severe ocular trauma caused by an ostrich. 200515665372
enzymatic properties of rhea lysozyme.rhea lysozyme was analyzed for its enzymatic properties both lytic and oligomer activities to reveal the structural and functional relationships of goose type lysozyme. rhea lysozyme had the highest lytic activity at ph 6, followed by ostrich and goose at ph 5.5-6, whereas the optimum of cassowary was at ph 5. ph profile was correlated to the net charge of each molecule surface. on the other hand, the ph optimum for oligomer substrate was found to be ph 4, indicating the mechanism of rhea cataly ...200515665474
differential effects of detergents, fatty acids, cations and heating on ostrich skeletal muscle 20s proteasome.the 20s proteasome, the catalytic core of the 26s proteasome, has previously been isolated, purified and partially characterised from ostrich skeletal muscle (thomas, a.r., oosthuizen, v., naude, r.j., muramoto, k. 2002. biol. chem. 383, 1267-1270). due to the apparent latency of the 20s proteasome purified from various sources, this study focuses on further characterising the ostrich enzyme in terms of the effects of selected detergents, fatty acids and cations, as well as heating at 60 degrees ...200515694581
novel solution structure of porcine beta-microseminoprotein.a number of beta-microseminoproteins (msps) have been identified from different species. msps are all non-glycosylated and disulfide bond-rich, but show a relatively low level of conservation. although all cys residues are conserved, our previous study showed that the disulfide bond pairings differ in porcine and ostrich msps. despite the variety of biological functions that have been suggested for msps, their real function is still poorly understood. furthermore, no 3d structure has been report ...200515701518
type 2 heat-labile enterotoxin (lt-ii)-producing escherichia coli isolated from ostriches with diarrhea.the culture supernatant of escherichia coli, isolated from ostriches with diarrhea in brazil, caused elongation in vero cell, rounding in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells and a cytoplasmic vacuolation in ostrich embryo fibroblasts (oef), but it was not cytotoxic for chicken embryo fibroblasts (cef). these effects were not neutralized by antiserum to cholera toxin. polymerase chain reaction assays showed that the ostrich e. coli contained the gene encoding (eltii-a), but not those for type 1 hea ...200415708822
the sensitive innervation of the ostrich nasal mucosa.the sensitive innervation of the ostrich's nasal mucosa, through impregnative gold chloride methods, was investigated. the autonomy innervation, constituted by ganglion cells placed along the course of nerve trunks was particularly represented in the respiratory tract of the nasal cavity. the somatic nerve component, composed by free and capsulated endings, was especially distributed in the vestibular district. the nerve corpuscles were morphologically classified as pacini, pacini-like, golgi-ma ...200415717458
cloning and expression of ostrich trypsinogen: an avian trypsin with a highly sensitive autolysis of ostrich (struthio camelus) trypsinogen genes was cloned from pancreatic cdna. its amino acid sequence compared to known trypsin sequences from other species shows high identity and suggests that it is a member of the phylogenetically anionic trypsinogen i subfamily. after cytoplasmic over expression in escherichia coli and renaturation, the activation properties of ostrich trypsinogen were studied and compared to those of human trypsinogen 1 (also called as human cationic trypsinogen). os ...200515752690
identification and quantitation of species in complex dna mixtures by real-time polymerase chain reaction.six taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) systems using minor groove binding (mgb) probes have been developed for the detection quantitation of bovine, porcine, lamb, chicken, turkey, and ostrich dna in complex samples. species-specific amplification was achieved by combining only two fluorogenic probes and 10 oligonucleotide primers targeting mitochondrial sequences, decreasing the cost of the assay significantly. the limits of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.80 pg of template dna. a ...200515766713
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from zimbabwe were tested for igg antibodies to toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (mat). significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. among the bovidae, the nyala (tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence o ...200515777687
intrathoracic haemangiosarcoma in an ostrich (struthio camelus). 200515789651
identification and molecular epidemiology of campylobacter coli isolates from human gastroenteritis, food, and animal sources by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and penner serotyping.campylobacter coli is an infrequently studied but important food-borne pathogen with a wide natural distribution. we investigated its molecular epidemiology by use of amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp)-based genotyping and penner serotyping. serotype reference strains and 177 danish isolates of diverse origin identified by routine phenotyping as c. coli were examined. molecular tools identified some 12% of field isolates as campylobacter jejuni, emphasizing the need for improved ident ...200515812025
fibrino-necrotic typhlitis caused by escherichia fergusonii in ostriches (struthio camelus).two adult ostriches developed anorexia, prostration, and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, dying 24 hr after the onset of clinical signs. on postmortem examination, the cecal mucosa showed locally extensive areas of hemorrhages and fibrino-necrotic typhlitis with a white-yellowish material covering the mucosal surface. multiple serosal petequial hemorrhages and fibrinous peritonitis were present. histologic examination revealed an intense mononuclear infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa o ...200515839434
[animal welfare aspects regarding the raising of breeding ostriches in germany].the commercial housing of african ostriches in germany for the breed and meat production still represents a disputed topic under the criterion of the animal's welfare. above all critics state that the frequently wet-cold weather in germany impairs the well-being and health of the animals. so far however there are just a few scientifically documented data about requirements for housing conditions of ostriches in central europe and thus hardly answers whether housing in germany is possible under t ...200515847067
ostrich nutrition: a review from a zimbabwean perspective.the ostrich is an important animal in many livestock industries and, in the developing world, the export of meat and skins is a valuable source of foreign currency. as the successful growth and reproductive performance of ostriches depends on good nutrition it is extremely important to provide the correct diet. some researchers have incorrectly assumed that poultry diets are useful for ostriches, but the vitamin and mineral requirements of these birds are unique and their diets should never be s ...200415861899
dynamics of fluorescence dequenching of ostrich-quenched fluorescein biotin: a multifunctional quantitative assay for biotin.we describe a simple and rapid quantitative assay for biotin and biotin conjugates. the assay is based on the kinetic analysis of the enhancement of fluorescence of streptavidin/fluorescein biotin complexes in the presence of biotin. the kinetic response of fluorescence enhancement is proportional to the concentration of biotin. standard calibration curves based on the kinetic response are obtained and detection limits of approximately 10(-9)m are established. because the assay is amenable for u ...200515913533
extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage.the composition and organization of the extracellular matrix of ostrich articular cartilage was investigated, using samples from the proximal and distal surfaces of the tarsometatarsus. for morphological analysis, sections were stained with toluidine blue and analyzed by polarized light microscopy. for biochemical analysis, extracellular matrix components were extracted with 4 m guanidinium chloride, fractionated on deae-sephacel and analyzed by sds-page. glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by elec ...200515954467
osteoinductivity of partially purified native ostrich (struthio camelus) bone morphogenetic protein: comparison with mammalian species.bone morphogenetic proteins (bmps) are members of the tgf-beta superfamily. they are capable of inducing ectopic bone formation. until now, the main interest has been focused on mammalian osteoinductive bmps, and there are no reports of native bmp extracts of birds. in this study, we isolated and characterized native bmps of ostrich (struthio camelus) and compared them with identically isolated native bovine (cow) and reindeer bmps with regard to bmp pattern and osteoinductive capacity. the ostr ...200516005022
bacteriological evaluation of commercial canine and feline raw diets.twenty-five commercial raw diets for dogs and cats were evaluated bacteriologically. coliforms were present in all diets, ranging from 3.5 x 10(3) to 9.4 x 10(6) cfu/g (mean 8.9 x 10(5); standard deviation 1.9 x 10(6)). escherichia coli was identified in 15/25 (64%) diets; however, e. coli o157 was not detected. salmonella spp. were detected in 5/25 (20%) diets; 1 each of beef-, lamb-, quail-, chicken-, and ostrich-based diets. sporeforming bacteria were identified from 4/25 (16%) samples on dir ...200516048011
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. inhibition of red blood cell ostrich (struthio camelus) carbonic anhydrase with a series of aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides.the purification of red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (ca, ec from ostrich (scca) blood is reported, as well as an inhibition study of this enzyme with a series of aromatic and heterocylic sulfonamides. the ostrich enzyme showed a high activity, comparable to that of the human isozyme ii, with kcat, of 1.2 x 10(6) s(-1) and kcat/km of 1.8 x 10(7) m(-1)s(-1), and an inhibition profile quite different from that of the human red blood cell cytosolic isozymes hca i and ii. scca has generall ...200516206834
autonomic and sensitive somatic innervation of the ostrich elbow and knee joints articular capsule.the present research was carried out on the fibrous layer of the ostrich's elbow and knee joints articular capsule, employing opportunely modified gold chloride ruffini's method, to study the autonomic and sensitive somatic nerve components. the distribution of both nerve components followed frequently the vascular networks. the autonomic innervation was represented by isolated or grouped ganglion cells, frequently placed along the course of nerve trunks, close to the epineurium or located withi ...200516277161
identification of three novel mycoplasma species from ostriches in south africa.mycoplasmas have been implicated in certain clinical syndromes in ostriches and are associated with upper respiratory tract infections. as these infections result in production losses, they are of considerable economic importance to the south african ostrich industry. although poultry mycoplasmas have been shown to infect ostriches, the existence of unique ostrich-specific mycoplasmas has been suggested. in this study, mycoplasmas were isolated from ostriches in the klein karoo, central karoo an ...200516280203
morphological features of the luminal surface of the magnum in the sexually immature ostrich (struthio camelus).summary observations were made, using scanning electron microscopy, of the surface features of the magnum in the immature ostrich during periods of ovarian inactivity, activity and regression. in birds with inactive ovaries the luminal surface of the magnum was lined with non-ciliated cells, which were densely covered by microvilli. in contrast, the magnum in birds with active ovaries was composed of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. the distribution of ciliated cells was not uniform, with clumps ...200516288605
first report of a field outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, philophthalmus gralli (mathis & leger 1910), in commercially reared ostriches (struthio camelus) in zimbabwe.a total of 17 commercially reared ostriches (struthio camelus) from msengi farm, chinhoyi, zimbabwe, observed with swollen eyes, severe conjunctivitis and constant lacrimation accompanied by a purulent exudate, were restrained for further clinical examination. some of the birds were semi-blind with severe loss of body condition. when examined, tiny organisms were observed attached to the nictitating membranes and the conjuctival sacs of both eyes. the organisms were identified as philophthalmus ...200516300188
effects of freezing-thawing on dna integrity of boar spermatozoa assessed by the neutral comet assay.a modified version of the neutral comet assay was employed to evaluate the effect of the freezing-thawing process on boar-sperm dna integrity. the sperm-rich fractions were collected from four mature boars and frozen into aluminium tubes and straws after extension in lactose-hen egg yolk-glycerol extender (lactose-hey-g) or an extender containing lactose, lyophilized lipoprotein fractions extracted from ostrich egg yolk and glycerol (lactose-lpfo-g). the semen samples were also frozen in a stand ...200516324079
the ostrich syndrome in american pharmacy. 200616397304
amino acid sequences and phosphorylation sites of emu and rhea eggshell c-type lectin-like proteins.avian calcified eggshell layers contain in their organic matrix one or two c-type lectin-like proteins. previously characterized eggshell proteins of this family are chicken ovocleidin-17 (oc-17), goose ansocalcin and ostrich struthiocalcins 1 and 2 (sca-1, sca-2). in this report we present the amino acid sequences of two emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) (dromaiocalcin-1 and -2; dca-1, dca-2) and of two rhea (rhea americana) (rheacalcin-1 and -2; rca-1, rca-2) c-type lectin-like eggshell proteins, ...200616403478
the ostrich strategy towards affective issues in alexithymic patients with fibromyalgia. 200616426801
the ostrich (struthio camelus) blastoderm and embryo development following storage of eggs at various temperatures.1. the gross morphology of blastoderms in fresh unstored ostrich eggs and in eggs subjected to different regimen of storage and incubation was studied. then the effects of storage duration of eggs (1, 2 and 3 weeks) and storage temperature (15, 20 and 25 degrees c) on blastoderm and embryo development were investigated.2. only incubation following overnight storage at 18 degrees c advanced blastoderm development (1.5-fold increase in diameter) to a stage comparable to hypoblast. 3. storage of eg ...200516428106
ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches.avian influenza is important because of its potential devastating effect on poultry health and trade. the ostrich industry of south africa has not escaped the consequences of control and export restrictions resulting from notifiable virus infections. ostrich farmers first observed a syndrome of green urine in the early and mid 1980s. an h7n1 subtype, causing high mortality in young ostriches but with a low pathogenicity index for chickens, was first isolated in 1991. the first highly pathogenic ...200616447494
phylogenetic analyses of genes from south african lpai viruses isolated in 2004 from wild aquatic birds suggests introduction by eurasian 2004, south africa experienced its first recorded outbreak of a highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (hpnai) viral strain of the h5n2 subtype in ostriches in the eastern cape province. the traditional ostrich-farming areas in the western cape province report almost yearly outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) in ostriches, which is attributed to introduction by wild birds and certain climatic patterns. during the winter of 2004, lpai h3n8, h4n8, h5n2 and h5n1 avian inf ...200616447511
ecology and molecular epidemiology of h9n2 avian influenza viruses isolated in israel during 2000-2004 epizootic.the first two isolates of h9n2 influenza virus were picked up from turkey and chicken hosts in may 2000, but the actual epizootic of the low pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) h9n2 virus started in december 2001, following a 1.5-year period of silence, during which the h10n7 and h6n3 influenza viruses were isolated sporadically. the outbreak of the h9n2 influenza began in northern israel, from where the epizootic spread all over the country. damage was relatively limited because of the widespr ...200616447512
occurrence of libyostrongylus sp. (nematoda) in ostriches (struthio camelus linnaeus, 1758) from the north region of the state of rio de janeiro, brazil.domestic production of ostrich in brazil started in the beginning of the last decade, but its sanitary state has not been reported. libyostrongylus sp. is an ostrich specific nematode whose parasitism can severely affect the birds. thus, libyostrongylus spp. larvae were identified in commercial ostriches in the north region of the state of rio de janeiro, brazil. the epg was determined and fecal cultivation was performed. the eggs presented typical characteristics of strongylid and were present ...200616448757
distribution of neurotrophin and trk receptor-like immunoreactivity in the adrenal gland of birds.the occurrence and localization of neurotrophins and their specific trk receptor-like proteins in the adrenal gland of chicken, duck and ostrich were examined by immunohistochemical methods. in all species studied ngf-, trk a- and trk c-like immunoreactivity was observed in neurons and fibers of adrenal ganglia. thin trk a- and trk c-like immunoreactive fibers were also observed among chromaffin cells. nt-3-like immunoreactivity was detected in chromaffin cells as revealed by the double immunola ...200616456836
molecular cloning and characterization of preproopiomelanocortin (prepomc) cdna from the ostrich (struthio camelus).to date proopiomelanocortin (pomc), the precursor protein for melanotropin (msh), adrenocorticotropin (acth), lipotropins (lph), and beta-endorphin (beta-end) in the pituitary gland, has been studied extensively over a wide spectrum of vertebrate classes. a paucity of information exists, however, with regard to pomc in the avian class, where to date pomc from only one species, the domestic chicken, appears to have been fully characterized. in the present study, we report the use of three clones ...200616457826
identification of three novel ostricacins: an update on the phylogenetic perspective of beta-defensins.three new beta-defensins, ostricacins-2, 3 and 4 (osp-2, 3 and 4), have been successfully purified and characterised from ostrich heterophils in addition to ostricacin-1 (osp-1). these peptides are composed of 36-42 amino acids with a molecular weight range of 4.70-4.98 kda. in vitro, osp-1, 3 and 4 were active against escherichia coli o157:h7 and staphylococcus aureus 1056 mrsa, whilst osp-2 was active against bacterial strains plus the yeast candida albicans 3153a. minimal inhibitory concentra ...200616459058
egg storage period and weight effects on hatchability of ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs.we studied the affects of storage period and egg weight on the hatchability of 314 ostrich (struthio camelus) eggs. eggs were stored at 20 degrees c and 65% rh before incubation at the poultry research, teaching and extension center at texas a&m university (college station, tx). eggs were classed by storage period (< or = 5, > 5 < or = 10, > 10 < or = 15, or > 15 < 24 d) and egg weight (< or = 1,450, > 1,450 < or = 1,650, or > 1,650 g) to determine the influence of storage period and egg weight ...200516479949
struthiopterolichus bicaudatus (gervais) (acari: pterolichidae): a feather mite pest of the ostrich in australia. 200616498841
haptoglobin, a hemoglobin-binding plasma protein, is present in bony fish and mammals but not in frog and chicken.hemoglobin (hb) released from erythrocytes may cause oxidation of lipids and proteins. haptoglobin (hp), which occurs in the plasma of all mammals, binds free hb and inhibits its oxidative activity. it is not known whether this protective protein also exists in lower vertebrates. by analyzing available genomic sequences, we have found that bony fish, but not more primitive animals, have a gene coding for a protein homologous to mammalian hp. furthermore, we show that this protein is present in t ...200616537503
isolation, cloning and sequencing of transferrins from red-eared turtle, african ostrich, and turkey.transferrins form an important class of iron-binding proteins widely distributed in the physiological fluids of vertebrates and invertebrates. in vertebrates they are present mostly in serum as serotransferrins. in birds and reptiles transferrins are also found in eggs as ovotransferrins. however, until now only chicken and duck ovotransferrin sequences have been published. this paper presents data on the purification, biochemical analysis, cloning and sequencing of ovotransferrins from red-eare ...200616631400
determination of the force necessary for the propagation of tears in ostrich and calf pericardium.the durability of prosthetic heart valve leaflets made of biological materials is limited. a tear in the biomaterial accelerates their early failure, but microtearing of the collagen fibers may be responsible for their medium-term failure. we studied the force necessary to propagate tearing in two biomaterials: ostrich and calf pericardium. one hundred twenty samples of each tissue were tested in an elmendorf pendulum capable of measuring the force required to tear a tissue in which a predefined ...200616637030
immunoreactivities to protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and neuron specific enolase in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich (struthio camelus).the innervation of the ovary has been studied in various species of birds and mammals. despite the fact that the innervation of any organ is an essential factor in controlling its growth and function, no information is available on the distribution of nerve fibers in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich. thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate the distribution of nerve fibers in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich, using antibodies against neurofilament protein type m ...200616639498
variance components for live weight, body measurements and reproductive traits of pair-mated ostrich females.estimates of genetic parameters for reproductive traits, live weight and body measurements were obtained using data from a pair-mated ostrich flock at oudtshoorn in south africa. reproductive traits included total egg and chick production, along with hatchability percentage. live weight, chest circumference and tail circumferences were recorded at the commencement and cessation of breeding. heritability estimates (h(2)) were 0.23 for egg production, 0.20 for chick production, 0.10 for hatchabili ...200616641025
differential response in the water status of immature and mature fronds of the ostrich fern (matteuccia struthiopteris [l.] todaro) to a mild water stress.experiments were conducted in growth chambers to examine the effect of a mild water stress (-200 kilopascals polyethylene glycol) on frond elongation and water status of the ostrich fern (matteuccia struthiopteris [l.] todaro). measurements were taken for two days, starting one day after the application of polyethylene glycol. total water potential in control (well-watered) plants was always significantly higher in immature fronds than in mature fronds. the osmotic potential in mature fronds was ...198316662990
biochemistry of fern spore germination: protease activity in ostrich fern spores.protease activities were detected in quiescent and germinating spores of the ostrich fern (matteuccia struthiopteris [l.] todaro). peak endopeptidase, aminopeptidase, and carboxypeptidase activities were detected 12 to 24 hours after spores began imbibing under light. there was a correlation between activities of proteases, the onset of a decline in levels of soluble protein, and an increase in levels of free amino acids. the earliest visible event of spore germination, breakage of the spore coa ...198616664754
biochemistry of fern spore germination: globulin storage proteins in matteuccia struthiopteris l.two globulin storage proteins have been identified in spores of the ostrich fern, matteuccia struthiopteris (l.) todaro. the two proteins comprise a significant amount of the total spore protein, are predominantly salt-soluble, and can be extracted by other solvents to a limited extent. the large 11.3 svedberg unit (s) globulin is composed of five polypeptides with molecular weights of 21,000, 22,000, 24,000, 28,000 and 30,000. each polypeptide has several isoelectric point (pi) variants between ...198716665699
violence, zero tolerance and the subversion of professional practice.assaults on health care staff have been a fact of life since the earliest years of organised health services, but it is only in recent years that governments have begun to acknowledge the problem. assaults not only inflict physical and emotional injury, but undermine morale, create a climate of fear, and subvert the quality of care. they are also costly in terms of lost labour, compensation, and legal and procedural expenses. the response to violence in health care settings has thus far ranged f ...200616696604
the presence of quill mites (gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (struthiolipeurus struthionis) in ostrich wing feathers.quill mites (gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (struthiolipeurus struthionis) may infest ostrich feathers, resulting in skin damage, pruritus and excessive feather preening and loss. four different feather types (prime white, femina extra wide, femina class 1, and femina short; n = 10) were collected. the quill mites and lice were removed with fine forceps, studied using a photographic optical microscope and counted microscopically at x 100 magnification following collection by sedimentation. they w ...200616700469
biochemical and mechanical behavior of ostrich pericardium as a new biomaterial.we have performed a comparative analysis of glutaraldehyde-preserved ostrich pericardium, as a novel biomaterial, with bovine pericardium. the biochemical characteristics (histology, water content, amino acid composition, and collagen and elastin contents), mechanical properties, and in vivo calcification in a subcutaneous rat model were examined. ostrich pericardium is slightly thinner and shows a higher water content (70+/-2% vs. 62+/-2%) than bovine pericardium. additionally, ostrich pericard ...200616701880
female-specific dna sequences in ostriches.ostrich absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, unique sequences or markers located in the ostrich w-chromosome. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) fingerprinting was carried out to investigate the sex-specific dna sequence for sexing in ostrich. one hundred and forty random primers were used for random amplified polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr). one of these primers, opaj-13, produced a sex-specific band only found in tested females, which was isolated and constructed ...200616714099
microbiological profiles, ph, and titratable acidity of chorizo and salchichón (two spanish dry fermented sausages) manufactured with ostrich, deer, or pork meat.microbial counts, ph, and titratable acidity were determined in 102 spanish dry fermented sausages (chorizo and salchichón) made with ostrich, deer, or pork meat. average microbial counts (log cfu per gram) varied from 5.46 +/- 0.24 to 8.25 +/- 0.80 (total viable counts), from 4.79 +/- 0.36 to 7.99 +/- 0.20 (psychrotrophs), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 0.99 +/- 1.10 (undetectable values were assumed to be zero) (enterobacteriaceae), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 4.27 +/- 1.47 (enterococci), from 5.15 +/- 1.15 ...200616715825
morphological and histological study of the ostrich (struthio camelus l.) liver and biliary system.the peculiarity of the digestive system of the ostrich (struthio camelus l.), which is characterized by the continuous production of bile, led us to undertake macroscopical and histological studies of the liver and its biliary system, since very little bibliographic data exist on the subject. for this purpose we observed the organs of male and female ostriches 16-18 months of age, in situ, in order to describe their location, relationships and morphology. samples of the liver were processed for ...200616736712
sensitive innervation of the copulatory organ in struthio camelus: comparison to the corresponding district in female proctodeum.the aa. have studied the nerve component of male copulatory organ and ventral part of female proctodeum in the ostrich. this paper represents the concluding part of the plan of research that aimed to verify some data and hypothesis referred in previous observations. the innervation of the considered districts was always constituted by autonomic and sensitive somatic nerve components. the autonomic innervation was represented by isolated and grouped ganglion cells located along the course of nerv ...200616736716
serological and virological studies of newcastle disease and avian influenza in slaughter-age ostriches (struthio camelus) in japan.serum samples from 191 ostriches (struthio camelus) in japan were tested for antibodies to newcastle disease virus (ndv) and avian influenza virus (aiv). twenty-two (12%) contained ndv-specific neutralizing antibodies by a virus-neutralization (vn) test without vaccination. antibodies to aiv were not detected in the any sera by an agar gel precipitation test. seven serum samples that had vaccinated with live ndv by eye drop were all positive by the vn test at 1 month post vaccination. a haemaggl ...200616757893
antibody responses in ostriches (struthio camelus) vaccinated with commercial live and killed newcastle disease vaccines.three ostriches (struthio camelus) were immunized with commercially available live and killed newcastle disease (nd) vaccines for chickens and the antibody responses to the nd vaccines were evaluated by a virus-neutralization (vn) test. primary vaccination with the live vaccine, b1, by eye drop was followed with two shots of alum-precipitated killed vaccine via subcutaneous injection in the neck. as a final booster, another live vaccine, clone 30, was used by eye drop. a vn antibody titer, more ...200616820723
a morphological and immunohistochemical study of healthy and atretic follicles in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich (struthio camelus).the morphology of healthy and atretic follicles in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich was described in the present study. in addition, the distribution of the intermediate filaments desmin, vimentin and smooth muscle actin, in these ovarian follicles, was demonstrated. healthy and atretic primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic follicles were present in the ovaries of the sexually immature ostrich. atresia occurred during all stages of follicular development. atretic primordial and ...200616836590
proliferative response by the ostrich proventriculus in idiopathic gastric stasis: a case this report, the late clinical, necropsy, and histopathological findings of idiopathic gastric stasis in an ostrich are described, with special attention to the proventriculus. an ostrich with clinical signs of gastric stasis was brought to our clinic in a state of impending death that could not be reversed with emergency medical care. at necropsy, the koilin layer of the gizzard was uneven without ulcerations. the proventriculus was distended with food items without impaction and mucosal les ...200616841759
the morphology of the efferent ducts of the testis of the ostrich, a primitive bird.the efferent duct of the ostrich consists of two segments, the proximal efferent duct (ped) and the distal efferent duct (ded) that are continuous, as in some other birds. both segments of the duct possess an epithelium comprising non-ciliated and ciliated cells in varying proportions between the two segments. the non-ciliated cell (type i) of the ped contains a well-developed, subapical endocytic apparatus of apical tubules and endocytic vacuoles, a solitary, large, heterogeneous lipid droplet, ...200616850342
[case report: libyostrongylus douglassii-associated proventriculitis in ostriches in germany].cases of libyostrongylus douglassii-associated proventriculitis in an adult female ostrich and two ostrich chicks occurring on two farms in different federal states of germany are described. the adult bird was recently bought and kept under quarantaine conditions without contact to other animals of the herd. without developing clinical signs of illness, the animal died. at necropsy, typical lesions of wireworm infection were found. the lining of the stomach had a moth-eaten appearance. massive a ...200616856612
experimental verification of the crucial roles of glu73 in the catalytic activity and structural stability of goose type lysozyme.the roles of glu(73), which has been proposed to be a catalytic residue of goose type (g-type) lysozyme based on x-ray structural studies, were investigated by means of its replacement with gln, asp, and ala using ostrich egg-white lysozyme (oel) as a model. no remarkable differences in secondary structure or substrate binding ability were observed between the wild type and glu(73)-mutated proteins, as evaluated by circular dichroism (cd) spectroscopy and chitin-coated celite chromatography. sub ...200616877771
biological studies and molecular characterization of a cryptosporidium isolate from ostriches (struthio camelus).there are many reports of cryptosporidial infection in ostriches, but none with molecular characterization of the isolates. a study was undertaken for the characterization of a brazilian cryptosporidium sp. ostrich isolate by using molecular phylogenetic analysis of fragments of the 18s ribosomal dna, heat-shock protein (hsp) 70 coding gene, and actin coding gene. biological studies were accomplished by the experimental inoculation of chickens via oral or intratracheal routes with fresh ostrich ...200616884009
[the case of acaridosis in african ostrich (struthio camelus) breeding].the aim of the study was to determine a reason for failing health eondition and deaths among the ostriches in the newly-established breeding farm situated within the boundaries of toruĊ„ voivodship. both initial observations and examinations of three alive and two dead birds presupposed an appearance of ectoparasitical disease. the autopsies were performed and the specimens for bacteriological and parasitological studies were subsequently obtained. the ectoparasitically-directed studies were the ...199916886464
effect of different procedures of ejaculate collection, extenders and packages on dna integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.whole ejaculate or sperm-rich fraction, collected from four sexually mature boars, was frozen in an extender containing lactose-hen egg yolk with glycerol (lactose-hey-g) or extender containing lactose, lyophilized lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk and glycerol (lactose-lpfo-g), and orvus es paste, respectively. the sperm samples were also frozen in a standard boar semen extender (kortowo-3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. sperm dna integrity was assessed u ...200716889911
head injury caused by an ostrich: a rare entity.human injuries caused by animals are not uncommon and have been reported in the literature on many occasions. most of the animals commonly involved are dogs, cats, cows, horses and camels. injuries are usually on the trunk or limbs and sometimes on the face. human injuries caused by an ostrich are rare and only three cases have been reported with severe ocular injury. to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of head injury caused by an ostrich in a child.200616902344
shelf life of ostrich (struthio camelus) liver stored under different packaging conditions.ostrich (struthio camelus) liver is an important edible meat by-product. however, it has a low commercial value, and it is underutilized. the present study was conducted to establish the shelf life of ostrich liver, stored at 2 +/- 1 degrees c for 18 days, under different packing conditions. fresh livers were sliced and packed under air exposure, vacuum, and modified atmosphere (ma: 80% co2 plus 20% n2). shelf-life evaluation was based on color, lipid and hemopigment oxidation, microbial counts, ...200616924918
outbreaks of avian influenza h6n2 viruses in chickens arose by a reassortment of h6n8 and h9n2 ostrich viruses.the first recorded outbreak of avian influenza (ai) in south african chickens (low pathogenicity h6n2) occurred at camperdown, kwazulu/natal province (kzn) in june 2002. to determine the source of the outbreak, we defined the phylogenetic relationships between various h6n2 isolates, and the previously unpublished gene sequences of an h6n8 virus isolated in 1998 from ostriches in the leeu gamka region (a/ostrich/south africa/kk98/98). we demonstrated that two distinct genetic h6n2 lineages (sub-l ...200716927114
an ostrich contemplates pbc. 200616954016
new insights into the phylogeny of entamoeba species provided by analysis of four new small-subunit rrna genes.sequences of small-subunit rrna genes have been obtained for four new isolates of entamoeba. phylogenetic analyses give new insights into the evolution of these organisms. a novel entamoeba from pigs in vietnam that produces uninucleate cysts proved to be unrelated to other uninucleated cyst-producing species. revival of the name entamoeba suis for this organism is proposed. instead of being related to entamoeba polecki, it shares a recent common ancestor with the non-encysting entamoeba gingiva ...200616957127
biochemical and structural comparative study between bird and mammal pancreatic colipases.three colipases were purified from pancreas of two birds (ostrich and turkey) and one mammal (dromedary). after acidic and/or heat treatment and precipitation by sulfate ammonium and then ethanol, cofactors were purified by sephadex g-50 gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography first on mono s and then on mono q. one molecular form was obtained from each species with a molecular mass of approximately 10 kda. cofactors were not glycosylated. the n-terminal sequences of the three pur ...200616957180
immunoreactivities to protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and neuron specific enolase in nerves in the oviduct of the sexually immature ostrich, struthio camelus.the present study investigated the distribution of nerves in the oviduct of the sexually immature ostrich. the presence of protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and neuron specific enolase nerve fibres were demonstrated in the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell gland and vagina. nerve fibres containing protein gene product 9.5, neuron specific enolase and neurofilament protein were particularly numerous in the tunica muscularis and intermuscular connective tissue areas of the shell g ...200616958264
detection of thermotolerant campylobacter in ostriches (struthio camelus) in italy.during the period january 2004 to december 2005 four different ostrich farms were investigated to evaluate the presence of thermotolerant campylobacter. a total of 150 ostriches were examined and all were found to be clinically healthy. campylobacter spp. were isolated from 60/150 cloacal swabs. among the isolates, 48 were identified as campylobacter jejuni whereas the remainder were identified as campylobacter coli. campylobacter lari was not isolated. the ostriches, although apparently in a he ...200716959506
selenium distribution in eggs of avian species.we studied the effect of egg mass of eight different avian species on se distribution between egg components and the effect of incubation on se accumulation by chicken eggshell and shell membrane. eight groups of birds received a diet without se supplementation. unfertile eggs were collected after 35 days of feeding; yolk, albumen, shell and shell membrane were assayed separately for se. all avian species studied showed identical se concentration in yolk-albumen complex equal to 38.7 microg se/1 ...200617055312
ultrastructural features of the follicular wall in developing follicles of the sexually immature ostrich (struthio camelus).the ultrastructure of the follicular wall in primordial, previtellogenic and vitellogenic follicles of the sexually immature ostrich is described in the present study. the follicular wall consists of a zona radiata, granulosa cell layer, basal lamina and thecal layer. cytoplasmic processes from the plasma membranes of the granulosa cell layer and the ovocyte form the zona radiata in previtellogenic and vitellogenic follicles. the granulosa cell layer transforms from simple cuboidal epithelium in ...200617058442
pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of doxycycline in ostriches (struthio camelus) at two different dose rates.a bioavailability and pharmacokinetics study of doxycycline was carried out on 30 healthy ostriches after a single intravenous (iv), intramuscular (im) and oral dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. the plasma doxycycline concentration was determined by hplc/uv at 0 (pretreatment), 0.08, 0.25, 0.5 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. the plasma concentration-time curves were examined using non-compartmental methods based on the statistical moment theory for only the higher dose. after iv ...200617106222
muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (struthio camelus).the functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (struthio camelus) was investigated in order to assess musculoskeletal specialization related to locomotor performance. the pelvic limbs of ten ostriches were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscle tendon units of the pelvic limb were made, including muscle mass, muscle length, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon length. from these measurements other muscle properties such as muscle volume, physiological cro ...200617118064
adolescent suicide in the middle east: ostrich head in sand. 200617128365
the morphology of the pecten oculi of the ostrich, struthio camelus.the pecten oculi is a structure peculiar to the avian eye. three morphological types of pecten oculi are recognized: conical type, vaned type and pleated type. the pleated type has been well studied. however, there exists only scanty data on the morphology of the latter two types of pectens. the structure of the vaned type of pecten of the ostrich, struthio camelus was investigated with light and electron microscope. the pecten of this species consists of a vertical primary lamella that arises f ...200617140144
scorpion digestive lipase: a member of a new invertebrate's lipase group presenting novel characteristics.unlike classical digestive lipases, the scorpion digestive lipase (sdl) has a strong basic character. the sdl activity's optimal ph, when using tributyrin or olive oil as substrate, was 9.0. added to that, the estimated isoelectric point of the native sdl using the electrofocusing technique, was found to be higher than 9.6. to our knowledge, this is the first report of an animal digestive lipase having such a basic character. when olive oil was used as substrate, sdl was shown to be insensitive ...200717212975
comparison of the z and w sex chromosomal architectures in elegant crested tinamou (eudromia elegans) and ostrich (struthio camelus) and the process of sex chromosome differentiation in palaeognathous clarify the process of avian sex chromosome differentiation in palaeognathous birds, we performed molecular and cytogenetic characterization of w chromosome-specific repetitive dna sequences for elegant crested tinamou (eudromia elegans, tinamiformes) and constructed comparative cytogenetic maps of the z and w chromosomes with nine chicken z-linked gene homologues for e. elegans and ostrich (struthio camelus, struthioniformes). a novel family of w-specific repetitive sequences isolated from e ...200717219176
genetic characteristics of the ostrich population using molecular methods.a genetic analysis was performed on polish ostriches from the 3 principal ostrich breeds: red-, blue-, and black-necks. the analysis was based on 2 molecular methods: dna fingerprinting and microsatellites. the dna fingerprinting patterns were obtained using the restriction enzyme hinfi and jeffrey's 33.15 probe. the second method consisted of a pcr procedure, for which 5 vias-os primers specific to the ostrich were used. the pcr products were separated on polyacrylamide gel using alfexpress (au ...200717234840
mechanisms of action of ostrich beta-defensins against escherichia understand their mechanism of antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria, ostrich beta-defensins, ostricacins-1 and 2 (osp-1 and osp-2), were compared with those of sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (smap)-29 and human neutrophil peptide (hnp)-1, well-characterized sheep alpha-helical and human alpha-defensin peptides, respectively. fluorescence-based biochemical assays demonstrated that the ostricacins bound lipopolysaccharides and disrupted both outer and cytoplasmic membrane i ...200717263840
analyzing the evolution of beta-endorphin post-translational processing events: studies on many cartilaginous fishes, most ray-finned fishes, lungfishes, and amphibians, the post-translational processing of pomc includes the monobasic cleavage of beta-endorphin to yield an opioid that is eight to ten amino acids in length. the amino acid motif within the beta-endorphin sequence required for a monobasic cleavage event is -e-r-(s/g)-q-. mammals and birds lack this motif and as a result beta-endorphin(1-8) is a not an end-product in either group. since both mammals and birds were deri ...200717353011
a 3d interactive method for estimating body segmental parameters in animals: application to the turning and running performance of tyrannosaurus rex.we developed a method based on interactive b-spline solids for estimating and visualizing biomechanically important parameters for animal body segments. although the method is most useful for assessing the importance of unknowns in extinct animals, such as body contours, muscle bulk, or inertial parameters, it is also useful for non-invasive measurement of segmental dimensions in extant animals. points measured directly from bodies or skeletons are digitized and visualized on a computer, and the ...200717363001
mechanics of cutting maneuvers by ostriches (struthio camelus).we studied the strategies used by cursorial bipeds (ostriches) to maneuver during running. eight ostriches were induced to run along a trackway and execute turns. ground reaction forces and three-dimensional kinematics of the body and leg joints were simultaneously recorded, allowing calculation of joint angles and quasi-static net joint torques. sidesteps, where the leg on the outside of the turn changes the movement direction, and crossovers using the inside leg, occurred with nearly equal fre ...200717401120
pneumo- and neurotropism of avian origin italian highly pathogenic avian influenza h7n1 isolates in experimentally infected experimental infection of mice was performed in order to investigate the potential for interspecies transmission in mammals of italian hpai viruses of the h7n1 subtype. three avian origin isolates were selected, two strains obtained from ostrich (one of which contained a pb2-627 lysine residue) and one from a chicken. following intranasal infection of mice, clinical signs and mortality were recorded in the experimental groups challenged with the two ostrich isolates, while only weight loss wa ...200717408714
cdna cloning of proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and mass spectrometric identification of pomc-derived peptides from snake and alligator pituitaries.proopiomelanocortin (pomc) is the precursor of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (msh) and beta-endorphin, and is suggested to have evolved by the insertion and deletion of ancestral msh segments. here, the primary structure of pomc was determined with cdna cloning of brown tree snakes of squamata and american alligators of crocodylia to show an overview of the molecular evolution of pomc in reptiles. snake and alligator pomcs are composed of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-msh segments and a single beta- ...200717418842
saskatchewan. conjunctivitis associated with staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus in an ostrich. 198917423428
use of rabbits in ostrich rearing. 199817424496
first finding of libyostrongylosis in farm-reared ostriches (struthio camelus) in croatia: unusual histopathological finding in the brain of two ostriches, naturally infected with libyostrongylus the present work, the very first finding of libyostrongylus douglasi in farm-reared ostriches in croatia, was described, not only as the main cause of the death, but also as the cause of persistent infection. the results of histopathological examination of almost all parenchymatous organs in two routinely necropsied ostriches were presented, including atypical histopathological finding in the brain and the result of the l. douglasi scanning electron microscopical (sem) examination. in order t ...200717448602
characterization of staphylococcus aureus isolates from buffalo, bovine, ovine, and caprine milk samples collected in rio de janeiro state, brazil.eighty-four staphylococcal isolates were obtained from milk samples from cows, sheep, goats, and buffalo with subclinical mastitis and from colonization samples from ostriches. the animals were hosted in 18 small dairy herds and an ostrich breeding located in 10 municipalities of the state of rio de janeiro, brazil. thirty isolates were identified as staphylococcus aureus by biochemical and molecular techniques and were comparatively characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods. the molecul ...200717449696
changes in numbers of large ovarian follicles, plasma luteinizing hormone and estradiol-17beta concentrations and egg production figures in farmed ostriches throughout the this study we described and analysed changes in the numbers of large ovarian follicles (diameter 6.1-9.0 cm) and in the plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (lh) and estradiol-17beta (e(2)beta) in relation to individual egg production figures of farmed ostriches (struthio camelus spp.) throughout one year. ultrasound scanning and blood sampling for plasma hormone analysis were performed in 9 hens on a monthly basis during the breeding season and in two periods of the non-breeding seas ...200717452050
crooked beak in a 14-month-old ostrich (struthio camelus) hen. 200617458338
reptilian transferrins: evolution of disulphide bridges and conservation of iron-binding center.transferrins, found in invertebrates and vertebrates, form a physiologically important family of proteins playing a major role in iron acquisition and transport, defense against microbial pathogens, growth and differentiation. these proteins are bilobal in structure and each lobe is composed of two domains divided by a cleft harboring an iron atom. vertebrate transferrins comprise of serotransferrins, lactoferrins and ovotransferrins. in mammals serotransferrins transport iron in physiological f ...200717466466
an ostrich eye view of avian flu?until recently i have had my head in the sand about a potential influenza pandemic. i hadn't fully taken in the implications of numbers of people infected, potential loss of life or the huge disruption to communities and services. i hadn't thought that it is not really a matter of if a pandemic occurs, but when.200717492059
phylogenetic analysis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza h6n2 viruses from chicken outbreaks (2001-2005) suggest that they are reassortants of historic ostrich low-pathogenicity avian influenza h9n2 and h6n8 viruses.low-pathogenicity (lpai) and high-pathogenicity (hpai) avian influenza viruses are periodically isolated from south african ostriches, but during 2002 the first recorded outbreak of lpai (h6n2) in south african chickens occurred on commercial farms in the camperdown area of kwazulu/natal (kzn) province. sequence analysis of all eight genes were performed and phylogenetic analysis was done based on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidasc sequences. results from phylogenetic analyses indicated that th ...200717494567
flexibility along the neck of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and consequences for the reconstruction of dinosaurs with extreme neck length.the gross morphology and the flexibility along the neck of the ostrich (struthio camelus) were examined using fresh tissue as well as neck skeletons. the results of the morphologic studies were compared with results from observations of living ostriches. the investigation was focused on differences in the morphology and the function between different sections of the neck. additionally, the function of major dorsal neck ligaments was examined, including measurements of force-strain-relations. com ...200717514722
thysanoptera infestation on skin and periorbital cellulitis in ostriches (struthio camelus) aged 14 report the infestation of thysanoptera (limothrips denticornis) on ostriches (struthio camelus) and to determine their relative density.200717534415
[experimental investigations on middle ear prostheses with an integrated micro joint].quasi static pressure changes as they occur in altitude changes or valsalva's manoeuvre are causing great tympanic membrane displacements. these can produce a prosthesis dislocation from the stapes footplate, in case of using a torp for reconstruction. additionally, prostheses extrusions can occur in the chronically poor ventilated middle ear. anatomical studies on the ostrich demonstrate that the flexible columella in the avian middle ear provides a good sound transmission and features an effec ...200717538859
is there a relationship between the chromatin status and dna fragmentation of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing?in this study a radioisotope method, which is based on the quantitative measurements of tritiated-labeled actinomycin d ((3)h-amd) incorporation into the sperm nuclei ((3)h-amd incorporation assay), was used to assess the chromatin status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. this study also tested the hypothesis that frozen-thawed spermatozoa with altered chromatin were susceptible to dna fragmentation measured with the neutral comet assay (nca). boar semen was diluted in lactose-hen egg yolk-glyc ...200717543381
effects of cations on antimicrobial activity of ostricacins-1 and 2 on e. coli o157:h7 and s. aureus 1056mrsa.ostricacin-1 and ostricacin-2 (osp-1 and osp-2) were beta-defensins antimicrobial peptides that were purified from ostrich leukocytes using a cation-exchange column and a semi-prep rp-hplc column. both ostricacins were subjected to increased concentrations of monovalent cations (k(+) and na(+)) and divalent cations (ca(2+) and mg(2+)) in order to investigate the effect of cations on the activity of these ostricacins on gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. the radial diffusion assay ...200717554470
use of faeces as an alternative inoculum to caecal content to study in vitro feed digestibility in domesticated ostriches (struthio camelus var. domesticus).1. in order to find an alternative source of inoculum to caecal content for studying the in vitro feed digestibility in domesticated ostriches (struthio camelus var. domesticus), caecal content and faeces of 4 male birds were used as inocula for an in vitro gas production trial. 2. about 1 g of each of 5 substrates (maize silage, cs; alfalfa hay, ah; barley, bg; soybean meal, sm; beet pulp, bp) was weighed, in quadruplicate per inoculum, in 120 ml flasks; 75 ml of anaerobic medium and 4 ml of re ...200717578699
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