here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an m. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field effic ...201627893793
tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums as sentinels for angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of angiostrongylosis in tawny frogmouths (podargus strigoides) and brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) with signs of neurological disease, and to describe the clinicopathological features of angiostrongylosis in both species. tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums with signs of neurological disease were sampled from the sydney metropolitan area between october 1998 and june 2010. samples from 100 tawny frogmouths and 31 brushtail ...201323218219
reorganization and expansion of the nidoviral family arteriviridae.the family arteriviridae presently includes a single genus arterivirus. this genus includes four species as the taxonomic homes for equine arteritis virus (eav), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (ldv), porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv), respectively. a revision of this classification is urgently needed to accommodate the recent description of eleven highly divergent simian arteriviruses in diverse african nonhuman primates ...201626608064
multisystemic listeriosis in a common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and two common ringtail possums (pseudocheirus peregrinus).a single free-ranging common brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) and 2 captive sibling common ringtail possums (pseudocheirus peregrinus)from a zoological facility in sydney, australia, were diagnosed with multisystemic listeriosis. the brushtail was found dead in an animal enclosure while the ringtails presented with signs of cardiovascular collapse and died shortly thereafter. all 3 animals were culture positive forlisteria monocytogenesand demonstrated focal suppurative lesions within th ...201626215760
cost-based optimization of the stopping threshold for local disease surveillance during progressive eradication of tuberculosis from new zealand wildlife.bovine tuberculosis (tb) is managed in new zealand largely via population reduction of the major wildlife disease reservoir of mycobacterium bovis, the introduced brushtail possum trichosurus vulpecula. new zealand aims to eradicate m. bovis infection from its livestock and wildlife within 40 years, as the culmination of progressive regional eradication programmes. declarations of regional eradication are decided after extensive possum population control and post-control surveillance; hence, we ...201728391623
using whole genome sequencing to investigate transmission in a multi-host system: bovine tuberculosis in new zealand.bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis, is an important livestock disease raising public health and economic concerns around the world. in new zealand, a number of wildlife species are implicated in the spread and persistence of btb in cattle populations, most notably the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). whole genome sequenced (wgs) m. bovis isolates sourced from infected cattle and wildlife across new zealand were analysed. bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducte ...201728209138
sex difference in the survival rate of wild brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) experimentally challenged with bovine tuberculosis.the main wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in new zealand is the introduced brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), with spillover of infection from possums to livestock being regarded as the largest barrier to eradicating tb from the country. past studies have experimentally challenged possums with mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of tb) to quantify infection parameters. however, the challenge models used are invariably non-representative of natural infection due to their ...201627473982
a modelling framework for predicting the optimal balance between control and surveillance effort in the local eradication of tuberculosis in new zealand wildlife.bovine tuberculosis (tb) impacts livestock farming in new zealand, where the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is the wildlife maintenance host for mycobacterium bovis. new zealand has implemented a campaign to control tb using a co-ordinated programme of livestock diagnostic testing and large-scale culling of possums, with the long-term aim of tb eradication. for management of the disease in wildlife, methods that can optimise the balance between control and surveill ...201626795464
epidemiology and control of mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula), the primary wildlife host of bovine tuberculosis in new zealand.the introduced australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) is a maintenance host for bovine tuberculosis (tb) in new zealand and plays a central role in the tb problem in this country. the tb-possum problem emerged in the late 1960s, and intensive lethal control of possums is now used to reduce densities to low levels over 8 million ha of the country. this review summarises what is currently known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of tb in possums, and how the disease responds to p ...201525290902
epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of tuberculosis in domestic cattle and deer in new zealand in the face of a wildlife reservoir.the control of tuberculosis (tb) in cattle and farmed deer in new zealand has been greatly influenced by the existence of a wildlife reservoir of mycobacterium bovis infection, principally the australian brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula). the reduction in possum numbers in areas with endemic m. bovis infection through vigorous vector control operations has been a major contributor to the marked reduction in the number of infected cattle and farmed deer herds in the past two decades. manag ...201524992203
linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using bayesian hierarchical analysis.bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include eurasian badgers (meles meles), brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). risk-assessment efforts in michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on m. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. to incorporate spatially exp ...201424595231
mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. as disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of m. bovis from wildlife to cattle. in epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (r0) and critical community size (ccs) threshol ...201324171844
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