TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
isolation of rickettsia rickettsii and rickettsia bellii in cell culture from the tick amblyomma aureolatum in brazil.brazilian spotted fever (bsf) is a highly lethal disease caused by rickettsia rickettsii. in the present study, rickettsial infection was evaluated in 669 amblyomma aureolatum adult ticks collected from naturally infested dogs in taiaçupeba, a bsf-endemic area in the state of são paulo. ten (1.49%) ticks were infected with rickettsia bellii, and 6 (0.89%) ticks were infected with r. rickettsii. both rickettsia species were isolated and established in vero cell cultures. the rickettsia isolates w ...200617114770
the use of a pour-on and spray dip containing amitraz to control ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle.knockdown and persistence efficacies of a pour-on containing amitraz 1% and cypermethrin 1% and a spray dip containing 12.5% amitraz were compared. knock-down and persistence efficacies of the amitraz spray dip against rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus and amblyomma hebraeum were significantly higher for the duration of the trial than those of the pour-on. in the case of rhipicephalus appediculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, efficacy was significantly higher on days 2 and 5. resistan ...200617120621
[study of foveae dorsales of nymphs and adults of four species of ticks (acari: ixodidae) by scanning electron microscopy].the foveae dorsalis, the external opening of the sex pheromone 2,6-dichlorophenol producer gland, of amblyomma cajennense, dermacentor nitens, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus sanguineus was studied with scanning electron microscopy. at least three specimens from each stage: unfed larvae, nymphs, females and males, and females fed for 4 to 6 days were examined. the foveae dorsales were not observed in larvae and r. (b.) microplus males. the foveae dorsales were observed as p ...200616978471
multiple pruritic papules from lone star tick larvae bites.ticks are the second most common vectors of human infectious diseases in the world. in addition to their role as vectors, ticks and their larvae can also produce primary skin manifestations. infestation by the larvae of ticks is not commonly recognized, with only 3 cases reported in the literature. the presence of multiple lesions and partially burrowed 6-legged tick larvae can present a diagnostic challenge for clinicians.200616618870
human infestation by larval amblyomma ticks. 200616618871
parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the bolivian chaco.parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. between march 2001 and march 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (leopardus pardalis), eight geoffroy's cats (oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the bolivian chaco. the objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence ...200617312790
ixodid ticks on dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa.the objective of this study was to determine the species composition and geographic distribution of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province. seventy-two communal cattle dip-tanks within this region were randomly selected as survey localities and their geographic coordinates recorded. in addition to ticks that were collected from five cattle and five goats at each of the dip-tanks, ticks were also collected from five dogs whenever possible. no dogs ...200617283731
migratory songbirds disperse ticks across canada, and first isolation of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from the avian tick, ixodes auritulus.during a 3-yr comprehensive study, 196 ixodid ticks (9 species) were collected from 89 passerine birds (32 species) from 25 localities across canada to determine the distribution of avian-associated tick species and endogenous lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner. we report the following first records of tick parasitism on avian hosts: the rabbit-associated tick, ixodes dentatus marx, from manitoba and ontario; the mouse tick, ixodes muri ...200517089744
health evaluation of a radiocollared population of free-ranging baird's tapirs (tapirus bairdii) in costa rica.the health of a population of free-ranging tapirs (tapirus bairdii) inhabiting corcovado national park, costa rica, was assessed as part of an ongoing ecologic study. nineteen tapirs were immobilized between march 1997 and february 2000, and samples of blood, skin biopsies, and ectoparasites were collected. ticks were identified as amblyomma oblongoguttatum or a. coelebs. hematology and serum biochemistry results suggest statistically significant differences between free-ranging and captive popu ...200517323556
the impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in limpopo province, south africa.a 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the bushbuckridge region, limpopo province, south africa. the main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (babesia bigemina and babesia bovis) and anaplasmosis (anaplasma marginale) in the local cattle population. to this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were ass ...200516642719
an attenuated ehrlichia ruminantium (welgevonden stock) vaccine protects small ruminants against virulent heartwater challenge.heartwater is a tick-borne disease of ruminants caused by the intracellular rickettsia ehrlichia ruminantium. the only commercially available immunization procedure involves infecting animals with cryopreserved sheep blood containing virulent e. ruminantium organisms, followed by treatment with tetracyclines when fever develops. the virulent welgevonden stock of e. ruminantium was attenuated by continuous propagation of the organisms in a canine macrophage-monocyte cell line (dh82), followed by ...200515705474
distribution of borreliae among ticks collected from eastern states.lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the united states and is transmitted by borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes species. the disease is typically characterized by an erythema migrans (em) rash at the site of tick feeding. em rashes have also been associated with feeding by amblyomma americanum ticks despite evidence suggesting that they are incompetent vectors for lyme disease. in 1996, a borrelia organism only recently cultivated in the laboratory was described i ...200516417434
first report of the male of amblyomma rotundatum (acari: ixodidae) from a field-collected adult male of the tick amblyomma rotundatum koch was collected on a naturally infested lizard, tropidurus sp. (squamata: tropiduridae), at monte negro, state of rondonia, brazil. the tick's identity was confirmed morphologically and by analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal dna. this is the third known male specimen of a. rotundatum, a species that has been shown to reproduce exclusively by parthenogenesis. the two previously reported male specimens seemed to be p ...200516465732
rickettsia parkeri as a paradigm for multiple causes of tick-borne spotted fever in the western hemisphere.among the many contributions made to rickettsiology by entomologist and rickettsiologist ralph r. parker was his discovery in 1937 of a novel rickettsia isolated from the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum. this bacterium was subsequently characterized as a unique rickettsial species in 1965 and named rickettsia parkeri in honor of its discoverer. during the next several decades r. parkeri was generally considered as one of several "nonpathogenic" spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae that res ...200516481534
detection of a typhus group rickettsia in amblyomma ticks in the state of nuevo leon, mexico.the state of nuevo leon, mexico has had outbreaks of typhus group rickettsiosis, most recently recognized in 1997. evaluation of the sera of 345 patients with a dengue-like illness revealed that 25.5% had antibodies reactive with typhus group rickettsiae and 16% had antibodies to rickettsia parkeri. rickettsiae were detected by pcr and shell-vial isolations in the field-collected amblyomma ticks. molecular characterization by dna sequence analysis of the glta, ompb, and 17-kda gene identified th ...200516481535
phylogenetic analysis of a novel molecular isolate of spotted fever group rickettsiae from northern peru: candidatus rickettsia andeanae.phylogenetic analysis of five rickettsial genes (17-kda gene, glta, ompb, ompa, and sca4) from two molecular isolates of candidatus rickettsia andeanae from two ticks (amblyomma maculatum and ixodes boliviensis) collected from two domestic horses living in two separate locations in northern peru (coletas and naranjo) was conducted to more clearly characterize this recently reported novel spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia. following nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of the 1 ...200516481537
novel spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) infecting amblyomma americanum ticks in ohio, usa. 200516481541
overcoming barriers to the transformation of the genus ehrlichia.while bacterial transformation has evolved since the early 20th century to allow for the genetic manipulation of a variety of microbial agents, rickettsial organisms have proved resistant to such advances until only recently. the ehrlichia are small, gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacterial parasites, which belong to the family anaplasmataceae and cause a variety of infections in human and animal hosts. e. chaffeensis is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis and is tr ...200516481548
ehrlichia under our noses and no one notices.ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligately intracellular bacterium, resides within a cytoplasmic vacuole in macrophages, establishes persistent infection in natural hosts such as white-tailed deer and canids, and is transmitted transstadially and during feeding by ticks, particularly amblyomma americanum. ehrlichial cell walls contain glycoproteins and a family of divergent 28 kda proteins, but no peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide. the dense-cored ultrastructural form preferentially expresses certai ...200516358425
capillary tube feeding system for studying tick-pathogen interactions of dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) and anaplasma marginale (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae).a capillary tube feeding (ctf) system was adapted for studying the interaction between dermacentor variabilis (say) and the rickettsial cattle pathogen anaplasma marginale theiler. a. marginale undergoes a complex developmental cycle in ticks that begins in midguts and ends by transmission from salivary glands. in this ctf system, male d. variabilis were fed a. marginale-infected blood or cultured tick cells. ticks that fed on highly rickettsemic calves developed midgut and salivary gland infect ...200516366000
borreliacidal activity of saliva of the tick amblyomma americanum.amblyomma americanum (linneaus) (acari: ixodidae), an important tick vector of human and animal disease, is not a competent vector of the bacterial agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, although its range overlaps the geographical distribution of lyme disease within the united states. a possible mechanism that could prevent acquisition of b. burgdorferi spirochetes from infected hosts is the toxic effect of a. americanum saliva on b. burgdorferi. the data presented here indicate that afte ...200515752182
repellency of deet and ss220 applied to skin involves olfactory sensing by two species of ticks.responses of host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say and lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (linnaeus) (acari: ixodidae) to the repellents n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) and (1s, 2's)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (ss220) were studied using fingertip laboratory bioassays. ethanol solutions of both compounds applied to the skin strongly repelled both species of ticks at 0.8 and 1.6 micromole of compound/cm2 skin. the ticks were also repelled wh ...200515752184
improving the specificity of 16s rdna-based polymerase chain reaction for detecting borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-causative agents of human lyme disease.16s rdna sequences of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were aligned with the 16s rdna sequences of borrelia hermsii, borrelia turicatae, and borrelia lonestari in order to identify primers that might be used to more specifically identify agents of human lyme disease in ticks in human skin samples.200515752343
rickettsial infection in animals and brazilian spotted fever endemicity.we compared the rickettsial infection status of amblyomma cajennense ticks, humans, dogs, and horses in both brazilian spotted fever (bsf)-endemic and -nonendemic areas in the state of sao paulo, brazil. most of the horses and few dogs from bsf-endemic areas had serologic titers against rickettsia rickettsii antigens. in contrast, no dogs or horses from bsf-nonendemic areas had serologic titers against r. rickettsii antigens, although they were continually exposed to a. cajennense ticks. all hum ...200515752445
ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of chile.the tick species recorded from chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: argas keiransi estrada-peña, venzal and gonzalez-acuña, a. neghmei kohls and hoogstraal; ornithodoros amblus chamberlin; otobius megnini (dugès); amblyomma parvitarsum neumann; a. tigrinum koch; ixodes auritulus neumann; i. chilensis kohls; i. cornuae arthur, i. sigelos keirans, clifford and corwin; i. stilesi neumann; i. uriae white; rhipicephalus sanguineus koch. (2) probably establishe ...200515777007
susceptibility of amblyomma variegatum ticks to acaricides in ghana.abstract. the susceptibility of unfed and fed stages of larvae, nymphs and adult females of amblyomma variegatum ticks were tested using shaw's filter paper dip method against four acaricides; chlorfenvinphos and dioxathion, chlorfenvinphos, gamma benzene hexachloride and amitraz at four different concentrations including the recommended dose rates. based on their lethal concentrations (lc50 & lc90) chlorfenvinphos and dioxathion combined and chlorfenvinphos alone placed first and second, respec ...200515792105
manipulation of host cytokine network by ticks: a potential gateway for pathogen transmission.ticks are obligatory blood-feeding arthropods that secrete various immunomodulatory molecules to antagonize host inflammatory and immune responses. cytokines play an important role in regulating these responses. we investigated the extent to which ticks interact with the sophisticated cytokine network by comparing the effect of salivary gland extracts (sge) of 3 ixodid tick species, dermacentor reticulatus, amblyomma variegatum and ixodes ricinus, all of which are important vectors of tick-borne ...200515796016
observations on distribution and seasonal activity of the gulf coast tick in mississippi.medical importance of the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum koch, has been highlighted with the recent discovery of a new rickettsial pathogen associated with this tick. accordingly, distribution and seasonal collection records of a. maculatum were assessed in mississippi by using three sources of data: sampling of experimental field plots, national tick collection records, and mississippi department of health human tick biting records. a. maculatum was collected in 17/82 (21%) mississippi co ...200515799527
comparison of in vitro and in vivo ectoparasiticide activity of experimental benzimidazole-carbamate with permethrin and amitraz.a series of in vitro and in vivo bioassays were conducted to assess the ectoparasiticide activity of isopropyl-4-nitro-2,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-benzimidazole-carbamate, an experimental benzimidazole-carbamate class compound. this compound was less potent than permethrin against ectoparasiticide-susceptible larvae of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae); larvae of the southern cattle tick, boophilus microplus (canestrini); and adult stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans (l. ...200515799532
anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: effects of benzoquinones from millipedes on the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.many mammals and birds roll on or rub themselves with millipedes that discharge benzoquinones. chemicals transferred from millipedes onto the integument of anointing animals are thought to deter ectoparasites. we tested the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), for responses to three widespread components of millipede defensive secretions, 1,4-benzoquinone; 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (toluquinone); and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (mmb). in toxicity tests, ticks were confined for 1 hr ...200515839480
the amblyomma maculatum koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae: amblyomminae) tick group: diagnostic characters, description of the larva of a. parvitarsum neumann, 1901, 16s rdna sequences, distribution and hosts.a review of the largely confused amblyomma maculatum koch, 1844 tick group of the subgenus anastosiella santos dias, 1963 (a. neumanni ribaga, 1902, a. maculatum, a. parvitarsum neumann, 1901, a. tigrinum koch, 1844 and a. triste koch, 1844) is presented together with a discussion of the diagnostic characters used for the determination of adults, nymphs and, to a lesser extent, larvae. a key for this tick group is produced, including the description of the larva of a. parvitarsum, 1901. sequence ...200515841347
a cross-reactive tick cement antigen is a candidate broad-spectrum tick vaccine.truncated constructs of 64p (64trps), a secreted cement protein from salivary glands of the tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus, provided cross-protection against rhipicephalus sanguineus and ixodes ricinus, apparently by targeting antigens in the midgut and salivary glands of adults and nymphs, causing mortality. tick feeding on 64trp-immunised animals stimulated local inflammatory immune responses (involving basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages and dendritic-like cells) t ...200515913855
ticks and tick-borne disease in guatemalan cattle and horses.blood samples and ticks were collected from 48 cattle and 74 horses from seven sites in the peten region of guatemala. data on body condition, mucous membrane capillary refill time and tick infestation levels were recorded for each animal in the study. horses had significantly higher levels of tick infestation than cattle, as well as poorer body condition scores. seroprevalence of babesia spp. was 95.8% for b. bovis in cattle, 89.6% for b. bigemina in cattle, and 92.7% for b. equi in horses. ser ...200515936147
tick infestations of the eastern cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) and small rodentia in northwest alabama and implications for disease transmission.studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with dermacentor variabilis, the eastern united states vector of rocky mountain spotted fever. a secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each in the disease transmission cycle. these epidemiologic surveys were conducted in response ...200516599149
theileriosis in a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fawn.a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fawn was collected in missouri (usa) and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. necropsy and histologic examination revealed severe amblyomma americanum infestation, pronounced icterus, and marked hemosiderin deposition in the liver and spleen. whole blood evaluation revealed a normocytic normochromic anemia and a piroplasm parasitemia of approximately 70%. the piroplasm was identified as theileria cervi by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of th ...200516456174
acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.the efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. the eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. the amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. both acaricides were effective against r. appendi ...200516562734
ticks on crested francolins, francolinus sephaena, and on the vegetation on a farm in limpopo province, south africa.ticks were collected at approximately bi-monthly intervals between june 1996 and june 1997 from crested francolins, francolinus sephaena, and from the vegetation on a mixed cattle and wildlife farm in limpopo province, south africa. the birds were infested with the immature stages of 13 tick species, of which amblyomma hebraeum, amblyomma marmoreum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes were the most numerous and prevalent. ten ixodid tick species were collected from the vegetation, of which the immatu ...200516562738
microbiologic evaluation of patients from missouri with erythema migrans.borrelia lonestari infects amblyomma americanum, the tick species that is the most common cause of tick bites in southeast and south-central united states, and this spirochete has been detected in an erythema migrans (em)-like skin rash in 1 patient. therefore, b. lonestari is considered to be a leading candidate for the etiologic agent of em in this region.200515668867
influence of meso- and microscale habitat structure on focal distribution of sympatric ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).we compared the distribution of sympatric ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) within several suitable forested habitats at different spatial scales and characterized differences in microhabitat features accounting for the observed distribution of questing ticks. we used automatic data loggers placed in the shrub and litter layers to contrast mesoclimate and microclimate conditions experienced by questing ticks. larger numbers of i. scapularis were collected at sites where the for ...200515962776
the fc fragment mediates the uptake of immunoglobulin c from the midgut to hemolymph in the ixodid tick amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).the phenomenon of immunoglobulin uptake from the midgut into the hemolymph has been observed in both argasid and ixodid ticks, but the mechanism of the uptake is not known. using capillary feeding of adult amblyomma americanum (l.) female ticks, we investigated the role of immunoglobulin g fc and fab fragments in the uptake process. intact igg and fragments labeled with 125i were introduced alone or as a mixture with a 10-fold molar excess of unlabeled compounds into ticks, and then the concentr ...200515962788
relative encounter frequencies and prevalence of selected borrelia, ehrlichia, and anaplasma infections in amblyomma americanum and ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) ticks from central new evaluate their relative importance in tick-borne disease transmission in new jersey, host-seeking amblyomma americanum (l.) and ixodes scapularis say adults and nymphs were collected during spring activity periods in 2003 and 2004 to determine relative frequencies at which these ticks were encountered from an area known to be hyperendemic for lyme disease. although similar numbers of the two species were encountered during early spring of both years, a. americanum were encountered more often ...200515962799
reptile trade and the risk of exotic tick introductions into southern south american countries.ticks exotic for the neotropical region were found on python regius imported into argentina and chile. all ticks (7 males and 3 females) were classified as amblyomma latum koch, 1844 ( = aponomma latum). additionally, four lots comprising 18 males of the argentinean tortoise tick, amblyomma argentinae neumann, 1904, were found on a terrestrial tortoise, chelonoidis chilensis, and on three terrestrial tortoises (probably c. chilensis) imported to uruguay presumably from argentina). these findings ...200515969465
redescription of amblyomma fuscum neumann, 1907 (acari: ixodidae), a rare south america tick confirmed in brazil.the species amblyomma fuscum neumann, 1907 is a rare tick found on the neotropical region, but it has not been recorded as a valid taxon in some lists proposed by current taxonomists. after a comparison between the brazilian material of a. fuscum deposited in the acari collection of the butantan institute, são paulo, brazil, and the male type deposited in leiden museum of natural history, the netherlands, we confirm the taxonomic validity of a. fuscum and redescribe the adult specimens based on ...200515980961
effects of combining the fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae on the mortality of the tick amblyomma variegatum (ixodidae) in relation to seasonal changes.the effect of formulation, fungal concentration, type and seasonal changes on the mortality of the tick amblyomma variegatum was investigated. a previous study demonstrated high pathogenicity of strains of the fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae against the ticks rhipicephalus appendiculatus and amblyomma variegatum (kaaya et al. j invertebr pathol 1996; 67: 15-20). the present study was undertaken to explore possible additive or synergistic effects of the two fungi on a. variega ...200515983739
sequence variation of the ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer region in two spatially-distinct populations of amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae).sequence analysis of the ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer (its 2) region in 2 spatially distinct populations of amblyomma americanum (l.) revealed intraspecific variation. nucleotide sequences from multiple dna extractions and several polymerase chain reaction amplifications of eggs from mixed-parentage samples from both populations of ticks revealed that 12 of 1,145 (1.0%) sites varied. three of the 12 sites of variation were distinct between the 2 a. americanum populations, whi ...200515986597
polymerase chain reaction detection of cytauxzoon felis from field-collected ticks and sequence analysis of the small subunit and internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the ribosomal rna gene.cytauxzoon felis produces a disease in domestic cats in the midwest (u.s.a.), which often leads to a fatal outcome. although the clinical disease process is well described, there are still many unanswered questions about this organism. for example, it is unknown whether species of ticks other than dermacentor variabilis can serve as vectors for transmission. with recent reports of surviving cats from limited geographic areas, another relevant question is the potential for genetically less virule ...200515986625
feeding predilection of gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum koch, nymphs on cattle.gulf coast tick nymphs successfully attached and fed on cattle after being freely released. six hereford heifers were each infested with approximately 2000 gulf coast tick nymphs, three with a strain originating from refugio co., tx, and three with ticks from osage co., ks by free release on the head and legs to simulate field acquisition of questing nymphs. two re-infestations were conducted, the first at 7 days and the second at 28 days. nymph dispersal was estimated by daily inspection of 22 ...200515993001
repellent efficacy of four commercial deet lotions against amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae), the principal vector of rickettsia africae in southern africa.african tick bite fever, caused by rickettsia africae, is an emerging zoonotic infection in rural sub-saharan africa and the french west indies. we tested the repellent efficacy of four commercial diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) lotions against amblyomma hebraeum koch, the principal vector of r. africae in southern africa, by using a human bioassay in which repellent-treated fingers were presented to questing tick nymphs hourly for 4h. three lotions with 19.5, 31.6 and 80% deet concentrations, ...200515993907
transcription analysis of the major antigenic protein 1 multigene family of three in vitro-cultured ehrlichia ruminantium isolates.ehrlichia ruminantium, an obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks of the genus amblyomma, causes heartwater disease in ruminants. the gene coding for the major antigenic protein map1 is part of a multigene family consisting of a cluster containing 16 paralogs. in the search for differentially regulated genes between e. ruminantium grown in endothelial and tick cell lines that could be used in vaccine development and to determine if differences in the map1 gene cluster exist between ...200515995193
possible tick-borne human enterovirus resulting in aseptic meningitis.enterovirus-specific genetic sequences were isolated from two amblyomma americanum tick pools. identical genetic sequences were later obtained from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with aseptic meningitis and a recent history of tick attachment. these observations suggest the possibility of an emerging tick-borne human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis.200516000481
rapid detection methods and prevalence estimation for borrelia lonestari glpq in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) pools of unequal size.dna was extracted from pools of amblyomma americanum ticks collected from vegetation at two sites in fort leonard wood, missouri and tested for the presence of borrelia spp. two new methods were developed to detect borrelia lonestari dna by targeting the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) gene. the first method detected b. lonestari dna using a sybr green i melting curve analysis of the pcr product obtained with glpq gene primers. the second method, a glpq taqman assay, detected and ...200516011431
detection of ehrlichia spp. in raccoons (procyon lotor) from georgia.raccoons (procyonis lotor) and opossums (didelphis virginianus) acquired from six contiguous counties in the piedmont physiographic region of georgia were investigated for their potential role in the epidemiology of ehrlichial and anaplasmal species. serum was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) assay for the presence of antibodies reactive to ehrlichia chaffeensis, e. canis, and anaplasma phagocytophilum (hga agent). nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to test whole ...200516011433
identification of candidate sialome components expressed in ixodid tick salivary glands using secretion signal complementation in mammalian cells.ixodid ticks manipulate mammalian host pathways by secreting molecules from salivary glands. novel cdnas containing functional secretion signals were isolated from ixodid tick salivary glands using a signal sequence trap. only 15/61 rhipicephalus appendiculatus and 1/7 amblyomma variegatum cdnas had significant identity (< 1e-15) to previously identified sequences. polypeptides that may interact with host pathways included a kinase inhibitor. two proteins encoded homologues of the yolk protein v ...200516033433
rnai-mediated gene silencing to assess the role of synaptobrevin and cystatin in tick blood addition to being the conduit for pathogens into hosts, tick saliva contains a broad array of secretory products that facilitate prolonged tick attachment and blood feeding. proteins found in tick saliva modulate host hemostasis and immune responses. however, it is not clear whether ticks manipulate the immune responses of their hosts by disrupting the antigen-processing pathways of the hosts. protein secretion into tick saliva from the salivary glands is due to exocytosis of vesicular membra ...200516040003
diagnosis of hepatozoon spp. in amblyomma ovale and its experimental transmission in domestic dogs in brazil.transmission of hepatozoon spp. to dogs was investigated using four species of ixodid ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma ovale and amblyomma cajennense. we collected completely or partially engorged adult ticks of these species from dogs that were naturally infested and positive for hepatozoon spp. we selected some of these ixodids and inoculated them orally in four negative dogs. the other ticks were dissected and examined for oocysts. of all dogs inoculated orally ...200516081219
ticks (acari: ixodida) on wild carnivores in brazil.the present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from july 1998 to september 2004 in brazil. additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in brazil. during field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 puma concolor (puma), 26 panthera onca (jaguar), 12 procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 speothos venati ...200516082932
amblyomma latepunctatum, a valid tick species (acari: ixodidae) long misidentified with both amblyomma incisum and amblyomma 2000, we initiated an investigation on the tick fauna of rondônia state, where we collected many specimens of amblyomma scalpturatum neumann, 1906 and amblyomma incisum neumann, 1906. in addition, we also collected a third group of ticks that were morphologically closely related to those 2 species, but sufficiently different to be considered a distinct species; members of this group were subsequently identified as amblyomma latepunctatum tonelli-rondelli, 1939, through comparison with the typ ...200516108543
drop off rhythm and survival periods of amblyomma lepidum (acari: ixodidae) under field this study, engorged amblyomma lepidum ticks were found to drop off in two peaks, one in the morning and one in the evening. most larvae and females engorged during the morning hours between 06.00 h and 10.00 h with a peak around 08.00 h, whereas the majority of the nymphs dropped in the evening between 18.00 h and 24.00 h with the peak around 22.00 h. although the effect of time on drop-off patterns of the ticks was statistically significant (p< or = 0.001), there were no significant seasona ...200516132736
a collection of ticks (ixodidae) from wild birds in uruguay.thirty nine wild birds from seven families (alcedinidae, emberizidae, furnariidae, parulidae, trochilidae, turdidae and tyrannidae) were caught from 4 to 7 of february, 2004 at rincón da vassoura (31 degrees 15' s 56 degrees 03' w) department of tacuarembó, uruguay. ninety one nymphs and forty one larvae of ixodidae were recovered from them. the majority of ticks were conventionally identified but 16s mitochondrial rdna sequences were obtained for larvae and nymphs of amblyomma with uncertain sp ...200516132744
ticks parasitizing reptiles in the bahamas.two species of reptile ticks, amblyomma dissimile koch and amblyomma torrei pérez vigueras (acari: ixodidae), are reported from the bahama islands for the first time. the widespread neotropical (including the caribbean and southern florida) a. dissimile was recovered on andros island from three species of reptiles all for the first time: the andros iguana cyclura cychlura cychlura cuvier, the andros curly tail lizard leiocephalus carinatus coryi schmidt, and the andros boa epicrates striatus fow ...200516134982
amblyomma tigrinum (acari: ixodidae): new data on hosts and biology of immature stages and on dna composition.biological data of immature stages of amblyomma tigrinum were obtained from larvae and nymphs both fed on rats and rabbits. data from nymphs recovered from a wild rodent (galea musteloides) are also reported. additional results in dna composition of males moulted from nymphs fed on laboratory and wild hosts are presented. the ticks were maintained in darkness at 27 +/- 1 degrees c and 83-86% rh. the mean recovery rates were 49.1% and 43.6% with a moulting success of 96.2% and 90.8% in larvae fed ...200516143451
description of the larva of amblyomma longirostre (koch,1844)(acari: ixodidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.the description of the larva of amblyomma longirostre (koch, 1844) is based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. larvae (f1) were obtained under laboratory conditions from an engorged a. longirostre female, which had been collected on a coendu prehensilis (linnaeus) (rodentia: erethizontidae) from the jaraguá mountain, são paulo municipality, state of são paulo, brazil. several characters are presented including the chaetotaxy of idiosoma, palps and haller's organ, campaniform sensillum ...200516153345
[the effect of immersion in distilled water on the engorged larvae and nymphs of amblyomma cajennense (fabricius,1787)(acari: ixodidae)].to evaluate the effect of the immersion of engorged larvae and nymphs of amblyomma cajennense, these stages were immersed by 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in test tubes containing distilled water. the period of premolt of the nymphs increased proportionally to the time of immersion (p<0.05). the ecdisis period, the longevity and the mortality (days) were similar in all of treatments (p>0.05). the percentage of ecdisis in nymphs was reduced after 72 hours of immersion of the larvae (p<0.05). none of th ...200516153347
hemorrhagic disease in dogs infected with an unclassified intraendothelial piroplasm in southern brazil.a hemorrhagic disease affecting dogs in brazil, referred to popularly as "nambiuvú" (bloody ears) and believed to be transmitted by ticks, has been observed in animals infected with an organism described originally in 1910 as a piroplasm, and known locally as rangelia vitalii. in this series of 10 cases, the disease was characterized by anaemia, jaundice, fever, spleno- and lymphadenomegaly, hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract, and persistent bleeding from the nose, oral cavity and tips, ma ...200516153781
ehrlichial infection in cameroonian canines by ehrlichia canis and ehrlichia ewingii.ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii are agents of emerging human ehrlichioses in north america and are transmitted primarily by amblyomma americanum ticks, while ehrlichia canis is the globally distributed cause of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme) and is transmitted by the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. although e. canis and ehrlichia ruminantium are endemic in africa, the presence of ehrlichial agents in dogs and ticks in cameroon has not been investigated. the objective o ...200516181750
geographic distribution of ticks (acari: ixodidae) in iowa with emphasis on ixodes scapularis and their infection with borrelia iowa, public concern regarding lyme disease has increased markedly over the last decade. in response to these concerns, a statewide surveillance program was initiated in 1990 based on ticks received by the department of entomology at iowa state university. ticks were received from health care professionals, state government agencies, and the general public. a total of 5,343 ticks from all 99 iowa counties were identified during the 12 years of this study. dermacentor variabilis was the most n ...200516187889
experimental infection of adult and juvenile coyotes with domestic dog and wild coyote isolates of hepatozoon americanum (apicomplexa: adeleorina).each of five adult and four juvenile coyotes (canis latrans) was exposed to an oral dose of 50 hepatozoon americanum oocysts recovered from amblyomma maculatum ticks that previously fed on either naturally infected domestic dogs (canis familiaris) or naturally infected wild coyotes. all coyotes exposed to h. americanum became infected, regardless of isolate source, and all exhibited mild to moderate clinical disease that simulated american canine hepatozoonosis in naturally infected dogs. at 100 ...200516244069
detection of babesia caballi in amblyomma variegatum ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from cattle in the republic of guinea.a reverse line blot hybridisation (rlb) assay was applied to screen amblyomma variegatum adult ticks (n = 504) collected from n'dama cattle in the republic of guinea. in a pcr, the v1 hypervariable region of the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was amplified with a set of primers unique for species of the genera anaplasma and ehrlichia, and the v4 hypervariable region of the 18s rrna gene was amplified with primers specific for members of the genera theileria and babesia. amplified pcr products fro ...200516252481
factors influencing in vitro infectivity and growth of rickettsia peacockii (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni (acari, ixodidae).rickettsia peacockii, a spotted fever group rickettsia, is a transovarially transmitted endosymbiont of rocky mountain wood ticks, dermacentor andersoni. this rickettsia, formerly known as the east side agent and restricted to female ticks, was detected in a chronically infected embryonic cell line, dae100, from d. andersoni. we examined infectivity, ability to induce cytopathic effect (cpe) and host cell specificity of r. peacockii using cultured arthropod and mammalian cells. aposymbiotic dae1 ...200516288906
characterization of stages of hepatozoon americanum and of parasitized canine host cells.american canine hepatozoonosis is caused by hepatozoon americanum, a protozoan parasite, the definitive host of which is the tick, amblyomma maculatum. infection of the dog follows ingestion of ticks that harbor sporulated h. americanum oocysts. following penetration of the intestinal mucosa, sporozoites are disseminated systemically and give rise to extensive asexual multiplication in cells located predominantly in striated muscle. the parasitized canine cells in "onion skin" cysts and in granu ...200516301575
the molecular and biological analysis of ixodid ticks histamine release factors.we previously described a dermacentor varibialis (dv) cdna that encodes a ubiquitously expressed and tick saliva-secreted functional histamine release factor (hrf) homolog. in this study gene specific primers based on dvhrf open reading frame nucleotide sequence were utilized to amplify three orthologs, from the wood tick, d. andersoni (da), the black legged tick, the southern cattle tick, boophilus microplus (bm) and the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (aa). at nucleotide level, sequence c ...200516323052
histopathology of tick-bite lesions in naturally infested capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in the present work features of tick-bite lesions were evaluated in capybaras naturally infested with amblyomma cajennense and amblyomma dubitatum ticks. gross appearance of tick bite site was characterized by a mild swelling and erythema. microscopic examination revealed the cement cone, a tube-like homogenous eosinophilic mass penetrating deep into the dermis. this structure was surrounded in the dermis by a cellular infiltrate and free eosinophilic granules and was associated to edema of vari ...200516323054
evaluation of immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice (mus musculus) for infection with ehrlichia chaffeensis and transmission to amblyomma americanum ticks.experiments on the natural history of ehrlichia chaffeensis, the agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), would be facilitated by the availability of a laboratory animal model for transmission to vector ticks. five strains of mice were evaluated for their susceptibility to infection with e. chaffeensis and transmission competence: c57bl/6 mice, inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) deficient mice, mhc i deficient (beta2m /) mice, mhc ii deficient mice (abb /), and b and t cell deficient (ra ...200415671738
lack of susceptibility of guinea pigs and gerbils to experimental infection with ehrlichia chaffeensis.guinea pigs and mongolian gerbils were experimentally infected with ehrlichia chaffeensis (st. vincent strain, 10 passages in vitro). the infection was monitored by serial blood sampling for pcr and by xenodiagnosis with amblyomma americanum larvae. exposure to the pathogen was confirmed using serology. neither guinea pigs nor gerbils were susceptible to infection with e. chaffeensis, and ticks fed upon these animals did not become infected with the pathogen.200415682515
molecular differentiation of metastriate tick immatures.hard ticks, family ixodidae, are divided into two groups, the metastriata and the prostriata, based on morphological differences. in the united states, there are four medically important genera of the ixodidae: ixodes, amblyomma, dermacentor, and rhipicephalus. ixodes is the only genus in and representative of the prostriata, whereas the latter three genera are members of the metastriata. all developmental stages of the prostriata can be easily differentiated from the metastriata using morpholog ...200415682516
[rickettsia africae, the agent of african tick-bite fever: an emerging pathogen in the west indies and reunion island (indian ocean)].rickettsia africae is the agent of african tick bite fever, an emerging disease transmitted by amblyomma ticks in sub-saharan africa. in 1998, we reported the first documented case of r. africae in the new world, in a patient who had returned from guadeloupe. in order to confirm the presence of r. africae in the west indies, entomologic surveys were conducted from 1999 to 2003 to collect amblyomma, which are considered as potential vectors and reservoirs of the bacteria. ticks were used as epide ...200415462202
[random amplified polymorphic dna analysis of the genomes among 7 species of ticks].to study genomic polymorphic dna and genetic distance of 7 species of ticks.200415587156
nested pcr for detection and genotyping of ehrlichia ruminantium: use in genetic diversity analysis.ehrlichia ruminantium, the agent of cowdriosis transmitted by amblyomma ticks, presents an extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of key importance for vaccine formulation. two means of nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting were developed to conduct molecular epidemiology studies in the caribbean and africa. the first used a conserved dna fragment for detection of the pathogen in animals and vectors, and the second relied on the polymorphic map1 gene for genotyping. as compared to ...200415604477
successful infestation by amblyomma pseudoconcolor and a. cooperi (acari: ixodidae) on horses.the host relationships for most species of the genus amblyomma are poorly known in brazil. the ability of a. pseudoconcolor and a. cooperi to successfully feed on horses was investigated during ongoing research on the life cycle of these two species, which are primarily associated with wildlife. results of these experiments suggest that horses are potential hosts for the adult stages of both species.200415604498
the caribbean amblyomma program: some ecologic factors affecting its success.the caribbean amblyomma program has been operational for 8 years. however, owing to funding availability, some islands did not commence eradication activities until late 1997. during the past 2 years, 6 of the 9 islands (st. kitts, st. lucia, anguilla, montserrat, barbados, and dominica) under the program have attained the status of provisional freedom from the tropical bont tick (tbt). there are several administrative and technical reasons why the attainment of the program goals took longer tha ...200415604510
an in vitro larval immersion microassay for identifying and characterizing candidate acaricides.we have optimized a larval immersion microassay (lim) that offers superior sensitivity, flexibility to accommodate multiple formulations, and a robust capability for rapidly screening many compounds with a minimal requirement of test article for evaluation. dose-response studies were conducted for representative members from the organophosphate, pyrethroid, pyrazole, carbamate, macrocyclic lactone, and formamidine chemistries against amblyomma americanum (l.). time-response experiments revealed ...200415605642
rickettsia bellii and rickettsia amblyommii in amblyomma ticks from the state of rondônia, western amazon, brazil.this study evaluates the rickettsial presence in amblyomma ticks from eight areas of the amazon forest in rondônia, brazil. the following tick species (number in parentheses) were examined: amblyomma ovale koch (121), amblyomma cajennense (f.) (41), amblyomma naponense (packard) (36), amblyomma scalpturatum neumann (35), amblyomma oblongoguttatum koch (30), amblyomma incisum neumann (27), amblyomma rotundatum koch (16), amblyomma coelebs neumann (10), and amblyomma humerale koch (6). ticks were ...200415605647
detection of ehrlichia chaffeensis in adult and nymphal amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) ticks from long island, new york.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), has increased in abundance in several regions of the northeastern united states, including areas of long island, ny. adult and nymphal stage a. americanum collected from several sites on long island were evaluated for infection with ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), by using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. fifty-nine (12.5%) of 473 adults and eight of 113 pools of five nymphs each (estimated ...200415605650
susceptibility of mice (mus musculus) to repeated infestation with amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) ticks.laboratory mice, mus musculus (l.), balb/c strain, were assessed for their ability to develop resistance to repeated infestation by amblyomma americanum (l.) ticks. mice were infested five consecutive times with a. americanum nymphs. no decrease in tick viability was seen after five infestations, suggesting that balb/c mice do not develop immune-mediated resistance to a. americanum. in contrast, tick viability was significantly reduced in the second infestation of a new zealand white rabbit, a l ...200415605656
a new type of antimicrobial protein with multiple histidines from the hard tick, amblyomma hebraeum.a novel 11 kda antimicrobial protein, named as hebraein, and having a unique amino acid sequence, was purified from the hemolymph of fed female amblyomma hebraeum ticks. a full-length cdna clone encoding hebraein was isolated from a cdna library made from tick synganglia. hebraein consists of 102 amino acids, including 6 cysteine residues; has 9 histidines in its c-terminal domain that are mainly present as hx repeats; and has no significant similarity to any known protein. the secondary structu ...200415247144
ectoparasites of gray squirrels in two different habitats and screening of selected ectoparasites for bartonellae.gray squirrels, sciurus carolinensis, were livetrapped in 2 different habitat types, woodland (67 squirrels) and parkland (53 squirrels), in southeastern georgia. ectoparasites were recovered from anesthetized squirrels and compared between hosts from the 2 habitats. because of the absence of low vegetation in parkland habitats, it was hypothesized that the ectoparasite fauna, especially ticks and chiggers, would be more diverse on woodland squirrels. the results were generally in agreement with ...200415270090
ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing wild carnivores in phu khieo wildlife sanctuary, thailand.ixodid ticks were collected and identified from 8 wild carnivore species in phu khieo wildlife sanctuary, northeastern thailand. six tick species belonging to 4 genera were recovered and identified from 132 individuals. these included amblyomma testudinarium (n = 36), haemaphysalis asiatica (n = 58), h. hystricis (n = 31), h. semermis (n = 3), rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (n = 3), and ixodes granulatus (n = 1). leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis) (n = 19) were infested with 4 tick species, ...200415270119
amblyomma cajennense ticks induce immediate hypersensitivity in horses and donkeys.since host immune reaction to ticks interferes with tick-borne pathogen transmission, it is important to recognize naturally occurring tick-host immune relationships to better understand the epidemiology of such infectious diseases. amblyomma cajennense is an important tick-borne disease vector in the neotropical region and horses maintain it in domestic environments. in the present work intradermal testing of a. cajennense tick exposed horses and donkeys using crude tick antigens was used to ev ...200415285143
first record of immature stages of amblyomma tigrinum (acari: ixodidae) on wild birds in chile.for the first time, larvae and nymphs of amblyomma tigrinum ticks were found on three species of wild birds (zenaida auriculata, callipepla californica and nothoprocta perdicaria) in chile. a significant higher number of a. tigrinum was found on fledglings of z. auriculata and n. perdicaria than on adults of these species of birds. a significant higher number was also observed on n. perdicaria living in non-irrigated areas as compared with irrigated areas. infestation levels were 6.5, 6.3 and 10 ...200415285147
disease agents in amblyomma americanum from northeastern georgia.amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) is known or suspected to vector several organisms that are implicated as human pathogens, including ehrlichia chaffeensis, e. ewingii, and borrelia lonestari. these three agents have also been detected in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). because northeastern georgia has a high abundance of both lone star ticks and white-tailed deer, and one of these organisms, e. chaffeensis, is already known to be endemic in the area, we assayed individual adult ...200415311471
ehrlichia prevalence in amblyomma americanum, central texas. 200415338551
water relations in eggs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, with experimental work on the capacity for water vapor absorption.this study shows that water stress is not countered in eggs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), using water vapor, and suggests involvement of liquid water as a developmental cue. eggs fail to maintain an equilibrium water content in subsaturated air, hence, gain not equal to loss, with net water losses occurring at relative humidities near saturation and these eggs exhibit a three-fold drop in viability, but not incubation period, as compared to eggs held in saturated air. amblyom ...200415347026
susceptibility of mosquito and tick cell lines to infection with various flaviviruses.the genus flavivirus consists of more than 70 virus species and subtypes, the majority of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks, although some have no known vector (nkv). the ability of these viruses to infect cultured cells derived from mosquito or tick species offers a useful insight into the suitability of such vectors to harbour and replicate particular viruses. we undertook a comparative study of the susceptibility of mammalian vero cells, a clonal mosquito cell line (c6/36) and rece ...200415347394
some observations on the sero-prevalence of heartwater and tick infestation in zambian goats.a survey was carried out to define the distribution of heartwater in goats that originated from six districts in communal grazing semi-arid areas of zambia. a total of 181 samples (40.1%) out of 451 serum samples from adult goats were positive for ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies after screening using indirect map-1b antigen elisa technique with statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) between the six districts. out of 1 036 adult goats examined for tick infestation, 105 were infested by ...200415373339
detection of rickettsia africae in patients and ticks along the coastal region of cameroon.rickettsia africae was identified in seven (6%) of 118 patients with acute fevers of unknown etiology proven not to be malaria or typhoid fever from clinics along the coastal region of cameroon by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (glta) and outer membrane protein a (ompa) genes of rickettsia. the majority (71%) of the patients were female. clinical manifestations included fever (100%), headache (71%), myalgia (71%), arthralgia (43%), pulmonary ...200415381820
morphological characterization of the ovary and vitellogenesis dynamics in the tick amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae).in this work we describe the internal morphology of the female reproductive system of the cayenne tick amblyomma cajennense. this system is represented by a panoistic ovary, which lacks nurse cells in the germarium. this ovary consists of a single tube, in which a large number of oocytes develop asynchronously, thus accompanying the processes of yolk deposition in the oocytes. the oocytes were classified into stages that varied from i to v, according to: cytoplasm appearance, presence of the ger ...200415482894
rickettsia parkeri in amblyomma triste from uruguay.our goal was to detect whether spotted fever group rickettsia are found in the suspected vector of rickettsioses, amblyomma triste, in uruguay. rickettsia parkeri was detected in a. triste, which suggests that this species could be considered a pathogenic agent responsible for human rickettsioses in uruguay.200415496258
amblyomma americanum salivary gland homolog of nsec1 is essential for saliva protein secretion.soluble n-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins assemble in tight core complexes which promote fusion of carrier vesicles with target compartments. members of this class of proteins are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and distributed in distinct subcellular compartments. all vesicle transport mechanisms known to date have an essential requirement for a member of the sec1 protein family, including the nsec1 in regulated exocytosis. a homolog of nsec1 was cloned an ...200415504350
a thrombin inhibitor from the ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum.a novel thrombin inhibitor named amblin was identified from the haemolymph of the ixodid (hard) tick, amblyomma hebraeum, and the coding cdna was isolated from a tick cdna library. this cdna codes for a preprotein of 166 amino acids, including a predicted signal peptide composed of 15 amino acids n-terminal to the mature amblin. the 151-amino-acid mature amblin contains 14 cysteines and two kunitz-like domains. it displays high sequence similarity with a tissue factor pathway inhibitor (tfpi), i ...200415527983
characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in flea and tick specimens from northern peru.evidence of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae was obtained from flea pools and individual ticks collected at three sites in northwestern peru within the focus of an outbreak of febrile disease in humans attributed, in part, to sfg rickettsia infections. molecular identification of the etiologic agents from these samples was determined after partial sequencing of the 17-kda common antigen gene (htra) as well as pairwise nucleotide sequence homology with one or more of the following genes: glt ...200415528680
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