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red meat allergy in sweden: association with tick sensitization and b-negative blood groups. 201324094548
efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats.the objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. efficacy was evaluated against the flea ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks ixodes ricinus, amblyomma americanum and rhipicephalus turanicus. the number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstr ...201222541037
evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in europe.the objective of these two gcp multicentre european clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto®, bayer animalhealth, investigational veterinary product(ivp)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("ungezieferband fuer hunde/fuer katzen", beaphar, control product (cp)).201222463745
drug allergens and food--the cetuximab and galactose-α-1,3-galactose story.a novel form of food allergy has been described that initially became apparent from ige reactivity with the drug cetuximab. ongoing work regarding the etiology, distribution, clinical management, and cellular mechanisms of the ige response to the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) is reviewed.201324468247
delayed anaphylaxis involving ige to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.hypersensitivity in the allergic setting refers to immune reactions, stimulated by soluble antigens that can be rapidly progressing and, in the case of anaphylaxis, are occasionally fatal. as the number of known exposures associated with anaphylaxis is limited, identification of novel causative agents is important in facilitating both education and other allergen-specific approaches that are crucial to long-term risk management. within the last 10 years, several seemingly separate observations w ...026130470
carbohydrates as food allergens.the literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. they bind weakly to ige antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. these epitopes cause confusion in in vitro ige testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. there are two ...201525653916
a review of theileria diagnostics and epidemiology.an extensive range of serological and molecular diagnostic assays exist for most of the economically important theileira species such as t. annulata, t. equi, t. lestoquardi, t. parva, t. uilenbergi and other more benign species. diagnostics of theileria is considered with regard to sensitivity and specificity of current molecular and serological assays and their use in epidemiology. in the case of serological assays, cross-reactivity of genetically closely related species reduces the use of the ...201525830110
reverse genetics system for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (sftsv) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that was first reported in china in 2009. phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome showed that sfts virus represents a new lineage within the phlebovirus genus, distinct from the existing sandfly fever and uukuniemi virus groups, in the family bunyaviridae. sfts disease is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, chills, joint pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and some hemorrhagic mani ...201425552716
characterization of the bacterial communities of life stages of free living lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) is an abundant and aggressive biter of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in the southeastern-central usa and an important vector of several known and suspected zoonotic bacterial pathogens. however, the biological drivers of bacterial community variation in this tick are still poorly defined. knowing the community context in which tick-borne bacterial pathogens exist and evolve is required to fully understand the ecology and immunobiology of the tic ...201425054227
history and complexity in tick-host dynamics: discrepancies between 'real' and 'visible' tick populations.numerical responses of ticks to changes in densities of their hosts can be complex and apparently unpredictable. manipulations even of deterministic models can produce counter-intuitive results, including tick populations that either rise or fall under increasing host densities, depending on initial conditions.201424885852
frequency of piroplasms babesia microti and cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern italy.emerging diseases caused by piroplasms pose a health risk for man and other animals, and domestic cats have been proposed as potential reservoirs for some piroplasm infections. the aim of this study was to identify the frequency of the piroplasms babesia microti and cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern italy and to identify possible risk factors associated with these infections. blood samples from 260 stray cats enrolled in a trap-neuter-release (tnr) program in northern italy were exami ...201424895629
proteomic analysis of cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus saliva: a comparison between partially and fully engorged females.the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, r. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. so far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick ...201424762651
why so many unknown genes? partitioning orphans from a representative transcriptome of the lone star tick amblyomma americanum.genomic resources within the phylum arthropoda are largely limited to the true insects but are beginning to include unexplored subphyla, such as the crustacea and chelicerata. investigations of these understudied taxa uncover high frequencies of orphan genes, which lack detectable sequence homology to genes in pre-existing databases. the ticks (acari: chelicerata) are one such understudied taxon for which genomic resources are urgently needed. ticks are obligate blood-feeders that vector major d ...201323445305
in vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus.the acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (rhipicephalus microplus). engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of southern brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10) in order to test the following oils: juniper (juniperus communis), palmarosa (cymbopogon martinii), cedar (cedrus atlantica), lemon grass (cymbopogon citratus), ginger (zingiber officinale), geranium (pelargonium graveolens) and bergamot (citrus aurantium var bergamia) ...201627857849
the red meat allergy syndrome in sweden.in the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. the allergic responses are due to ige antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) found in mammalian meat. this review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-gal-containing proteins ...201627656352
reliability of molecular host-identification methods for ticks: an experimental in vitro study with ixodes ricinus.reliable information on host use by arthropod vectors is required to study pathogen transmission ecology and to predict disease risk. direct observation of host use is often difficult or impossible and indirect methods are therefore necessary. however, the reliability of currently available methods to identify the last host of blood-feeding arthropods has not been evaluated, and may be particularly problematic for ticks because host blood has been digested at capture. biases in host detection ma ...201526296344
an insight into the sialome of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, with a glimpse on its time dependent gene expression.hard ticks feed for several days or weeks on their hosts. blood feeding is assisted by tick saliva, which is injected in the host skin regularly, alternating with blood ingestion. tick saliva contains hundreds or thousands of different peptides and other bioactive compounds that assist feeding by inhibiting their hosts' blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, as well as pain and itching. immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides are also found in tick saliva. molecular characte ...201526131772
parasite infection of public databases: a data mining approach to identify apicomplexan contaminations in animal genome and transcriptome assemblies.contaminations from various exogenous sources are a common problem in next-generation sequencing. another possible source of contaminating dna are endogenous parasites. on the one hand, undiscovered contaminations of animal sequence assemblies may lead to erroneous interpretation of data; on the other hand, when identified, parasite-derived sequences may provide a valuable source of information.201728103801
borrelia miyamotoi disease: neither lyme disease nor relapsing fever.borrelia miyamotoi disease (bmd) is a newly recognized borreliosis globally transmitted by ticks of the ixodes persulcatus species complex. once considered to be a tick symbiont with no public health implications, b miyamotoi is increasingly recognized as the agent of a nonspecific febrile illness often misdiagnosed as acute lyme disease without rash, or as ehrlichiosis. the frequency of its diagnosis in the northeastern united states is similar to that of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. a diag ...201526593262
phylogeny of a relapsing fever borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick ixodes scapularis.the discovery of borrelia species that were related to the agents of relapsing fever but were transmitted by hard ticks rather than soft ticks challenged previous taxonomies based largely on microbe-host specificities and geographic considerations. one of these newly-identified organisms is the borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato strain lb-2001 from north america and transmitted by ixodes scapularis. this or related strains have been identified as the cause of human disease, but comparatively little i ...201424813576
the characterization and manipulation of the bacterial microbiome of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni.in north america, ticks are the most economically impactful vectors of human and animal pathogens. the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni (acari: ixodidae), transmits rickettsia rickettsii and anaplasma marginale to humans and cattle, respectively. in recent years, studies have shown that symbiotic organisms are involved in a number of biochemical and physiological functions. characterizing the bacterial microbiome of d. andersoni is a pivotal step towards understanding symbiont-hos ...201526653035
delayed anaphylaxis to red meat in patients with ige specific for galactose alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal).anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal. in instances where the triggering allergen is not known, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. our recent work has identified a novel ige antibody (ab) response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intra ...023054628
population and evolutionary genomics of amblyomma americanum, an expanding arthropod disease vector.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, is an important disease vector and the most frequent tick found attached to humans in the eastern united states. the lone star tick has recently experienced a rapid range expansion into the northeast and midwest, but despite this emerging infectious threat to wildlife, livestock, and human health, little is known about the genetic causes and consequences of the geographic expansion. in the first population genomic analysis of any tick species, we charact ...201627190204
development and validation of an improved pcr method using the 23s-5s intergenic spacer for detection of rickettsiae in dermacentor variabilis ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals.a novel nested pcr assay was developed to detectrickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23s-5s intergenic spacer (igs) ofrickettsiaspp. the newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic dna from 11rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherrickettsia-specific pcr targets (ompa,glta, and the 17-kda protein ...201626818674
identification and evaluation of vaccine candidate antigens from the poultry red mite (dermanyssus gallinae).an aqueous extract of the haematophagous poultry ectoparasite, dermanyssus gallinae, was subfractionated using anion exchange chromatography. six of these subfractions were used to immunise hens and the blood from these hens was fed, in vitro, to poultry red mites. mite mortality following these feeds was indicative of protective antigens in two of the subfractions, with the risks of mites dying being 3.1 and 3.7 times higher than in the control group (p<0.001). a combination of two-dimensional ...201526296690
heartland virus neutralizing antibodies in vertebrate wildlife, united states, 2009-2014.since its discovery in 2009, the tickborne heartland virus (hrtv) has caused human illness in missouri, oklahoma, and tennessee usa. to better assess the geographic distribution of hrtv, we used wildlife serology as an indicator. this retrospective evaluation determined that hrtv is widespread within the central and eastern united states.026401988
efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (bravecto) administered to dogs against the adult cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.fluralaner is a potent insecticide and acaricide with rapid and persistent efficacy. this study measured the efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (bravecto®, merck animal health) administered to dogs against adult ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.201526160349
variation in baiting intensity among co2-baited traps used to collect hematophagous arthropods.hematophagous arthropods transmit the etiological agents of numerous diseases and as a result are frequently the targets of sampling to characterize vector and pathogen populations. arguably, the most commonly used sampling approach involves traps baited with carbon dioxide. we report results of a laboratory study in which the performance of carbon dioxide-baited traps was evaluated using measures of baiting intensity, the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit time during trap deployment. w ...201526160803
prevalence of cytauxzoon felis infection in healthy cats from enzootic areas in arkansas, missouri, and oklahoma.infection with cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats can cause fever, lethargy, depression, inappetence, icterus, and often death. with a high mortality rate, cytauxzoonosis was historically considered a fatal disease. within the last 15 years, cats with or without treatment have been recognized as chronically infected survivors of c. felis infection. our objective was to determine the prevalence of c. felis in healthy domestic cats from arkansas, missouri, and oklahoma.201525566776
prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis collected from southeastern virginia, 2010-2011.amblyomma americanum is the most commonly encountered tick species in southeastern virginia, representing approximately 95% of the human-biting tick population in this area. here we investigated the prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in questing amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis ticks collected from multiple sites in southeastern virginia from 2010 to 2011. although both ehrlichia species were detected in amblyomma americanum, no evidence of either pathogen w ...201425155340
macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). we determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) in italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel para ...201424505348
first detection of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods.heartland virus (hrtv), the first pathogenic phlebovirus (family: bunyaviridae) discovered in the united states, was recently described from two missouri farmers. in 2012, we collected 56,428 ticks representing three species at 12 sites including both patients' farms. amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis accounted for nearly all ticks collected. ten pools composed of deplete nymphs of a. americanum collected at a patient farm and a nearby conservation area were reverse transcription-p ...201323878186
increasing frequency of feline cytauxzoonosis cases diagnosed in western kentucky from 2001 to 2011.feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, cytauxzoon felis. the primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (lynx rufus). in this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at murray state university's breathitt veterinary center, a regional diagnostic facility located in hopkinsville, kentucky, between january 2001 and december 2011. center re ...201324035030
identification and expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in sarcoptes scabiei.macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced by many mammalian tissues including skin. it is also found in many invertebrate parasites of mammals including ticks and may function to aid the parasite to evade the innate and adaptive immune responses in the host. in this study, the cdna for a mif gene was sequenced from sarcoptes scabiei, the scabies mite, using rt-pcr and race molecular techniques. the resulting nucleotide sequence had a length o ...201323831036
morphologic and molecular characterization of a demodex (acari: demodicidae) species from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).demodex mites, although usually nonpathogenic, can cause a wide range of dermatological lesions ranging from mild skin irritation and alopecia to severe furunculosis. recently, a case of demodicosis from a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) revealed a demodex species morphologically distinct from demodex odocoilei. all life cycle stages were considerably larger than d. odocoilei and although similar in size to d. kutzeri and d. acutipes from european cervids, numerous morphometrics disti ...201327335854
new species of ehrlichia isolated from rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the e. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats.ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. the aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of ehrlichia isolated from rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus from minas gerais, brazil.201223231731
seroprevalence of ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in north america.this study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the united states where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas.201222316160
brown spider (loxosceles genus) venom toxins: tools for biological purposes.venomous animals use their venoms as tools for defense or predation. these venoms are complex mixtures, mainly enriched of proteic toxins or peptides with several, and different, biological activities. in general, spider venom is rich in biologically active molecules that are useful in experimental protocols for pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology, as well as putative tools for biotechnology and industries. spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several rese ...201122069711
anaphylactic reactions to oligosaccharides in red meat: a syndrome in evolution.while most allergic responses to food are directed against protein epitopes and occur within 30 minutes of ingesting the allergen, recent studies suggest that delayed reactions may occur, sometimes mediated by ige antibodies directed against carbohydrate moieties. the objective of this review is to summarize the clinical features and management of delayed hypersensitivity reactions to mammalian meat mediated by ige antibodies to galactose-alpha 1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), an oligosaccharide.201222397506
considerations for assessing maximum critical temperatures in small ectothermic animals: insights from leaf-cutting ants.the thermal limits of individual animals were originally proposed as a link between animal physiology and thermal ecology. although this link is valid in theory, the evaluation of physiological tolerances involves some problems that are the focus of this study. one rationale was that heating rates shall influence upper critical limits, so that ecological thermal limits need to consider experimental heating rates. in addition, if thermal limits are not surpassed in experiments, subsequent tests o ...201222384147
the intracellular bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum selectively manipulates the levels of vertebrate host proteins in the tick vector ixodes scapularis.the intracellular bacteria anaplasma phagocytophilum are emerging zoonotic pathogens affecting human and animal health, and a good model for the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. this tick-borne pathogen is transmitted by ixodes scapularis in the united states where it causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. tick midguts and salivary glands play a major role during tick feeding and development, and in pathogen acquisition, multiplication and transmission. vertebrate host proteins are fou ...201627561965
fatal monocytic ehrlichiosis in woman, mexico, 2013.human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. in mexico, a case of e. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. this diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels.027088220
comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (simparica) and afoxolaner (nexgard) against induced infestations of amblyomma americanum on dogs.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, infests dogs and cats in north america and is the vector of the pathogens that cause monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans. a parasiticide's speed of kill is important to minimize the direct and deleterious effects of tick infestation and especially to reduce the risk of transmission of tick-borne pathogens. in this study, speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (simparica chewable tablets), a ...201626897175
the role of cd8 t lymphocytes in rickettsial infections.arthropod-borne obligately intracellular bacteria pose a difficult challenge to the immune system. the genera rickettsia, orientia, ehrlichia, and anaplasma evolved mechanisms of immune evasion, and each interacts differently with the immune system. the roles of cd8 t cells include protective immunity and immunopathology. in rickettsia infections, cd8 t cells are protective mediated in part by cytotoxicity toward infected cells. in contrast, tnf-α overproduction by cd8 t cells is pathogenic in l ...201525823954
five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.this study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (dpp); fipronil and (s)-methoprene (fm) or imidacloprid and permethrin (ip). dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for fou ...201425547077
first report of cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat from portugal.cytauxzoonosis is an emerging and life-threatening tick-borne feline disease caused by haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus cytauxzoon. information regarding epidemiological and clinical presentation of infections by species other than cytauxzoon felis is scant. a case of cytauxzoon sp. infection is described in a 2-year-old mixed breed male domestic cat from portugal, presenting a history of acute lethargy, anorexia and pyrexia.201627160193
preliminary assessment of microbiome changes following blood-feeding and survivorship in the amblyomma americanum nymph-to-adult transition using semiconductor sequencing.the physiology of ticks supports a diverse community of non-pathogenic and pathogenic organisms. this study aims to initially characterize the microbial community present within colony-reared amblyomma americanum using pcr of the variable region 5 of the 16s rrna gene followed by semiconductor sequencing and classification of sequence data using the ribosomal database project and mg-rast analysis tools. comparison of amplicon library datasets revealed changes in the microbiomes in newly engorged ...201323826210
temporal gene expression analysis and rna silencing of single and multiple members of gene family in the lone star tick amblyomma americanum.saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time pcr. the information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. we analyzed the temporal expression of seven ...201626872360
isolation of tacaribe virus, a caribbean arenavirus, from host-seeking amblyomma americanum ticks in florida.arenaviridae are a family of single stranded rna viruses of mammals and boid snakes. twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-saharan africa, and in central and south america. humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. tacaribe virus (tcrv) is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surv ...201425536075
delayed anaphylaxis to red meat associated with specific ige antibodies to galactose.a novel delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, associated with tick bites and ige antibodies against galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (α-gal), was reported in 2009 in the us, australia and europe. in this case, serum specific ige to galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (>100 ku/l) and ige to multiple non-primate mammalian proteins were positive. however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. we report the first case in asia of delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, which was induced by bites ...201425553269
emerging phleboviruses.the bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of rna viruses and arguably the most diverse. bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. the majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. the family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including sin nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the americas ...201424607799
age-dependent expression of stress and antimicrobial genes in the hemocytes and siphon tissue of the antarctic bivalve, laternula elliptica, exposed to injury and starvation.increasing temperatures and glacier melting at the western antarctic peninsula (wap) are causing rapid changes in shallow coastal and shelf systems. climate change-related rising water temperatures, enhanced ice scouring, as well as coastal sediment runoff, in combination with changing feeding conditions and microbial community composition, will affect all elements of the nearshore benthic ecosystem, a major component of which is the antarctic soft-shelled clam laternula elliptica. a 454-based r ...201323666709
coinfection of dermacentor silvarum olenev (acari: ixodidae) by coxiella-like, arsenophonus-like, and rickettsia-like symbionts.we report that multiple symbionts coexist in dermacentor silvarum. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analyses, we prove that coxiella-like and arsenophonus-like symbionts, with 95.6% and 96.7% sequence similarity to symbionts in the closest taxon, respectively, are novel. moreover, we also provide evidence that the coxiella-like symbiont appears to be the primary symbiont.201323354701
vaccination with an attenuated mutant of ehrlichia chaffeensis induces pathogen-specific cd4+ t cell immunity and protection from tick-transmitted wild-type challenge in the canine host.ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. transmitted by the amblyomma americanum tick, e. chaffeensis also causes disease in several other vertebrate species including white-tailed deer and dogs. we have recently described the generation of an attenuated mutant strain of e. chaffeensis, with a mutation in the ech_0660 gene, which is able to confer protection from secondary, intravenous-administered, wild-type e. chaffeens ...201626841025
ehrlichia chaffeensis uses its surface protein etpe to bind gpi-anchored protein dnase x and trigger entry into mammalian cells.ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligatory intracellular rickettsial pathogen, enters and replicates in monocytes/macrophages and several non-phagocytic cells. e. chaffeensis entry into mammalian cells is essential not only for causing the emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but also for its survival. it remains unclear if e. chaffeensis has evolved a specific surface protein that functions as an 'invasin' to mediate its entry. we report a novel entry triggering protein of ehrlichia, etpe ...201324098122
phylogeographic structure in penguin ticks across an ocean basin indicates allopatric divergence and rare trans-oceanic dispersal.the association of ticks (acarina) and seabirds provides an intriguing system for assessing the influence of long-distance dispersal on the evolution of parasitic species. recent research has focused on host-parasite evolutionary relationships and dispersal capacity of ticks parasitising flighted seabirds. evolutionary research on the ticks of non-flighted seabirds is, in contrast, scarce. we conducted the first phylogeographic investigation of a hard tick species (ixodes eudyptidis) that parasi ...201526083353
antiplasmodial activity is an ancient and conserved feature of tick defensins.ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to test evolution-based hypotheses. the genome of the european tick vector, ixodes ricinus, encodes for defensin peptides with diverse antimicrobial activities against distantly related pathogens. these pathogens include fungi, gram-negative, and gram-positive bacteria, i.e., a wide antimicrobial spectrum. ticks do not transmit these pathogens, suggesting that these defensins may act against a wide range of microbes encountered by ticks duri ...201627822206
application of rna interference in tick salivary gland research.ticks are obligate ectoparasites that feed on a variety of hosts including mammals, birds and reptiles. prolonged attachment on the host and an ability to transmit a wide variety of pathogens are the special features of tick feeding. salivary glands are the major route for secretion of excess fluid, several proteins, and factors that counteract the host immune response and hence play a significant role in the success of tick feeding. rna interference (rnai) enables scientists to silence genes en ...016522848
mast cells in allergy and infection: versatile effector and regulatory cells in innate and adaptive immunity.mast cells are widely distributed in tissues, particularly near surfaces exposed to the environment. mast cells can be activated to secrete diverse mediators and cytokines by ige and specific ag and many other stimuli, including products derived from either pathogens or the host during innate immune responses. although mast cells are best known for their role in ige-associated allergic disorders, mast cells can also exacerbate models of autoimmunity, enhance the sensitization and/or effector pha ...020583030
global transcriptome analysis of the tentacle of the jellyfish cyanea capillata using deep sequencing and expressed sequence tags: insight into the toxin- and degenerative disease-related transcripts.jellyfish contain diverse toxins and other bioactive components. however, large-scale identification of novel toxins and bioactive components from jellyfish has been hampered by the low efficiency of traditional isolation and purification methods.201526551022
relationship between degenerative joint disease, pain, and bartonella spp. seroreactivity in domesticated cats.recently, a potential association was identified between bartonella exposure and arthritides in mammalian species other than cats.201425327962
ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in the reservoir host (white-tailed deer) and in an incidental host (dog) is impacted by its prior growth in macrophage and tick cell environments.ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted from amblyomma americanum ticks, causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. it also infects white-tailed deer, dogs and several other vertebrates. deer are its reservoir hosts, while humans and dogs are incidental hosts. e. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by its growth in macrophages and tick cells. we report here infection progression in deer or dogs infected intravenously with macrophage- or tick cell-grown e. chaffeensis or by tick transmission in dee ...201425303515
porcine or bovine valve replacement in 3 patients with ige antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose. 201425213067
bayesian spatio-temporal analysis and geospatial risk factors of human monocytic ehrlichiosis.variations in spatio-temporal patterns of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) infection in the state of kansas, usa were examined and the relationship between hme relative risk and various environmental, climatic and socio-economic variables were evaluated. hme data used in the study was reported to the kansas department of health and environment between years 2005-2012, and geospatial variables representing the physical environment [national land cover/land use, nasa moderate resolution imaging ...201424992684
entamoeba histolytica and e. dispar calreticulin: inhibition of classical complement pathway and differences in the level of expression in amoebic liver abscess.the role of calreticulin (crt) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of entamoeba parasites is limited. the present work demonstrates that crt of both pathogenic e. histolytica and nonpathogenic e. dispar species specifically interacted with human c1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. using recombinant ehcrt protein, we demonstrate that crt i ...201424860808
hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus.parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite psoroptes cuniculi. therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better ut ...201324354923
exploring the link between pholcodine exposure and neuromuscular blocking agent anaphylaxis.neuromuscular blocking agents (nmbas) are the most commonly implicated drugs in ige-mediated anaphylaxis during anaesthesia that can lead to perioperative morbidity and mortality. the rate of nmba anaphylaxis shows marked geographical variation in patients who have had no known prior exposure to nmbas, suggesting that there may be external or environmental factors that contribute to the underlying aetiology and pathophysiology of reactions. substituted ammonium ions are shared among nmbas and ar ...024251966
macrophage activation syndrome secondary to human monocytic ehrlichiosis.to present a case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) that was complicated by macrophage activation syndrome (mas), also known as secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (shlh).201325332563
a novel candidate vaccine for cytauxzoonosis inferred from comparative apicomplexan genomics.cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease of domestic cats (felis catus) caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite cytauxzoon felis. the growing epidemic, with its high morbidity and mortality points to the need for a protective vaccine against cytauxzoonosis. unfortunately, the causative agent has yet to be cultured continuously in vitro, rendering traditional vaccine development approaches beyond reach. here we report the use of comparative genomics to computationally and experiment ...201323977000
anti-gal: an abundant human natural antibody of multiple pathogeneses and clinical benefits.anti-gal is the most abundant natural antibody in humans, constituting ~ 1% of immunoglobulins. anti-gal is naturally produced also in apes and old world monkeys. the ligand of anti-gal is a carbohydrate antigen called the 'α-gal epitope' with the structure galα1-3galβ1-4glcnac-r. the α-gal epitope is present as a major carbohydrate antigen in non-primate mammals, prosimians and new world monkeys. anti-gal can contributes to several immunological pathogeneses. anti-gal ige produced in some indiv ...023578170
a crayfish insulin-like-binding protein: another piece in the androgenic gland insulin-like hormone puzzle is revealed.across the animal kingdom, the involvement of insulin-like peptide (ilp) signaling in sex-related differentiation processes is attracting increasing attention. recently, a gender-specific ilp was identified as the androgenic sex hormone in crustacea. however, moieties modulating the actions of this androgenic insulin-like growth factor were yet to be revealed. through molecular screening of an androgenic gland (ag) cdna library prepared from the crayfish cherax quadricarinatus, we have identifie ...201323775079
lyme borreliosis in human patients in florida and georgia, usa.the aim of this study was to determine the cause of illness in several human patients residing in florida and georgia, usa, with suspected lyme disease based upon em-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated lyme borreliosis. using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays developed specifically for lyme group borrelia spp., followed by dna sequencing for confirmation, we identified borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato dna in samples of blood and skin and als ...201323781138
galactose-α-1,3-galactose and delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, and urticaria in children.despite a thorough history and comprehensive testing, many children who present with recurrent symptoms consistent with allergic reactions elude diagnosis. recent research has identified a novel cause for "idiopathic" allergic reactions; immunoglobulin e (ige) antibody specific for the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) has been associated with delayed urticaria and anaphylaxis that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating beef, pork, or lamb. we sought to determine whether ige antibody to α ...201323569097
evolution of moth sex pheromones via ancestral genes.mate finding in most moth species involves long-distance signaling via female-emitted sex pheromones. there is a great diversity of pheromone structures used throughout the lepidoptera, even among closely related species. the conundrum is how signal divergence has occurred. with strong normalizing selection pressure on blend composition and response preferences, it is improbable that shifts to pheromones of diverse structures occur through adaptive changes in small steps. here, we present data s ...200212237399
ecdysteroid 7,9(11)-dien-6-ones as potential photoaffinity labels for ecdysteroid binding proteins.three ecdysteroid 7,9(11)-dien-7-ones (dacryhainansterone, 25-hydroxydacryhainansterone and kaladasterone) were prepared by dehydration of the corresponding 11a-hydroxy ecdysteroids (ajugasterone c, turkesterone and muristerone a, respectively). the biological activities of the dienones in the drosophila melanogaster b(ii) cell bioassay, which reflect the affinity for the ecdysteroid receptor complex, showed that the dienones retain high biological activity. irradiation at 350 nm of the ecdyster ...015455045
molecular determinants of differential ligand sensitivities of insect ecdysteroid receptors.the functional receptor for insect ecdysteroid hormones is a heterodimer consisting of two nuclear hormone receptors, ecdysteroid receptor (ecr) and the retinoid x receptor homologue ultraspiracle (usp). although ecdysone is commonly thought to be a hormone precursor and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20e), the physiologically active steroid, little is known about the relative activity of ecdysteroids in various arthropods. as a step toward characterization of potential differential ligand recognition, we ...010805730
vertebrate host susceptibility to heartland virus.heartland virus (hrtv) is a recently described phlebovirus initially isolated in 2009 from 2 humans who had leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. serologic assessment of domestic and wild animal populations near the residence of 1 of these persons showed high exposure rates to raccoons, white-tailed deer, and horses. to our knowledge, no laboratory-based assessments of viremic potential of animals infected with hrtv have been performed. we experimentally inoculated several vertebrates (raccoons, goat ...027869591
efficient enrichment of bacterial mrna from host-bacteria total rna samples.despite numerous advances in genomics and bioinformatics, technological hurdles remain to examine host-microbe transcriptomics. sometimes the transcriptome of either or both can be ascertained merely by generating more sequencing reads. however, many cases exist where bacterial mrna needs to be enriched further to enable cost-effective sequencing of the pathogen or endosymbiont. while a suitable method is commercially available for mammalian samples of this type, development of such methods has ...201627713560
male tarsi specific odorant-binding proteins in the diving beetle cybister japonicus sharp.odorant binding proteins (obps) play critical roles in chemical communication of insects, as they recognize and transport environmental chemical signals to receptors. the diving beetle cybister japonicus sharp shows a remarkable sexual dimorphism. the foreleg tarsi of males are equipped with large suction cups, believed to help holding the female during underwater courtship and mating. here, we identified two obps highly and specifically expressed in male tarsi, suggesting important functions of ...201627545810
molecular diagnosis and genetic diversity of tick-borne anaplasmataceae agents infecting the african buffalo syncerus caffer from marromeu reserve in mozambique.tick-borne diseases (tbds) are very important in relation to domestic ruminants, but their occurrence among wild ruminants, mainly in the african buffalo syncerus caffer, remains little known.201627531003
is the antitumor property of trypanosoma cruzi infection mediated by its calreticulin?eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with trypanosoma cruzi. however, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of chagas' disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. similar to other pathogens, t. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. studies, performed 80 years ago in the soviet union, proposed that t. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. an antagoni ...201627462315
hacker within! ehrlichia chaffeensis effector driven phagocyte reprogramming strategy.ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. it is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hme), an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. mechanisms by which e. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. ...201627303657
correction: the microbiome of ehrlichia-infected and uninfected lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146651.].201627158898
the retinoid x receptor from mud crab: new insights into its roles in ovarian development and related signaling pathway.in arthropods, retinoid x receptor (rxr) is a highly conserved nuclear hormone receptor. by forming a heterodimeric complex with the ecdysone receptor (ecr), rxr is known to be vital importance for various physiological processes. however, in comparison to ecr, the rxr signaling pathway and its roles in crustacean reproduction are poorly understood. in the present study, the rxr mrna was detected in the ovarian follicular cells of mud crab scylla paramamosain (sprxr) and during ovarian maturatio ...201627009370
increasing incidence of ehrlichiosis in the united states: a summary of national surveillance of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii infections in the united states, 2008-2012.human ehrlichiosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii. cases of ehrlichiosis are reported to centers for disease control and prevention through two national surveillance systems: nationally notifiable diseases surveillance system (nndss) and case report forms. during 2008-2012, 4,613 cases of e. chaffeensis infections were reported through nndss. the incidence rate (ir) was 3.2 cases per million person-years (pys). the hospitalization rate (hr) w ...201526621561
changing dynamics of human-rickettsial interactions. 201526556832
successful treatment of human monocytic ehrlichiosis with rifampin.currently recommended treatment regimens for human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) include doxycycline or tetracycline. antibiotic susceptibility studies demonstrate that rifampin has in vitro bactericidal activity against ehrlichia. case reports have suggested clinical response with rifampin treatment of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga). we report the first case of hme successfully treated with rifampin.201626918212
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein of heartland virus.heartland virus (hrtv), a phlebovirus first isolated from two missouri farmers in 2009, has been proposed to be transmitted to humans by the bite of infected amblyomma americanum ticks. it is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (sftsv) from china, another previously unrecognized phlebovirus that has subsequently been associated with hundreds of cases of severe disease in humans. to expand diagnostic capacity to detect hrtv infections, 20 hybridoma clones secretin ...201526503274
naturally occurring ehrlichia ewingii and mycoplasma sp. co-infection in a goat. 201526473432
estimated herd prevalence and sequence types of coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from commercial dairies in indiana.coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of q fever, a zoonotic disease causing influenza-like illness, pregnancy loss, cardiovascular disease and chronic fatigue syndrome in people. c. burnetii is considered to be enzootic in ruminants, but clinical signs of infection do not always manifest. national studies have documented the presence of c. burnetii in dairy herds in indiana. this represents an opportunity to better characterize the distribution and prevalence of c. burnetii infection at the ...201526248712
mutations in ehrlichia chaffeensis causing polar effects in gene expression and differential host specificities.ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-borne rickettsial, is responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. in this study, we assessed e. chaffeensis insertion mutations impacting the transcription of genes near the insertion sites. we presented evidence that the mutations within the e. chaffeensis genome at four genomic locations cause polar effects in altering gene expressions. we also reported mutations causing attenuated growth in deer (the pathogen's reservoir host) and in dog (an incidental host), b ...201526186429
collembolan transcriptomes highlight molecular evolution of hexapods and provide clues on the adaptation to terrestrial life.collembola (springtails) represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor.201526075903
food-induced anaphylaxis.food-induced anaphylaxis (fia) is a serious allergic reaction that may cause death rapidly in otherwise healthy individuals. there is no universal agreement on its definition or criteria for diagnosis. hospital admissions for fia have more than doubled in the last decade. food is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis, with most surveys indicating that food-induced reactions account for 30% to 50% of cases. the most commonly implicated foods are peanut, tree nuts, milk, eggs, sesame seeds, ...201122244239
characterization of a novel rxr receptor in the salmon louse (lepeophtheirus salmonis, copepoda) regulating growth and female reproduction.nuclear receptors have crucial roles in all metazoan animals as regulators of gene transcription. a wide range of studies have elucidated molecular and biological significance of nuclear receptors but there are still a large number of animals where the knowledge is very limited. in the present study we have identified an rxr type of nuclear receptor in the salmon louse (lepeophtheirus salmonis) (i.e. lsrxr). rxr is one of the two partners of the ecdysteroid receptor in arthropods, the receptor f ...201525765704
understanding anaplasmataceae pathogenesis using "omics" approaches.this paper examines how "omics" approaches improve our understanding of anaplasmataceae pathogenesis, through a global and integrative strategy to identify genes and proteins involved in biochemical pathways key for pathogen-host-vector interactions. the anaplasmataceae family comprises obligate intracellular bacteria mainly transmitted by arthropods. these bacteria are responsible for major human and animal endemic and emerging infectious diseases with important economic and public health impac ...201425072029
cloning and characterization of calreticulin and its association with salinity stress in p. trituberculatus.calreticulin (crt) is a highly conserved and multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum (er) chaperone protein and plays important roles in salinity stress response. portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important fishery species, and water salinity conditions influence its commercial farming significantly. in order to research the function of calreticulin under salinity stress, the full-length cdna sequence of calreticulin from p. trituberculatus (ptcrt) was firstly cloned and characterized. th ...201525995067
attenuated mutants of ehrlichia chaffeensis induce protection against wild-type infection challenge in the reservoir host and in an incidental host.ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-borne rickettsial organism, causes the disease human monocytic ehrlichiosis. the pathogen also causes disease in several other vertebrates, including dogs and deer. in this study, we assessed two clonally purified e. chaffeensis mutants with insertions within the genes ech_0379 and ech_0660 as vaccine candidates in deer and dogs. infection with the ech_0379 mutant and challenge with wild-type e. chaffeensis 1 month following inoculation with the mutant resulted in t ...201525916990
landscape genetics of schistocephalus solidus parasites in threespine stickleback (gasterosteus aculeatus) from alaska.the nature of gene flow in parasites with complex life cycles is poorly understood, particularly when intermediate and definitive hosts have contrasting movement potential. we examined whether the fine-scale population genetic structure of the diphyllobothriidean cestode schistocephalus solidus reflects the habits of intermediate threespine stickleback hosts or those of its definitive hosts, semi-aquatic piscivorous birds, to better understand complex host-parasite interactions. seventeen lakes ...201525874710
persistent ehrlichia ewingii infection in dogs after natural tick infestation.ehrlichia ewingii, which causes disease in dogs and people, is the most common ehrlichia spp. infecting dogs in the united states, but little is known about how long e. ewingii infection persists in dogs.201525776536
fatal multiple deer tick-borne infections in an elderly patient with advanced liver disease.we present a case of a 66-year-old woman with decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis and poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who was admitted with a 1 day history of altered mental status, high-grade fevers, worsening jaundice and generalised malaise with subsequent development of hypotension requiring intensive care. she was diagnosed with severe babesiosis with high-grade parasitaemia. she was also found to have lyme disease coinfection. despite aggressive therapeutic me ...201525733088
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