[on the inactivation of oxytocin in bos taurus, equus caballus, equus asinus, ovis aries, canis familiaris, sus scrofa, lepus cuniculus, cavia cobaya, mus norvegicus albinus, mus musculus, callus gallus and columba livia]. 196113766350
asymmetry of encephalic arteries in the pigeon (columba livia). 196213865940
contribution to the anatomy of the vegetative nervous system in the neck and thorax of the domestic pigeon. 196213932530
the nerve supply of the stomach in the domestic pigeon (columba domestica). 196313932531
[changes in the blood picuture of experimental pigeons (columba livia f. domestica gm.) after daraprim administration]. 196313972435
[isolation of cryptococcus neoformans from excrement and nests of pigeons (columba livia) in salvador, bahia (brazil)]. 196313992887
studies on chemical composition of protein and fat in the oviduct of the pigeon, columba livia gmelin. 196314082710
histological and histochemical studies of the hormone stimulated oviduct of the pigeon, columba livia gmelin. 196314096293
isolations of st. louis encephalitis virus from domestic pigeons, columba livia. 196414159988
[study of the content of iodine-127 of the thyroid and the plasma of 2 species of columbae, the ringdove pigeon (columba palumbus) and the domestic pigeon (columba livia var. domestica)]. 196014433693
degree of representation of the matching concept in pigeons (columba livia).in experiment 1, 12 pigeons (columba livia) were trained on a simultaneous matching-to-sample task with 2 stimuli and then tested with 2 novel stimuli. half of the birds were trained with a fixed ratio schedule requirement of 1 (fr1) or 20 (fr20) pecks on the sample stimulus. none of the birds showed any evidence of concept-mediated transfer. in experiment 2, 12 pigeons were trained with 3 stimuli and then tested with the same novel stimuli used in experiment 1. half of the birds in each group w ...200314498800
undesirable reactions of domestic pigeons to vaccination against paramyxovirus type 1.subcutaneous vaccination of fancy and racing pigeons with inactivated oil-based vaccines protects against all clinical manifestations caused by the paramyxovirus type 1. correct application of the vaccine may occasionally result in the development of granulomas or abscess-like lesions on the site of vaccine application. although protected against disease as proven by challenge experiments, a variable proportion of vaccinated pigeons do not react with the formation of detectable serum antibodies. ...200314650734
rhabdomyosarcoma in a racing pigeon (columba livia).an adult racing pigeon (columba livia) was presented with a subcutaneous mass on the ventral aspect of the right wing. a fine-needle aspirate and radiographic study of the mass were suggestive of highly invasive sarcomatous neoplasm. euthanasia was decided because of the poor prognosis. necropsy confirmed the highly invasive nature of the neoplasm, which also occupied a large portion of the right breast. there also was extensive osteolysis of the sternum with neoplastic invasion of the left brea ...200314676012
the mapping of the visual field onto the dorso-lateral tectum of the pigeon (columba livia) and its relations with retinal specializations.most of the physiological studies of the pigeon retino-tectal visual pathway have investigated the accessible tectum, a small dorso-lateral tectal section that can be easily accessed by a simple craniotomy. however, at present we lack a detailed study of the topographical arrangement between the visual field, the retina and the accessible tectum. in particular, it is not known which section of the visual field is mapped onto the accessible tectum, and which of the specialized retinal areas media ...200414706713
imitation and affordance learning by pigeons (columba livia).the bidirectional control procedure was used to determine whether pigeons (columba livia) would imitate a demonstrator that pushed a sliding screen for food. one group of observers saw a trained demonstrator push a sliding screen door with its beak (imitation group), whereas 2 other groups watched the screen move independently (possibly learning how the environment works) with a conspecific either present (affordance learning with social facilitation) or absent (affordance learning alone). a 4th ...200314717643
domestic pigeons (columba livia) discriminate between photographs of individual two experiments, we examined the discrimination of photographs of individual pigeons by pigeons, using go/no-go discrimination procedures. in experiments 1a and 1b, the pigeons were trained to discriminate 4 photographs of one pigeon from those of a number of pigeons. the subjects learned the discrimination, but their discriminative behavior did not transfer to new photographs taken from novel perspectives. when the pigeons were trained to discriminate between 20 photographs of five pigeons t ...200314733480
[demonstration of synthesis of uric acid from ammonium in the isolated and surviving pigeon liver (columba livia)]. 195114878888
effect of trichomonas gallinae from diseased mourning doves on clean domestic pigeons. 195114889385
five years' observation on the incidence of blood protozoa in house sparrows (passer domesticus linnaeus) and in pigeons (columba livia gmelin) in delhi. 195114917432
searching in the center: pigeons (columba livid) encode relative distance from walls of an enclosure.pigeons (columba livia) searched for food hidden in the center of a square enclosure. on occasional tests without food, the enclosure was (a) unchanged from training (control tests), (b) moved to different corners of the testing room (corner tests), or (c) doubled in size (expansion tests). the birds showed localized search in the center of the enclosure on control and corner tests. on expansion tests, some birds searched near the center of the enclosure, suggesting relative-distance encoding. o ...200415008679
evolution of preproinsulin gene in birds.the coding region of the preproinsulin gene has been cloned and partly sequenced in a variety of marine and terrestrial birds (28 species). all genes showed the "ancestral" structure with a large intron-2. the size of intron-2 changed considerably during the evolution of birds (2.4-4.2kb). the hydrophobicity of signal peptides was conserved. bird c-peptides were predicted to be 28 amino acids long, but circulating c-peptides would be only 26 amino acids long, with passer as a possible exception. ...200415012953
multiple uv reflectance peaks in the iridescent neck feathers of pigeons.recent studies of colorful plumage signals in birds have been aided by the finding that birds can see ultraviolet (uv) light and thus may communicate using colors invisible to humans. some of the pioneering and more pivotal work on avian color vision was performed with domestic pigeons ( columba livia), yet surprisingly there have been few detailed reports of the uv-reflecting properties of pigeon feathers. here, i use uv-vis fiber-optic spectrometry to document the full-spectrum reflectance cha ...200415034662
effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (columba livia).we determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; n=6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; n=6 pairs). a ...200415060702
eye-neck coupling during optokinetic responses in head-fixed pigeons (columba livia): influence of the flying behaviour.the effects of the behavioural context on the properties of slow and fast phases of the horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (okn) and on the electromyographic neck response (emg) were investigated in head-fixed pigeons. responses in two situations were compared: (i) animals were hung in a harness ('resting' condition); (ii) animals in harness were subjected to a frontal airflow that provoked a flight posture ('flying' condition). during optokinetic stimuli the neck muscles responded in synchrony an ...200415062993
lead levels of feral pigeons (columba livia) from madrid (spain).tissue lead data are presented for populations of feral pigeons (columba livia) from three locations in madrid (spain). the lead present in the lungs and digestive tract of pigeons increased progressively with traffic density and in parallel with atmospheric and ground lead values. the contribution of the respiratory route of pb intake to the pigeons was about three times greater than the digestive route. the highest pb values were found in bones. it is suggested that the pigeons gave a greatly ...198815092526
an assessment of frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of pigeons (columba livia gm) living in the polluted radioactive area around the siberian chemical plant.we have examined approximately 15,000 pigeons living in the radioactive area polluted by releases of the siberian chemical plant (schp) as a result of an accident in april 1993. we have detected that almost all of the population of pigeons have a high frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in their peripheral blood. moreover, we have found that pigeons living in the downwind cities and towns situated closest to the schp, particularly in the northern districts of the city of tomsk and in the cl ...199715093352
lateralization of spatial learning in the avian hippocampal formation.the authors investigated lateralization of spatial learning within the avian hippocampal formation (hf). in experiment 1, homing pigeons (columba livia) with unilateral lesions of the right or left hf were trained to locate a goal in a square room containing local landmarks and global room cues. all groups learned the task. during probe trials, when landmarks were rotated or removed, intact pigeons and left hf-lesioned pigeons relied exclusively on global room cues to locate the food goal. pigeo ...200415113259
semen characteristics, cryopreservation, and successful artificial insemination in the blue rock pigeon (columba livia).the present study was undertaken in the blue rock pigeon (columba livia) to evaluate the annual semen characteristics, to identify a suitable extender for semen short-term storage, to determine a protocol for cryopreservation of semen and finally to check whether intracloacal insemination would lead to the birth of a chick. semen characteristics such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and percentage of normal spermatozoa were maximum during the monsoon season. talp was observe ...200415159109
health status of free-living pigeons (columba livia domestica) in the city of the year 2000 an epidemiological research was undertaken on the health status of free-living pigeons in the city of ljubljana, slovenia. a total of 139 pigeons were captured and examined for the most common bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. serum samples, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs as well as samples of droppings and feathers were taken from the captured birds. antibodies to paramyxovirus type 1 were found in 84.2% of the sera examined, and 23.7% of birds were serologically posit ...200415168753
phylogenetic expression of galalpha1-4gal on avian glycoproteins: glycan differentiation inscribed in the early history of modern birds.glycoproteins containing galalpha1-4gal (galabiose) had been rarely found in vertebrates, except in a few species of birds and amphibians. we had previously reported that pigeon (columba livia) egg white and serum glycoproteins are rich in n-glycans with galalpha1-4gal at nonreducing termini. to investigate the origin of galalpha1-4gal expression in avian evolution, we examined the presence of galalpha1-4gal glycoproteins in egg whites from 20 orders, 88 families, 163 genera, and 181 species of ...200415184685
deuterium stable isotope ratios as tracers of water resource use: an experimental test with rock doves.naturally-occurring deuterium stable isotope ratios can potentially be used to trace water resource use by animals, but estimating the contribution of isotopically distinct water sources requires the accurate prediction of isotopic discrimination factors between water inputs and an animal's body water pool. we examined the feasibility of using estimates of water fluxes between a bird and its environment with a mass-balance model for the deuterium stable isotope ratio of avian body water (deltadb ...200415185137
clinical evaluation of the oral iron chelator deferiprone for the potential treatment of iron overload in bird species.the clinical use of oral fe chelators for the treatment of fe-storage disease in birds requires evaluation. in this study, the efficacy of the fe chelator deferiprone in reducing hepatic fe stores, its effects on hematologic, biochemical, and plasma fe parameters, and its potential toxicity during a 30-day treatment period were investigated in a controlled setting using two model species, the white leghorn chicken (gallus gallus f. domestica) and the domestic pigeon (columba livia). a second pha ...200415193072
survey for haemoproteus spp., trichomonas gallinae, chlamydophila psittaci, and salmonella spp. in galapagos islands columbiformes.endemic free-ranging galapagos doves (zenaida galapagoensis) and introduced rock doves (columba livia) were surveyed in several islands of the galapagos archipelago to establish sample prevalence of hemoparasites, trichomonas gallinae, chlamydophila psittaci, and salmonella species. a haemoproteus sp., the only hemoparasite identified, was found in 89% of the galapagos doves sampled but not in the rock doves. trichomonas gallinae was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 44% of rock doves fro ...200415193075
monitoring for lead pollution using feathers of feral pigeons (columba livia) from korea.we investigated lead exposure conditions using unwashed feathers of feral pigeons as a monitor for lead pollution from rural, central urban, and four industrial complex areas in korea with different ambient lead concentrations. overall, the lead levels in the feathers increased when the atmospheric lead levels increased, so that the lead levels in the feathers from urban and industrial areas were two to four times greater than those in the rural area. however, there are no significant difference ...200415195817
factors causing variations of lead and cadmium accumulation of feral pigeons (columba livia).in order to understand the factors causing variation of lead and cadmium accumulation in tissues of feral pigeons in seoul and ansan, korea, we investigated their age, food items (crop and gizzard contents) as well as environmental factors such as soil, atmosphere, and local traffic density. the results indicate that concentrations of pb and cd were highly increased in the order of eggs < chicks < adults. in food analysis, supplementary foods (rice, small stones, domestic scraps, cements, hairs, ...200415195818
ultrasound-guided liver biopsy in this study, 30 pigeons (columba livia forma domestica) and 30 quails (coturnix coturnix) were used to evaluate the diagnostic practicability and relevance of an ultrasound-conducted liver biopsy. their body weight ranged between 144 and 603g. considering anatomical peculiarities, the lateral (pigeons) or ventro-median (quails) access was chosen. in the case of the pigeons, 29 (96.7%) biopsies proved clearly to be liver tissue, while in the case of the smaller quails, 19 (63.3%) samples could ...200415200264
local action of exogenous nitric oxide (no) on the skin blood flow of rock pigeons (columba livia) is affected by acclimation and skin site.we studied the blood flow over dorsal and abdominal, non-brooding patch skin of two groups of pigeons: one group was thermally acclimated to cold (winter-acclimatized, wac) while the other group was acclimated to a mesic environment (thermally non-challenged, noc). two bilateral patches at the measurement sites were treated simultaneously with a gel containing sodium nitrate and ascorbic acid, to generate nitric oxide (no), and a vehicle gel. blood flow was measured by laser doppler velocimetry. ...200415201293
economic context and pigeons' risk-taking: an integrative approach.the present work tested pigeons' (columba livia) risk sensitivity to changes in resource availability in the concurrent-chains choice procedure. subjects were provided choices, generally between variable-ratio (vr) and fixed-ratio (fr) outcome schedules with equal or different mean values. predictions from ecology's risk sensitivity, behavioral economic's rate maximization, and psychology's delay-reduction theory were contrasted under settings where budget was adversely affected by one of three ...200415222962
blood profile of pigeons (columba livia) during growth and breeding.changes in the blood profile of domestic pigeons (columba livia) were studied during growth and breeding cycle. counts of erythrocytes and leucocytes, and values of mean corpuscular volume (mcv), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (mch), blood volume, plasma volume (bv), width of erythrocytes, and length, width and volume of erythrocyte nuclei of squabs almost reached adult values by the 4th week of age. during courtship and mating, while the level of plasma glucose increased, those of albumin, potass ...200415275653
[the compatibility of ronidazol in racing pigeons in a controlled clinical study].ronidazol is often used in racing pigeons for the treatment of trichomonas infections and diseases. therefore, in this study, the compatibility of the drug was examined by oral application over 7 days. for this purpose a randomized blind study was performed using four different groups (control group, 10 mg = therapy-group, 20 mg = double-dose-group and 40 mg = high-dose-group) of pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) with 6 male and 6 female birds each. all birds were clinically healthy and betwe ...200415287575
[the efficacy of different oral dosage forms of furazolidone for e. coli infections in carrier pigeons].the clinical efficiacy of furazolidon for treatment of e. coli-induced gastro-intestinal infections in racing pigeons was investigated. 36 adult pigeons were treated with 2 different oral modes of application (capsule/drinking water) with a daily therapeutic dosage of 12.5 mg furazolidon/pigeon. the pigeons used for this study (columba livia f. domestica) originated from conventional breeders and were housed in 3 different groups (control-, capsule- and powder-group) in different stables. after ...200415298056
what does a pigeon (columba livia) brain look like during homing? selective examination of zenk expression.lesion studies have shown that the avian hippocampus plays a crucial role in homing pigeon (columba livia) navigation. using the expression of the immediate early gene protein zenk in intact pigeons, the authors found regional variation in hippocampal activation as a consequence of homing and, necessarily, the behavior and internal states that accompany it. specifically, pigeons that homed displayed a significant increase in the number of zenk-labeled cells in the lateral hippocampal formation c ...200415301610
[differentiation of the colon endocrine cells in mucosal epithelium of humans and some vertebrate animals].by electron microscopy, the mucosal epithelium of a distal part of the intestine of humans and other vertebrates (rana temporaria, lacerta vivipara, columba livia, rabbit, rat, pig, cow) was examined. on the basis of the variety of cellular structure and the level of specialization of the involved elements a common regularity of ways of differentiation of endocrine cells was revealed. the updating of endocrine cells basically occurs as a result of differentiation of cambial cells through interme ...200415341125
spatial response properties of homing pigeon hippocampal neurons: correlations with goal locations, movement between goals, and environmental context in a radial-arm arena.the amniote hippocampal formation plays an evolutionarily-conserved role in the neural representation of environmental space. however, species differences in spatial ecology nurture the expectation of species differences in how hippocampal neurons represent space. to determine the spatial response properties of homing pigeon ( columba livia) hfneurons, we recorded from isolated units in birds freely navigating a radial arena in search of food present at four goal locations. fifty of 76 neurons d ...200415449093
the effect of chicken, pigeon, and turkey demineralized bone matrix (dbm) implanted in ulnar defects fixed with the intramedullary-external skeletal fixator (im-esf) tie-in in pigeons (columba livia): histological evaluations.avian demineralized bone matrix (adbm) powder prepared from chicken, pigeon, and turkey sources induced bone formation via endochondral and intramembranous processes, as in mammalian studies. there were no significant differences in percentage of new bone, percentage of cartilage, surface-forming osteoblast area, or osteoclast count between gaps treated with chicken, pigeon, and turkey dbm. however, there was a significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of inflammatory area in gaps treated with ch ...200415468850
[communication and auditory behavior obtained by auditory evoked potentials in mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles].animals: amphibians, frog catesbiana (frog bull, 30 animals); reptiles, sceloporus torcuatus (common small lizard, 22 animals); birds: columba livia (common dove, 20 animals), and mammals, cavia porcellus, (guinea pig, 20 animals). with regard to lodging, all animals were maintained at the institute of human communication disorders, were fed with special food for each species, and had water available ad libitum. regarding procedure, for carrying out analysis of auditory evoked potentials of brai ...200415469751
parasites of columba livia (aves: columbiformes) in tenerife (canary islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.the prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (columba livia) from the city of santa cruz de tenerife, in the island of tenerife (canary archipelago), were studied. the following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari dermanyssus gallinae (de geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and tinaminyssus melloi fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, columbicola c ...200415490756
high chromosome conservation detected by comparative chromosome painting in chicken, pigeon and passerine birds.chicken chromosome paints for macrochromosomes 1-10, z, and the nine largest microchromosomes (griffin et al. 1999) were used to analyze chromosome homologies between chicken (gallus gallus domesticus: galliformes), domestic pigeon (columba livia: columbiformes), chaffinch (fringilla coelebs passeriformes), and redwing (turdus iliacus: passeriformes). high conservation of syntenies was revealed. in general, both macro- and microchromosomes in these birds showed very low levels of interchromosoma ...200415505406
behavioral sensitization to apomorphine in pigeons (columba livia): blockade by the d1 dopamine antagonist sch-23390.repeated administration of apomorphine leads to a context-dependent pecking response sensitization. previously sensitized pigeons (columba livia) challenged with saline in the same context show a conditioned response (cr). the authors studied the effects of intrastriatal injections of the dopamine (d(1)) antagonist sch-23390 on both the sensitized response and the cr. when coadministered with apomorphine, sch-23390 inhibited the initial response to apomorphine, prevented the development of sensi ...200415506890
investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in hong kong in late 2002.outbreaks of highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza have occurred in hong kong in chickens and other gallinaceous poultry in 1997, 2001, twice in 2002 and 2003. high mortality rates were seen in gallinaceous birds but not in domestic or wild waterfowl or other wild birds until late 2002 when highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza occurred in waterfowl (geese, ducks and swans), captive greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber) and other wild birds (little egret egretta garzetta) at two waterfowl pa ...200415545029
the impact of prebiotics and salmonellosis on apparent nutrient digestibility and salmonella typhimurium var. copenhagen excretion in adult pigeons (columba livia domestica).the effects of lactose or fructo-oligosaccharide (fos) supplementation on the excretion of salmonellae, apparent digestibilities and excreta consistency were studied. thirty-two male pigeons (columba livia domestica) were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: 3 of 4 groups were orally infected with 10(9) salmonella typhimurium var. copenhagen, after being offered a drinking water supplement of 2% fos, 2% lactose, or no supplement, respectively, for 2 wk. pigeons in the fourth group were not chal ...200415554066
magnetoreception and its trigeminal mediation in the homing pigeon.two conflicting hypotheses compete to explain how a homing pigeon can return to its loft over great distances. one proposes the use of atmospheric odours and the other the earth's magnetic field in the 'map' step of the 'map and compass' hypothesis of pigeon homing. although magnetic effects on pigeon orientation provide indirect evidence for a magnetic 'map', numerous conditioning experiments have failed to demonstrate reproducible responses to magnetic fields by pigeons. this has led to sugges ...200415565156
familiar route loyalty implies visual pilotage in the homing pigeon.wide-ranging animals, such as birds, regularly traverse large areas of the landscape efficiently in the course of their local movement patterns, which raises fundamental questions about the cognitive mechanisms involved. by using precision global-positioning-system loggers, we show that homing pigeons (columba livia) not only come to rely on highly stereotyped yet surprisingly inefficient routes within the local area but are attracted directly back to their individually preferred routes even whe ...200415572457
reorientation in a two-dimensional environment: ii. do pigeons (columba livia) encode the featural and geometric properties of a two-dimensional schematic of a room?pigeons (columba livia) searched for a hidden target area in images showing a schematic rectangular environment. the absolute position of the goal varied across trials but was constant relative to distinctive featural cues and geometric properties of the environment. pigeons learned to use both of these properties to locate the goal. transformation tests showed that pigeons could use either the color or shape of the features, but performance was better with color cues present. pigeons could also ...200415584775
the effect of alpha2-adrenergic receptors on cutaneous water evaporation in the rock pigeon (columba livia).the role of beta-adrenergic receptors in regulating cutaneous water evaporation (cwe) in the rock pigeon (columba livia) is well documented. here, we studied the involvement of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors in this cooling mechanism of the heat-acclimated (hac) pigeon. systemic alpha2-adrenergic activation [clonidine, 50 microg kg(-1), intramuscular (i.m.)] was found to increase cwe in heat-acclimated pigeons at an ambient temperature (t(a)) of 25 degrees c. subcutaneous administration of the ...200415596385
human infestation by pigeon fleas (ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons.the report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. the source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (columba livia). the birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. the people encountered up to 40 bites per night. with invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticarial ...200415627347
review of the literature on avian influenza a viruses in pigeons and experimental studies on the susceptibility of domestic pigeons to influenza a viruses of the haemagglutinin subtype h7.the scientific literature of the past century is reviewed on fowl plague (presently termed highly pathogenic avian influenza, hpai) in pigeons. hpai viruses cause epidemic disease outbreaks with high rates of losses in many avian species, particularily in chickens and turkeys. also susceptible to disease are quails, guinea fowl, ducks, geese, ostriches, passerine birds, and birds of prey whereas conflicting reports on the susceptibility of the domestic pigeon exist. based on literature reports a ...200415648616
west nile virus viremia in wild rock pigeons.feral rock pigeons were screened for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) during late winter/spring and summer of 2002 and 2003. additionally, virus isolation from serum was attempted from 269 birds collected during peak transmission periods. the observed viremia levels and seroprevalence indicate that this species could be involved in amplifying wnv in urban settings.200415663876
regional patterns of pectoralis fascicle strain in the pigeon columba livia during level flight.regional fascicle strains were recorded in vivo from the pectoralis of carneau pigeons using sonomicrometry during level slow flight, together with regional electromyography (emg) and deltopectoral crest (dpc) strain measurements of whole muscle force. fascicle strain measurements were obtained at four sites within the pectoralis: the anterior (ant), middle (mid) and posterior (post) sternobrachium (sb), and the smaller thoracobrachium (tb). strains were also recorded along the intramuscular apo ...200515695768
immunohistochemical detection of [corrected] trkb in the enteric nervous system of the small intestine in pigeon (columba livia).the presence and cell localization of trkb, the main receptor for the neurotrophins (nts), was investigated immunohistochemically in the small intestine of adult pigeons, with special reference to the enteric nervous system (ens). several neuronal (neurofilament proteins and pgp 9.5) and glial cell (s100 protein) markers were studied in parallel. trkb immunoreactivity (trkb-ir) was found to be restricted to immunohistochemically-identified glial cells present in the enteric plexuses, and to schw ...200415718203
afferent and efferent connections of the dorsolateral corticoid area and a comparison with connections of the temporo-parieto-occipital area in the pigeon (columba livia).the dorsolateral corticoid area (cdl) in the pigeon telencephalon is a thin, superficial part of the caudal pallium adjoining the medially situated hippocampal formation. to determine the connectivity of cdl, and to distinguish cdl from the rostrally adjacent temporo-parieto-occipital area (tpo), injections of neural tracers were made into the caudal superficial pallium at various rostrocaudal levels. the results showed that injections caudal to a 6.75 (karten and hodos [1967] baltimore: johns h ...200515776448
the chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of rock dove columba livia.the uropygial gland is a holocrine secretory gland of birds. the lipid and the waxy sebum that the gland secretes is coated on the beak and transferred to the plumage in preening. the composition of the gland secretions from birds of different species has been determined, but little is known about the lipids of the secretion of the gland of the rock dove columba livia. the amount of secretion, the total lipid content and the fatty acids composition of the secretion of c. livia captured in the no ...200515792592
[dove columba livia thermoregulation during stress induced by food deprivation]. 200515810666
acute effects of light and darkness on sleep in the pigeon (columba livia).in addition to entraining circadian rhythms, light has acute effects on sleep and wakefulness in mammals. to determine whether light and darkness have similar effects in birds, the only non-mammalian group that displays sleep patterns comparable to mammals, we examined the effects of lighting changes on sleep and wakefulness in the pigeon. we quantified sleep behavior (i.e., bilateral or unilateral eye closure) in pigeons maintained under a 12:12 ld cycle, and immediately following a change from ...200515811399
[the pigeon tick, argas reflexus, and hazard for human health].the massive presence of the pigeon (columba livia f. domestica) in urban areas not only is cause of serious aesthetic damages as decline of squares, of churches, of statues and buildings, but often creates many hygienic and medical problems. the pigeon, in fact, can transmit a great number of pathogenic agents and also be infested by several ectoparasites. among these, argas reflexus (acari: argasidae), the well known pigeon tick, is the most important ectoparasite that can involve also human he ...200415815109
second intermediate host land snails and definitive host animals of brachylaima cribbi in southern australia.this study of infection of southern australian land snails with brachylaima cribbi metacercariae has shown that all commonly encountered native and introduced snails are susceptible second intermediate hosts. the range of infected snails is extensive with metacercariae-infected snails being present in all districts across southern australia. c. virgata has the highest average natural metacercarial infection intensity of 6.1 metacercariae per infected snail. the susceptibility of birds, mammals a ...200515828579
inferior olivary neurons innervate multiple zones of the flocculus in pigeons (columba livia).complex spike activity of floccular purkinje cells responds to patterns of rotational optic flow about the vertical axis (rva neurons) or a horizontal axis 45 degrees to the midline (rh45 neurons). the pigeon flocculus is organized into four parasagittal zones: two rva zones (zones 0 and 2) interdigitated with two rh45 zones (zones 1 and 3). climbing fiber input to the rva and rh45 zones arises in the caudal and rostral regions of the medial column of the inferior olive (mcio), respectively. to ...200515844212
predation: prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack.several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (falco peregrinus). here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. this plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator ...200515846334
homing pigeons develop local route stereotypy.the mechanisms used by homing pigeons (columba livia) to navigate homeward from distant sites have been well studied, yet the mechanisms underlying navigation within, and mapping of, the local familiar area have been largely neglected. in the local area pigeons pote ntially have access to a powerful navigational aid--a memorized landscape map. current opinion suggests that landmarks are used only to recognize a familiar start position and that the goalward route is then achieved solely using com ...200515875565
persistence of antibodies to west nile virus in naturally infected rock pigeons (columba livia).wild caught rock pigeons (columba livia) with antibodies to west nile virus were monitored for 15 months to determine antibody persistence and compare results of three serologic techniques. antibodies persisted for the entire study as detected by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. maternal antibodies in squabs derived from seropositive birds persisted for an average of 27 days.200515879030
adaptive significance of avian beak morphology for ectoparasite control.the beaks of darwin's finches and other birds are among the best known examples of adaptive evolution. beak morphology is usually interpreted in relation to its critical role in feeding. however, the beak also plays an important role in preening, which is the first line of defence against harmful ectoparasites such as feather lice, fleas, bugs, flies, ticks and feather mites. here, we show a feature of the beak specifically adapted for ectoparasite control. experimental trimming of the tiny (1-2 ...200515888414
identification of adrenomedullin in avian type ii pneumocytes: increased expression after exposure to air pollutants.adrenomedullin (am) is a potent vasodilator peptide present in the lung of mammals where it is expressed mainly in the columnar epithelium and alveolar macrophages. am increases the secretion of phosphatidylcholine by type ii pneumocytes, which suggests a role as an autocrine modulator of surfactant secretion. in this study we show the expression of an am-like protein in the lung of the pigeon, columba livia. using an antibody against its human ortholog, am-like immunoreactivity was found to be ...200515928326
how predictable is the abundance of double gametocyte infections?it has been proposed that erythrocytes, infected by one male and one female gametocyte, enhance malaria transmission by lowering encounter time between male and female gametes once inside the mosquito vector. this may have important implications if they occur in human plasmodium infections. double gametocyte infections (dgis) have been found in plasmodium cultures, but it is thought that they are an artefact due to the artificially high crowding of cultures. here, we studied gametocyte density a ...200515940516
neural correlates of executive control in the avian brain.executive control, the ability to plan one's behaviour to achieve a goal, is a hallmark of frontal lobe function in humans and other primates. in the current study we report neural correlates of executive control in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, a region analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex. homing pigeons (columba livia) performed a working memory task in which cues instructed them whether stimuli should be remembered or forgotten. when instructed to remember, many neurons showed ...200515941358
epidemiological investigation of chlamydophila psittaci in pigeons and free-living birds in croatia.during 2003, 278 adult pigeons (columba livia) and 54 birds of 11 other free-living species were caught in the various locations in the city of zagreb, croatia. sera from 182 pigeons were tested for the presence of antibodies against chlamydophila (c.) psittaci by elisa test and 174 of them (95.6%) were found positive. because of the high positivity rate in sera, cloacal swabs of 278 pigeons as well as 54 other species of free-living birds were tested for the presence of c. psittaci antigen. fou ...200515943062
out of context: nmda receptor antagonism in the avian 'prefrontal cortex' impairs context processing in a conditional discrimination task.processing of context information is implicated in prefrontal functions as response selection or attention. n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) receptors in the mammalian prefrontal cortex (pfc) and in the nidopallium caudolaterale (ncl) of birds, the avian functional equivalent of the pfc, are involved in learning, which also requires processing of context. the authors investigated the role of nmda receptors in the pigeon (columba livia) ncl for context processing and response selection in a simultaneo ...200515998201
definition and novel connections of the entopallium in the pigeon (columba livia).the avian entopallium (e) is the major thalamorecipient zone, within the telencephalon, of the tectofugal visual system. because of discrepancies concerning the structure of this nuclear mass in pigeons, and in light of recent evidence concerning entopallial projections in other avian species, we here redefine and chart some novel entopallial projections in the pigeon by using a combination of cytochrome oxidase (co) activity, calcium binding protein immunohistochemistry (cbpi), normal histology ...200516041718
effect of collection frequency on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pigeon (columba livia) semen.the aim was to estimate the optimal frequency of semen collection from pigeons in relation to ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total spermatozoa in ejaculate and percentage of live morphologically normal cells. the study was carried out on 455 ejaculates collected from two groups of pigeons, each of 10 males (group i: meat-type breed; group ii: fancy pigeon). the birds were selected and kept individually in cages under a natural photoperiod. a two-person technique was used for semen collec ...200516050191
alteration in haematocrit values and plasma protein fractions during the breeding cycle of female pigeons, columba livia.haematocrit measurements and plasma protein electrophoresis were carried out in female pigeons (columba livia) during the breeding cycle. non-laying birds showed higher (p < 0.001) haematocrit values than those involved in courtship and mating, nest-building, incubation and feeding and brooding. significant differences in relative percentage of various plasma protein fractions were observed as a function of breeding. haematocrit could be a useful index to the non-laying status of pigeons like th ...200616099116
[environmental distribution of cryptococcus neoformans in the department of cundinamarca-colombia].cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that could cause infection in patients with immunodeficiency and healthy patients. the aids epidemic has shown the importance of studying the ecology and epidemiology of this fungus. the aim of this investigation was to determine if there was a relationship between the environmental distribution of the different varieties of c. neoformans and the climate zones in two transects located in department of cundinamarca, in colombia. for the ...200516107166
prevalence of trichomonas gallinae in northern goshawks from the berlin area of northeastern recent years, the northern goshawk (accipiter gentilis) has colonized suburban and urban areas in berlin, germany, and elsewhere in europe. because of the high proportion of feral pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) in their diet, urban goshawks are suspected to have a high infection rate with trichomonas gallinae. therefore, from 1998 to 2001, we examined 269 nestlings from 90 nests for infection with t. gallinae by culture of swabs taken from the oropharynx and checked their oropharynx for ...200516107664
the normal electrocardiogram of the unanaesthetized competition "spanish pouler" pigeon (columba livia gutturosa).this investigation was carried out on 64 healthy adult competition pigeons (spanish poulers) to determine reference values of electrocardiographic parameters in standard lead ii; a comparative study between males and females was also performed to find changes in the electrocardiographic patterns related to sex. p wave was positive and monophasic; pr segment depression was present in 64% of records; the qrs pattern obtained was in most cases of the rs type, followed by the qs configuration. st sl ...200516109101
a new pcr-rflp within the domestic pigeon (columba livia var. domestica) cytochrome b (mtcyb) gene.a total of 244 domestic pigeons (columba livia var. domestica) were genotyped using the pcr-rflp method. a 999 bp fragment of the mtcyb gene was amplified. the amplification products were digested with restriction enzymes. pcr-rflp for mvai restriction enzyme was observed. frequencies of alleles were as follows: mtcyb(c)--0.926, mtcyb(g)-- 0.074. the frequencies of mtcyb/mvai alleles found in this study for non-homing pigeons considerably deviate from the values found for homing/racing pigeons ( ...200516110190
[gaba-ergic mechanisms of the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus in regulation of sleep and wakefulness and temperature homeostasis in pigeon columba livia]. 200516124515
responses of oral 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt) exposure to the common pigeon (columba livia): a phylogenic and methodological comparison.considerable concentrations of the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt) have been found in the soil at many installations where explosives have been used, manufactured, assembled, or destroyed. to evaluate risk to avian receptors, measures of exposure are compared with a threshold level of sublethal toxicity. to date, a single feeding study has evaluated the responses of oral tnt exposure to birds with equivocal results regarding sublethal effects. the present study followed a controlled dosin ...200516126616
internal sense of direction and landmark use in pigeons (columba livia).the relative importance of an internal sense of direction based on inertial cues and landmark piloting for small-scale navigation by white king pigeons (columba livia) was investigated in an arena search task. two groups of pigeons differed in whether they had access to visual cues outside the arena. in experiment 1, pigeons were given experience with 2 different entrances and all pigeons transferred accurate searching to novel entrances. explicit disorientation before entering did not affect ac ...200516131256
evaluation of organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (falco peregrinus) and their main prey (columba livia) inhabiting central spain.the population of peregrine falcon (falco peregrinus sbs. brookei) inhabiting the regional park of southeastern madrid (rpsm), spain, has experienced an increase of unsuccessful pairs (from 15% among a total of 20 pairs in 1995 to 55% among a total of 18 pairs in 2001). traditionally, this area has been known to be contaminated with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals, which are known to be deleterious to the reproductive system of birds. during the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001, conta ...200516152983
limits of visual acuity in the frontal field of the rock pigeon (columba livia).the eye of the rock pigeon is typical of a granivorous lateral-eyed bird, in that it has both a laterally projecting central fovea and a second high-density cellular area in peripheral retina (area dorsalis) which projects to the binocular frontal field below the beak. such a dual system is faced with potentially different optical restraints arising from central and peripheral vision. we asked whether the frontal axis can support high resolution vision from a refractive resting position (predict ...200516178153
cellular localization of ampa type glutamate receptor subunits in the basal ganglia of pigeons (columba livia).corticostriatal and thalamostriatal projections utilize glutamate as a neurotransmitter in mammals and birds. the influence on striatum is mediated, in part, by ionotropic ampa-type glutamate receptors, which are heteromers composed of glur1-4 subunits. although the cellular localization of ampa-type subunits has been well characterized in mammalian basal ganglia, their localization in avian basal ganglia has not. we thus carried out light microscopic single- and double-label and electron micros ...200616219996
parasite mediated mortality and host immune response explain age-related differences in blood parasitism in important pattern in host-parasite assemblages is a higher intensity of parasites in juveniles than in adults, but the reasons for these differences remain obscure. three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed: (1) heavily parasitized juveniles die before being recruited into the adult population ('selection' hypothesis); (2) the development of an acquired immunity by the host in front of the parasite reduces the intensity of the parasite in adult hosts ('immunity' hypothesis); ...200316228253
outbreak of avian mycobacteriosis in a flock of two-year-old domestic pigeons (columba livia f. domestica).this report describes an outbreak of avian mycobacteriosis in a flock of 100 two-yr-old pigeons. over a 6-mo period, the sick pigeons showed cachexia followed by death. in columbiformes classic tubercles rarely develop, but in these affected pigeons granulomatous nodular lesions of various sizes, containing numerous acid-fast bacilli, were found in the internal organs. the lesions were observed in the liver, spleen, intestine, bone marrow, ovary, and oviduct. despite their breeding age, atrophy ...200516252504
isolation of cryptococcus species including c. neoformans from cloaca of pigeons.upper digestive tract of the pigeon (columba livia) is well known as a reservoir for different species of cryptococcus, but lower portions are not so frequently studied. in the present study, we tested on selective media a total of 331 pigeon cloacal swabs; cryptococcus spp. were recovered from 26 (7.85%). cryptococcus uniguttulatus was isolated from 11 samples (3.32%), c. laurentii from six (1.81%), c. neoformans var. neoformans from six (1.81%) and c. albidus from three of them (0.91%). the re ...200516262879
tracing the history of galalpha1-4gal on glycoproteins in modern birds.galalpha1-4gal is typically found in mammalian glycolipids in small quantities, and recognized by some pathogens, such as uropathogenic escherichia coli. in contrast, glycoproteins containing galalpha1-4gal were rarely found in vertebrates except in a few species of birds and amphibians until recently. however, we had previously reported that pigeon (columba livia) egg white and serum glycoproteins are rich in n-glycans with galalpha1-4gal at non-reducing termini. our investigation with egg whit ...200616290275
the influence of hippocampal lesions on the discrimination of structure and on spatial memory in pigeons (columba livia).pigeons (columba livia) were trained with a spatial structural discrimination, which was based on the spatial relationship among the components of a pattern, and a feature-binding structural discrimination, which was based on how different visual features within a pattern were combined. neither discrimination was impaired by damage to the hippocampus and area parahippocampalis. the lesions impaired performance on a spatial working memory and a spatial reference memory task in open field. the res ...200516300438
a lateralized avian hippocampus: preferential role of the left hippocampal formation in homing pigeon sun compass-based spatial learning.the hippocampal formation (hf) plays a crucial role in amniote spatial cognition. there are also indications of functional lateralization in the contribution of the left and right hf in processes that enable birds to navigate space. the experiments described in this study were designed to examine left and right hf differences in a task of sun compass-based spatial learning in homing pigeons (columba livia). control, left (hfl) and right (hfr) hf lesioned pigeons were trained in an outdoor arena ...200516307597
cryptococcal antigen survey among racing pigeon subjects, patients with cryptococcosis versus pythiosis, histoplasmosis and penicilliosis: serotyping of cryptococcus. 198916312709
characterization of baroreflex gain in the domestic pigeon (columba livia).birds have a remarkable capacity to regulate circulation yet little is known about the avian baroreflex. although both linear regression and curve-fitting techniques are frequently used to assess baroreflex function in mammals, only the former technique has been used in birds. we characterized baroreflex gain in domestic pigeons (columba livia) and compared gain values derived from applying linear regression to ramp changes in mean arterial pressure (map) to values derived from fitting a four-pa ...200616356744
effect of age, sex and season on the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in domestic pigeons (columba livia) from bursa province, turkey.the one-year study reported in this paper was carried out from april 2002 to march 2003 in domestic pigeons (columba livia) of bursa province (turkey) to determine the occurrence of helminth species and to evaluate the effect of host age, sex and season on their prevalence and intensity. a total of 100 (31 young and 69 adult) domestic pigeons were necropsied and examined. the results of necropsies revealed that 74 pigeons harboured helminth infections. three helminth species were identified: bar ...200516363146
visual responses and afferent connections of the n. ventrolateralis thalami (vlt) in the pigeon (columba livia).the nucleus ventrolateralis thalami (vlt) in pigeons receives direct retinal and forebrain projections and has reciprocal connections with the optic tectum. although vlt is a component of the avian visual system, no study directly examined its connections or its cellular response characteristics. we, therefore, recorded from single units in the pigeon's vlt while visually stimulating the ipsi- and/or contralateral eye. in addition, tracing experiments were conducted to investigate its afferent c ...200616377434
influence of the behavioural context on the optocollic reflex (ocr) in pigeons (columba livia).we investigated the effects of several behavioural conditions on the properties of the horizontal optocollic reflex (ocr) in pigeons. the head reflex was triggered by rotating the visual surroundings at different velocities (stimuli steps of 30-300 deg. s(-1)) and the characteristics of the slow and fast phases of the ocr were analysed during, (i) the 'resting condition', in which animals were hung in a harness, (ii) the 'standing condition', in which animals were freely standing, (iii) the 'wal ...200616391351
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