urinary schistosomiasis in maiduguri, north east nigeria.from january to december 1983, 12,207 specimens of urine were examined for ova of schistosoma haematobium and 753 (6.17%) were positive. from this group, 44 adult patients were investigated for urinary tract abnormalities. haematuria was the commonest presenting symptom (81.8%) followed by lower abdominal pain (77.3%) and dysuria (68.2%). urinalysis revealed proteinuria in 55.5%, leucocyturia in 90.9% and microhaematuria in 88.6% of patients. twenty-four hour protein excretion ranged from 230 mg ...19863118828
the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the later stages of a control programme based on chemotherapy: the basrah study. 3. antibody distributions and the use of age catalytic models and log-probit analysis in seroepidemiology.a comparative seroepidemiological survey of schistosoma haematobium infection among primary schoolchildren in areas of different levels and patterns of endemicity in basrah governorate, southern iraq, also covered all inhabitants of al-maadan locality, a known endemic focus in basrah. blood samples were tested by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. serological data were analysed to describe the pattern of distribution of antischistosomal antibodies, to relate the level of infection to age and ...19873120372
bladder cancer: approaches to prevention and control.bladder cancer is the twelfth most common cancer globally, with approximately 170 000 new cases each year; a third of these cases are in the developing countries. there are two major etiological types. the first is more common in the industrialized countries and is associated with exposure to certain occupational and environmental carcinogens, but most importantly with tobacco smoking. the second type is associated with schistosoma haematobium infection of the urinary tract and is one of the mos ...19873121200
haematuria and proteinuria during schistosoma haematobium infection: relationship to intensity of infection and the value of chemical reagent strips for pre- and post-treatment diagnosis.the relationship of haematuria and proteinuria to intensity of schistosoma haematobium infection, the possibility of using haematuria and proteinuria for diagnosing s. haematobium infection, and the value of haematuria and proteinuria in assessing chemotherapeutic efficacy after treatment with praziquantel were studied in 235 male and female schoolchildren, 9-to 14-year old. a correlation was found between both severity of dipstick proteinuria/haematuria and frequency of visible haematuria, and ...19873120368
appendicitis and schistosomiasis.a retrospective clinical and pathological study of 15 cases associated with schistosomiasis drawn from 1920 patients undergoing appendicectomy is discussed. the average age of the patients was 31.6 years with a 12:3 male predominance. hepatomegaly, past or present jaundice, or splenomegaly were not observed. one patient had a previous history of similar right lower quadrant pain for several days. eighty per cent of the cases showed an inflammatory reaction on pathological examination. in the rem ...19883122873
the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the later stages of a control programme based on chemotherapy: the basrah study. 1. descriptive epidemiology and parasitological results.the association between infection with schistosoma haematobium and various factors including water contact pattern, past history of haematuria and treatment for schistosomiasis and cercarial dermatitis was investigated in southern iraq. the study covered mainly primary schoolchildren in different areas of basrah and in al-maadan locality where the majority of households with infected schoolchildren occurred. urine examination was by the sedimentation and nuclepore filtration methods. s. haematob ...19873120370
the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the later stages of a control programme based on chemotherapy: the basrah study. 2. the serological profile and the validity of the elisa in seroepidemiological epidemiological study of schistosoma haematobium infection in al-maadan locality, considered to be the main remaining endemic focus in basrah, southern iraq was carried out. the association between the serological profile of the population, measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and various factors including current infection by urine examination, water contact pattern, past history of, and treatment for, schistosomiasis, and cercarial dermatitis was investigated. further ...19873120371
immunodiagnosis of schistosoma haematobium, s. mansoni or mixed infections in hamster. 19873121766
efficacy of metrifonate in a highly endemic area of urinary schistosomiasis in a community in kwale district, kenya, selective mass chemotherapy with metrifonate caused a marked reduction in the intensity of schistosoma haematobium infection from 46.5 to 9.4 eggs/hr and a sharp fall in prevalence of gross hematuria from 18.3% to 5.1%, although overall prevalence was reduced only slightly from 67.4% to 54%. the effect of metrifonate on cure rate and reduction of infection intensity was limited by both age and pretreatment infection intensity. rate of improvement from gro ...19883124647
resistance to reinfection after treatment of urinary schistosomiasis.the process of reinfection after treatment was studied in a cohort of subjects in a focus of intense schistosoma haematobium infection. detailed observations were made at water contact sites of cercarial densities and of water contact by members of the cohort. individual values of a cumulative index of exposure to infection were calculated using these observations and assumptions which were made about the effect of different water contact activities on the entry of cercariae into the skin. among ...19873127957
variations in incidence of schistosomiasis in the highveld region of incidence study of schistosoma haematobium and s. mansoni was carried out among 487 six--eleven-year old children attending schools situated in the highveld region of zimbabwe from july 1982 to march 1984. incidence of both schistosome species were very high and there were marked variations in incidence by locality. no significant differences in incidence were observed between the sexes or among three age groups considered. incidence of s. haematobium exceeded by a significant amount (p less ...19873126545
assessment of side-effects of praziquantel in a trial treatment of schistosoma haematobium infections in the afar ethnic group of ethiopia. 19883129291
efficacy of low doses of praziquantel for schistosoma mansoni and s. haematobium.the shortage of available information on the impact of low doses of praziquantel was remedied by a trial of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg kg-1 against double infections of schistosoma haematobium and s. mansoni in a rural area of zimbabwe. no significant differences were found in egg reduction between 20-40 mg kg-1 for s. haematobium and between 30-40 mg kg-1 for s. mansoni. it is suggested that morbidity control can be achieved with lower dosages of praziquantel than currently recommended.19883126306
oral praziquantel kinetics in normal and schistosoma haematobium-infected subjects.the kinetics of praziquantel was studied in normal and schistosoma haematobium-infected ghanaian subjects. there was a wide interindividual variation in half-life (t1/2), cmax, tmax, area under the curve (auc) (0-8 h), and urinary recovery. no differences were noted between the two groups with regard to tmax, auc (0-8 h), and t1/2. mean cmax was higher in the patients than in the control subjects. the 8-hr urinary recovery of praziquantel was higher in the subjects with urinary schistosomiasis. ...19883131934
schistosomal glomerulopathy: selection factors.of several hundreds of millions of people infested with schistosomiasis, only a few hundreds have, so far, been documented to have one or other of the three schistosoma-associated immune-mediated glomerulopathies, namely proliferative glomerulonephritis, focal and segmental sclerosis, and amyloidosis. regardless of undoubted under-reporting, some factors must be involved in the selection of those who develop such glomerulopathies. on the basis of experimental and clinical evidence, this review h ...19873126449
mebendazole in the treatment of schistosoma haematobium. 19873130688
[erratic localization and uncommon longevity of schistosoma haematobium. apropos of a case].a case of schistosoma hematobium epididymal bilharzia is reported. this case is remarkable on the one hand because of the extreme longevity of the trematodes (30 years), illustrated by the presence of viable eggs in the epididymis, and secondly by the isolated epididymal localization of the parasite.19883137267
immune response in chronic schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni. reversibility of alterations after anti-parasitic treatment with praziquantel.peripheral blood mononuclear cells from sudanese children heavily infected with schistosoma haematobium and s. mansoni were examined for lymphocyte subpopulations, for mitogen and antigen responsiveness, and for natural killer (nk) cell activity before and 5 months after treatment with praziquantel. the humoral immune response was simultaneously investigated by determination of parasite-specific igg and ige antibodies, ige-containing circulating immune complexes, and circulating schistosome anti ...19883137653
[genital schistosomiasis--diagnosis and therapy].the authors describe prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of genital schistosomiasis. schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitoses in tropical and subtropical developing countries. genital schistosomiasis is caused by schistosoma haematobium. by microscopical examination of abradates, operation material and coni schistosoma eggs could be detected in 29.2 per cent of all cases.19883137734
double counterimmunoelectrophoresis in detecting circulating parasite antigen and antibodies in schistosomiasis. 19883138312
ultrasonography in detection of schistosoma haematobium infection. 19883138315
[epidemiologic and radiologic study of urinary bilharziosis in a focus at the barombi lakes (mémé department), cameroon].a recent epidemiological and radiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in the barombi lake foci (south west cameroon) shows that the intensity of the disease is very high, 76% and 50% in barombi kotto and barombi mbo respectively, when compared to the level observed by duke and moore during a five year control period, from 1970 to 1975, respectively 6.9% and 2.4% in barombi kotto and barombi mbo. the endemicity is not influenced by age or sex. on the average, the parasitic load is highest in ...19873131031
the use of baye's theorem and other indices of agreement in evaluating the use of reagent strips in screening rural schoolchildren for schistosoma haematobium in zambia.the diagnosis of schistosoma haematobium disease on the basis of history and physical examination alone is often difficult. tests have thus been developed to allow an early and more accurate diagnosis. however these tests have substantial imperfections and many different results obtained from these tests must be integrated into a diagnostic conclusion about the probability of disease in a given patient. also the accuracy of these tests in detecting s. haematobium disease is critically dependent ...19883133320
praziquantel and oltipraz: the treatment of schoolchildren infected with schistosoma mansoni and/or schistosoma haematobium in gezira, sudan.of 111 schoolchildren--all of whom were infected with schistosoma mansoni and 97 of whom were also infected with s. haematobium--54 were treated with praziquantel (2 x 20 mg kg-1) and 57 with oltipraz (2 x 15 mg kg-1). there was no apparent difference between the efficacy of the two drugs. follow-up studies over the following 12 months indicated that mass chemotherapy of schoolchildren can be expected to reduce the egg output of those treated by almost 100%, but that, unless there is some break ...19883135786
experiences with mass chemotherapy in the control of schistosomiasis in mali.mass chemotherapy using praziquantel in a single dose of 40 mg/kg was the main strategy of schistosomiasis control in mali during the intervention phase. treatment was applied either indiscriminately to all inhabitants over the age of two years of a given village or as a case treatment to those found infected during a previous parasitological examination. in one study area, only children aged 5 to 15 were treated if they had been found infected. according to the variables: type of treatment, par ...19883140359
the costs of schistosomiasis control in a sahelian country.the cost of schistosomiasis control in mali was calculated on the assumption that the programme is fully nationalized and organized using the experience gained during the past seven years. in order to expand the model and to extrapolate from actual cost that arose, activities have been standardized into preparatory, baseline and follow-up sample surveys for monitoring purposes and into blanket and case mass chemotherapy for interventions. health education is contained in them as a component, san ...19883140360
resistance to reinfection with schistosoma haematobium in gambian children: analysis of their immune responses.the relationship between reinfection with schistosoma haematobium and immunological parameters was studied in a group of gambian children aged from 8 to 13 years. each individual's exposure to infection was assessed from observations of water contact, cercarial densities and infected snail densities at water contact sites. eosinophil counts were made and responses to egg antigen (sea) and adult worm antigen (wwh) measured by elisa. low levels of reinfection were associated with a high eosinophil ...19873140435
nitrocellulose dot-elisa for serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis.the diagnostic value of the nitrocellulose (nc)-elisa technique originally described for the detection of viral and bacterial antigens was studied for the detection of antibodies in patients with parasitologically confirmed schistosomiasis, using only about 100 ng total protein content per nc disc of schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen supplied by who. the results showed excellent sensitivity: 100% (38/38) for s. mansoni cases and 93.6% (44/47) for s. haematobium. the specificity tested on 5 ...19873140437
pathology of schistosoma haematobium infection in the capuchin monkey (cebus apella).capuchin monkeys exposed to 500-2000 schistosoma haematobium cercariae were followed for up to 6 1/2 years after infection. worm burdens decreased as infections became more chronic and decreasing numbers of eggs and active circumoval lesions were found in the bladder and elsewhere. nodular and hyperplastic epithelial lesions of the urinary bladder were not seen during the first year of infection but occurred in 30% of monkeys examined 1-2 years after infection and in 23% of those examined betwee ...19883140439
resistance of capuchin monkeys to reinfection with schistosoma haematobium.capuchin monkeys were resistant to reinfection with schistosoma haematobium one year after exposure to 500 cercariae, but worms in these monkeys continued to produce normal numbers of eggs. monkeys were apparently completely refractory to reinfection when challenged 2-5 years after an initial exposure of 1000 to 2000 cercariae.19883140440
chemotherapy-based control of schistosomiasis haematobia. i. metrifonate versus praziquantel in control of intensity and prevalence of determine the effect of targeted field administration of oral chemotherapeutic agents on the prevalence, intensity, and morbidity of schistosoma haematobium infections, we initiated a long-term school-based program in the msambweni area of kwale district, coast province, kenya. prior to treatment, 69% of the children examined (ages 4-21, n = 2,628) were infected; 34% had moderate or heavy infections (greater than 100 eggs/10 ml urine). infected individuals were randomized to receive, during o ...19883140683
prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis in two rural areas in zimbabwe and their relationship to village location and snail infection rates.surveys for schistosomiasis of 2498 people of various ages from 22 villages in northeast zimbabwe are reported. a high prevalence of schistosoma haematobium (53.1%) and a medium prevalence of s. mansoni (17.5%) were found. schistosoma haematobium prevalence among males was significantly higher than among females. age prevalence curves for both schistosome species showed a typical pattern with the peak in the ten to 20 years age group, which is also the age group with the highest potential of con ...19883140747
[bulinus (b.) forskalii, a new intermediate host of schistosoma haematobium in the congo].malacological and parasitological studies were carried out in the urinary schistosomiasis focus uncovered to loulombo (pool region). we reported data presuming the autochtone nature of infected patients and pointing out the possible role of bulinus (b.) forskalii as a new intermediate host.19883140356
the national schistosomiasis control programme in mali, objectives, organization, results.schistosomiasis control started regionally, in the bandiagara district, and as a component of a dam-building project in 1978. in 1982 a national programme was created. control was divided into three phases: preparation, intervention and maintenance. districts qualifyed for schistosomiasis control activities, when the prevalence for either schistosoma haematobium or schistosoma mansoni exceeded 20% and/or the prevalence of persons with intensive infections for either parasite exceeded 5%. intensi ...19883140357
an evaluation of sampling methods within communities and the validity of parasitological examination techniques in the order to enable the assessment of schistosomiasis control, it has to be monitored. the methods and techniques employed for monitoring have to be validated in turn. in the malian national schistosomiasis control programme, only samples of the village population are examined. for practical and economic reasons, the sampling procedure is not free of bias from self-selection. when rates of samples are compared with results of examining the whole population no significant difference between the ra ...19883140358
schistosoma haematobium and urinary beta-glucuronidase. 19883142120
[study of a new focus of urinary schistosomiasis in the pool region (people's republic of congo)].epidemiological study of a new urinary schistosomiasis focus in the pool region (people's republic of congo). malacological and parasitological studies were carried out in the urinary schistosomiasis focus uncovered to loulombo (pool region). we reported data establishing the autochthonous nature of infected patients and pointing out the key role of bulinus (b) forskalii as the new intermediate host.19883141740
analysis of the dynamics of transmission of human schistosomiasis in the highveld region of zimbabwe. a review.with the starting point in a comprehensive and integrated longitudinal study conducted by the blair research laboratory from march 1982 to may 1984 in bushu and chiweshe communal areas, a review is presented of the dynamics of transmission of urinary (schistosoma haematobium) and intestinal (s. mansoni) human schistosomiasis in the highveld region of zimbabwe. the study comprised observations on snail-related aspects of transmission, on human water contact patterns, and on prevalence, intensity ...19883143147
detection of parasite related antigens associated with conglutinin binding immune complexes in patients with schistosoma elisa assay was designed to detect the presence of parasite related antigens associated with circulating immune complexes in patients affected by urinary schistosomiasis. the assay makes use of bovine conglutinin as the immune complex recognition unit and of human anti-schistosoma antibody as the antigen recognition unit. using this method we showed that 10 of 15 (67%) patients with a positive polyethylene glycol assay had circulating immune complexes in which parasite antigens could be detec ...19883142115
the host-parasite relationship of schistosoma haematobium in cba mice.the host-parasite relationships of two geographical isolates of schistosoma haematobium in cba mice are described and compared to previous reports on this parasite in other experimental hosts and in man. the mean percentage establishment of worms in mice was 17% and was not affected by the age or sex of the host. adult worm burdens remained constant over 20 weeks, but were reduced after 18 months of infection. male and female worms reached mean maximum lengths of 4.78 and 5.9 mm respectively. eg ...19883146052
schistosomiasis of the prostate and the seminal vesicles: observations in zambia.the pattern of schistosomiasis of the prostate and seminal vesicles in zambia is presented. the results were based on histological examination and digestion of tissue obtained from 50 cadavers. compared to the bladder (62%) and seminal vesicles (58%), the infestation was least common (50%) in the prostate. the infection was due to schistosoma haematobium alone in all organs. the most significant finding was the histological inactivity secondary to this parasitic infection. it is suggested that s ...19883141629
a new serological technique, time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (trfia), for the immunological diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.the application of a new serological method, time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (trfia), is described for the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis. a chelate of lanthanides (europium) with a long fluorescent life-time is used as label. the intensity of fluorescence is measured after a delay selected to eliminate almost completely the background fluorescence, which decays rapidly. trfia was compared with an established method, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). using sera from proven cases o ...19883148232
serum lysozyme and phosphatases in children with schistosoma haematobium infections. 19883143840
a review of achievements of the national schistosomiasis control program in middle and upper egypt egypt the "national schistosomiasis control program" was formulated to control transmission by reduction of prevalence and intensity of current infections, and thereby achieve an acceptable level of schistosomiasis disease control. the program was implemented foremost in middle egypt (1977) and upper egypt (1980), collectively extending 800 km alongside of the river nile and accommodate about 10.5 million people. schistosoma haematobium has been essentially the prevailing species infection in ...19873151118
schistosomiasis in kano state, nigeria. ii. field studies on aestivation in bulinus rohlfsi (clessin) and b. globosus (morelet) and their susceptibility to local strains of schistosoma haematobium (bilharz).aestivation patterns in bulinus rohlfsi and b. globosus were studied by digging transects across the floor of their dried habitats and by monitoring changes in snail population structure during the period when the habitats were flooded. bulinus rohlfsi, which inhabited a small man-made lake, was found to aestivate towards the bottom of its habitat, aestivation occurring during the last six weeks before the lake dried. the data on b. globosus from a temporary pool are less complete, but they show ...19883151429
antischistosomal treatment and the measurement of incidence of schistosomiasis in a community of high transmission.there is disagreement in the measurement of incidence in schistosomiasis concerning which of two categories of negatives is representative of the population of an endemic area: naturally uninfected individuals (untreated negatives) and those made negative following treatment (treated negatives). the incidence of schistosomiasis was studied in the two categories of negatives for two periods among 208 school children (6-11 years old) living in a community of high transmission in zimbabwe. in both ...19883147550
urinary tract morbidity in schistosomiasis haematobia: associations with age and intensity of infection in an endemic area of coast province, gain better understanding of the natural history of schistosoma haematobium associated disease, age- and intensity-related urinary tract morbidity were assessed in a cross-sectional study of kilole (population 719) in coast province, kenya. overall prevalence of infection was 65% (39% light, 16% moderate, 9% heavy). infection prevalence and mean intensity of infection were highest in the 5-14-year-old bracket for both sexes. although significant intensity-associated increases in hematuria pre ...19883142286
[indirect hemagglutination technic. its use in studies on the course of schistosomiasis disease. preliminary work]. 19883149789
[urogenital bilharziasis in algeria. 2. present status of the reservoirs in the south-west]. 19863152812
control of schistosomiasis transmission in newly established smallholder irrigation schemes.the extent to which schistosomiasis can be controlled through careful design of the irrigation works, the operation schedule, the location of villages and the provision of safe water supplies and sanitation in smallholder irrigation schemes at mushandike in south-east zimbabwe is reported. the schemes provide land for 400 peasant families who are monitored for schistosomiasis soon after resettlement. between april 1986 and august 1987 there was a marked reduction in overall prevalence following ...19883151528
[influence of urinary schistosomiasis on delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity]. 19853157170
[schistosoma intercalatum: the unknown one. analysis of 7 imported cases]. 19883175140
effect of mass chemotherapy and piped water on numbers of schistosoma haematobium and prevalence in bulinus globosus in kwale, kenya.from june 1982 to may 1986 in a small village in kwale, kenya, we studied seasonal fluctuations in populations of bulinus globosus, prevalence of schistosoma haematobium infection in this snail, and effects of chemotherapy and piped water supply on infection rate of snails. in the perennially-flowing pemba river, relatively small numbers of snails were collected; they were found only during the hot dry season (december to march). in a tributary stream, the kadingo river, whose flow ceased at the ...19883152776
[urogenital bilharziasis in algeria: 1. results of an epidemiologic survey at djanet in tassili n'ajjer]. 19863152811
toxic effects of chromium on schistosoma haematobium miracidia. 19883233391
transmission of urinary schistosomiasis in sukumaland, tanzania. 1. snail infection rates and incidence of infection in school children.seasonal density fluctuations of bulinus nasutus populations with accompanying schistosoma haematobium infection rates in relation to rainfall and habitat water volumes were studied at ukiriguru, mwanza, tanzania. alongside the snail investigations, 50 school children initially negative for urinary schistosomiasis were examined regularly to determine seasonal incidence rates for the infection. of the 17,646 b. nasutus collected in 2 years, 156 (0.88%) were found shedding cercariae. snail populat ...19883192912
up to what point are cercariogenesis and sporocystogenesis reversible in schistosomes?a study of larval development of schistosoma haematobium in the snail planorbarius metidjensis infected by transplanted sporocysts showed that some embryos in daughter sporocysts have characters intermediate between cercariae and sporocysts. these embryos are interpreted to be nearly mature cercariae that have partially reverted to be secondary sporocysts. if this explanation is correct, it would mean that the embryos which develop within trematode daughter sporocysts can differentiate either in ...19883192919
schistosomiasis in childhood.schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of the tropics which is estimated to affect up to 300 million people worldwide. in endemic areas the childhood age group has the highest prevalence and intensity of infection. there are several distinct species of schistosomes. the principal organ system involved in schistosoma haematobium infection is the urinary tract since parasite eggs penetrate the bladder and are excreted in the urine. hematuria, proteinuria, leukocyturia and symptoms like dysuria or ...19883276525
[urogenital bilharziasis in algeria. 3. results of an epidemiological survey in illizi]. 19863152813
schistosoma haematobium: evaluation of selected substances as chemical attractants for miracidia in excretion products of bulinus africanus. 19883396648
the cercarial output from three nigerian bulinids infected with two strains of schistosoma haematobium.the daily cercarial output of two nigerian strains of schistosoma haematobium in sympatric bulinus truncatus, b. globosus and b. senegalensis was measured at weekly intervals from the start of emission to the snails' death. in all cases cercariae were released throughout the life of the host, with no cases of "self cure". patterns of output through the course of infections in b. truncatus and b. senegalensis were similar to those reported for s. haematobium by other workers, with daily productio ...19883397515
scanning electron microscope studies of miracidia suggest introgressive hybridization between schistosoma haematobium and s. haematobium x s. mattheei in the eastern transvaal.schistosoma haematobium miracidia were collected from a locality with a high prevalence of human infection with the animal parasite, s. mattheei, which hybridizes with s. haematobium, and from 2 localities with negligible infection rates. the terebratoria of the miracidia from these localities were compared with each other, with laboratory maintained s. haematobium and with four populations of s. mattheei by means of scanning electron microscopy. it was found that the terebratorial membrane of c ...19883397516
schistosomiasis in kano state, nigeria. i. human infections near dam sites and the distribution and habitat preferences of potential snail intermediate hosts.stool and urine samples from 813 schoolchildren and adults from the tomas and rimin gado dam areas of kano state, nigeria, showed schistosoma haematobium to be present at both localities with prevalences of 26.6 and 36.8%, respectively. no cases of s. mansoni were found. the prevalence and intensity of s. haematobium was low and similar in both study areas. statistical analysis revealed a correlation between prevalence and location, but no evident association with professed patterns of water con ...19883256277
further observations on the electrophoretic characterization of south african schistosoma mattheei and s. haematobium.eleven enzymes, which were used to compare south african s. mattheei and s. haematobium in a former study, were employed to study intraspecific variation within s. mattheei, using starch gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focusing where resolution in starch gel was poor. acid phosphatase varied intraspecifically within s. mattheei in that the most southern population differed from the northern populations. malate dehydrogenase also varied intraspecifically. three populations which occur sympat ...19883353101
dependence of hatching of schistosoma haematobium miracidia on physical and biological factors.the effects of light, agitation, and salinity on the hatching pattern of schistosoma haematobium eggs were examined. whereas all three factors influenced the hatching pattern, only salinity affected the hatching rate. eggs began to hatch 5 min after dilution and reached a peak 10-15 min after dilution when urination, dilution of urine, and observation of hatching were conducted under ordinary laboratory conditions (25 degrees c in diffuse sunlight). complete darkness delayed hatching. agitation ...19873438291
a filter-paper technique for the detection of igg and igm class schistosome-specific antibodies in an endemic area. 19883250344
the effect of light and darkness on the production of cercariae of schistosoma haematobium from bulinus globosus.the cercariae of schistosoma haematobium showed a diurnal periodicity of emergence from bulinus globosus in a twelve hour light/dark cycle. peak emission occurred at 11.00 hrs with a smaller peak at 20.00 hrs, following the start of the period of darkness. in continuous illumination this second peak was not seen, indicating that only the morning peak is circadian in origin. the evening peak occurs in response to dark treatment and can be produced by periods of darkness ranging from eight seconds ...19873437109
a model to predict the outcome of the bilharzial bladder cancer patient after radical cystectomy.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic factors of bilharzial bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy: good prognosis is defined as a survival of more than one year, free of local recurrence or metastasis. two groups of 155 patients, one with a good prognosis (gpg) and the other with a bad prognosis (bpg), through the period 1977-1983 at the national cancer institute of cairo were systematically analyzed for 13 variables evaluated at the commencement of the one year foll ...19873435708
epidemiological study of parasitic infections in somali somali nomads the incidence of intestinal helminths is very low compared with that observed in somalian closed institutions and practically no entamoeba infection occurs. schistosoma haematobium eggs are observed in urine of 50% of adults nomads. immunological tests reveal that the relative prevalences of leishmaniasis (the lowest), malaria, and toxoplasmosis (the highest) in nomads are similar to those shown by the same techniques in settled communities.19873449997
[population dynamics of bulinus truncatus in a focus of bilharziasis in khemis-el-khechna (northern algeria)].a demographic and epidemiological study of bulinus truncatus was carried out in hamiz river, transmission site of schistosomiasis in the khemis-el-khechna focus. the results shows direct influence of hydrographic factor on the populations dynamic which is characterized by irregular variations.19873450442
[human intestinal parasites in subsaharan africa. ii. sao tomé and principe].in 1983 the authors carried out a survey in the democratic republic of são tomé and principe, analysing 1050 specimens of stools collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random and in a number proportional to the distribution of the population in the regions of the country (about 1% of the population was examined). the examined subjects were divided into 3 age groups (0-3, 4-12, more than 12 years old), to have homogeneous groups in relation principally to modali ...19873508506
[human intestinal parasites in subsaharan africa. iii. pemba island (zanzibar-tanzania)].the authors carried out a coprological survey in pemba island, analysing, by modified ritchie technique, 413 stools samples. the specimens were collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random in a number equal to 2% of the whole population. the examined subjects were divided in 3 age groups, 211 were males, 202 females. the following results were obtained (in order of prevalence): a) protozoa: entamoeba coli 35.6%, giardia intestinalis 5.6%, endolimax nana 4.3%, ...19873508507
[the malacological situation in kinshasa and description of an aotochthonous focus of schistosomiasis due to schistosoma intercalatum]. 19873447520
comparative glucose utilization rates in separated and mated schistosomes.the rate of phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose (2dg) was determined by sequential pulsing of schistosomes (schistosoma mansoni, s. japonicum, and s. haematobium) with 3h- and 14c-labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose. subsequent column chromatographic separation of the neutral [3h]2dg and [14c]2dg from the 3h- and 14c-labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose 6-phosphate permitted estimation of the quantity of [3h]2dg phosphorylated in 2 min, and the proportion of [14c]2dg phosphorylated in 1 min; thus a phosphorylation rat ...19873678450
field observations on the population dynamics of bulinus globosus, the intermediate host of schistosoma haematobium in the ifakara area, tanzania.the population dynamics of bulinus globosus were studied in a stream and an adjacent pool near ifakara, tanzania. experiments with caged snails were used to determine fecundity, hatching rates, growth and mortality. growth and mortality rates were also estimated for the natural population from successive size frequency distributions. oviposition began in snails as small as 6.6 mm and there was a positive correlation between the size of the snails at oviposition and the number of embryos per egg ...19863712169
relationships between cercarial indices of schistosoma haematobium, s. bovis and s. curassoni from senegal and the isoenzyme genotypes of the adult worms.s. haematobium and s. curassoni appear to consist of three and two g6pdh genotypes respectively whereas only a single genotype has been observed in s. bovis. this genotype corresponds to one of those exhibited by s. curassoni, but the two species may be distinguished using the acp enzyme system. the antero-dorsal cercarial indices for s. haematobium gave a mean of 0.78 ranging from 0.67 +/- 0.03 to 0.90 +/- 0.11; s. curassoni gave a mean of 1.11, ranging from 1.00 +/- 0.05 to 1.23 +/- 0.14 and s ...19873447507
[morphology of the teguments of schistosoma haematobium; comparison with s. curassoni, s. bovis and s. intercalatum].study by sem of the anterior dorsal teguments of male schistosoma haematobium from infected rodents. only paired males, at least hundred days post infection, display a typical morphology. differentiation from other closely related species obtained experimentally from rodents is possible: bovis: no spines on the tubercles; haematobium: tubercles 10 to 15 microns wide with closely packed spines; curassoni: tubercles over 15 microns wide, with large, closely packed spines; intercalatum: tubercles u ...19873447508
enzyme electrophoresis of south african schistosoma mattheei and s. a pilot project of a study undertaken to determine the influence of s. mattheei x s. haematobium hybridization on various south african s. mattheei populations by means of biochemical-taxonomic methods, a comparative electrophoretic study of laboratory-maintained s. mattheei and s. haematobium was performed, using 11 enzymes representing 16 gene loci. eleven loci were found to be monomorphic, while 5 differed interspecifically. computation of the results revealed that south african s. matthee ...19873587936
phenotypic differences in schistosoma mattheei ova from populations sympatric and allopatric to s. haematobium.schistosoma mattheei ova were collected from cattle in different localities in south africa and after hatching, miracidia were used to infest bulinus (physopsis) globosus. cercariae harvested from these snails were used to infest the definitive host praomys (mastomys) coucha and eggs from the resulting female s. mattheei were collected. these ova were compared with a schistosoma haematobium x s. mattheei hybrid similarly collected from an infested p. (m.) coucha. the results indicate that s. mat ...19863725328
biochemical genetics in the study of schistosomes and their intermediate hosts.this paper considers the contributions that studies on electrophoresis of enzymes have made to the understanding of the biology of schistosomiasis. the use of enzymes for characterisation of schistosomes is reviewed and particular attention is given to investigations concerning hybridisation, mating behaviour and population structure. results are presented on variation between isolates of s. haematobium detected by analysis of a g6pdh polymorphism and variation of g6pdh and mdh-1 within natural ...19853870634
scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of adult schistosoma curassoni, and comparison with male s. bovis and s. haematobium from senegal.scanning electron microscopical studies of adult male and female schistosoma curassoni, male s. haematobium and male s. bovis are reported. the tubercles on the dorsal and dorso-lateral surfaces of male s. bovis are devoid of spines, whereas spines are present on the tubercles of male s. curassoni and s. haematobium. some of the tubercles of s. curassoni and s. haematobium are completely covered in spines, whereas others have a spine-free apical area. thus, on the isolates examined from senegal ...19863797058
[conditions required for the systematic study of male schistosomes by scanning electron microscopy]. 19863813438
[digestive disorder caused by schistosoma haematobium]. 19853875127
schistosoma japonicum: the pathology of experimental infection.the pathology of experimental schistosomiasis japonica is reviewed and compared with the pathology of schistosomiasis japonica in man and to some aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni and schistosomiasis haematobia in experimental animals. the induction of granulomas around schistosoma japonicum eggs depends upon cell mediated immunity, as do the reactions to schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma haematobium eggs. however, the modulation of the reaction to s. japonicum eggs can be greatly influenced ...19853881266
schistosoma haematobium: the pathology of experimental infection.the pathologic changes in experimental animals infected with schistosoma haematobium are reviewed and compared to the pathology in infected humans. the clinically important lesions in persons infected with s. haematobium are generally confined to the urogenital system. in experimental animals, functionally important lesions of the urogenital system are the exception but do occur in a significant proportion of infected primates. the acute lesions of the urinary tract in primates are similar to th ...19853882445
[parasitic hematuria in ancient egypt. interpretation in the light of recent studies]. 19853887222
comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using crude s. haematobium soluble egg antigen with a radioimmunoassay using purified s. mansoni egg antigen for the serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using crude schistosoma haematobium soluble egg antigen (shsea) was compared with a radioimmunoassay (ria) employing purified heterologous species s. mansoni egg antigen (msa1) for the serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis haematobium in a group of 45 nigerian school children living in an area endemic for s. haematobium. both assay systems appeared applicable. the elisa proved to be more sensitive detecting 100% of the 27 parasitologically positive individ ...19853894682
studies of surface antigens on adult schistosoma mansoni and schistosoma haematobium. 19853830680
concomitant immunohistochemical localization of fibronectin and collagen in schistosome granulomata.affinity purified antibodies to human collagen type i and iii and antihuman fibronectin, were employed immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissue containing schistosome granulomata. the distribution of the three connective tissue proteins was studied in 45 biopsies in which there was schistosoma haematobium (30) and schistosoma mansoni (15) infestation. the granulomata were divided into early, intermediate and late according to the proportion of inflammatory cell typ ...19853906066
evaluation of reagent strips in urine tests for detection of schistosoma haematobium infection: a comparative study in ghana and zambia.the presence of haematuria and proteinuria, detected by reagent strips, was compared with schistosoma haematobium egg counts in the urines of human subjects from two epidemiologically distinct areas in ghana and zambia. in children and adults in both areas, the individual or combined semiquantitative levels of proteinuria and haematuria were related directly to increasing urinary egg counts. in both areas the presence of blood in the urine was highly specific (greater than 85%) and sensitive, be ...19853872731
indirect screening for schistosoma haematobium infection: a comparative study in ghana and zambia.four indirect approaches, based on inquiry into a past history of haematuria, visual inspection for blood in the urine specimens, and the use of reagent strips to detect haematuria and proteinuria, were evaluated to identify persons with schistosoma haematobium infection. these approaches were applied individually and in three different screening sequences on two populations in ghana and zambia in order to identify infected children and adults for subsequent treatment in both areas. detection of ...19853872732
treatment with praziquantel of schoolchildren with concurrent schistosoma mansoni and s. haematobium infections in gezira, sudan.a field trial was conducted in sudan to evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of praziquantel given to schoolchildren aged 7-11 years who were all infected with both schistosoma mansoni and s. haematobium. two dosage regimes were compared, a single dose of 40 mg/kg bodyweight, and a divided dose 2 x 20 mg/kg given 4-6 h apart. when interviewed 24 h after treatment, 80% of the children complained of drug-induced abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea or vomiting. however none of the side-effects per ...19853897559
potential false positive egg-counts through the reuse of polyamide filters in the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.nytrel monofilament polyamide filters have recently been strongly advocated as a cheap reusable method for filtering urine in field studies of schistosoma haematobium endemic areas. we examined 1230 persons in a highly endemic area, filtering 10 ml urine through nytrel filters and counting the eggs retained. it was found that staining nytrel filters speeded up the counting process and made the detection of light infections much easier. after very careful washing and rinsing 12.0% of unstained fi ...19853936155
[urinary bilharziasis and sideropenic anemia. study of their relation in 2 villages in niger].in order to assess schistosoma haematobium as an aetiologic factor in sideropenic anaemias, we compared a village with high prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and a village without urinary schistosomiasis as a control. in the infested village, anaemias (haemoglobin value lower than 12 g/dl) especially affects children between 5 to 14 years old (71%:45/68). boys being the most infestated group with s. haematobium (prevalence:100%; mean egg output: 496 eggs/10 ml of urine) are also the most ana ...19853936632
in-vitro antibody-dependent killing of schistosomula of schistosoma haematobium by human eosinophils.schistosomula of s. haematobium have been shown to be susceptible to in vitro killing by eosinophils in the presence of serum from an infected individual. the highest level of killing was found after 48 h in culture. killing was related to the eosinophil to schistosomula ratio, being highest at 5000: 1. killing was also related to serum concentration, being highest at a 1/10 final dilution, falling to background levels at a 1/120 final dilution. at a cell: target ratio of 2000: 1 and at a serum ...19853937974
eosinophilia and resistance to schistosoma haematobium in man.we have measured the levels of infection with schistosoma haematobium in children resident in an endemic area of the gambia before and 3 months after successful chemotherapy and following reinfection. an exposure index was calculated from data collected on water contact, cercarial densities and infected snail densities at water contact sites. peripheral blood eosinophil levels were recorded and the ability of serum (heat inactivated) from the children to allow killing of schistosomula of s. haem ...19853937975
schistosoma haematobium infection and haemoglobin concentrations in a gambian community.specimens of urine and blood were collected from as many members as possible of a community living in an area of urinary schistosomiasis in the gambia. the light infections found in many of the subjects appeared to have little or no effect of haemoglobin levels, but some of the intense infections were associated with reduced haemoglobin levels. significant differences in haemoglobin levels between ova-positive and ova-negative subjects were apparent only in males aged from 15 to 44 years, and si ...19853938202
relationships of schistosoma haematobium, hookworm and malarial infections and metrifonate treatment to growth of kenyan school children.relationships of s. haematobium, hookworm and malarial infections to growth 6 months after metrifonate treatment were studied in kenyan primary school children in an area where poor growth, s. haematobium and hookworm were common and malaria was endemic. all children with light-moderate s. haematobium infections (1-500 eggs/10 ml adj) in 4 schools were examined (exam 1), allocated at random to either placebo (mip, n = 198) or metrifonate treatment (mit, n = 201) groups, treated, and examined aga ...19853938925
effect of praziquantel on hematuria and proteinuria in urinary five settlements on lake volta, ghana, 230 persons infected with s. haematobium were treated with either 30 or 40 mg/kg of praziquantel. both treatment regimes gave similar overall cure rates (60%) and reduction in geometric mean egg counts (92%) at a six-month follow-up. in this highly endemic area, 32% of the initial urine specimens were visibly bloody and only 4% remained bloody after treatment. geometric mean egg counts of visibly bloody urine specimens were two to six times higher than n ...19853938926
praziquantel for treatment of schistosomiasis in patients with advanced hepatosplenomegaly.we evaluated praziquantel for therapy of active schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 rural egyptian males with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. criteria for inclusion in this study were two pre-treatment s. mansoni egg counts with a mean of greater than 100 eggs g-1 faeces and an enlarged spleen. fourteen of 15 patients had hepatomegaly, five had ascites, and six had serum albumin below 3 g dl-1. schistosoma haematobium infection (less than 10 eggs ml-1 urine) was present in three patients. praziqu ...19853938936
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