identification and characterization of a trypanosoma congolense 46 kda protein as a candidate serodiagnostic antigen.trypanosoma congolense is a major livestock pathogen in africa, causing large economic losses with serious effects on animal health. reliable serodiagnostic tests are therefore urgently needed to control t. congolense infection. in this study, we have identified one t. congolense protein as a new candidate serodiagnostic antigen. the 46.4 kda protein (tcp46, gene id: tcil3000.0.25950) is expressed 5.36 times higher in metacyclic forms than epimastigote forms. the complete nucleotide sequences of ...201424492330
a proline racemase based pcr for identification of trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.a study was conducted to develop a trypanosoma vivax (t. vivax) specific pcr based on the t. vivax proline racemase (tvprac) gene. forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. to assess its specificity, tvprac pcr was conducted on dna extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: t. vivax from nigeria, ethiopia and venezuela, t. congolense savannah type, t. brucei brucei, t. evansi, t. equiperdum, t. theileri, theileria parva, anaplasma margina ...201424416292
vaccination with proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection.tick-borne pathogens cause diseases that greatly impact animal health and production worldwide. the ultimate goal of tick vaccines is to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. tick genetic traits are involved in vector-pathogen interactions and some of these molecules such as subolesin (sub) have been shown to protect against vector infestations and pathogen infection. based on these premises, herein we cha ...201324084474
maternal antibody uptake, duration and influence on survival and growth rate in a cohort of indigenous calves in a smallholder farming system in western kenya.the passive transfer of antibodies from dams to offspring via colostrum is believed to play an important role in protecting neonatal mammals from infectious disease. the study presented here investigates the uptake of colostrum by 548 calves in western kenya maintained under smallholder farming, an important agricultural system in eastern africa. serum samples collected from the calves and dams at recruitment (within the first week of life) were analysed for the presence of antibodies to four ti ...201323838470
seroprevalence and risk factors for cattle anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and trypanosomiasis in a brazilian semiarid region.the seroprevalence of anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and trypanosoma vivax and the risk factors for these infections were investigated in 509 cows on 37 farms in the semiarid region of paraíba, northeastern brazil. cow serum samples were tested by means of immunofluorescence assay (ifa) against each specific antigen. the mean seroprevalence values per farm were 15.0% (range: 0-75%) for a. marginale, 9.5% (range: 0-40%) for b. bigemina and 26.9% (range: 0-73.7%) for b. bovis ...201323802235
association of bola-drb3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. the objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of drb3.2 alleles in thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. specific primers to anaplasma marginale (a ...201323571121
molecular survey of bovine vector-borne pathogens in cebu, philippines.vector-borne diseases (vbds) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the philippines. in the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in cebu, philippines, for various vbd pathogens using specific pcr assays. the results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for anaplasma spp., babesia bigemina, babesia bovis, and trypanosoma (tr.) theileri, respectively. in ...201323499481
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method based on two species-specific primer sets for the rapid identification of chinese babesia bovis and b. bigemina.bovine babesiosis is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan disease that is mainly caused by babesia bovis and/or babesia bigemina and is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. this disease is widespread in most parts of china. however, it is difficult to rapidly discriminate between the b. bovis and b. bigemina species. to detect and distinguish these species, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) platform that targets specific sequences of the internal transcribed ...201222849831
prevalence and molecular detection of anaplasma marginale, babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle from puntarenas province, costa rica.a study was conducted in 2008 to determine the prevalence of anaplasma and babesia infections in cattle in the puntarenas province of costa rica. blood samples were taken from a total of 449 cattle during the month of march at 30 farms in the region of espiritu santu, costa rica. commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) were used to determine presence of antibodies to babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale, and real-time pcr was used to determine the presence of dna fr ...201222465150
molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in nigerian ticks.a molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two nigerian states (plateau and nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using pcr, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. a total of 218 tick samples, amblyomma variegatum (n=153), rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus (n=45), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=20) were sampled. pathogens identified in ticks included p ...201222326937
prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in central equatoria state, southern sudan.a participatory epidemiological (pe) study was conducted in kajo keji and yei counties, central equatoria state, southern sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. a serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the pe study. pe data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. constraint ...201222244519
subolesin/akirin vaccines for the control of arthropod vectors and vectorborne pathogens.diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health, and therefore, their control is important for the eradication of vectorborne diseases (vbd). vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several vbd by targeting their common vector. recent results have suggested that subolesin (sub) and its orthologue in insects, akirin (akr) are good candidate antigens for the control of ...201324589118
molecular characterization of babesia and theileria species in ticks collected in the outskirt of monte romano, lazio region, central 2012-2013, an investigation was carried out in the viterbo province, lazio region, on ticks and tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa of the babesia and theileria genera. this followed the reporting of high density of ticks by soldiers operating in a military shooting range, and the signaling by owners and local veterinary authorities of several cases of babesiosis among cattle.201728361802
identification of interchangeable cross-species function of elongation factor-1 alpha promoters in babesia bigemina and babesia bovis.tick-borne babesia bigemina is responsible for acute and potentially lethal hemolytic disease in cattle. the development of genetic manipulation tools necessary to the better understanding of parasite biology is currently limited by the lack of a complete parasite genome and experimental tools such as transfection. effective promoters, required to regulate expression of transgenes, such as the elongation factor-1 alpha (ef-1α), have been identified in other apicomplexans such as babesia bovis an ...201627835993
a pcr-based survey of animal african trypanosomosis and selected piroplasm parasites of cattle and goats in zambia.we screened cattle and goats from the districts of chama, monze and mumbwa in zambia for animal african trypanosomes, babesia bigemina and theileria parva using pcrs; 38.1% of the samples tested positive for at least one of the parasite species. the most common parasite was trypanosoma vivax (19.8%). its incidence was significantly higher in goats than in cattle, (p<0.05). b. bigemina was found in samples from all the three areas, making it the most widespread of the parasites in zambia. among t ...201727616437
molecular assays reveal the presence of theileria spp. and babesia spp. in asian water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis, linnaeus, 1758) in the amazon region of brazil.approximately 50% of buffalo herds in brazil are located in pará state in northern brazil. there are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. clinical disease caused by theileria and babesia parasites in the asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, ...201627344507
clinicopatho-biochemical alterations associated with subclinical babesiosis in dairy animals.present investigation is based on the clinicopatho-biochemical alteration related to natural tick borne bovine babesiosis in punjab state.201627308284
cholinesterases as markers of the inflammatory process associated oxidative stress in cattle infected by babesia bigemina.the objective of this study was to assess the influence of an asymptomatic experimental infection by babesia bigemina on cholinesterase's as markers of the inflammatory process and biomarkers of oxidative imbalance. for this purpose, eight naive animals were used, as follows: four as controls or uninfected; and four infected with an attenuated strain of b. bigemina. blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 11 post-inoculation (pi). parasitemia was determined by blood smear evaluation, showi ...201627260803
epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in vietnam.a pcr-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected babesia bigemina, theileria orientalis and trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in vietnam, and a new babesia sp. closely related to babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. in addition, theileria annulata and trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. phylogenetic analysis detected t. orientalis mpsp genotypes 3, 5, 7 and n3 in cattle and 5, 7, n1 and n2 in water buffalo. additionally, water buffa ...201627149894
a promising new elisa diagnostic test for cattle babesiosis based on babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1.babesiosis due to babesia bigemina is a relevant tick-borne disease, affecting cattle worldwide. many surface proteins of the pathogen including the apical membrane antigen 1 (ama-1) - have been analysed for vaccine and diagnostic purposes. this study focused on b. bigemina ama-1 and on its use for the assessment of diagnostic tests. after bioinformatic analyses, ama-1 codifying region was amplified and cloned into an expression vector used to induce protein synthesis in escherichia coli cells. ...201727033532
identification and characterization of profilin antigen among babesia species as a common vaccine candidate against babesiosis.we have characterized a member of the profilin (prof) family protein as a common antigen in three pathogens-babesia bovis (b. bovis), babesia bigemina (b. bigemina), and babesia microti (b. microti)-and evaluated its immunogenic and cross-protective properties against a challenge infection with b. microti in balb/c mice. the recombinant prof proteins of b. bovis, b. bigemina, and b. microti were successfully expressed in escherichia coli (e. coli) as soluble gst fusion proteins (rbboprof, rbbigp ...201627003460
modeling of babesipain-1 and identification of natural and synthetic leads for bovine babesiosis drug development.babesiosis is a tick-borne, zoonotic disease caused by species of the intraerythrocytic protozoan babesia. it is distributed all around the world and affects various domestic and wild animals, mainly cattle. recently, the cysteine protease enzyme, babesipain-1 from babesia bigemina has been identified as a potential target for designing new anti-babesiosis drugs. in the present study, a three-dimensional structural model of babesipain-1 was developed. an active site with three pockets (s1, s2, a ...201626969677
improvement of the cryopreservation method for the babesia gibsoni parasite by using commercial freezing vitro cultivation and cryopreservation under liquid nitrogen have already been reported and established for babesia bovis and babesia bigemina parasites. although the in vitro cultivation methods for babesia gibsoni have been reported and established, the cryopreservation methods for this parasite have not been established completely. in this paper, we compared several freezing media for the cryopreservation of b. gibsoni parasite. the cellbanker® series (1 plus and 2), stem-cellbanker®, and ...201626921519
rapid and sensitive detection of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.babesia spp. are apicomplexan protozoan parasites of the red blood cells of mammals and are transmitted by ticks. bovine babesiosis mainly caused by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina occurs worldwide, which is a great threat to animal health. microscopy examination is a gold standard for the diagnosis of babesiosis. however, its sensitivity is too low. this study was conducted to establish a simple, efficient and fast lamp-lfp method used for early diagnosis of animal babesiosis. lamp was devel ...201626921043
babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infection levels estimated by qpcr in angus cattle from an endemic area of são paulo state, brazil.the levels of infection by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina were estimated by absolute quantification through the quantitative pcr technique (qpcr). fifty-one contemporaneous angus cattle were evaluated on two occasions. the number of standard female rhipicephalus microplus ticks present on the left side of the body was counted and blood samples were drawn from the tail vein into tubes containing the anticoagulant edta. the blood samples were submitted to dna extraction and used to quantify th ...201626907097
identification of piroplasm infection in questing ticks by rlb: a broad range extension of tick-borne piroplasm in china?sensitive and specific diagnostic method for rapid and simultaneous detection and discrimination of the different species is needed for an effective control of piroplasmosis. here, a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was developed for piroplasm detection. a general pair of primer based on 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was used to amplify v4 region of 18s rrna gene. general and specific probes for 13 piroplasm species were cited from previous publications or designed according to the alignment of 18s ...201626896077
molecular and serological detection of babesia bovis- and babesia bigemina-infection in bovines and water buffaloes raised jointly in an endemic field.babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatal resulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. under endemic stability conditions, herds contain high numbers of chronically infected, asymptomatic carrier animals, in which no parasitemia is detected by microscopic blood smear examination. in addition to bovines, also water bu ...201626827869
evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effect of enoxacin on babesia and theileria parasites.enoxacin is a broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent (fluoroquinolones) structurally related to nalidixic acid used mainly in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. also it has been shown recently that it may have cancer inhibiting effect. the primary antibabesial effect of enoxacin is due to inhibition of dna gyrase subunit a, and dna topoisomerase. in the present study, enoxacin was tested as a potent inhibitor against the in vitro growth of bovine and equ ...201626724376
molecular survey of babesia infections in cattle from different areas of myanmar.cattle babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne diseases worldwide. the present study reports a molecular survey of babesia infections in cattle in myanmar. nested pcr assays based on the babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1 gene (ama-1) and b. bovis rhoptry associated protein-1 gene (rap-1) revealed that the overall percentage of b. bigemina and b. bovis infection were 9.8% (70/713) and 17.1% (122/713), respectively. a mixed infection was detected in 4.6% (33/713) of animals. an ...201626530983
molecular epidemiology of bovine babesia spp. and theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern thailand.beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in thailand. their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. in this study, we determined the prevalence of babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for babesia spp. and genetic diversity of t. orientalis. fur ...201626475202
molecular and parasitological survey of bovine piroplasms in the black sea region, including the first report of babesiosis associated with babesia divergens in turkey.clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine babesia and theileria parasites was determined in cattle. blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. in addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. dna isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for babesia and theileri ...201526336265
serologic evidence for babesia bigemina infection in wild yak (bos mutus) in qinghai province, china.piroplasmosis, caused by tick-borne protozoan parasites of the genera theileria and babesia, is one of the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in china. we evaluated the prevalence of antibodies to babesia bigemina in wild yaks (bos mutus) from qinghai province, china. of 91 samples, 24% had detectable b. bigemina antibodies, and significant differences in prevalence were observed between those older than 5 yr and those younger than 5 yr. we collected 1,679 ticks belongi ...201526267460
in vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of babesia bigemina sporokinetes in hemocytes of rhipicephalus microplus.cultures of tick hemocytes represent alternative cell lines for the isolation and cultivation of a variety of hemoparasites. the present study reports the development and evaluation of methods for the in vitro culture and maintenance of sporokinetes of babesia bigemina in association with hemocytes of the tick rhipicephalus microplus. hemolymph, from engorged females infected with b. bigemina sporokinetes, was incubated at 28 °c in l15 culture medium supplemented with 40% fetal bovine serum. adh ...201526198431
tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul, midwestern brazil.anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. the present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and hepatozoon spp. dna in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul, midwestern brazil. between january and april 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two with ...201526187416
molecular characterization of the israeli b. bigemina vaccine strain and field isolates.the present study demonstrated the genetic character of the israeli babesia bigemina vaccine strain and field isolates, based on rap-1a and rap-1c gene sequences. the rap-1a of blood-derived israeli b. bigemina field isolates shared 100% amino acid sequence identity. however, comparison of rap-1c from various israeli b. bigemina field isolates revealed that the total sequence identity among the field isolates ranged from 98.2 to 100%. high identity was observed when rap-1a sequences from the isr ...201526154404
bmvdac upregulation in the midgut of rhipicephalus microplus, during infection with babesia bigemina.the molecular mechanisms involved during the infection of rhipicephalus microplus midgut cells by babesia bigemina are of great relevance and currently unknown. in a previous study, we found a voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac)-like protein (bmvdac) that may participate during parasite invasion of midgut cells. in this work, we investigated bmvdac expression at both mrna and protein levels and examined bmvdac localization in midgut cells of ticks infected with b. bigemina at different times ...201526141408
babesia bigemina infection in a 14-day old jersey crossbred calf: a case report.babesia bigemina infection was diagnosed in a 14-day old jersey female calf. the infected calf showed clinical symptoms of high fever, increased respiratory rate, pale conjunctival mucous membrane and haemoglobinuria. blood smears were prepared and subjected for giemsas staining method. microscopic examination of the stained blood smear confirmed the characteristic intra-erythrocytic b. bigemina organisms.201526064014
co-immunization of cattle with a vaccine against babesiosis and lactobacillus casei increases specific igg1 levels to babesia bovis and b. bigemina.the effect of lactobacillus casei administered along with a live attenuated vaccine vs. bovine babesiosis (vac) on induction of igg1 and igg2 antibodies to babesia bovis and babesia bigemina was assessed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) in bovines of an endemic babesiosis area before (day 0) and after vaccination (days 15 and 30). we previously reported that l. casei increases the efficiency of vac under controlled conditions and under extreme conditions in the field; however, th ...201525936971
first report of babesia bigemina infection in white yaks in china.white yaks, a unique yak breed and the pearl of the plateau, only live in tianzhu tibetan autonomous county (ttac), gansu province, northwest china, contributing significantly to local economy. however, there was no information on the prevalence of babesia bigemina in white yaks. in this study, a total of 974 serum samples collected from white yaks in ttac were examined for specific antibodies against b. bigemina using a commercially available elisa kit. the overall seroprevalence of b. bigemina ...201525700713
detection of babesia bigemina infection in cattle from north-eastern india by polymerase chain reaction and its genetic relatedness with other isolates.a total of 333 blood samples were collected from cattle suspected for haemoprotozoan infections from three states of north-eastern part of india. all the samples were examined for diagnosis of babesia bigemina infection using pcr for detection of specific dna. out of these, 12 (3.60%) samples were found positive for b. bigemina dna on pcr using the organism-specific primers derived from 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene of b. bigemina. an expected size of 1124-bp pcr product was visualized on agaros ...201525663024
tick-borne diseases in syntopic populations of fallow deer (dama dama) and axis deer (axis axis) in northern mexico.we harvested 21 fallow deer (dama dama) and 17 axis deer (axis axis) in northern mexico. two fallow deer were positive for babesia bigemina and one for babesia bovis. amplicons had the expected 170 and 291 base pairs and were identical to b. bigemina (s45366) and b. bovis (m38218), respectively.201525647599
functional genomics of tick vectors challenged with the cattle parasite babesia bigemina.ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites considered as vectors of animal diseases, having a huge economic impact in cattle industry. babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of animals and in humans. control of tick infestations is mainly based on the use of acaricides, which have limited efficacy reducing tick infestations, mostly due to wrong usage, and is often accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks, environmental co ...201525399115
molecular and seroepidemiological survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections in cattle and water buffaloes in the central region of the present study, a total of 137 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffaloes in central region of vietnam and tested using nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. in cattle, the prevalence of b. bovis and b. bigemina was 21.3% and 16.0% by npcr, 73.4% and 42.6% by elisa and 60.6% and 59.6% by ifa ...201425382466
an epidemiological survey of bovine babesia and theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in egypt.cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. in this study, we analyzed the infection rates of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, and theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific pcr assays in blood-dna samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in menoufia, behera, giza, and sohag provinces of egypt. in cattle, the p ...201525305419
artificial feeding of rhipicephalus microplus female ticks with anti calreticulin serum do not influence tick and babesia bigemina acquisition.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites considered the principal vectors of disease among animals. rhipicephalus microplus and r. annulatus ticks are the most important vectors for babesia bigemina and b. bovis, two of the most important intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites species in cattle, responsible for babesiosis which together with anaplasmosis account for substantial economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. anti-tick vaccines are a proved alternative to traditional t ...201525262467
molecular identification of theileria and babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the black sea region of turkey.a molecular survey was undertaken in the black sea region of turkey to determine the presence of theileria and babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. the ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by pcr-based reverse line blot (rlb) and sequencing. a total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (mle ...201525260692
vaccines against bovine babesiosis: where we are now and possible roads ahead.summary bovine babesiosis caused by the tick-transmitted haemoprotozoans babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and babesia divergens commonly results in substantial cattle morbidity and mortality in vast world areas. although existing live vaccines confer protection, they have considerable disadvantages. therefore, particularly in countries where large numbers of cattle are at risk, important research is directed towards improved vaccination strategies. here a comprehensive overview of currently used ...201425068315
evaluation of the inhibitory effects of miltefosine on the growth of babesia and theileria parasites.miltefosine, a membrane-active synthetic ether-lipid analogue, has antiproliferative and antiparasitic effects. in this study, the inhibitory effects of miltefosine were evaluated against three babesia species and theileria equi in vitro and against babesia microti in mice. the drug showed significant growth inhibition from an initial parasitemia of 1% for babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia caballi, and t. equi with ic50 values of 25, 10.2, 10.4, and 99 μm, respectively. complete inhibitio ...201424938827
typification of virulent and low virulence babesia bigemina clones by 18s rrna and rap-1c.the population structure of original babesia bigemina isolates and reference strains with a defined phenotypic profile was assessed using 18s rrna and rap-1c genes. two reference strains, bbis2p-c (virulent) and bbis1a-c (low virulence), were biologically cloned in vitro. the virulence profile of the strains and clones was assessed in vivo. one fully virulent and one low-virulence clone were mixed in identical proportions to evaluate their growth efficiency in vitro. each clone was differentiate ...201424681200
a pcr method targeting internal transcribed spacers: the simultaneous detection of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis in this study, two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacers (itss) of babesia bigemina and b. bovis isolates from china. the primers were used in a multiplex pcr to detect parasite dna in blood samples from cattle. there was no cross reactions with b. ovata, b. major, b. sp. kashi, theileria annulata, t. sergenti, t. sinensis or normal bovine dna. the sensitivity of multiplex pcr assay was 1 pg and 10 pg dna for b. bi ...201424570060
diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen tegm6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen tegm6-4r in t. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. tegm6-4r-based elisa was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from w ...201424524896
genetic characterization of babesia and theileria parasites in water buffaloes in sri lanka.water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. in the present study, we surveyed sri lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, and theileria orientalis using parasite-specific pcr assays. when 320 blood-derived dna samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (polonnaruwa, mannar, and mullaitivu) of sri lanka were pcr screened, b. bovis, b. bigemina, and t ...201424365246
artemisone inhibits in vitro and in vivo propagation of babesia bovis and b. bigemina parasites.artemisone was evaluated, in in vitro and in vivo, for control of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia bigemina and babesia bovis parasites. in vitro, artemisone reduced parasitemia in a dose-dependent manner: the inhibitory effects increased gradually, reaching a maximum inhibition of 99.6% and 86.4% for b. bigemina and b. bovis, respectively 72 h after initiation of treatment with initial parasitemia of 0.5%. in calves infected with either b. bigemina or b. bovis artemisone treatment was well t ...201324184077
inhibitory effect of allicin on the growth of babesia and theileria equi parasites.allicin is an active ingredient of garlic that has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal activity. however, the inhibitory effects of allicin on babesia parasites have not yet been examined. in the present study, allicin was tested as a potent inhibitor against the in vitro growth of bovine and equine babesia parasites and the in vivo growth of babesia microti in a mouse model. the in vitro growth of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia caballi, or theileria equi was inhibi ...201424173810
toward the discovery of inhibitors of babesipain-1, a babesia bigemina cysteine protease: in vitro evaluation, homology modeling and molecular docking studies.babesia bigemina is a protozoan parasite that causes babesiosis, a disease with a world-wide distribution in mammals, principally affecting cattle and man. the unveiling of the genome of b. bigemina is a project in active progress that has already revealed a number of new targets with potential interest for the design of anti-babesiosis drugs. in this context, babesipain-1 has been identified as a proteolytically active enzyme whose three-dimensional structure has not been resolved yet, but whic ...201324129820
molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis in cattle and water buffalos under small-scale dairy farming in beheira and faiyum provinces, order to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffalos in beheira and faiyum provinces in egypt and examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in cattle, the prevalence of b. bigemina and b. bovis was 5.30% and 3.97% by npcr and 10.60% and 9.27% by elisa, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 10.42% and 4.17 ...201324075417
nested pcr detection and phylogenetic analysis of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle from peri-urban localities in gauteng province, south africa.babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are tick-borne hemoparasites causing babesiosis in cattle worldwide. this study was aimed at providing information about the occurrence and geographical distribution of b. bovis and b. bigemina species in cattle from gauteng province, south africa. a total of 268 blood samples collected from apparently healthy animals in 14 different peri-urban localities were tested using previously established nested pcr assays for the detection of b. bovis and b. bigemina sp ...201424065081
molecular characterization and antigenic properties of a novel babesia gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (bggarp).identification and molecular characterization of babesia gibsoni proteins with potential antigenic properties are crucial for the development and validation of the serodiagnostic method. in this study, we isolated a cdna clone encoding a novel b. gibsoni 76-kda protein by immunoscreening of the parasite cdna library. computer analysis revealed that the protein presents a glutamic acid-rich region in the c-terminal. therefore, the protein was designated as b. gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (b ...201323968686
molecular diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis hemoparasites from cattle in south africa.babesia parasites, mainly babesia bovis and b. bigemina, are tick-borne hemoparasites inducing bovine babesiosis in cattle globally. the clinical signs of the disease include, among others, anemia, fever and hemoglobinuria. babesiosis is known to occur in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. in this study, we aim to provide information about the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of b. bigemina and b. bovis species in cattle from different locations in nine provinces of south afr ...201323927555
pcr detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in vietnam.hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. in the present study, we conducted a pcr-based survey of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, theileria orientalis, trypanosoma evansi and trypanosoma theileri, using 423 dna samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the hue and hanoi provinces of vietnam. with the exception of t. annulata and t. evansi, all other parasite speci ...201323856762
differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion ccp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi.members of the ccp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan plasmodium parasites. knocking out plasmodium ccp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the ccp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. apicomplexans babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. bovine babesio ...201323844089
molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil.bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused mainly by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina, which are associated to considerable economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. approximately 60% of buffalo herds in south america are located in northern brazil. little is known about the impact of babesiosis on buffalo herds in brazil. the present work aimed to verify the occurrence of b. bovis and b. bigemina in 542 water buffaloes in the state of pará, northern brazil, using molecular and serologi ...201323790545
inhibitory effect of cyclophilin a from the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis on the growth of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.haemaphysalis longicornis is known as one of the most important ticks transmitting babesia parasites in east asian countries, including babesia ovata and babesia gibsoni, as well as theileria parasites. h. longicornis is not the natural vector of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. vector ticks and transmitted parasites are thought to have established unique host-parasite interaction for their survival, meaning that vector ticks may have defensive molecules for the growth control of parasites in ...201323532543
epidemiological survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections of cattle in philippines.a total of 250 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle in five provinces of philippines. dna was extracted from the samples and analyzed by nested pcr assays for an epidemiological survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections. out of the 250 samples, 27 (10.8%) and 16 (6.4%) were positive for b. bovis infection and b. bigemina infection, respectively. mixed infections were detected in a total of 4 samples (1.6%). our data provide baseline information regarding the ...201323470278
babesia bigemina infection in yak (poephagus grunniens l.): molecular detection and characterization.yaks contribute significantly in the himalayan high land economy. specific information on prevalence of babesiosis in yaks is lacking. a fast and reliable pcr assay targeting babesia bigemina small subunit ribosomal rna sequence (ss rrna) was laboratory standardized for molecular detection of b. bigemina in yaks. restriction digestion of the pcr amplified 675 bp target sequence with vsp i confirmed the prevalent species of babesia as b. bigemina. nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis o ...201323298564
evaluation of in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of fusidic acid on babesia and theileria parasites.fusidic acid known to has antibacterial, antifungal, and antimalarial activities. fusidic acid blocks translation elongation factor g gene in plasmodium falciparum. in the present study, the inhibitory effects of fusidic acid on the in vitro growth of bovine and equine babesia parasites were evaluated. the inhibitory effect of fusidic acid on the in vivo growth of babesia microti was also assessed. the in vitro growth of four babesia species that were tested was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) ...201322985928
monitoring piroplasms infection in three cattle farms in minorca (balearic islands, spain) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis.bovine piroplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by parasites of the genera theileria and babesia. three friesian cattle farms (f1-f3) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis were selected in minorca (balearic islands, spain). blood samples were collected from 8 to 11 animals every two months throughout a year and, a newly developed multiplex dna bead-based suspension array based on the luminex(®) xmap technology was used to monitor for the presence of piroplasms. the assay i ...201222884914
expression and immunological characterization of the heat shock protein-70 homologue from babesia bigemina.the babesia bigemina heat shock protein-70 gene (bbighsp-70) was cloned from cdna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequenced. the length of the gene is 1947 bp and the predicted polypeptide is 649 amino acids long with a calculated molecular weight of 70.85 kda. bbighsp-70 has a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of bbighsp-70 showed that b. bigemina was most closely related to b. caballi and b. bovis and lies within a phylogenetic cluster wi ...201222819586
cloning and characterization of histone deacetylase from babesia bovis.the effect of inhibitors of histone deacetylase (hdac) on apicomplexa has been previously reported with the discovery of apicidin, a cyclic tetrapeptide having broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity. in the current study, we expressed babesia bovis (b. bovis) recombinant-hdac 3 (rbbhdac3) as a gst-fusion protein in escherichia coli (e. coli) and found that it was antigenic. an antiserum against the recombinant protein was generated in mice. the mice serum demonstrated the presence of hdac in b. b ...201222818786
a pcr-based survey of selected babesia and theileria parasites in cattle in sri lanka.hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. we screened sri lankan cattle populations for the presence of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, and theileria orientalis, using species-specific pcr assays. out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of sri lanka (nuwara eliya, polonnaruwa, ampara, and jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. all four parasite species were detected among th ...201222673106
molecular detection and identification of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle in northern thailand.although babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections cause economic losses in the cattle industry in northern thailand, there is inadequate information on babesia isolates present in the area. therefore, to determine the prevalence and genetic relationship between babesia isolates, we screened 200 blood samples of cattle from chiang rai, chiang mai, and lumpang provinces of northern thailand. a nested polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting b. bovis spherical body protein 2 (bbosbp2) ...201222645033
apicoplast-targeting antibacterials inhibit the growth of babesia parasites.the apicoplast housekeeping machinery, specifically apicoplast dna replication, transcription, and translation, was targeted by ciprofloxacin, thiostrepton, and rifampin, respectively, in the in vitro cultures of four babesia species. furthermore, the in vivo effect of thiostrepton on the growth cycle of babesia microti in balb/c mice was evaluated. the drugs caused significant inhibition of growth from an initial parasitemia of 1% for babesia bovis, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic(50)s) ...201222391527
the identification of a vdac-like protein involved in the interaction of babesia bigemina sexual stages with rhipicephalus microplus midgut cells.we investigated the interaction of rhipicephalus microplus midgut cells with babesia bigemina sexual stages using a proteomic approach. a polypeptide from the r. microplus midgut that binds to proteins from b. bigemina sexual stages was identified and sequenced. combining 2d overlay and tandem mass spectrometry (ms/ms) techniques, we determined that this polypeptide corresponds to a mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (vdac). the vdac gene encoding the sequenced polypeptide w ...201222336772
genetic detection of babesia bigemina from mongolian cattle using apical membrane antigen-1 gene-based pcr assay.we developed a new nested pcr (npcr) assay based on the babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1 (ama-1) gene sequence for parasite-specific detection. the primers were designed to amplify 738-bp and 211-bp fragments of the ama-1 gene by primary and nested pcrs, respectively. the assay was proven to be specific for the b. bigemina, whereas the previously established spei-avai npcr assay amplified not only the target fragment of b. bigemina but also a homologous one from babesia ovata. the ama- ...201222284301
evaluation of the inhibitory effect of n-acetyl-l-cysteine on babesia and theileria parasites.n-acetyl-l-cysteine is known to have antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial, and antioxidant activities. therefore, the in vitro inhibitory effect of this hit was evaluated in the present study on the growth of babesia and theileria parasites. the in vitro growth of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens, theileria equi, and babesia caballi that were tested was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by micromolar concentrations of n-acetyl-l-cysteine. the inhibitory effect of n-acetyl-l- ...201728655583
inhibition of the in vitro growth of babesia bigemina, babesia caballi and theileria equi parasites by trifluralin analogues.bovine and equine babesiosis caused by babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and babesia caballi, along with equine theileriosis caused by theileria equi are global tick-borne hemoprotozoan diseases characterized by fever, anemia, weight losses and abortions. a common feature of these diseases are transition from acute to chronic phases, in which parasites may persist in the hosts for life. antiprotozoal drugs are important for managing infection and disease. previous research demonstrated that triflu ...201728416183
a historical overview of research on babesia orientalis, a protozoan parasite infecting water buffalo.babesiosis is a globally important zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of the genus babesia (phylum apicomplexa). in china, there are five species that infect cattle buffalo and cause great economic loss, which include babesia bigemina, b. bovis, b. major, b. ovata, and b. orientalis. among them, b. orientalis is the most recently identified new babesia species epidemic in china. this review summarized the work done in the past 33 years to give an overview of what l ...201728769894
seasonal prevalence of blood parasitic diseases in crossbred cattle of mysore and its surrounding districts of karnataka.the present study report the seasonal prevalence of blood parasitic diseases in cross bred cattle in mysore and its surrounding districts of karnataka such as mandya, chamaraj nagar and kodagu. the study was undertaken for a period of 2 years from august 2013 to july 2015. a total of 1655 blood samples were collected from clinically suspected cattle for blood parasitic diseases with clinical symptoms of anorexia, high fever, anaemia, salivation, enlargement of superficial lymphnodes, haemoglobin ...201728848277
flavonoid and galloyl glycosides isolated from saxifraga spinulosa and their antioxidative and inhibitory activities against species that cause piroplasmosis.eight new flavonoid-based 3'-o-β-d-glucopyranosides (1-8) and three new galloyl glucosides (9, 11, 12), were isolated from the aerial parts of saxifraga spinulosa, along with 25 known compounds. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. most of the isolated compounds exhibited potent dpph radical-scavenging activities. further, their inhibitory activities were evaluated against babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia caballi, and theileria equi, protozoan par ...201728832147
recovery of bovine babesia spp. after long-term cryostorage and comparison of bovine donor erythrocytes and serum.cultured babesia bovis and babesia bigemina were recovered from liquid nitrogen storage nearly 30 years after they were cryopreserved. four cattle were compared as donors of erythrocytes and serum for microaerophilous stationary phase (masp) cultures for recovery of b. bigemina. erythrocytes and serum from only one (#913) of the four animals supported growth of b. bigemina. two b. bigemina (frozen in 1986 and 1987) and two b. bovis (both frozen in 1986) cryostocks were recovered from liquid nitr ...201728807277
characterization of tabanid flies (diptera: tabanidae) in south africa and zambia and detection of protozoan parasites they are harbouring.tabanids are haematophagous flies feeding on livestock and wildlife. in the absence of information on the relationship of tabanid flies and protozoan parasites in south africa and zambia, the current study was aimed at characterizing tabanid flies collected in these two countries as well as detecting protozoan parasites they are harbouring. a total of 527 tabanid flies were collected whereby 70·2% were from south africa and 29·8% were from zambia. morphological analysis revealed a total of five ...201728502276
evaluation of immunochromatographic test (ict) strips for the serological detection of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infection in cattle from western java, indonesia.three types of immunochromatographic test (ict) strips were prepared for the detection of an antibody response against spherical body protein 4 (sbp-4) of babesia bovis (bovict), c-terminal-truncated rhoptry-associated protein 1 (rrap1/ct17) of b. bigemina (bigict), and the combination of both proteins (dual-ict). the evaluation of their performance was conducted using a confirmed positive and negative serum panel for b. bovis and b. bigemina. together with elisa, the ict strips were applied to ...201728413078
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