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urban epidemic of dengue virus serotype 3 infection, senegal, 2009.an urban epidemic of dengue in senegal during 2009 affected 196 persons and included 5 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 1 fatal case of dengue shock syndrome. dengue virus serotype 3 was identified from all patients, and aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identified as the primary vector of the virus.024572297
mucocutaneous manifestations of dengue fever.dengue viral infection is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality and may be associated with a variety of mucocutaneous manifestations that may provide important early clues to the diagnosis of this condition. cutaneous and mucosal findings like confluent erythema, morbilliform eruptions, and hemorrhagic lesions may figure prominently in the clinical features of dengue. the differential diagnoses include a large number of bacterial and viral exanthems as well as drug rash.020418984
viruses and the microbiota.every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of microbiota on viruses is unclear. recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. microbiota inhibit infection of some viruses and promote infection of other viruses. these effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or virus. this review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which the microbiota inf ...025821837
functional genomics approach for the identification of human host factors supporting dengue viral propagation.dengue virus (denv) is endemic throughout tropical regions of the world and there are no approved treatments or anti-transmission agents currently available. consequently, there exists an enormous unmet need to treat the human diseases caused by denv and block viral transmission by the mosquito vector. rnai screening represents an efficient method to expand the pool of known host factors that could become viable targets for treatments or provide rationale to consider available drugs as anti-denv ...024696344
latest developments and future directions in dengue vaccines.dengue is a mosquito-borne disease which is currently an expanding global health problem. the disease is caused by four closely related viruses, the dengue virus. there are no specific dengue therapeutics and prevention is currently limited to vector control measures. development of an effective tetravalent dengue vaccine would therefore represent a major advance in the control of the disease and is considered a high public health priority. while a licensed dengue vaccine is not yet available, t ...024757522
seropositive status of dengue virus infection among blood donors in north malaysia. 024678182
dengue in costa rica: the gap in local scientific research. 017316494
fever screening at airports and imported dengue.airport fever screening in taiwan, july 2003-june 2004, identified 40 confirmed dengue cases. results obtained by capture immunoglobulin (ig) m and igg enzyme-linked immunoassay, real time 1-step polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation showed that 33 (82.5%) of 40 patients were viremic. airport fever screening can thus quickly identify imported dengue cases.015757566
reemergence of dengue in southern texas, 2013.during a dengue epidemic in northern mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. of 83 patient specimens that were initially igm negative according to elisa performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription pcr performed at the centers for disease control and prevention. dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified ...027191223
spontaneous arterial hemorrhage as a complication of dengue.bleeding complications of dengue hemorrhagic fever such as epistaxis, gum bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, hypermenorrhea, hematuria, and thrombocytopenia have been documented. a 49-year-old female presented with complaints of intermittent high-grade fever for the past 4 days, lower abdominal pain and altered sensorium for 1 day. laboratory investigations revealed severe anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and positive dengue serology. emergency ultrasound examination of the a ...027275081
can radiology play a role in early diagnosis of dengue fever?dengue fever (df) is a viral hemorrhagic fever causing severe morbidity and mortality in affected patients.027042608
primary dengue virus infections induce differential cytokine production in mexican patients.severe dengue pathogenesis is not fully understood, but high levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with dengue disease severity. in this study, the cytokine levels in 171 sera from mexican patients with primary dengue fever (df) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (dhf) from dengue virus (denv) 1 (n = 116) or 2 (n = 55) were compared. df and dhf were defined according to the patient's clinical condition, the primary infections as indicated by igg enzymatic immunoassay negative resul ...027008374
correlation study between platelet count, leukocyte count, nonhemorrhagic complications, and duration of hospital stay in dengue fever with thrombocytopenia.dengue is one of the common diseases presenting as fever with thrombocytopenia, also causing significant morbidity and complications.027453855
dengue virus: a global human threat: review of literature.dengue is an acute viral illness caused by rna virus of the family flaviviridae and spread by aedes mosquitoes. presenting features may range from asymptomatic fever to dreaded complications such as hemorrhagic fever and shock. a cute-onset high fever, muscle and joint pain, myalgia, cutaneous rash, hemorrhagic episodes, and circulatory shock are the commonly seen symptoms. oral manifestations are rare in dengue infection; however, some cases may have oral features as the only presenting manifes ...027011925
knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding vector-borne diseases in western jamaica.outbreaks of vector-borne diseases (vbds) such as dengue and malaria can overwhelm health systems in resource-poor countries. environmental management strategies that reduce or eliminate vector breeding sites combined with improved personal prevention strategies can help to significantly reduce transmission of these infections.027036722
chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) mosquito from india.although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to understand the chikungunya virus (chikv) susceptibility and growth in aedes aegypti populations from india. this study was undertaken to investigate chikv susceptibility and growth kinetics in ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of ae. aegypti populations.026905240
the brazilian zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models.zika virus (zikv) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus (family flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in uganda following blood analyses of sentinel rhesus monkeys. until the twentieth century, the african and asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. however, in 2007, vectored by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, zikv caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the yap island in micronesia. patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctiv ...027279226
chikungunya virus outbreak, dominica, 2014. 025898214
east/central/south african genotype chikungunya virus, brazil, 2014. 025898939
chikungunya fever outbreak, bhutan, 2012.in 2012, chikungunya virus (chikv) was reported for the first time in bhutan. igm elisa results were positive for 36/210 patient samples; pcr was positive for 32/81. phylogenetic analyses confirmed that bhutan chikv belongs to the east/central/south african genotype. appropriate responses to future outbreaks require a system of surveillance and improved laboratory capacity.024047543
waiting for chikungunya fever in argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps.chikungunya virus (chikv) transmission has been detected in america in 2013 and recently reached south up to bolivia, brazil and paraguay, bordering countries of argentina. the presence of the mosquito aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk ...025946252
high dose intraveneous vitamin c and chikungunya fever: a case report.the chikungunya (chikv) fever is a viral disease produced by a single-stranded rna alphavirus from the togaviridae genus. its transmission occurs only through mosquito vectors, principally aedes aegypti. it requires a human-mosquito-human transmission cycle. it is associated with severe arthritis/arthralgias, myalgias, high fever, headache, and maculopapular rash. joint ache appears to be symmetrical. the virus has an incubation period of 2 to 7 days, where the high fever is typically presented. ...025705076
chikungunya virus infection, brazzaville, republic of congo, 2011. 023968609
genomes to hits in silico - a country path today, a highway tomorrow: a case study of chikungunya.these are exciting times for bioinformaticians, computational biologists and drug designers with the genome and proteome sequences and related structural databases growing at an accelerated pace. the post-genomic era has triggered high expectations for a rapid and successful treatment of diseases. however, in this biological information rich and functional knowledge poor scenario, the challenges are indeed grand, no less than the assembly of the genome of the whole organism. these include functi ...023260020
outbreak of chikungunya virus infection, vanimo, papua new guinea.in june 2012, health authorities in papua new guinea detected an increase in febrile illnesses in vanimo. chikungunya virus of the eastern/central/southern african genotype harboring the e1:a226v mutation was identified. this ongoing outbreak has spread to ≥8 other provinces and has had a harmful effect on public health.023965757
nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of chikungunya virus (chikv) enhances protective immunity mediated by a chikv envelope protein expressing dna vaccine.chikungunya virus (chikv) is an important emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, indigenous to tropical africa and asia. it can cause epidemic fever and acute illness characterized by fever and arthralgias. the epidemic cycle of this infection is similar to dengue and urban yellow fever viral infections. the generation of an efficient vaccine against chikv is necessary to prevent and/or control the disease manifestations of the infection. in this report, we studied immune response against a chikv-e ...023409931
estimation of population size and dispersal of aedes polynesiensis on toamaro motu, french polynesia.mark-release-recapture methods were used to compare aedes polynesiensis marks adult numbers and dispersal between dry and wet seasons in a closed population on a small island (motu) in french polynesia. females were more than three times more common during wet (december 2008) than dry (may 2007) season samplings although high numbers of vectors were collected during both seasons. lincoln-petersen estimates for ae. polynesiensis females on the motu were 6,055 per hectare for the dry season and 18 ...023025176
a comparative study of clinical features between monotypic and dual infection cases with chikungunya virus and dengue virus in west bengal, india.chikungunya virus (chikv) and dengue virus (denv) are circulating individually in the state of west bengal, india. however, after 1965 the dual-infection caused by both viruses had not been recorded until 2010. in 2010, an investigation of the febrile cases was carried out to confirm the involvement of both viruses simultaneously. a total of 550 blood samples were tested for the detection of immunoglobulin m (igm) antibody against both chikv and denv. serology by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...022492160
perinatal chikungunya in twins.we report a case of vertically transmitted chikungunya infection in heterozygous twin neonates presenting as seizures, encephalopathy, midfacial hyperpigmentation, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. this could be considered as a rare cause of neonatal seizure and identification would help in appropriate management.027857791
chikungunya fever among patients with acute febrile illness attending a tertiary care hospital in mumbai.chikungunya fever (chik) is an arboviral disease. dengue fever (deng) and chik are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations.027365916
molecular characterization of chikungunya virus, philippines, 2011-2013.during 2011-2013, a nationwide outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in the philippines. the asian genotype was identified as the predominant genotype; sporadic cases of the east/central/south african genotype were detected in mindanao. further monitoring is needed to define the transmission pattern of this virus in the philippines.027088593
two disciplines, one priority: the seamless integration of human and veterinary microbiology is urgent. 026038422
the chikungunya virus: an emerging us pathogen.the chikungunya (chik) virus was recently reported by the cdc to have spread to the united states. we report an early documented case of chik from the state of pennsylvania after a patient recently returned from haiti in june of 2014.027006742
cutaneous manifestations in patients suspected of chikungunya disease.an epidemic of chikungunya disease occurred in india during late 2005 through 2006 affecting nearly 1,400,000 people.020101307
chikungunya virus in the americas--what a vectorborne pathogen can do. 025184860
movement of chikungunya virus into the western hemisphere. 025061832
preparedness for threat of chikungunya in the pacific.chikungunya virus (chikv) caused significant outbreaks of illness during 2005-2007 in the indian ocean region. chikungunya outbreaks have also occurred in the pacific region, including in papua new guinea in 2012; new caledonia in april 2013; and yap state, federated states of micronesia, in august 2013. chikv is a threat in the pacific, and the risk for further spread is high, given several similarities between the pacific and indian ocean chikungunya outbreaks. island health care systems have ...025062306
mucocutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever: a study from an epidemic in coastal karnataka.chikungunya fever (cf) epidemic has recently re-emerged in india affecting large population. mucocutaneous manifestations are an important clinical feature of the disease. we have reviewed mucocutaneous manifestations of the disease during a recent epidemic in coastal karnataka.021772590
bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options.since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. these bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. if bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or ey ...022232375
epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of chikungunya in hyderabad and nalgonda districts of andhra pradesh, india.after about three decades, chikungunya infection has re-emerged in india and the first cases were reported in december, 2005. the outbreak has currently affected about 8 states in the country. although known to be commonly non fatal, since the present outbreak involved a large population, it has been raised as an issue of public health concern and also attracted wide media attention. the clinico-epidemiological and entomological review of the chikungunya outbreak situation in hyderabad and nalgo ...021475442
distinguishing between zika and spondweni viruses. 027843157
detection of autochthonous zika virus transmission in sincelejo, colombia. 027089253
highly diversified zika viruses imported to china, 2016. 027209301
emerging infectious disease and fast-track publication: when public health gets priority over the formality of scholarly publishing. 027223865
projecting month of birth for at-risk infants after zika virus disease outbreaks.the marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in brazil after a 2015 outbreak of zika virus (zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. to project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in bahia state, brazil, we incorporated data on reported zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. we projected that these birt ...027088494
threat from emerging vectorborne viruses. 027551712
asian genotype zika virus detected in traveler returning to mexico from colombia, october 2015. 027088574
tropical islands as new hubs for emerging arboviruses. 027088243
brazil's scientists scramble to solve the zika puzzle.the world health organization has declared the recent leap in the number of microcephaly cases and their suspected association with zika virus a public health emergency of international concern. ana bispo tells andréia azevedo soares why brazil should have some scientific answers in coming months.026966326
bioethical considerations at times of zika virus. 027462882
bloodfeeding patterns of sylvatic arbovirus vectors in southeastern senegal.dengue (denv), yellow fever (yfv) and chikungunya (chikv) viruses circulate in sylvatic, enzootic transmission cycles in southeastern senegal, but understanding of the vector-host interactions involved is limited.023423342
autochthonous chikungunya fever in traveler returning to japan from cuba. 027533717
larvicidal efficacies of plants from midwestern brazil: melianodiol from guarea kunthiana as a potential biopesticide against aedes aegypti.a total of 36 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 27 plant species (18 families), native to the pantanal and cerrado biomes in midwest brazil, was assessed for their effect against aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue, hemorrhagic dengue, zika and chikungunya fevers. only the extract obtained from seeds of guarea kunthiana (meliaceae) proved active (lc50 = 169.93 μg/ml). a bioassay-guided investigation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of melianodiol, ...027333366
public health round-up. 027516631
the epidemiology and transmissibility of zika virus in girardot and san andres island, colombia, september 2015 to january 2016.transmission of zika virus (zikv) was first detected in colombia in september 2015. as of april 2016, colombia had reported over 65,000 cases of zika virus disease (zvd). we analysed daily surveillance data of zvd cases reported to the health authorities of san andres and girardot, colombia, between september 2015 and january 2016. zvd was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. we use daily i ...027452806
microcephaly in north-east brazil: a retrospective study on neonates born between 2012 and 2015.to assess the number of children born with microcephaly in the state of paraíba, north-east brazil.027821886
zika - global concern. 027610070
editorial brain malformation surveillance in the zika era.the current surveillance systems for congenital microcephaly are necessary to monitor the impact of zika virus (zikv) on the developing human brain, as well as the zikv prevention efforts. however, these congenital microcephaly surveillance systems are insufficient. abnormalities of neuronal differentiation, development and migration may occur among infants with normal head circumference who have intrauterine exposure to zikv. therefore, surveillance for congenital microcephaly does not ascertai ...027891785
zika is not a reason for missing the olympic games in rio de janeiro: response to the open letter of dr attaran and colleagues to dr margaret chan, director - general, who, on the zika threat to the olympic and paralympic games.attaran and colleagues in an open letter to who expressed their concern about the upcoming olympic and paralympic games in rio de janeiro and the threat posed by the zika epidemic (attaran 2016). we agree that zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. however, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the games, in particula ...027304097
species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emerge ...019067629
contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in north america.the mosquito aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) has spread rapidly through north america since its introduction in the 1990s. the mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors aedes triseriatus and aedes albopictus are unclear. possibilities include (a) temporal separation of a. japonicus from other aedes, (b) oviposition avoidance by a. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific aedes larvae, and (c) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages ...026101466
effects of intraspecific larval competition on adult longevity in the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.larval competition is common in container-breeding mosquitoes. the impact of competition on larval growth has been thoroughly examined and findings that larval competition can lead to density-dependent effects on adult body size have been documented. the effects of larval competition on adult longevity have been less well explored. the effects of intraspecific larval densities on the longevity of adults maintained under relatively harsh environmental conditions were tested in the laboratory by m ...019239615
escape from gregarine parasites affects the competitive interactions of an invasive mosquito.when a species is introduced into a new location, it may escape, at least temporarily, from its natural enemies. in field surveys, we found that when the exotic, invasive mosquito, aedes albopictus, invades new sites, it initially experiences reduced infection by its gut parasite, ascogregarina taiwanensis. to determine the effect of this escape from parasitism on the competitive ability of a. albopictus, we performed a laboratory competition experiment in which infected and uninfected a. albopi ...019777120
desiccation and thermal tolerance of eggs and the coexistence of competing mosquitoes.we tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature and desiccation tolerances of eggs of the container-dwelling mosquitoes aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti influence whether invading a. albopictus coexist with or exclude a. aegypti in florida. in the laboratory, egg mortality through 30 days for a. albopictus was strongly temperature and humidity dependent, with low humidity and high temperature producing greatest mortality. in contrast, mortality through 30 days and through 60 days for ...020871747
effects of habitat type and drying on ascogregarina barretti (eugregarinida: lecudinidae) infection in aedes triseritatus (diptera: culicidae).the intensity and prevalence of parasitism by ascogregarina barretti (vavra) in aedes triseriatus (say) did not differ between tires and tree holes in field samples taken in september 1996. there was significant variation in the intensity of parasitism among containers that was not significantly correlated with the ph, conductivity, or temperature of the container water. in an experiment manipulating habitat drying, treatments had a significant effect on a. barretti infection of ae. triseriatus, ...011126556
characterisation of culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in córdoba, argentina.the aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in córdoba city. every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches) were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. data regarding the water dep ...024037200
tackling the malaria problem in the south-east asia region: need for a change in policy?malaria is largely neglected in the south-east asia region (sear), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. malaria in the sear exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as "forest malaria" and malaria due to migration across international borders. the greater mekong subregion (gms) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. with the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticid ...023481050
population dynamics.this chapter reviews aspects of population dynamics that may be conceptually important for biological control of mosquitoes. density dependent population regulation among immature stages has important implications for biological control of mosquito populations, primarily because it can lead to compensatory or overcompensatory mortality due to additions of a biological control agent. this can result in control efforts leading to no change in the target population, or actual increases in the targe ...017853611
competitive displacement and reduction. 017853612
consequences of detritus type in an aquatic microsystem: effects on water quality, micro-organisms and performance of the dominant consumer.1. variation in detritus quality and quantity can have significant effects on aquatic invertebrate food webs. allochthonous inputs of detritus are the principal energy source for organisms in aquatic tree hole microsystems. we compared the effects of two major detritus types found in tree holes, senescent leaves (sugar maple and white oak) and invertebrate carcasses (dead adult fruit flies and crickets), on several water quality characteristics of laboratory microcosms as well as on mass, surviv ...017476312
precipitation and temperature effects on populations of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae): implications for range expansion.we investigated how temperature and precipitation regime encountered over the life cycle of aedes albopictus (skuse) affects populations. caged populations of a. albopictus were maintained at 22, 26, and 30 degrees c. cages were equipped with containers that served as sites for oviposition and larval development. all cages were assigned to one of three simulated precipitation regimes: (1) low fluctuation regime - water within the containers was allowed to evaporate to 90% of its maximum before b ...011580037
temperature effects on the dynamics of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) populations in the laboratory.we investigated how constant temperatures of 22, 24, and 26 degrees c experienced across the full life cycle affected the dynamics of caged populations of aedes albopictus (skuse). all cages were equipped with plastic beakers that served as sites for oviposition and larval development. we measured the per capita daily mortality and emergence rates of the adults and size of adult females, and estimated the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and asymptotic density (k) for each caged population. popula ...011476335
human and animal dirofilariasis: the emergence of a zoonotic mosaic.dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (dirofilaria immitis and d. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. at the same time, both d. immitis and d. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hos ...022763636
stable isotope analysis reveals detrital resource base sources of the tree hole mosquito, aedes triseriatus.1. detritus that forms the basis for mosquito production in tree hole ecosystems can vary in type and timing of input. we investigated the contributions of plant- and animal-derived detritus to the biomass of aedes triseriatus (say) pupae and adults by using stable isotope ((15)n and (13)c) techniques in lab experiments and field collections.2. lab-reared mosquito isotope values reflected their detrital resource base, providing a clear distinction between mosquitoes reared on plant or animal det ...021132121
senescent leaf exudate increases mosquito survival and microbial activity.we conducted experiments to evaluate the effects of soluble components in senescent leaf material on the growth and development of the eastern tree hole mosquito, aedes triseriatus (say). oak leaves that were either leached for three days to remove the labile nutrient fraction, or were not leached, served as basal nutrient inputs in each experiment.mosquito performance in microcosms containing leachate only was significantly worse compared with microcosms containing leaf material in combination ...021113430
interpopulation divergence in competitive interactions of the mosquito aedes albopictus.geographic variation in species interactions can have major effects on distributions. effects of such variation can be particularly evident for invasive species, in which variation in competitive ability can influence invasive success and impacts. we tested the hypothesis that coexistence or exclusion of the resident mosquito aedes aegypti results from variation among local populations of the invasive aedes albopictus in competitive interactions with a. aegypti. we also examined the role of vari ...019769119
leaf species identity and combination affect performance and oviposition choice of two container mosquito species.1. resource diversity can be an important determinant of individual and population performance in insects. fallen parts of plants form the nutritive base for many aquatic systems, including mosquito habitats, but the effect of plant diversity on mosquito production is poorly understood.2. to determine the effects of diverse plant inputs on larval mosquitoes, experiments were conducted that examined how leaves of vitis aestivalis, quercus virginiana, psychotria nervosa, and nephrolepis exalta aff ...020161198
digital image analysis to estimate numbers of aedes eggs oviposited in containers.monitoring reproductive rates in experiments involving aedine mosquitoes is tedious and time demanding. here, we demonstrate a protocol for rapid estimation of aedine mosquito egg number. the protocol uses imagej, a publicly available image analysis program developed at the u.s. national institutes of health. the method relies upon the oviposition behavior of aedes (i.e., ovipositing on a moist substrate instead of water surface) and upon the contrast between dark-colored aedine eggs and a light ...019181055
sex ratios of mosquitoes from long-term censuses of florida tree holes.pupal sexes of the most common mosquito species were determined in the course of biweekly censuses (with replacement) of the contents of 3-7 tree holes from 1980-2003 in vero beach, fl. a significant (p < 0.001) male bias was detected over this period for the most abundant species, aedes triseriatus. no significant deviation from a 1:1 sex ratio was detected among pupae of toxorhynchites rutilus or ae. albopictus, the latter species occurring in this community only since 1991. although pupae of ...018437808
hunger-dependent and sex-specific antipredator behaviour of larvae of a size-dimorphic mosquito.1. modification of behaviors in the presence of predators or predation cues is widespread among animals. costs of a behavioral change in the presence of predators or predation cues depend on fitness effects of lost feeding opportunities and, especially when organisms are sexually dimorphic in size or timing of maturation, these costs are expected to differ between the sexes. 2. larval aedes triseriatus (say) (diptera: culicidae) were used to test the hypothesis that behavioral responses of the s ...025309025
use of the cdc autocidal gravid ovitrap to control and prevent outbreaks of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).populations ofaedes aegypti (l.) can be managed through reductions in adult mosquito survival, number of offspring produced, or both. direct adult mortality can be caused by the use of space sprays or residual insecticides to mosquito resting sites, and with a variety of residual insecticide-impregnated surfaces that are being tested, such as curtains, covers for water-storage vessels, bednets, and ovitraps. the fertility ofae. aegypti populations can be reduced by the use of autocidal ovipositi ...024605464
vertebrate hosts of aedes aegypti and aedes mediovittatus (diptera: culicidae) in rural puerto rico.the distribution of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.), the main vector of dengue viruses (denv) worldwide, overlaps with aedes (gymnometopa) mediovittatus (coquillett), the caribbean treehole mosquito, in urban, suburban, and rural areas. ae. mediovittatus is a competent vector of denv with high rates of vertical denv transmission in the laboratory. this study determined whether ae. mediovittatus feeds on humans and compared its feeding patterns with co-occurring ae. aegypti in two rural communitie ...022897052
monitoring resistance to bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each cry toxin separately.bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti) is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the french rhône-alpes region since decades. the artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual bti cry toxins. based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each bti cry toxin separ ...024037105
an improved trap to capture adult container-inhabiting mosquitoes.although dengue viruses are thought to be transmitted by aedes aegypti in puerto rico, aedes mediovittatus, the caribbean tree hole mosquito, is also a potential vector. this species is native to the greater antilles and has been shown to be a competent vector of dengue viruses in the laboratory. consequently, it has been suggested that ae. mediovittatus could be acting as a secondary vector or virus reservoir. this study was part of an ongoing investigation into this, and it aimed to determine ...024551969
attractive toxic sugar baits: control of mosquitoes with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on nontarget organisms in morocco.we evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb) in the laboratory and field with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. preliminary laboratory assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female culex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti linnaeus. field studies demonstrated >70% reduction of mosquito populations at 3 wk post-atsb application. nontarget feeding of seven insect ...024331613
delayed egg hatching of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae) pending water agitation.mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. however, we have found that anopheles gambiae giles, an important vector of malaria in africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the f ...024897850
description of the transcriptomes of immune response-activated hemocytes from the mosquito vectors aedes aegypti and armigeres subalbatus.mosquito-borne diseases, including dengue, malaria, and lymphatic filariasis, exact a devastating toll on global health and economics, killing or debilitating millions every year (54). mosquito innate immune responses are at the forefront of concerted research efforts aimed at defining potential target genes that could be manipulated to engineer pathogen resistance in vector populations. we aimed to describe the pivotal role that circulating blood cells (called hemocytes) play in immunity by gen ...015213157
mosquito hemocyte-mediated immune responses.hemocytes are a key component of the mosquito immune system that kill pathogens via phagocytic, lytic and melanization pathways. individual mosquitoes contain between 500 and 4,000 hemocytes, which are divided into three populations named granulocytes, oenocytoids and prohemocytes. hemocytes can also be divided by their anatomical location with 75% of hemocytes circulating in the hemocoel (circulating hemocytes) and 25% of hemocytes attaching themselves to tissues (sessile hemocytes). greater th ...025309850
identification and molecular characterization of a prophenoloxidase involved in aedes aegypti chorion melanization.chorion melanization is a vital biochemical event for the survival of mosquito eggs in the environment. this study describes the identification and molecular characterization of a prophenoloxidase (propo) involved in chorion melanization in aedes aegypti by various biochemical and molecular techniques. results revealed that transcription of the chorion propo occurs only in adults, blood feeding greatly stimulated its transcription and haemocytes are responsible for its transcription. our study p ...015796752
effects of elevated atmospheric co(2) on water chemistry and mosquito (diptera: culicidae) growth under competitive conditions in container habitats.we investigated the direct and indirect effects of elevated atmospheric co(2) on freshwater container habitats and their larval mosquito occupants. we predicted that a doubling of atmospheric co(2) would (1) alter the chemical properties of water in this system, (2) slow degradation of leaf litter, and (3) decrease larval growth of aedes albopictus (skuse) mosquitoes raised on that litter under competitive conditions. effects of elevated co(2) on water quality parameters were not detected, but t ...022661767
filariasis of uncommon nature in india. 023509678
intron retention in the drosophila melanogaster rieske iron sulphur protein gene generated a new protein.genomes can encode a variety of proteins with unrelated architectures and activities. it is known that protein-coding genes of de novo origin have significantly contributed to this diversity. however, the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary processes behind these originations are still poorly understood. here we show that the last 102 codons of a novel gene, noble, assembled directly from non-coding dna following an intronic deletion that induced alternative intron retention at the drosophila ...021610726
design and testing of a novel, protective human-baited tent trap for the collection of anthropophilic disease vectors.currently, there exists a deficit of safe, active trapping methods for the collection of host-seeking anopheles and other disease-causing arthropod vectors. the gold-standard approach for mosquito collection is that of human landing catch (hlc), in which an individual exposes bare skin to possibly infected vectors. here, we present the development of a new method for mosquito collection, the infoscitex tent, which uses modern tent materials coupled with a novel trap design. this provides an effi ...024605476
diversity and convergence of sodium channel mutations involved in resistance to pyrethroids.pyrethroid insecticides target voltage-gated sodium channels, which are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system. the intensive use of pyrethroids in controlling arthropod pests and disease vectors has led to many instances of pyrethroid resistance around the globe. in the past two decades, studies have identified a large number of sodium channel mutations that are associated with resistance to pyrethroids. the purpose of this review is to summarize both common and unique sodium c ...024019556
genes and odors underlying the recent evolution of mosquito preference for humans.mosquito species that specialize in biting humans are few but dangerous. they include the african malaria vectors anopheles gambiae and anopheles coluzzii, as well as aedes aegypti, the cosmopolitan vector of dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. these mosquitoes have evolved a remarkable innate preference for human odor that helps them find and bite us. here i review what is known about this important evolutionary adaptation, from its historical documentation to its chemical and molecular basi ...026766234
larval competition between aedes japonicus and aedes atropalpus (diptera: culicidae) in simulated rock pools.the success of an invasive species becoming established in a new region often depends on its interactions with ecologically similar resident species. the propensity of the newly-established mosquito aedes japonicus to inhabit rock pools throughout the eastern united states provides a natural setting for interspecific larval competition with the native aedes atropalpus. a laboratory experiment conducted in simulated rock pools to evaluate larval interactions between and within these two species s ...019263842
history of domestication and spread of aedes aegypti--a review.the adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. considerable data are available on the vector mosquito aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. we emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considere ...024473798
monitoring temporal abundance and spatial distribution of aedes polynesiensis using bg-sentinel traps in neighboring habitats on raiatea, society archipelago, french polynesia.adult numbers and sizes of mosquitoes were monitored for 2 yr in neighboring habitats on the western coast of raiatea (society archipelago) in anticipation of testing new vector control technologies. aedes polynesiensis marks females comprised the overwhelming majority (approximately 99%) of the three species of mosquitoes captured in biogent sentinel traps placed at fixed sites on three small satellite islands (motus) of the western lagoon and on the shoreline of raiatea. aedes polynesiensis ma ...022308771
acoustic communication in insect disease vectors.acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. the significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the xix century by christopher johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexua ...024473800
invertebrate carcasses as a resource for competing aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).terrestrial invertebrate carcasses are an important resource for insects developing in pitcher plants. however, little is known of the role of these carcasses in other containers, which also receive leaf fall and stemflow inputs. this experiment investigated effects of accumulated invertebrate carcasses as a resource for two competing mosquitoes, aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes aegypti (l.), whether either species differentially benefited from accumulated carcasses, and if such a benefit affe ...015535579
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