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infection and seroconversion of susceptible animals introduced into a babesiosis endemic area.the study aimed to determine the incubation period of babesia sp. infection in naive cattle and to monitor the serological response once exposed to natural boophilus microplus (rhipicephalus microplus)-infested paddocks. the study was carried out on a farm located in veracruz, mexico. five groups of five steers were relocated every 3 months from a tick-free area to a tick-infested paddock. animals were introduced in october, january, april, july, and october. blood samples were taken daily until ...200819120191
expression analysis of heat shock protein 20 and rhoptry-associated protein 1a in sexual stages and kinetes of babesia bigemina.heat shock protein 20 (hsp-20) and rhoptry-associated protein 1a (rap-1a) are two proteins considered as candidates to be included in vaccines or diagnostics methods for the control of bovine babesiosis. it has been hypothesized that both genes have a basic function in the cellular physiology of erythrocyte-infecting stages; it is not known if they have a functional role in tick stages. the objective of this work was to analyze whether hsp-20 and rap-1a are expressed in sexual stages and kinetes ...200819120192
improved molecular tools for detection of babesia bigemina.molecular detection of babesia bigemina involves a nested pcr protocol and reverse line blot hybridization (rlbh) assay based on the 18s gene. in this study, we report the development of molecular tools for improving b. bigemina detection in bovine blood-a one-step pcr assay based on the amplification of rap-1a paralogous and a new rlbh babesia spp. 18s probe. the one-step pcr assay is highly specific, with an estimated analytical sensitivity corresponding to 0.00002% parasitemia. the rlbh assay ...200819120197
productivity and health effects of anaplasmosis and babesiosis on bos indicus cattle and their crosses, and the effects of differing intensity of tick control in australia.tick fever is an important disease of cattle where rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus acts as a vector for the three causal organisms babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale. bos indicus cattle and their crosses are more resistant to the clinical effects of infection with b. bovis and b. bigemina than are bos taurus cattle. resistance is not complete, however, and herds of b. indicus-cross cattle are still at risk of babesiosis in environments where exposure to b. bovis is light ...200818472219
detection of babesia bigemina in cattle of different genetic groups and in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus tick.babesia bigemina infections were investigated in four genetic groups of beef cattle and in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus engorged female ticks. blood samples and engorged female ticks were collected from 15 cows and 15 calves from each of the following genetic groups: nelore, angus x nelore, canchim x nelore, and simmental x nelore. microscopic examination of blood smears and tick hemolymph revealed that merozoites of b. bigemina (6/60) as well as kinetes of babesia spp. (9/549) were only ...200818565674
epidemiology of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern mexico.rhipicephalus (boophilus) ticks are the vectors of babesiosis (cattle fever tick), which are distributed worldwide. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are important secondary hosts for the cattle fever tick species rhipicephalus (b.) annulatus and rhipicephalus (b.) microplus. white-tailed deer are capable of sustaining boophilus tick populations in the presence or absence of cattle. the objectives of this study were to 1) determine the frequency of b. bovis and b. bigemina and the preva ...200818795810
development of a rapid immunochromatographic test for simultaneous serodiagnosis of bovine babesioses caused by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.with the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (boiict) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of babesia bovis- and babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using b. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and b. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. the boiict selectively detected specific antibodies to b. bovis and b. bigemina. all sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., cryptosporidium parv ...200818187794
parasitic infections in dairy cattle around hanoi, northern vietnam.in northern vietnam, dairy cattle are mainly managed in small-scale farms, where animals are kept confined and feeding occurs by cut and carry methods. in the present study the occurrence of parasitic infections was examined in five provinces around hanoi. a total of 201 farms were visited, and 334 stool and 239 blood samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months, animals between 3 and 24 months and adult cows. furthermore, 254 milk samples were collected from lactating animals. copro ...200818328629
comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and slide enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (selisa) for diagnosis of babesia bigemina infection in bovines.an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and slide enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (selisa) were standardized for the detection of antibodies specific to babesia bigemina in experimentally infected bovine calves and subsequently used for the screening of naturally infected bovine and bubaline sera. in experimentally infected calves positive reactivity was detected in sera at the earliest on day 7 by both the tests. serological studies for detection of b. bigemina specific antibodies in 180 ...200919115088
babesia bigemina: in vitro multiplication of sporokinetes in ixodes scapularis (ide8) cells.this paper describes the in vitro multiplication process of babesia bigemina sporokinetes in a cell line (ide8) from ixodes scapularis ticks. the inoculum was obtained from hemolymph of engorged females of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus ticks naturally infected with b. bigemina. these ticks had been fed on calves living in a tick endemic farm in brazil. microscopic morphological details are shown to describe the development of the parasite in the tick cells; the identity of the parasite was ...200919324040
detection of tick blood parasites in egypt using pcr assay i--babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are distributed all over the world; the etiologic agents of the animal babesiosis are considered the most important tick-borne disease. the present research work was the first attempt to determine the prevalence of b. bovis and b. bigemina infection in ticks, in egypt, by using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). questing 5,243 hard and soft ticks were collected from different localities throughout the giza governorate. furthermore, dna from 500 different individu ...200919415329
epizootiology of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern mexico.species of rhipicephalus (boophilus) ticks are the vectors of babesiosis (cattle fever tick), which are distributed worldwide. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are important secondary hosts for the cattle fever ticks, rhipicephalus (b.) annulatus and rhipicephalus (b.) microplus. white-tailed deer are capable of sustaining boophilus spp. tick populations in the presence or absence of cattle. the objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of babesia bovis and babesia bigem ...200919642800
erythrocytic oxidative damage in crossbred cattle naturally infected with babesia bigemina.this study aimed to determine the erythrocytic lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin oxidation as contributory factors causing anaemia in cattle (friesian x egyptian native breed) infected with babesia bigemina. blood was collected from 32 cows infected with b. bigemina along with 18 healthy cows as controls for determination of erythrocytic malondialdehyde (mda), blood methaemoglobin (methb), plasma free haemoglobin (phb), corpuscular osmotic fragility (cof), red blood cell count (rbc), total haem ...200918599097
pcr-based detection of blood parasites in cattle and adult rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks.to ascertain the infection rate for tick-borne pathogens in zambia, an epidemiological survey of theileria parva, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale in traditionally managed sanga cattle was conducted using pcr. of the 71 native zambian cattle, 28 (39.4%) were positive for t. parva, 16 (22.5%) for b. bigemina and 34 (47.9%) for a. marginale. the mixed infection rate in cattle was 8.5% (6/71), 16.9% (12/71), 7.0% (5/71) and 2.8% (2/71) for t. parva/b. bigemina, t. parva/a. marginale, b. big ...200918700182
molecular and antigenic characterisation of ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 from babesia bovis.babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen that remains an important constraint for the development of cattle industries in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. effective control can be achieved by vaccination with live attenuated phenotypes of the parasite. however, these phenotypes have a number of drawbacks, which justifies the search for new, more efficient immunogens based mainly on recombinant protein technology. in the present paper, ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 from a brazilian isol ...200920027467
seroprevalence of tick-borne diseases among cattle in the sudan.this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of theileria annulata, theileria mutans, babesia bigemina, and anaplasma marginale antibodies among cattle in the sudan. a total of 600 serum samples were collected from indigenous (zebu) and crossbred cattle (zebu x friesian) of both sex and different age groups. indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess antibodies against tick-borne diseases in apparently healthy cattle. the overall prevalence rates of t. annulata, t. m ...200919030878
mediterranean theileriosis and other tick transmitted piroplasmoses in cattle in minorca (balearic islands, spain): the effect of tick control on prevalence levels analyzed by reverse line blot (rlb) macroarrays.mediterranean theileriosis, caused by theileria annulata, is endemic in minorca (balearic islands, spain). the present study analyzes the prevalence of piroplasm infections in cattle in minorca using reverse line blot (rlb) macroarrays, as well as the effect of herd tick control on those prevalence levels. one hundred and nineteen animals from 12 herds were sampled in representative areas of the island. information was gathered regarding tick control for the animals (frequency and acaricide used ...200919086744
viability assays of intra-erythrocytic organisms using fluorescent dyes.three intra-erythrocytic tick fever organisms of cattle (babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale) were subjected to a range of stressors, including heat, storage over time, specific chemotherapy and cryopreservation. various stains, both alone and in combination, were used in an attempt to assess viability of these organisms before and after the stressors were applied. carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (cfse) stained live babesia spp. very well while fluorescein diac ...200919380205
comparative moleculo-immunological analysis of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes responses.this moleculo-epidemiological and immunological study through cytokine response assessment was done to know the dynamics of cytokines in the initiation, persistence and association to physiological changes of a particular pathogen in water buffaloes. this is important to understand the magnitude and behavior of disease progression. water buffalo blood samples gathered from different places in the philippines revealed a 9.4%, 27.6%, 10.3% and 4.4% prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), ...200919285880
evaluation of babesia bigemina 200 kda recombinant antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a truncated fragment of the gene encoding the 200-kda protein (p200) of babesia bigemina was cloned into a plasmid vector, pgex-4 t-1 and expressed in escherichia coli as a glutathione-s-transferase fused protein. an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using the rp200/ct detected specific antibodies in cattle experimentally infected with b. bigemina. furthermore, the antigen did not cross-react with antibodies to babesia bovis, a closely related babesia parasite indicating that rp ...200919294421
first survey for babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infection in cattle from central and southern regions of portugal using serological and dna detection methods.incidence of bovine babesiosis in portugal is currently unknown. in this study, a first survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from central and southern regions of portugal and analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr). overall, serological testing revealed that 79% and 52% of cattle were positive for b. b ...200919699587
pcr-based diagnosis of surra-targeting vsg gene: experimental studies in small laboratory rodents and buffalo.trypanosoma evansi, the causative organism of 'surra' expresses its variable surface glycoprotein (vsg) at early, middle and late stages of infection in animals. the variable antigenic nature of vsg caused by switching its expression type favours evasion from the host immune response and leads to chronic and persistent infection. developing a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based diagnostic tool targeting the vsg gene is expected to be highly specific and sensitive for diagnosis of surra. hence, ...201020388585
effect of synthesized inhibitors on babesipain-1, a new cysteine protease from the bovine piroplasm babesia bigemina.papain-like cysteine proteases (cp) have been shown to have essential roles in parasitic protozoa and are under study as promising drug targets. one gene was identified by sequence similarity search to be homologous to the cp family in the ongoing babesia bigemina genome sequencing project database. the newly identified cp gene, called babesipain-1, was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein, and the effect of different inhibitors on proteolytic activity was tested. a series of new artemisinin ...201020537109
validation of an attenuated live vaccine against babesiosis in native cattle in an endemic area.the objective of this study was to evaluate in native cattle the use of an in vitro derived attenuated live vaccine (babesia bovis-babesia bigemina). three commercial farms located in a tropical region in chiapas state, mexico were included. for each ranch, 40 animals were selected as negative to babesia spp. by using an immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) and pcr. animals were distributed in four groups with 10 animals each: (i) <9 months, (ii) 9-18, (iii) 18-36 and (iv) >36 months old. from ...201020537115
characterization of the apical membrane antigen-1 in italian strains of babesia bigemina.babesia bigemina is a parasite endemic in different parts of the world, including europe and the americas. one of the few genes characterized in this species codifies for the apical membrane antigen 1 (ama-1), a trans-membrane antigen recently identified. in this research, we characterized the ama-1 gene from three italian b. bigemina strains, two b. bigemina strains obtained from ragusa, sicily (ita1 and ita3) and a third one obtained from benevento, campania (ita2). italian sequences were comp ...201020537104
serological responses to babesia bovis vaccination in cattle previously infected with babesia bigemina.serological responses of field cattle (260) on a farm in kwazulu-natal, south africa were determined before and after vaccination with the commercial babesia bovis live-blood vaccine, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). all the cattle tested negative for b. bovis antibodies before vaccination while 83% of them had significant antibody titres (>or=1/80) to babesia bigemina, indicating a high degree of natural exposure to the latter parasite. by day 60 post-vaccination only 53% of ...201020207488
epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in zambia.tick-borne diseases are a constraint to livestock production in many developing countries as they cause high morbidity and mortality, which results in decreased production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products. the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-saharan africa are east coast fever (caused by theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by babesia bigemina and b. bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by ehrlichia ruminantium). despite ...201021106294
molecular detection of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from tom green county in central texas.serologic and molecular evidence suggest that white-tailed deer in south texas and north mexico carry the agents of bovine babesiosis, babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. to determine if white-tailed deer in central texas, which is outside the known occurrence of the vector tick at this time, harbor these parasites, blood samples from free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in tom green county were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays for b. bovis and b. b ...201021194841
the seroprevalence of bovine babesiosis in malaysia.one hundred sera of malaysian cattle were used in this seroprevalence study for bovine babesiosis. all sera were obtained from the serological unit of the veterinary research institute (vri), ipoh, perak. the sera were tested using a veterinary medical research & development (vmrd) commercial indirect immunofluourescent antibody test (ifat) kit. the results showed that 17.0% were found to be positive for babesia bovis, 16.0% for babesia bigemina, and 9.0% for both b. bovis and b. bigemina infect ...201020962729
detection of babesia and theileria species infection in cattle from portugal using a reverse line blotting method.babesiosis and theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. in portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of babesia and theileria sp. identified: rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis punctata. all these potential babesia and theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in portugal, although they are predominant in the sout ...201021036481
development and laboratory evaluation of a lateral flow device (lfd) for the serodiagnosis of theileria annulata infection.several dna-based and serological tests have been established for the detection of theileria annulata infection, including polymerase chain reaction, reverse line blot and loop-mediated isothermal amplification, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and competitive elisa. in this study, we have applied knowledge from the development and application of a recombinant protein-based indirect elisa and competitive elisa to establish a rapid test for point-of-care diagnosis of t. annulat ...201020680339
development of a tandem repeat-based multilocus typing system distinguishing babesia bovis geographic isolates.mini- and microsatellite sequences have proven to be excellent tools for the differentiation of strains and populations in several protozoan parasites due to their high variability. in the present work we have searched the genome of the tick-transmitted bovine hemoprotozoon babesia bovis for tandem repeats (trs) that could be useful for a multilocus typing system. hundred and nineteen sequences were shortlisted and tested in five common b. bovis reference isolates originating from distinct geogr ...201019833439
evaluation of the in vitro growth-inhibitory effect of epoxomicin on babesia parasites.epoxomicin potently and irreversibly inhibits the catalytic activity of proteasomal subunits. treatment of proliferating cells with epoxomicin results in cell death through accumulation of ubiquinated proteins. thus, epoxomicin has been proposed as a potential anti-cancer drug. in the present study, the inhibitory effects of epoxomicin on the in vitro growth of bovine and equine babesia parasites were evaluated. the inhibitory effect of epoxomicin on the in vivo growth of babesia microti was als ...201019896277
divergence of the mitochondrial genome structure in the apicomplexan parasites, babesia and theileria.mitochondrial (mt) genomes from diverse phylogenetic groups vary considerably in size, structure, and organization. the genus plasmodium, causative agent of malaria, of the phylum apicomplexa, has the smallest mt genome in the form of a circular and/or tandemly repeated linear element of 6 kb, encoding only three protein genes (cox1, cox3, and cob). the closely related genera babesia and theileria also have small mt genomes (6.6 kb) that are monomeric linear with an organization distinct from pl ...201020034997
comparison between reverse line blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of major tick-borne diseases of cattle in southern sudan.the performance of reverse line blot (rlb) in detecting dna of theileria parva, theileria mutans and babesia bigemina was assessed in comparison with specific antibody detection using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the same parasites. among 90 field samples from central equatoria state, southern sudan, elisa reported more positive samples than rlb did. the concordance of rlb showed 66.7%, 81.1% and 48.9% relative to the results of elisa for t. parva, t. mutans and b. big ...201020537106
a babesia bovis gene syntenic to theileria parva p67 is expressed in blood and tick stage parasites.completion of the babesia bovis (t2bo strain) genome provides detailed data concerning the predicted proteome of this parasite, and allows for a bioinformatics approach to gene discovery. comparative genomics of the hemoprotozoan parasites b. bovis and theileria parva revealed a highly conserved syntenic block of genes flanking the p67 gene of t. parva, a sporozoite stage-specific vaccine candidate against east coast fever (ecf). the syntenic gene in b. bovis, designated bov57, encodes a protein ...201020638797
[seroprevalence of babesiosis in cattle in sivas.]the purpose of this study was the investigation of the seroprevalence of babesiosis in cattle in the sivas region. serum samples were collected from a total of 240 cattle in the sivas region. serum antibodies against babesia bigemina and babesia bovis for cattle were investigated by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat). in addition, blood smears taken from the ear veins of cattle were prepared and examined under microscope. two hundred and forty cattle from 25 different localities were ...201020340080
estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in mbeere district, kenya.a cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (tbd) parasites (theileria parva, theileria mutans, anaplasma marginale and babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in mbeere district in kenya. the objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. a total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveye ...201020434227
molecular detection of babesia spp. and other haemoparasitic infections of cattle in maputo province, mozambique.molecular detection of babesia species in apparently healthy cattle within an endemic region was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of carriers and the geographical distribution of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis in maputo province, mozambique. samples from 477 animals at 5 localities were analysed using 2 techniques, the semi-nested hot-start pcr and the reverse line blot (rlb) assay. with the semi-nested hot-start pcr, detection of b. bigemina ranged between 30% and 89%, and o ...201020128941
detection of antibodies against babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in calves from the region of araguaína, state of tocantins, brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against b. bovis and b. bigemina in calves from the region of araguaína, state of tocantins, brazil. in this research we used sera obtained from 506 calves, from both genders and of 8 to 24 months old, to detect antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa-test). statistical analysis of the data was performed using the chi-square (χ²) test with yates correction. the seroprevalence obtained was 90.5 and 91. ...201020943021
haemoparasite prevalence and theileria parva strain diversity in cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) in uganda.cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) are considered to be an important reservoir for various tick-borne haemoparasites of veterinary importance. in this study we have compared the haemoparasite carrier prevalence in buffalo from four geographically isolated national parks in uganda [lake mburo national park (lmnp), queen elizabeth national park (qenp), murchison falls national park (mfnp) and kidepo valley national park (kvnp)]. differences were seen in haemoparasite prevalence in buffalo from the fou ...201021074945
detection of theileria and babesia in brown brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in the state of minas gerais, brazil.intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genera theileria and babesia are known to infect both wild and domestic animals, and both are transmitted by hard-ticks of the family ixodidae. the prevalences of hemoprotozoa and ectoparasites in 15 free-living mazama gouazoubira, two captive m. gouazoubira and four captive blastocerus dichotomus from the state of minas gerais, brazil, have been determined through the examination of blood smears and the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr). t ...201021354704
occurrence of theileria and babesia species in water buffalo (bubalus babalis, linnaeus, 1758) in the hubei province, south china.the presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the hubei province, south china was investigated using the reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18s rrna gene. theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by babesia orientalis (8.9%), babesia bovis (1.0%) and babesia bigemina (0.7%). only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. eleven samples with single infe ...201122154255
spatial variation of tick abundance and seroconversion rates of indigenous cattle to anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and theileria parva infections in uganda.tick abundance and seroconversion rates of 640 indigenous cattle in a mixed crop-livestock system in uganda were investigated in a 14 months longitudinal study. up to 100% of the cattle in buyimini, kubo, nanjeho, ojilai and sitengo villages (high tick challenge zone) were consistently infested with rhipicephalus appendiculatus, whereas on average 50% of the cattle in bunghaji, hitunga and magoje villages (low tick challenge zone) were inconsistently infested. likewise, up to 50% of the cattle i ...201121499913
incipiens linear iga disease with iga antibodies directed against 200-kda epidermal antigens. 201121515442
detection and molecular characterization of a canine piroplasm from brazil.in the beginning of the 20th century, a new canine disease was reported in brazil under the name "nambiuvú", whose etiological agent was called rangelia vitalii, a distinct piroplasm that was shown to parasitize not only erythrocytes, but also leucocytes and endothelial cells. in this new century, more publications on r. vitalii were reported from brazil, including an extensive study on its ultrastructural analysis, in addition to clinical, pathological, and epidemiological data on nambiuvú. how ...201121489694
a novel neutralization sensitive and subdominant rap-1-related antigen (rra) is expressed by babesia bovis merozoites.summaryobjective. the babesia bovis genome encodes a rap-1 related gene denominated rap-1 related antigen (rra). in this study, we analysed the pattern of expression, immunogenicity and functional relevance of rra. methods. phylogenetic analysis was performed using the program phylip. expression of rra was analysed by northern blots, rt-pcr, immunoprecipitation, western blots and immunofluorescence. rra antigenicity was tested by t-cell proliferation and western blot analysis, and functional rel ...201121554842
serological survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle in south africa.a total of 719 serum samples collected from clinically healthy cattle from eight provinces located in different districts of south africa were examined by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and the standard indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) to determine the serological prevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. the results showed that 35.3% and 39.7% of cattle were positive for b. bovis and 30% and 36.5% were positive for b. bigemina antibodies on elisa and ifa ...201121700393
response of nkedi zebu and ankole cattle to tick infestation and natural tick-borne, helminth and trypanosome infections in uganda.a cross-sectional study was conducted in soroti district of uganda to establish important traits of nkedi zebu and ankole cattle regarding their production performance responses to natural infections of trypanosomes, gastrointestinal nematodes, theileria parva, babesia bigemina, anaplasma marginale and tick infestations. over four visits between october 2006 to august 2007, tick counts were performed and blood, faecal samples and sera were collected from the nkedi zebu (295) and ankole (165) cat ...201121350849
molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in water buffaloes in the northeast region of thailand.bovine babesiosis is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan disease that is mainly caused by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina and is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. the disease is widespread in the northeastern region of thailand, where an increasingly large part of the livestock is composed of water buffaloes. the present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological distribution of b. bovis and b. bigemina in water buffaloes in the northeastern re ...201121324601
New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy.Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identif ...201121864982
Targeting the tick protective antigen subolesin reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection by Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina.The ultimate goal of vector vaccines is the control of vector infestations while reducing pathogen infection and transmission to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. Previously (Vaccine 2011;29:2248-2254), we demonstrated that subolesin vaccination and release of tick larvae after subolesin knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) were effective for the control of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestations in cattle. In this study, we used the fact t ...201121951878
a highly sensitive dna bead-based suspension array for the detection and species identification of bovine piroplasms.piroplasms are among the most harmful tick-borne pathogens for livestock and sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for rapid detection and identification of the different species are needed for effective control. reverse line blot has been the molecular technique of choice but it is laborious, time-consuming and highly susceptible to subjective variation in the interpretation of the hybridisation signal. here, an oligonucleotide multiplex suspension microarray (luminex® microsphere system) w ...201122233830
identification of papain-like cysteine proteases from the bovine piroplasm babesia bigemina and evolutionary relationship of piroplasms c1 family of cysteine proteases.papain-like cysteine proteases have been shown to have essential roles in parasitic protozoa and are under study as promising drug targets. five genes were identified by sequence similarity search to be homologous to the cysteine protease family in the ongoing babesia bigemina genome sequencing project database and were compared with the annotated genes from the complete bovine piroplasm genomes of babesia bovis, theileria annulata, and theileria parva. multiple genome alignments and sequence an ...201120655912
haemoprotozoa of cattle in northern kerala, india.a cross-sectional study was conducted using 150 blood samples collected from apparently normal / healthy crossbred cattle of northern kerala, south india, for detection of haemoprotozoan infections using staining techniques (giemsa and acridine orange) and specific pcr. theileria like piroplasms and babesia bigemina were the only protozoan organisms detected in blood smears. polymerase chain reaction using specific primers revealed amplification of products specific for trypanosoma evansi (34.6% ...201121602771
prevalence and genetic diversity of babesia and anaplasma species in cattle in sudan.disease prevalence studies are one of the most valuable tools to demonstrate the risk or impact of certain infections in local and global economies. the data obtained in these studies contribute to develop strategies for disease control. the present study aims to provide information about the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the northern regions of sudan. blood samples from four different states of sudan were collected from apparently healthy cattle (n=692), dna was extracted and the ...201121612870
nilgai antelope in northern mexico as a possible carrier for cattle fever ticks and babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.of 20 blood samples from nilgais from m+®xico, five were polymerase chain reaction-positive for babesia bigemina and one for babesia bovis. positive samples had the expected 170 (b. bigemina) and 291 (b. bovis) base pairs and were identical to gen-bank b. bigemina accession s45366 and b. bovis m38218.201121719852
molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle from central region of syria.a total of 207 bovine blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle bred in central region of syria and examined by giemsa-stained blood smears, nested pcr, elisa, and ifat to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bovis and b. bigemina. all samples were negative to babesia spp. by microscopic examination of blood smears. on the other hand, the overall prevalence of b. bovis and b. bigemina was 9.18% and 15.46% by npcr, 15.46% and 18.84% by elisa, and 18.36% ...201222265803
blocking babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk.the use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third) of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen babesia bovis and babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent b. bovis ...201223327323
functional genomics studies of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, babesia bigemina.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, but the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of animals and in humans. in particular, babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are transmitted by cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatu ...201222265898
expression and characterization of the babesia bigemina cysteine protease bbicpl1.bbicpl1 was the first papain-like cysteine protease from a piroplasm to be identified with proteolytic activity. here we report the improved production of the active recombinant enzyme, and the biochemical characterization of this potential drug target. bbicpl1 showed characteristic properties of its class, including hydrolysis of papain-family peptide substrates, an acidic ph optimum, requirement of a reducing environment for maximum activity, and inhibition by standard cysteine protease inhibi ...201221986365
an epidemiological survey on bovine and ovine babesiosis in kurdistan province, western iran.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the babesia infection in domestic animals in kurdistan province of iran for the first time. in this survey, 9,111 domestic livestock, including cattle and sheep, were randomly sampled and examined from 500 flocks in kurdistan province from july 2007 to september 2009. thin peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained by giemsa staining method. from a total of 9,111 collected samples, 2,642 were sheep and 6,469 were cattle. babesia s ...201222109588
prevalence and molecular detection of anaplasma marginale, babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle from puntarenas province, costa rica.a study was conducted in 2008 to determine the prevalence of anaplasma and babesia infections in cattle in the puntarenas province of costa rica. blood samples were taken from a total of 449 cattle during the month of march at 30 farms in the region of espiritu santu, costa rica. commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) were used to determine presence of antibodies to babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale, and real-time pcr was used to determine the presence of dna fr ...201222465150
prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in central equatoria state, southern sudan.a participatory epidemiological (pe) study was conducted in kajo keji and yei counties, central equatoria state, southern sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. a serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the pe study. pe data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. constraint ...201222244519
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method based on two species-specific primer sets for the rapid identification of chinese babesia bovis and b. bigemina.bovine babesiosis is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan disease that is mainly caused by babesia bovis and/or babesia bigemina and is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. this disease is widespread in most parts of china. however, it is difficult to rapidly discriminate between the b. bovis and b. bigemina species. to detect and distinguish these species, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) platform that targets specific sequences of the internal transcribed ...201222849831
molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in nigerian ticks.a molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two nigerian states (plateau and nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using pcr, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. a total of 218 tick samples, amblyomma variegatum (n=153), rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus (n=45), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=20) were sampled. pathogens identified in ticks included p ...201222326937
Anti-babesial activity of a potent peptide fragment derived from longicin of Haemaphysalis longicornis.Babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne diseases affecting livestock that can cause major economic losses worldwide particularly in the tropics. Control relies on controlling both the protozoan parasite and the tick vector. Antiprotozoal drugs are most commonly used for treatment, but problems on emergence of resistant strains and food residues are encountered. Longicin, a defensin-like peptide identified from the hard tick, Haemapysalis longicornis, as well as one of its synthetic pa ...201222102016
multi-locus typing scheme for babesia bovis and babesia bigemina reveals high levels of genetic variability in strains from northern argentina.bovine babesiosis, caused by the protozoa babesia bovis and babesia bigemina, is a tick-borne disease distributed in tropical regions worldwide. current control measures are based on the use of acaricides and live attenuated vaccines. the major economic impact of babesiosis lies in the cattle industry. in order to gain insight into the extent of genetic diversity in populations of parasites in the field, we developed two mlst schemes for the molecular genotyping of b. bigemina and b. bovis. we h ...201223287026
oral vaccination with vaccinia virus expressing the tick antigen subolesin inhibits tick feeding and transmission of borrelia burgdorferi.immunization with the ixodes scapularis protein, subolesin, has previously been shown to protect hosts against tick infestation and to decrease acquisition of anaplsma marginale and babesia bigemina. here we report the efficacy of subolesin, a conserved tick protein that can act as a regulator of gene expression, expressed from vaccinia virus for use as an orally delivered reservoir - targeted vaccine for prevention of tick infestation and acquisition/transmission of borrelia burgdorferi to its ...201222864146
comparison of diagnostic methods to detect piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle.this study was carried out to compare different diagnostic techniques to reveal the presence of piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle kept at pasture. nineteen blood samples were collected from animals of two different areas of emilia romagna region of italy and processed for microscopic observation, pcr, serological test (ifat) for babesia bovis and babesia bigemina antibodies and in vitro cultivation. the cultures were performed on both bovine and ovine erythrocytes. seventeen blood smears (89%) w ...201221846583
diagnosis of tropical bovine theileriosis by elisa with recombinant merozoite surface protein of theileria annulata (tams1).theileria annulata merozoite surface protein (tams1) and native soluble piroplasm antigen of an indian isolate of t. annulata were used to optimize an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect anti-theileria antibodies in cross-bred cattle experimentally infected with sporozoites or immunized with macroschizonts of the homologous strain of the parasite. the recombinant protein has showed similar antibody titre when compared with the sonicated merozoite/piroplasm antigen in an elisa. if ...201224505176
prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of ludhiana district, punjab.a total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the large animal clinics, gadvasu, ludhiana, punjab, india. examination of giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising theileria annulata (14.65 %), trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. the prevalence of to ...201224082538
monitoring piroplasms infection in three cattle farms in minorca (balearic islands, spain) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis.bovine piroplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by parasites of the genera theileria and babesia. three friesian cattle farms (f1-f3) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis were selected in minorca (balearic islands, spain). blood samples were collected from 8 to 11 animals every two months throughout a year and, a newly developed multiplex dna bead-based suspension array based on the luminex(®) xmap technology was used to monitor for the presence of piroplasms. the assay i ...201222884914
expression and immunological characterization of the heat shock protein-70 homologue from babesia bigemina.the babesia bigemina heat shock protein-70 gene (bbighsp-70) was cloned from cdna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequenced. the length of the gene is 1947 bp and the predicted polypeptide is 649 amino acids long with a calculated molecular weight of 70.85 kda. bbighsp-70 has a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of bbighsp-70 showed that b. bigemina was most closely related to b. caballi and b. bovis and lies within a phylogenetic cluster wi ...201222819586
cloning and characterization of histone deacetylase from babesia bovis.the effect of inhibitors of histone deacetylase (hdac) on apicomplexa has been previously reported with the discovery of apicidin, a cyclic tetrapeptide having broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity. in the current study, we expressed babesia bovis (b. bovis) recombinant-hdac 3 (rbbhdac3) as a gst-fusion protein in escherichia coli (e. coli) and found that it was antigenic. an antiserum against the recombinant protein was generated in mice. the mice serum demonstrated the presence of hdac in b. b ...201222818786
a pcr-based survey of selected babesia and theileria parasites in cattle in sri lanka.hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. we screened sri lankan cattle populations for the presence of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, and theileria orientalis, using species-specific pcr assays. out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of sri lanka (nuwara eliya, polonnaruwa, ampara, and jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. all four parasite species were detected among th ...201222673106
molecular detection and identification of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle in northern thailand.although babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections cause economic losses in the cattle industry in northern thailand, there is inadequate information on babesia isolates present in the area. therefore, to determine the prevalence and genetic relationship between babesia isolates, we screened 200 blood samples of cattle from chiang rai, chiang mai, and lumpang provinces of northern thailand. a nested polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting b. bovis spherical body protein 2 (bbosbp2) ...201222645033
apicoplast-targeting antibacterials inhibit the growth of babesia parasites.the apicoplast housekeeping machinery, specifically apicoplast dna replication, transcription, and translation, was targeted by ciprofloxacin, thiostrepton, and rifampin, respectively, in the in vitro cultures of four babesia species. furthermore, the in vivo effect of thiostrepton on the growth cycle of babesia microti in balb/c mice was evaluated. the drugs caused significant inhibition of growth from an initial parasitemia of 1% for babesia bovis, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic(50)s) ...201222391527
the identification of a vdac-like protein involved in the interaction of babesia bigemina sexual stages with rhipicephalus microplus midgut cells.we investigated the interaction of rhipicephalus microplus midgut cells with babesia bigemina sexual stages using a proteomic approach. a polypeptide from the r. microplus midgut that binds to proteins from b. bigemina sexual stages was identified and sequenced. combining 2d overlay and tandem mass spectrometry (ms/ms) techniques, we determined that this polypeptide corresponds to a mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (vdac). the vdac gene encoding the sequenced polypeptide w ...201222336772
genetic detection of babesia bigemina from mongolian cattle using apical membrane antigen-1 gene-based pcr assay.we developed a new nested pcr (npcr) assay based on the babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1 (ama-1) gene sequence for parasite-specific detection. the primers were designed to amplify 738-bp and 211-bp fragments of the ama-1 gene by primary and nested pcrs, respectively. the assay was proven to be specific for the b. bigemina, whereas the previously established spei-avai npcr assay amplified not only the target fragment of b. bigemina but also a homologous one from babesia ovata. the ama- ...201222284301
molecular diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis hemoparasites from cattle in south africa.babesia parasites, mainly babesia bovis and b. bigemina, are tick-borne hemoparasites inducing bovine babesiosis in cattle globally. the clinical signs of the disease include, among others, anemia, fever and hemoglobinuria. babesiosis is known to occur in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. in this study, we aim to provide information about the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of b. bigemina and b. bovis species in cattle from different locations in nine provinces of south afr ...201323927555
molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil.bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused mainly by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina, which are associated to considerable economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. approximately 60% of buffalo herds in south america are located in northern brazil. little is known about the impact of babesiosis on buffalo herds in brazil. the present work aimed to verify the occurrence of b. bovis and b. bigemina in 542 water buffaloes in the state of pará, northern brazil, using molecular and serologi ...201323790545
inhibitory effect of cyclophilin a from the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis on the growth of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.haemaphysalis longicornis is known as one of the most important ticks transmitting babesia parasites in east asian countries, including babesia ovata and babesia gibsoni, as well as theileria parasites. h. longicornis is not the natural vector of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. vector ticks and transmitted parasites are thought to have established unique host-parasite interaction for their survival, meaning that vector ticks may have defensive molecules for the growth control of parasites in ...201323532543
epidemiological survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections of cattle in philippines.a total of 250 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle in five provinces of philippines. dna was extracted from the samples and analyzed by nested pcr assays for an epidemiological survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections. out of the 250 samples, 27 (10.8%) and 16 (6.4%) were positive for b. bovis infection and b. bigemina infection, respectively. mixed infections were detected in a total of 4 samples (1.6%). our data provide baseline information regarding the ...201323470278
molecular characterization and antigenic properties of a novel babesia gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (bggarp).identification and molecular characterization of babesia gibsoni proteins with potential antigenic properties are crucial for the development and validation of the serodiagnostic method. in this study, we isolated a cdna clone encoding a novel b. gibsoni 76-kda protein by immunoscreening of the parasite cdna library. computer analysis revealed that the protein presents a glutamic acid-rich region in the c-terminal. therefore, the protein was designated as b. gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (b ...201323968686
pcr detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in vietnam.hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. in the present study, we conducted a pcr-based survey of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, theileria orientalis, trypanosoma evansi and trypanosoma theileri, using 423 dna samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the hue and hanoi provinces of vietnam. with the exception of t. annulata and t. evansi, all other parasite speci ...201323856762
differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion ccp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi.members of the ccp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan plasmodium parasites. knocking out plasmodium ccp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the ccp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. apicomplexans babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. bovine babesio ...201323844089
artemisone inhibits in vitro and in vivo propagation of babesia bovis and b. bigemina parasites.artemisone was evaluated, in in vitro and in vivo, for control of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia bigemina and babesia bovis parasites. in vitro, artemisone reduced parasitemia in a dose-dependent manner: the inhibitory effects increased gradually, reaching a maximum inhibition of 99.6% and 86.4% for b. bigemina and b. bovis, respectively 72 h after initiation of treatment with initial parasitemia of 0.5%. in calves infected with either b. bigemina or b. bovis artemisone treatment was well t ...201324184077
toward the discovery of inhibitors of babesipain-1, a babesia bigemina cysteine protease: in vitro evaluation, homology modeling and molecular docking studies.babesia bigemina is a protozoan parasite that causes babesiosis, a disease with a world-wide distribution in mammals, principally affecting cattle and man. the unveiling of the genome of b. bigemina is a project in active progress that has already revealed a number of new targets with potential interest for the design of anti-babesiosis drugs. in this context, babesipain-1 has been identified as a proteolytically active enzyme whose three-dimensional structure has not been resolved yet, but whic ...201324129820
babesia bigemina infection in yak (poephagus grunniens l.): molecular detection and characterization.yaks contribute significantly in the himalayan high land economy. specific information on prevalence of babesiosis in yaks is lacking. a fast and reliable pcr assay targeting babesia bigemina small subunit ribosomal rna sequence (ss rrna) was laboratory standardized for molecular detection of b. bigemina in yaks. restriction digestion of the pcr amplified 675 bp target sequence with vsp i confirmed the prevalent species of babesia as b. bigemina. nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis o ...201323298564
evaluation of in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of fusidic acid on babesia and theileria parasites.fusidic acid known to has antibacterial, antifungal, and antimalarial activities. fusidic acid blocks translation elongation factor g gene in plasmodium falciparum. in the present study, the inhibitory effects of fusidic acid on the in vitro growth of bovine and equine babesia parasites were evaluated. the inhibitory effect of fusidic acid on the in vivo growth of babesia microti was also assessed. the in vitro growth of four babesia species that were tested was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) ...201322985928
molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis in cattle and water buffalos under small-scale dairy farming in beheira and faiyum provinces, egypt.in order to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffalos in beheira and faiyum provinces in egypt and examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in cattle, the prevalence of b. bigemina and b. bovis was 5.30% and 3.97% by npcr and 10.60% and 9.27% by elisa, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 10.42% and 4.17 ...201324075417
molecular prevalence of babesia bigemina and trypanosoma evansi in dairy animals from punjab, india, by duplex pcr: a step forward to the detection and management of concurrent latent infections.specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was employed on 411 (386 cattle and 25 buffaloes) blood samples of dairy animals from 9 districts of punjab, india, for simultaneous detection of babesia bigemina and trypanosoma evansi. the results were compared and correlated with conventional giemsa stained thin blood smear (gstbs) examination and haematological alterations to know the clinical status and pathogenicity of infections. the bg3/bg4 and tr3/tr4 primers were used in duplex pcr for b. ...201324069605
vaccination with proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection.tick-borne pathogens cause diseases that greatly impact animal health and production worldwide. the ultimate goal of tick vaccines is to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. tick genetic traits are involved in vector-pathogen interactions and some of these molecules such as subolesin (sub) have been shown to protect against vector infestations and pathogen infection. based on these premises, herein we cha ...201324084474
pcr-based detection of babesia spp. infection in collected ticks from cattle in west and north-west of iran.babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease of domestic and wild animals caused by species of the genus babesia. babesia bigemina, b. bovis and b. divergens are known to be pathogenic in cattle. the disease is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. ixodid ticks are vectors in the transmission of babesiosis. the classic presentation is a febrile syndrome with apparent anemia and hemoglobinuria. thi ...201324409438
maternal antibody uptake, duration and influence on survival and growth rate in a cohort of indigenous calves in a smallholder farming system in western kenya.the passive transfer of antibodies from dams to offspring via colostrum is believed to play an important role in protecting neonatal mammals from infectious disease. the study presented here investigates the uptake of colostrum by 548 calves in western kenya maintained under smallholder farming, an important agricultural system in eastern africa. serum samples collected from the calves and dams at recruitment (within the first week of life) were analysed for the presence of antibodies to four ti ...201323838470
subolesin/akirin vaccines for the control of arthropod vectors and vectorborne pathogens.diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health, and therefore, their control is important for the eradication of vectorborne diseases (vbd). vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several vbd by targeting their common vector. recent results have suggested that subolesin (sub) and its orthologue in insects, akirin (akr) are good candidate antigens for the control of ...201324589118
seroprevalence and risk factors for cattle anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and trypanosomiasis in a brazilian semiarid region.the seroprevalence of anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and trypanosoma vivax and the risk factors for these infections were investigated in 509 cows on 37 farms in the semiarid region of paraíba, northeastern brazil. cow serum samples were tested by means of immunofluorescence assay (ifa) against each specific antigen. the mean seroprevalence values per farm were 15.0% (range: 0-75%) for a. marginale, 9.5% (range: 0-40%) for b. bigemina and 26.9% (range: 0-73.7%) for b. bovis ...201323802235
association of bola-drb3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. the objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of drb3.2 alleles in thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. specific primers to anaplasma marginale (a ...201323571121
molecular survey of bovine vector-borne pathogens in cebu, philippines.vector-borne diseases (vbds) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the philippines. in the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in cebu, philippines, for various vbd pathogens using specific pcr assays. the results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for anaplasma spp., babesia bigemina, babesia bovis, and trypanosoma (tr.) theileri, respectively. in ...201323499481
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