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in vivo effect of a natural aedes aegypti defensin on brugia pahangi development. 19968994145
nad(p)h-dependent production of oxygen reactive species by the salivary glands of the mosquito anopheles albimanus.salivary gland homogenates of the adult female mosquito anopheles albimanus, but not those of aedes aegypti, induced light production in the presence of nadph and luminol, indicating a nadph oxidase activity producing reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion) by the anopheline salivary homogenate. superoxide production by the anopheline salivary homogenate was also confirmed by the nadph-dependent, superoxide dismutase inhibitable, reduction of cytochrome c. the nadph oxidase reaction measured ...19968995793
[description of the colonization of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in the region of saõ josé do rio preto, sp, 1991-1994].this study aims to describe and analyze the colonization of aedes albopictus whose presence was detected in 1991 in the area of sào josé do rio. preto already colonized by the aedes aegypti. year and month of occurrence, counties, composition and location of larval samples, kinds of containers, average number of larvae an breteau index bare been analyzed from the information obtained in measurements of larval density by superintendência de controle de endemias (sucen). the presence of aedes albo ...19969011878
mosquito hexamerins: characterization during larval development.we report here the first examination of hexamerins expressed during mosquito larval development. haemolymph proteins from fourth-instar larvae of six species representing the two major subfamilies of mosquitoes were characterized by immunoblotting using antisera to calliphorin, the major hexamerin of the blowfly. calliphora vicina, or to lsp1 or lsp2, the two distinct hexamerins of drosophila melanogaster. in each mosquito species the antisera demonstrated the presence of multiple abundant hexam ...19979013251
bioactive compounds from taiwania cryptomerioides.two new sesquiterpenes, 10 alpha-hydroxyamorphan-4-en-3-one (1) and 4 alpha-methylcadinane-4 alpha-methyl-1 alpha,2 alpha,10 alpha-triol (2), together with four known compounds, sesquiterpenes 10 alpha-hydroxycadinan-4-en-3-one (3) and alpha-cadinol (4), diterpene ferruginol and lignan helioxanthin, were isolated from the whole plant of taiwania cryptomerioides under bioassay-guided fractionations. the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated mainly by the nmr spectroscopic analyses. bioactivities ...19979014350
transovarial transmission of dengue 3 virus by aedes aegypti. 19969015501
identification of a gene for cyt1a-like hemolysin from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and expression in a crystal-negative b. thuringiensis strain.a gene designated cyt1ab1, encoding a 27,490-da protein, was isolated from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin (h30 serotype) by using an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the cyt1aa1 gene. the sequence of the cyt1ab1 protein, as deduced from the sequence of the cyt1ab1 gene, was 86% identical to that of the cyt1aa1 protein and 32% identical to that of the cyt2aa1 protein from b. thuringiensis subsp. kyushuensis. the cyt1ab1 gene was flanked upstream by a p21 gene, in the same orientatio ...19979023925
[detection of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, in an urban zone of the municipality of catanduva, sp, after control of a dengue epidemic].after the realization of control research that had in view the transmission of dengue virus, we started to monitor two kinds of entomological vigilance, breteau index and ovitrap. we intended to evaluate the necessary time elapsed before aedes sp mosquitoes were again detected at the urban area of catanduva s town (sp). the ovitraps showed positiveness for the aedes aegypti two months after the control research, while the breteau index became positive only at the fourth month after the end of th ...19969026829
characterization of aedes communis, aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi mosquito saliva antigens by immunoblotting.mosquito bites cause immediate wheals and delayed bite papules in sensitized subjects having saliva-specific ige and igg4 antibodies. at present, mosquito saliva antigens are not well characterized.19979030098
dengue vector mosquitos at a tourist attraction, ko samui, in 1995.on ko samui, thailand there were two epidemics of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) in 1966 and 1967, followed by endemics up to 1994. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were the vectors. from january to july 1995, 51 cases of dhf were reported, out of these were many foreigners who still suffer from dengue fever and return home with negative impression. we carried out an entomological survey around the island and collected the mosquitos to detect dengue virus by digoxigenin-cdna probe. the data re ...19969031420
ultralow volume application of bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis for the control of mosquitoes.evaluation of the effectiveness of bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (b.t.i.) against mosquito larvae dispersed by ultralow volume (ulv) spraying was conducted in simulated field trials. effectiveness was measured using 3 different indicators: larval mortality, colony-forming unit enumeration, and droplet analysis. b.t.i. was dispersed with a ulv generator using 2 different flow rates: 0.3 and 0.5 liter/min on 2 different days. based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that a ...19969046471
newsletters as a channel for communication in a community-based aedes aegypti control program in marília, brazil.in marília, brazil, community newsletters were established in a pilot project on community-based aedes aegypti control. the newsletters were an excellent way of promoting communication between community members and project personnel. while people might not have attended a dengue meeting, they did turn up at meetings to plan the newsletters. during these meetings project staff obtained information about the communities that was crucial for planning a community-based recycling project that targete ...19969046485
virulence, parasite mode of transmission, and host fluctuating asymmetry.horizontally transmitted parasites are broadly predicted to be more virulent, or costly to host fitness, than those with vertical transmission. this is mainly because vertical transmission, from host parent to offspring, explicitly links the reproductive interests of both parties. underlying this prediction is a general assumption that parasite transmission success is positively correlated with its virulence. we report results where infection of larval yellow fever mosquitoes aedes aegypti with ...19979061958
the putative cell cycle gene, enhancer of rudimentary, encodes a highly conserved protein found in plants and animals.the enhancer of rudimentary gene, e(r), in drosophila melanogaster encodes a protein, er, whose function has been implicated in pyrimidine biosynthesis and the cell cycle (wojcik et al. (1994) genetics 138, 1163-1170). in order to identify conserved regions of the protein and potentially important functional domains, the e(r) gene was cloned and sequenced from two other insects (drosophila virilis and aedes aegypti) and three vertebrates (homo sapiens, mus musculus, and brachydanio rerio) and se ...19979074495
pupal survey: an epidemiologically significant surveillance method for aedes aegypti: an example using data from trinidad.this report documents the results of a country-wide pupal survey of aedes aegypti (l.) conducted in trinidad. the survey was designed to identify the important ae. aegypti-producing containers, importance being a function of a container's abundance and its productivity. results are summarized on a country-wide basis and by county: urban versus rural comparisons are also made. numerically, the most common water-filled containers positive for the larvae or pupae of ae. aegypti (foci) were outdoor ...19979080874
cloning and sequencing of the blood meal-induced late trypsin gene from the mosquito aedes aegypti and characterization of the upstream regulatory region.a 4.1 kb genomic clone of the late trypsin gene from the mosquito aedes aegypti was isolated, mapped and subcloned. a 1.6 kb subclone, corresponding to 1.1 kb of upstream regulatory region and 0.5 kb of coding region, was sequenced. the gene has no introns within the coding region. the 5' end of the mature mrna was mapped using primer extension analysis. a tata box consensus sequence (tataaa) was found at position -31 from the 5' end of the mature mrna. a cluster of five repeat sequences homolog ...19939087537
a comparison of three methods for isolating rna from mosquitoes.the two most common protocols for rna isolation, chirgwin et al., 1979, and chomczynski & sacchi, 1987, were compared with a protocol using glass powder. the quality of the recovered rna was tested using agarose gels and northern hybridization. with the glass powder protocol, we consistently obtained intact rna, whereas with the other protocols we often obtained degraded rna. using specific radioactive probes, we measured ribosomal rna and trypsin mrna recovered from fed adult aedes aegypti fema ...19939087539
cloning and analysis of the locus for mosquito vitellogenic carboxypeptidase.vitellogenic carboxypeptidase is a 53 kda yolk protein produced by the fat body of the female mosquito, aedes aegypti, in response to a blood meal. its expression is sex-, stage- and tissue-specific and is identical to that of the major yolk protein, vitellogenin. the gene is intronless and two alleles have been cloned and sequenced, including more than 1.5 kb on both sides of the coding region. a capsite consensus recently identified as an arthropod initiator is present at the start site of tra ...19939087558
parasites of the asian tiger mosquito and other container-inhabiting mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) in northcentral florida.seven microorganisms including 4 protozoans, 2 fungi, and a bacterium infected aedes albopictus (skuse) larvae collected from 12 counties in northecentral florida. ae albopictus and 14 other species of mosquitoes were collected from tires, flower-holding vases in cemeteries, other types of artificial containers, and treeholes. ascogregarina taiwanensis (lien & levine) was the most common parasite of ae. albopictus throughout the year. the microsporidium vavraia culicis (weiser) infected aedes ae ...19979103767
4-deoxyannomontacin and (2,4-cis and trans)-annomontacinone, new bioactive mono-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from goniothalamus giganteus.4-deoxyannomontacin (1) and a mixture of (2,4-cis and trans)-annomontacinone (2), new bioactive mono-tetrahydrofuran (thf) gamma-lactone and keto-lactone acetogenins, respectively, as well as five known mono-thf acetogenins [xylomaticin, longifolicin, longicoricin, (2,4-cis and trans)-gigantetrocinone, and (2,4-cis and trans)-gigantetroneninone], were isolated from the bark of goniothalamus giganteus (annonaceae) by activity-directed fractionation using the brine shrimp lethality test (bst). the ...19979113333
domestic breeding sources and their contribution in anopheles stephensi breeding in dindigul, tamil nadu.longitudinal study taken up for one year in 10 different types of breeding habitats in dindigul town, tamil nadu, revealed that out of 51,785 habitats 225 (0.43%) were found positive for anopheles stephensi immatures. the overall positivity varied between 0.03 to 1.31% with peak density during july. the observed habitat-wise positivity was overhead tanks 0-7.07%; wells 0-1.69%; under ground tanks 0-2.26%; tappits 0-2.36%; outside tanks (permanent) 0-2.42%; outside tanks (temporary) 0-0.39%; insi ...19969125833
effects of the neem tree compounds azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin, and 6-desacetylnimbin on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity.the effects of azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin, and 6-desacetylnimbin on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase (e-20-m) activity were examined in three insect species. homogenates of wandering stage third instar larvae of drosophila melanogaster, or abdomens from adult female aedes aegypti, or fat body or midgut from fifth instar larvae of manduca sexta were incubated with radiolabeled ecdysone and increasing concentrations (from 1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-3) m) of the four compounds isolated from seed kernels of ...19979131784
analysis of the mosquito lysosomal aspartic protease gene: an insect housekeeping gene with fat body-enhanced expression.in the fat body of insects with cyclic egg maturation, lysosomes play a critical role in the termination of vitellogenesis by selectively degrading the secretory machinery involved in the massive production of yolk protein precursors. to investigate this fat body-specific lysosomal activity in the mosquito, a cathepsin d-like aspartic protease (lap) was previously purified and its cdna cloned. here we report the isolation of the aalap gene from an aedes aegypti genomic library. the transcribed r ...19979134712
the 1993 epidemic of dengue fever in mangalore, karnataka state, india.an epidemic of febrile illness with hemorrhagic manifestations occurred in certain parts of mangalore city, karnataka state, india, from the last week of july 1993. the epidemic reached its peak by mid-august and then started declining. sporadic cases, however, continued to occur till early december. about 200 cases were reported covering all age groups and both sexes. the cases presented with pyrexia, myalgia, arthralgia and headache. palatal petechiae, magenta colored tongue with central coati ...19959139379
rapid and efficient removal of immature aedes aegypti in metal drums by sweep net and modified sweeping method.a modified sweeping method was developed using a cotton sweep net for control of ae. aegypti immatures in 200 liter (44 gallon) metal drums which are major sources of breeding in yangon. laboratory experiments revealed that with only 4 sweeps (approximately 10 minutes duration), the mean % removal (+/- sd) of ae. aegypti fourth stage larvae was 88.5% +/- 1.47. this was followed by a field study undertaken in sanchaung township, yangon. twenty-eight drums with moderate (< 500 immatures) to high ( ...19959139390
an ultrastructural study on the early cellular response to dirofilaria immitis (nematoda) in the malpighian tubules of aedes aegypti (refractory strains).dirofilaria immitis living in aedes aegypti refractory strains were studied in relation to ultrastructural events in primary cells of malpighian tubules and to defense mechanisms activated by host-cells. when the microfilaria reaches the malpighian cells, its intracellular development is blocked by defense mechanisms activated by the host, resulting in lysis of the outermost cuticle of the parasite without melanin involvement. ultrastructural evidence suggests that lysis is brought about by malp ...19949140500
biological effects of canatoxin in different insect models: evidence for a proteolytic activation of the toxin by insect cathepsinlike enzymes.canatoxin is a toxic protein isolated from the jackbean, canavalia ensiformis. the toxin injected intraperitoneally is lethal for mice and rats; however, it is inactive if given orally. in this study, manduca sexta (l.) (lepidoptera), schistocerca americana (drury) (orthoptera), drosophila melanogaster (l.) (diptera), aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera), rhodnius prolixus (stål) (hemiptera), and callosobruchus maculatus (f.) (coleoptera) were fed on canatoxin-containing diets. no effects were seen in m ...19979145031
factors favoring houseplant container infestation with aedes aegypti larvae in marília, são paulo, brazil.since reinvasion of são paulo state by the aedes aegypti (l.) mosquito in 1985, flower pots and vases have been important larval habitats despite educational messages focusing on their control. the objectives of this study were to characterize flower pots and vases as larval habitats with respect to the quantities present and infested, the types of plants involved, and the specific locations of the mosquito larvae; to explore local names for houseplants; and to examine factors affecting acceptan ...19979149524
evaluation of caribbean strains of macrocyclops and mesocyclops (cyclopoida:cyclopidae) as biological control tools for the dengue vector aedes aegypti.fifteen caribbean strains of copepods were assessed for their predation ability against mosquito larvae. macrocyclops albidus from nariva. mesocyclops aspericornis from oropouche, and mesocyclops longisetus from e1 socorro, trinidad, were most effective against aedes aegypti but not against culex quinquefasciatus. mesocyclops longisetus and me. aspericornis prevented any mosquito survival over 25 wk of observation despite weekly challenges with ae. aegypti. the copepods were tolerant to dosages ...19979152870
attractant resting boxes for rapid collection and surveillance of aedes aegypti (l.) inside houses.three different resting station designs made of cardboard covered with black cloth were evaluated for their attractiveness to aedes aegypti populations resting inside houses in thailand. box designs attracted more females (but not males) than an open-panel design. thirty to 60% of all adult ae. aegypti resting inside houses were collected by aspirating from 2-4 resting boxes placed inside houses. tall boxes (90 cm) did not attract more females or males than short boxes (45 cm). forty-two percent ...19979152871
efficacy of carbon dioxide, 1-octen-3-ol, and lactic acid in modified fay-prince traps as compared to man-landing catch of aedes aegypti.the attractants 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid significantly decreased catches of aedes aegypti in townsville, australia, by 50% in a controlled laboratory environment and by 100% in the field when compared to carbon dioxide baited bidirectional fay-prince trap catches. evaluation of an omnidirectional alteration on a bidirectional fay-prince trap revealed no significant improvement in catch size when compared to both the bidirectional trap and man-landing catch (mlc). cumulative evening mlc (1730 ...19979152877
investigation of mosquito-specific larvicidal activity of a soil isolate of bacillus thuringiensis serovar canadensis.the lc50 value of alkali-solubilized parasporal inclusion proteins of a diptera-specific strain, belonging to bacillus thuringiensis serovar canadensis, was 2.4 microg/ml for larvae of the mosquito, aedes aegypti. a significant loss in larvicidal activity occurred when solubilized inclusion proteins were treated with a. aegypti larval gut extract, silkworm (bombyx mori) larval gut juice, and the proteinase k. approximately 90% of the larvicidal activity was destroyed upon treatment with protease ...19979175558
comparisons of genetic variability and genome structure among mosquito strains selected for refractoriness to a malaria parasite.restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) markers were used to evaluate aedes aegypti genome structure and genetic variability within and between substrains selected for different levels of refractoriness to the malaria parasite, plasmodium gallinaceum. the moyo-r substrain was previously selected for complete refractoriness and the moyo-is substrain for intermediate susceptibility from the moyo-in-dry (moyo) strain by selective inbreeding (f = 0.5). eighteen mapped rflp markers were used ...19979183846
analysis of molecular forms and pharmacological properties of acetylcholinesterase in several mosquito species.two acetylcholinesterases (ache1 and ache2) have recently been characterized in the common mosquito culex pipiens. this situation appeared to be an exception among insects, where only one acetylcholinesterase gene had previously been repeatedly reported. in the present study, acetylcholinesterase was studied in five mosquito species: aedes aegypti, anopheles gambiae, anopheles stephensi, culiseta longeareolata and culex hortensis, in order to test whether or not two different acetylcholinesteras ...19979185166
failure of aedes aegypti to become infected by feeding on dengue virus-infected immuno-comprised nude mice. 19979199718
three novel families of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements are associated with genes of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.three novel families of transposable elements, wukong, wujin, and wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. there are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. the common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal inverted repeats, potential to form a stable secondary structure, a+t richness, ...19979207116
experimental transmission of nocturnally periodic wuchereria bancrofti to indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus).successful experimental transmission of the human lymphatic dwelling nocturnal periodic strain of wuchereria bancrofti has been achieved from man to indian leaf monkey (presbytis entellus) through a susceptible strain of aedes aegypti. the prepatent period varied between 195 and 240 days. microfilaria (mf) levels were in general low and the peak count was attained at 1800 hr. of the adult worms 5-12.5% were recovered from male langur while females revealed poor (2.54%) recovery. this host--paras ...19979207745
characterization of bacillus thuringiensis isolated from infections in burn wounds.four strains of bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from infections in burn wounds and from water used in the treatment of burn wounds. the strains produced large parasporal inclusion bodies composed of 141, 83, and 81 kda protoxins. the four strains were tested for insecticidal activity against larvae of pieris brassicae and aedes aegypti but showed no activity; vero cell assays for the production of enterotoxins were also negative. attempts to classify the strains according to flagellar h-ser ...19979215586
mixed-species plasmodium infections of anopheles (diptera:culicidae)mixed-pathogen infections of vectors rarely are considered in the epidemiological literature, although they may occur in nature. a review of published reports shows that many anopheles species are capable of carrying sporozoites of > 1 plasmodium species, of doing so simultaneously in field conditions, and of acquiring and transmitting these in experimental situations. mixed-species infections in mosquito populations occur at frequencies greater than or equal to the product of the constituent sp ...19979220675
infection and transmission of plasmodium gallinaceum (eucoccida: plasmodiidae) in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae): effect of preinfection sugar meals and postinfection blood meals.frequency of sugar feeding and blood feeding can have an impact on the infection by and transmission of malaria parasites. data presented here indicate that frequent blood feeding has a deleterious effect on infection by malaria parasites in aedes aegypti. in addition, mosquitoes that do not blood feed, but instead feed on sugar alone after an infected blood meal, have a higher rate of parasite transmission than mosquitoes fed additional blood meals.19979221737
efficacy of altosid pellets and granules against aedes aegypti in ornamental bromeliads.the tank bromeliad billbergia pyramidalis was treated with 2 doses (0.5 and 2 g) of altosid granules or pellets for the control of aedes aegypti l. emergence inhibition (ei) for all mosquito pupae (including natural populations) in the center wells and leaf axils was > 90% for at least 6 and 12 months for both doses of granules and pellets, respectively. no significant difference in %ei was found between center wells and leaf axils.19979249661
[a description of aedes aegypti colonization in the region of são josé do rio preto, são paulo].the aim of this study is to describe the colonization by the aedes aegypti in the region. a survey carried out in 1985 detected the species in são josé do rio preto. the mosquito has spread and reached the 30 countries of the region till 1988. in the district and rural areas, the first vector focus was found out in 1987 in one of the 29 districts and rural areas, having spread to the others till 1991. the foci have been mainly identified through larval researches in locations with a great concen ...19979265223
the white gene from the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.we report the cloning and primary characterization of both cdna and genomic fragments from the white gene of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. comparisons of the conceptual translation product with white genes from four other species within the order diptera show that the ae. aegypti gene is most similar to the white gene of the mosquito vector of human malaria, anopheles gambiae (86% identity and 92% similarity). the analysis of the primary sequence of genomic dna at the 5'-end of the c ...19979272447
characterization and biological activity of a brazilian isolate of bacillus sphaericus (neide) highly toxic to mosquito larvae.primary powders of bacillus sphaericus strain s2 isolated from soil samples in brazil, and strain 2362 were produced in a 14 liter fermentor. growth patterns and sporulation observed in three trials with strains s2 and 2362 in the fermentor were similar. second-instar larvae of culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles albimanus, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and aedes aegypti exposed for 48 hr to strain s2 responded with lc50 values of 0.25, 5.95, 12.28 and 140.0 ppb of lyophilized primary powder, respect ...19969283664
impact of dengue virus infection on feeding behavior of aedes aegypti.in addition to heavily infecting the salivary glands of aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes, dengue viruses produce a significant infection of the nervous system, involving the brain, johnston's organ, compound eye, and thoracic and abdominal ganglion. to determine if dengue infection affects feeding behavior of ae. aegypti we measured feeding times, counted the number of feeding delays or interruptions, and by in situ immunocytochemistry techniques determined the spatial and temporal distribution of ...19979288801
venereal and vertical transmission of the aedes albopictus parvovirus in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.following per oral infection of aedes aegypti larvae with aedes albopictus parvovirus (aapv), infected males and females adults were tested for their ability to transmit the virus venereally and vertically, respectively. both types of transmission were observed. a low percentage (2.2%) of aapv-free females were found contaminated by the virus after mating with aapv-infected males. although no significant difference was observed in the fecundity of orally infected and virus-free females, 17.1% of ...19979288802
a fitness advantage for aedes aegypti and the viruses it transmits when females feed only on human blood.literature on arthropod-borne diseases has traditionally supported the notion that mosquito vectors maintain a feeding duality that includes vertebrate blood meals for egg development and sugar meals from plants for the synthesis of flight and survival energy reserves. aedes aegypti was found to deviate from that feeding pattern by obtaining a reproductive advantage when feeding only on human blood. female mosquitoes fed human blood alone had a greater net replacement rate and intrinsic rate of ...19979288822
factors influencing the duration of blood-feeding by laboratory-reared and wild aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from trinidad, west indies.the time taken by aedes aegypti to take a bloodmeal was determined under laboratory and field conditions in trinidad. eggs from field-collected females were reared under nutrient-limited (low diet) and nutrient-adequate (high diet) conditions. blood-feeding times indicated that 71% of the females from the low-diet group were fast feeders (< 2 min) compared with 40% of the female from the high-diet group. subsequent tests of the f1 and f2 progeny of the fast-feeding females indicated that the fas ...19979307662
activity of dengue-2 virus and prevalence of aedes aegypti in the chirimiri colliery area, madhya pradesh, india.repeated outbreaks of a suspected viral fever in chirimiri colliery area, madhya pradesh were reported since 1990. the area consists of an agglomeration of sprawling settlements at varying altitudes of 816 to 890 m and it has partial sylvan cover. during a 1992 outbreak 25 patients' sera were tested, of which 13 showed seropositivity to dengue (den) by mac-elisa test; den-2 was isolated from aedes aegypti collected from two of the eight settlements of the area. the principal vector, ae. aegypti, ...19979322295
detection of dengue virus from field aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus adults and larvae.mosquito adults and larvae were collected from dengue high risk areas and transported to the laboratory for identification. identified mosquitos were pooled according to the species, date and locality and stored at -70 degrees c. a total of 1,385 pools of aedes albopictus and 267 pools of ae. aegypti were collected from major towns in 12 states in peninsular malaysia. virus isolation was carried out using cell culture (c6/36 clone) of ae. albopictus and detection of dengue virus by the peroxidas ...19979322296
does transovarial transmission of dengue virus occur in malaysian aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus? 19979322311
(2,4-cis and trans)-gigantecinone and 4-deoxygigantecin, bioactive nonadjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins, from goniothalamus giganteus.two new acetogenins, (2,4-cis and trans)-gigantecinone (1), isolated as a mixture, and 4-deoxygigantecin (2), a known acetogenin whose absolute stereochemistry has not been determined previously, were isolated using activity-directed fractionation, from the bark of goniothalamus giganteus. a key step in solving their absolute stereochemistries was the preparation of 1,4-diol formaldehyde acetal derivatives (1b and 2a). using the advanced mosher ester method and circular dichroism, the absolute s ...19979322367
dengue infection in paracambi, state of rio de janeiro, 1990-1995.a seroepidemiological survey was carried out during 1994 in the municipality of paracambi, state of rio de janeiro. haemagglutination inhibition test positivity was detected in 145 out of 370 (39.2%) schoolchildren. the frequency of positive test by sex was 53.8% (78/145) female and 46.2% (67/145) male. distribution by age showed the increasing of antibody positivity in older children. strains of dengue virus type 1 and dengue virus type 2 were isolated before (1990) showing the co-circulation o ...19979322424
immune responsiveness in vector insects. 19979326575
midgut-specific immune molecules are produced by the blood-sucking insect stomoxys calcitrans.we have cloned and sequenced two defensins, smd1 and smd2, from anterior midgut tissue of the blood-sucking fly stomoxys calcitrans. the dna and n-terminal protein sequences suggest both are produced as prepropeptides. smd1 differs from the classic defensin pattern in having an unusual six-amino acid-long n-terminal sequence. both smd1 and smd2 have lower pi points and charge than insect defensins derived from fat body/hemocytes. northern analysis shows both of these defensin molecules are tissu ...19979326639
cloning, expression and toxicity of a mosquitocidal toxin gene of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin.bacillus thuringiensis (bt) subsp. medellin (btmed) produces parasporal crystalline inclusions which are toxic to mosquito larvae. it has been shown that the inclusions of this bacterium contain mainly proteins of 94, 68 and 28-30 kda. ecori partially digested total dna of btmed was cloned by using the lambda zap ii cloning kit. recombinant plaques were screened with a mouse polyclonal antibody raised against the 94 kda crystal protein of btmed. one of the positive plaques was selected, and by i ...19979332588
[reflection on 2 current viral diseases: yellow fever and dengue].yellow fever and dengue are two current viral diseases induced by flaviviruses and usually transmitted by the same mosquito vector, aedes aegypti. from 1987 to 1991, 18,753 cases of yellow fever, mainly from africa, have been notified to who, leading to 4,522 deaths. on the other hand, who estimates that 2.5 billions individuals living in tropical areas are at risk to contract dengue fevers. in fact, 500,000 patients are hospitalized each year for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome a ...19979347008
impact of dengue virus infection and its control.dengue virus infection has been counted among emerging and re-emerging diseases because of (1) the increasing number of patients, (2) the expansion of epidemic areas, and (3) the appearance of severe clinical manifestation of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf)/dengue shock syndrome (dss), which is often fatal if not properly treated. in the meantime, there are no effective dengue control measures: a dengue vaccine is still under development and vector control does not provide a long-lasting effect. ...19979348165
mosquito clathrin heavy chain: analysis of protein structure and developmental expression in the ovary during vitellogenesis.we have deduced the amino acid sequences of clathrin heavy chain (chc) polypeptides based on cdna and genomic clones from the mosquito, aedes aegypti. two isoforms which differ in the very beginning of the n-terminal domain, ovary-specific aachca and somatic-specific aachcb, were identified, characterized and compared to one another as well as to chc polypeptides from different species. the 1682 amino acid sequence of the aachca isoform predicts a molecular mass (m[r]) of 191,743 daltons and an ...19979359577
improvement of bacillus sphaericus toxicity against dipteran larvae by integration, via homologous recombination, of the cry11a toxin gene from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.integrative plasmids were constructed to enable integration of foreign dna into the chromosome of bacillus sphaericus 2297 by in vivo recombination. integration of the apha3 kanamycin resistance gene by a two-step procedure demonstrated that this strategy was applicable with antibiotic resistance selection. hybridization experiments evidenced two copies of the operon encoding the binary toxin from b. sphaericus in the recipient strain. the bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry11aal gene ...19979361428
chymotrypsin inhibitors in mosquitoes: activity profile during development and after blood feeding.chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitors persist throughout all developmental instars of aedes aegypti. after a blood meal, inhibitor activity against chymotrypsin was more than double that of sugar-fed females, but only weak activity was detected in midguts where proteinase inhibitors has been thought to regulate proteinases during blood digestion. a fourfold increase in the ratio of abdominal/thoracic inhibitor activity after the blood meal strongly suggested that fat body, or other abdominal tissu ...19979366013
secretory and internalization pathways of mosquito yolk protein precursors.the vitellogenic female fat body of the mosquito aedes aegypti produces three yolk protein precursors that are deposited in the yolk bodies of developing oocytes: vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase (vcp), and 44-kda protein (44kp). we have used gold immunocytochemistry to investigate the pathways of their secretion in fat body trophocytes and their internalization by oocytes. in fat body trophocytes, all three yolk protein precursors are co-localized in the golgi complex and secretory g ...19979377633
aedes aegypti in córdoba province, argentina.in 1955, the area infested by aedes aegypti in argentina was estimated as 1,500,000 km2; and in 1963, the species was considered to be eradicated from argentina. in 1995, the argentine ministry of health reported reinfestation by ae. aegypti. during 1994-95, the ministry of health of córdoba province, zoonosis department, established a surveillance system for ae. aegypti in córdoba province, argentina. this report is a summary of results obtained thus far. in total, 74 localities in córdoba prov ...19979383767
molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mosquitocidal protein gene from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis.a novel mosquitocidal protein gene, cry20aa, was cloned from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis (h-3a: 3d: 3e). the gene product, cry20aa, was naturally truncated and had a molecular mass of 86,138 da. the cry20aa protein possessed five conserved sequence blocks, as do most other insecticidal cry toxins. however, an amino acid comparison of cry20aa with other mosquitocidal toxins, including cry4a, cry4b, cry10a, cry11a, and cry11b, demonstrated that cry20aa was quite different from other ...19979406385
mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic anabaena strain pcc 7120 expressing combinations of genes from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.various combinations of the genes cryiva (cry4a), cryivd (cry11a), and p20 from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were introduced into the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium anabaena sp. strain pcc 7120 by means of escherichia coli-anabaena shuttle vector prl488p and were expressed under control of two tandem strong promoters, a cyanobacterial promoter (ppsba) and an e. coli t7 promoter (pa1). two of the clones carrying cryiva plus cryivd, one with p20 and one without p20, displayed toxicity ...19979406420
[impregnation of uniforms with permethrin as a mean of protection of working personnel exposed to contact with hematophagous arthropods].laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated clothing against biting arthropods. military battle dress uniforms were impregnated at a rate of 0.12-0.15 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/cm2. gas chromatographic analysis of cloth patches treated showed that over 50% of the chemical remained after 6 cycles of washing. this amount of a.i. (0.06-0.07 mg/cm2) was effective in providing protection against aedes aegypti and ixodes ricinus. mosquitoes and ticks w ...19979409928
evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of dengue virus infection.a rapid (<7-min) immunochromatographic test for immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg antibodies to dengue viruses was evaluated by using hospital admission and discharge sera from 124 patients. the reference laboratory diagnosis was based on the results of virus isolation, hemagglutination-inhibition assay (hai), and enzyme immunoassay (eia). by the standard assays, patients experienced primary dengue virus infection (n = 30), secondary dengue virus infection (n = 48), japanese encephalitis (je) virus ...19989431954
influence of plant abundance on nectar feeding by aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in southern mexico.the availability of flowering plants affected the sugar feeding rates of female aedes aegypti (l.) in 4 areas of a small city in southern mexico. the proportion of mosquitoes containing sugar varied from 8 to 21% in 4 areas in direct relation to blooming plant abundance. human density was similar in the 4 areas (range, 3.9-5.4 per house), whereas the number of flowering plants per house increased on the outskirts (range, 3.1-5.4 plants per house). equal proportions of sugar positive females were ...19979439110
evaluation of commercial insect repellents on human skin against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).an olfactometer was used to evaluate the efficacy of selected commercial insect repellent products against aedes aegypti (l.). a comparison of 12 commercial repellent products was made on human skin. the products tested included 2 natural oil insect repellent formulations (buzz away and green ban) containing plant extracts, 2 proprietary products (skin-so-soft lotion and bath oil), and 8 commercial deet preparations in various concentrations and forms of spray, aerosol, stick, cream, and lotion. ...19979439116
evidence for two distinct members of the amylase gene family in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.genomic dna fragments encoding a salivary gland-specific alpha-amylase gene, amylase i (amy i), and an additional amylase, amylase ii (amyii) of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, were isolated and characterized. two independently isolated dna fragments, g34-f and g34-14a, encode polymorphic alleles of amy i. a 3.2 kilobase (kb) ecor i fragment of g34-f, f2, has been sequenced in its entirety and contains 832 base pairs (bp) of the 5'-end, non-coding and putative promoter regions that are ...19979443377
chikungunya in thailand: a re-emerging disease?the first reported case of chikungunya virus diagnosed by serology in thailand was in 1960 and the last one was in 1991. the disease surveillance system does not specifically include chikungunya cases and the signs and symptoms are similar to these of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (df/dhf), rubella, and fever of unknown origin (fuo); thus cases might often be reported under those diagnoses. during the rainy season of 1995 (jun-aug), there were at least 2 reported chikungunya outbreaks wh ...19979444021
genetic determinants responsible for acquisition of dengue type 2 virus mouse neurovirulence.studies conducted some 50 years ago showed that serial intracerebral passage of dengue viruses in mice selected for neurovirulent mutants that also exhibited significant attenuation for humans. we investigated the genetic basis of mouse neurovirulence of dengue virus because it might be directly or indirectly associated with attenuation for humans. analysis of the sequence in the c-prem-e-ns1 region of the parental dengue type 2 virus (den2) new guinea c (ngc) strain and its mouse-adapted, neuro ...19989445071
development of a comparative genetic linkage map for armigeres subalbatus using aedes aegypti rflp markers.one of the causative agents of lympahtic filariasis is the nematode parasite brugia malayi that requires a competent mosquito vector for its development and transmission. armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes rapidly destroy invading b. malayi microfilariae via a defense response known as melanotic encapsulation. we have constructed a genetic linkage map for this mosquito species using rflp markers from aedes aegypti. this heterologous approach was possible because of the conserved nature of the codin ...19989445486
first evidence of natural vertical transmission of yellow fever virus in aedes aegypti, its epidemic vector.entomological investigations were conducted in 1995 in senegal, following a yellow fever (yf) outbreak. a total of 1125 mosquitoes collected in the field, including males, females and 12-48 h old newly emerged adults reared from wild-caught larvae, were tested for yf virus. among the 22 species captured, aedes aegypti was the most common. 'wild' vectors of yf were also captured, including a. furcifer, a. metallicus and a. luteocephalus. in all, 28 yf virus isolations were made: 19 from a. aegypt ...19979463659
evolution of repellent tolerances in representative arthropods.eight commercial insect repellents were tested against ornithodoros parkeri (acari: argasidae), dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae), aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), and xenopsylla cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae). patterns of tolerance to the test materials were distinctive for each test species. levels of tolerance were coded as character state 0 (sensitive), 1 (intermediate), or 2 (tolerant) and mapped on a cladogram reflecting the accepted classification of the test species. charact ...19979474558
performance of ulv formulations (pesguard 102/vectobac 12as) against three mosquito species.adulticidal and larvicidal performances of a water-based pyrethroid microemulsion pesguard ps 102 (ai d-allethrin and d-phenothrin, both at 5.0% w/w) and vectobac 12as, an aqua-suspension bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (b.t.i.) formulation (ai 1,200 itu/mg) were assessed against mosquitoes aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus using a leco ulv fog generator model 1600 and a scorpion 20 ulv airblast sprayer. laboratory-cultured mosquito adults and larvae were used for ef ...19979474567
the mossie-buster: a hose-driven insecticide delivery tool for the control of container-breeding mosquitoes.a novel insecticide delivery tool, the mossie-buster, was recently developed to control larval populations from urban breeding sites in townsville, australia. this functional and user-friendly control device directly targets the main breeding sites of aedes aegypti (l.) with a focused delivery of insecticides. the mossie-buster comprises a commercially available device and attachments that mix an insecticide solution into the flow of water emitted from a hose. attached to the device is a trigger ...19979474568
a novel insecticidal serotype of clostridium bifermentans.a novel clostridium bifermentans strain toxic to mosquito larvae on ingestion was isolated from a soil sample collected from secondary forest floor. this strain was designated as serovar paraiba (c. b. paraiba) according to its specific h antigen. clostridium bifermentans paraiba is most toxic to anopheles maculatus theobald larvae (lc50 = 0.038 mg/liter), whereas toxicity to aedes aegypti (linn.) (lc50 = 0.74 mg/liter) and culex quinquefasciatus say (lc50 = 0.11 mg/liter) larvae was 20 and 3 ti ...19979474569
differential accumulation and tissue distribution of mosquito hexamerins during metamorphosis.the pupal hexamerins were characterized for two mosquitoes representative of the culicine and anopheline families, aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae. like higher diptera, both mosquito species express two types of hexamerins, hex-1 and hex-2, whose subunits are distinguished by different levels of methionine and aromatic amino acids. in a. aegypti there are two heterohexamers, aahex-1 and aahex-2. in a. gambiae there are two homohexamers, aghex-1.1 and aghex-1.2, and one heterohexamer, aghex-2 ...19979474778
global situation of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever, and its emergence in the americas.about two-thirds of the world's population live in areas infested with dengue vectors, mainly aedes aegypti. all four dengue viruses are circulating, sometimes simultaneously, in most of these areas. it is estimated that up to 80 million persons become infected annually although marked underreporting results in the notification of much smaller figures. currently dengue is endemic in all continents except europe and epidemic dengue haemorrhagic fever (dhf) occurs in asia, the americas and some pa ...19979477544
down regulation of macrophage activation in brugia pahangi-infected jirds (meriones unguiculatus).the macrophage is a major component of the inflammatory response induced by lymphatic tissue-dwelling filariae. intraperitoneal (i.p.) infections with brugia pahangi in mongolian gerbils, or jirds (meriones unguiculatus), induce a peritoneal inflammatory response characterized by accumulation of numerous macrophages and fewer eosinophils. this inflammatory response is associated with the release of microfilariae by female worms. the aim of this study was to investigate the activation state of th ...19989488396
dengue--a re-emerging infectious disease in singapore.despite its well-established integrated nationwide aedes mosquito control programme which incorporates source reduction, public health education and law enforcement, singapore has not been spared from the regional resurgence of dengue. the disease incidence has been increasing from 9.3 per 100,000 in 1988 to 102.7 per 100,000 in 1996 at the time when the aedes house index (hi) has dropped to around 1% from > 25% in the 1960s. majority of the cases reported from 1990 to 1996 were dengue fever (df ...19979494676
la untadita: a procedure for maintaining washbasins and drums free of aedes aegypti based on modification of existing practices.chlorine bleach and detergent are routinely used by householders in el progreso, honduras in the process of cleaning washbasins and drums, the two most important larval habitats of aedes aegypti in the city. the efficacy of these materials in eliminating eggs, larvae, and pupae of ae. aegypti was assessed under controlled conditions. the promising results obtained led to trials using a combination of chlorine bleach and detergent to apply to the walls of washbasins and drums as a method for elim ...19989502612
evidence for genetic hitchhiking effect associated with insecticide resistance in aedes aegypti.information on genetic variation within and between populations is critical for understanding the evolutionary history of mosquito populations and disease epidemiology. previous studies with drosophila suggest that genetic variation of selectively neutral loci in a large fraction of genome may be constrained by fixation of advantageous mutations associated with hitchhiking effect. this study examined restriction fragment length polymorphisms of four natural aedes aegypti mosquito populations fro ...19989504925
hemagglutinins in mosquitoes and their role in the immune response to brugia malayi (filarioidea:nematoda) larvae.hemagglutinins were determined in six species of mosquitoes that are susceptible and refractory to brugia malayi (filarioidea: nematoda). high titers of hemagglutinins were found in the salivary gland extract and in the body fluid of a completely refractory species, aedes taeniorhynchus, and in partially refractory species, anopheles quadrimculatus but low levels of hemagglutinins were also present in the body fluid of aedes aegypti (black-eye, liverpool strain), a susceptible species. hemagglut ...19979505436
[atypical activity rhythm in aedes aegypti in a sub-sudanian savannah zone of côte d'ivoire].ae. aegypti is vector of many arboviruses of medical and/or economical importance. it transmits the yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya viruses. small water collections constitute its potential breeding sites. three different populations of ae. aegypti are known in africa: a selvatic population breeding in tree holes and rock holes, a population breeding in discarded containers in peri-domestic area and a third population which breeds in drinking water containers and various receptacles inside ...19979507772
mosquito density, biting rate and cage size effects on repellent tests.mosquito biting rates and the mean duration of protection (in hours) from bites (mdpb) of aedes aegypti and anopheles quadrimaculatus, using the repellent 'deet' (n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) on a 50 cm2 area of healthy human skin, were observed in small (27 l), medium (approximately 65 l) and large (125 l) cages containing low, medium or high densities of mosquitoes: respectively, 640, 128 or 49 cm3 of cage volume per female. at the initial treatment rate of approximately 0.4 microliter/cm2 ( ...19989513937
survey of cyclopids (crustacea, copepoda) in brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators.cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus.19979515258
an important step forward in the genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors of human disease. 19989520367
plasmodium gallinaceum preferentially invades vesicular atpase-expressing cells in aedes aegypti midgut.penetration of the mosquito midgut epithelium is obligatory for the further development of plasmodium parasites. therefore, blocking the parasite from invading the midgut wall disrupts the transmission of malaria. despite such a pivotal role in malaria transmission, the cellular and molecular interactions that occur during the invasion are not understood. here, we demonstrate that the ookinetes of plasmodium gallinaceum, which is related closely to the human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparu ...19989520375
stable transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, with the hermes element from the housefly.the mosquito aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. the germ-line transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. a modified hermes transposon carrying a 4.7-kb fragment of genomic dna that includes a wild-type ...19989520437
development of a chimeric sindbis virus with enhanced per os infection of aedes aegypti.the te/3'2j double subgenomic sindbis (dssin) viruses have been used to stably express genes in aedes aegypti nerve and salivary gland tissues. however, because these viruses inefficiently infect ae. aegypti when administered by the per os route, te/3'2j viruses must be intrathoracically inoculated into the mosquitoes to infect these tissues. a malaysian sindbis (sin) virus isolate (mre16) does efficiently infect ae. aegypti midgut tissues after ingestion, and approximately 95% of these mosquito ...19989527919
putative chikungunya virus-specific receptor proteins on the midgut brush border membrane of aedes aegypti mosquito.two proteins (putative receptors) of 60 and 38 kda, for chikungunya (chik) virus were detected in the brush border membrane fraction (bbmf) of the normal population of aedes aegypti mosquitoes. mosquitoes were infected orally with chik virus and infectivity checked by testing the head squashes. bbmf was prepared from proved positive and negative mosquitoes. the receptor proteins were found to be present in both the proved genotypes. however, dot-b'ot assays showed that the chik virus binding act ...19989529775
phylogeny of amblyospora (microsporida: amblyosporidae) and related genera based on small subunit ribosomal dna data: a possible example of host parasite cospeciation.small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene sequences were analyzed for six species and four genera of microsporidia from mosquito hosts; amblyospora stimuli (aedes stimulans), amblyospora californica (culex tarsalis), amblyospora sp. (culex salinarius), edhazardia aedis (aedes aegypti), culicosporella lunata (culex pilosus), and parathelohania anophelis (anopheles quadrimaculatus). comparison of these sequences to those of other microsporidia show that these sequences are longer with the ssu rr ...19989538024
two contiguous outbreaks of dengue type 2 in north queensland.to investigate two outbreaks of dengue type 2 in north queensland, one in the torres strait beginning in late 1996, the other in a cairns suburb in early 1997.19989539900
antifungal and larvicidal meroterpenoid naphthoquinones and a naphthoxirene from the roots of cordia linnaei.three new meroterpenoid naphthoquinones, the known cordiaquinone b and a new naphthoxirene have been isolated from the roots of cordia linnaei. their structures were established by spectrometric methods including ei, d/ci and fab mass spectrometry, 1h, 13c and 2d nmr experiments. the naphthoquinones showed activity against cladosporium cucumerinum, candida albicans and the larvae of the yellow fever-transmitting mosquito aedes aegypti, while the naphthoxirene derivative was found to be inactive ...19989542168
ultrastructural studies on the reproductive system of male aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) infected with dengue 2 virus.dengue 2 virus was found by transmission electron microscopy to be present in the reproductive tissues of male aedes aegypti (l) 14 d after intrathoracic inoculation. dengue 2 particles were detected in the matrix, epithelial cells, and the peripheral fat body of the testes; secretory droplets of columnar cells of the accessory glands; and the epithelial and muscle cells of the seminal vesicles. however, none was found in the germ cells (i.e., spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatid, or spermato ...19989542348
effect of size and geographic origin of aedes aegypti on oral infection with dengue-2 virus.differences in larval habitats cause variation in the size of aedes aegypti (l.) adults. we suspected that such size variation was related to the ease with which the mosquitoes could be infected with dengue virus. using a rearing procedure that produced three distinct size classes of mosquitoes, we determined the percentage of mosquitoes that developed disseminated dengue-2 infection following oral feeding with a suspension containing 3.3 x 10(7) plaque-forming units/ml. mosquitoes were reared f ...19989546404
reduced transdermal absorption of n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide from a new topical insect repellent formulation.extensive absorption of the topical insect repellent n, n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) causes systemic and local toxicities. this report describes the preparation and characterization of a new insect repellent formulation (fa), a peg-polyacrylic acid polymer system, for its deet release, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo transdermal absorption properties; and for its relative repellency against aedes aegypti mosquitoes. deet release and skin permeation were studied in franz diffusion cells. de ...19979552429
gene expression and regulation from the p7 promoter of aedes densonucleosis virus.the nonstructural proteins ns1 and ns2 are thought to be expressed from the p7 promoter of aedes densonucleosis virus (aednv). to study gene expression from the p7 promoter, eight different plasmids were constructed by fusing beta-galactosidase or beta-glucuronidase into the genome so that the reporter gene was in different open reading frames and under the transcriptional control of the p7 promoter. after transfection into c6/36 aedes albopictus cells, constructs generated comparable amounts of ...19989557726
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