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blood parasites of livestock in certain regions in saudi arabia.blood samples from camels, sheep, goats and cattle from six regions in saudi arabia were examined for blood parasites. asir region camels were disinfected while those of the eastern, jazan, northern frontiers, riyadh and tabouk regions were infected with trypanosoma evansi (5-40%), those of riyadh and the eastern regions were infected with dipetalonema evansi (1-6%) and those of the eastern, jazan and riyadh regions were infected with eperythrozoon species (8-20%). sheep and goats of all tested ...023961044
the life history of babesia bigemina in the north american fever tick. 193117839696
phenamidine in the treatment of babesia bigemina infections of cattle. 194720249289
[the host specificity of babesia bigemina (piroplasmidea)]. 196314117590
giemsa stain for the diagnosis of bovine babesiosis. ii. changes in erythrocytes infected with babesia bigemina and b. argentina. 196414231189
further observations on the initial development of infections with babesia bigemina. 196514293842
babesia bigemina in ticks grown on non-bovine hosts and its transmission to these hosts. 196514342130
the chemotherapy of babesia bigemina infection in cattle. 19654955853
circulating antigens in cattle infected with babesia bigemina or b. argentina. 19664961205
sterile immunity, coinfectious immunity and strain differences in babesia bigemina infections. 19676048566
bovine babesiosis: the immunity of calves to babesia bigemina infection. 19685690588
[biological properties and characteristics of babesia bigemina. ionic radiation effects on infectious blood when totally infected]. 19685705119
immunological studies on piroplasmosis of cattle. 3. isolation of soluble antigen of babesia bigemina and its serological properties. 19684979628
the infection of boophilus microplus with babesia bigemina. 19684984380
serological diagnosis of babesia bigemina infection in cattle by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. 19684888101
[a capillary tube agglutination test for the detection of babesia bigemina antibodies]. 19695380274
[fine structure of the merozoites of babesia bigemina in the ovary of boophilus microplus and boophilus decoloratus]. 19694988938
[contribution to the problem of the natural resistance of calves to babesia bigemina]. 19695814189
[a cytochemical study on merozoites of babesia ovis and babesia bigemina (piroplasmidea) in the hemolymph of ticks]. 19694978490
[transfer and persistence of antibodies to babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale acquired via the colostrum]. 19704992454
the effect of imidocarb against babesia argentina and babesia bigemina infections of cattle. 19705464834
differential diagnosis of babesia argentina and babesia bigemina infections in cattle using thin blood smears and brain smears. 19715106907
dimethyl sulphoxide in the low-temperature preservation of babesia bigemina. 19714999644
[infection susceptability of various strains of boophilus to babesia bigemina as well as the influencing of ticks by host or parasite]. 19715002627
studies on the pathogenesis of babesia argentina and babesia bigemina infections in splenectomised calves. 19725081456
fluorescent antibody tests for babesia bigemina and b. berbera. 19724552938
immunity to babesia bigemina in experimentally infected cattle. 19724629841
effects of low temperature preservation and route of inoculation on infectivity of babesia bigemina in blood diluted with glycerol. 19724630813
susceptibility of non-splenectomized and splenectomized sahiwal cattle to experimental babesia bigemina infection. 19734693430
chemoprophylaxis (imidocarb) against babesia bigemina and babesia argentina infections. 19734747036
osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in acute babesia argentina and babesia bigemina infections in splenectomised bos taurus calves. 19734792009
the isolation, separation and preservation of babesia bigemina. 19734802625
bovine babesiosis: sterile immunity to babesia bigemina and babesia argentina infections. 19734807692
further studies of haemagglutinating antigens of babesia bigemina. 19734120969
the use of a slide agglutination test to demonstrate antigenic differences between babesia bigemina parasites. 19734124696
proteolytic enzyme activity in the intra-erythrocytic parasites babesia argentina and babesia bigemina. 19734129425
detection of antibodies to babesia bigemina in dried blood samples using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. 19734578938
a direct counting technique for estimating high parasitaemias in infections of babesia argentina, babesia bigemina and plasmodium berghei. 19734595621
immunity of cattle to babesia bigemina following its elimination from the host, with observations on antibody levels detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. 19744594670
babesia bigemina: immune response of cattle inoculated with irradiated parasites. 19744815017
survival of the parasitic protozoan, babesia bigemina, in blood cooled at widely different rates to -196 degrees c. 19744822484
the preferential invasion of young erythrocytes in acute babesia bigemina infections of splenectomised calves. 19744134813
recurring hemolytic anemia, babesiasis, and influenza a viruses in a yak at low altitude in nepal.episodes of hemolysis and leukocytosis which were associated with babesia bigemina followed each of 3 challenge exposures to influenza a viruses. it is possible that viral infection altered the immunologic host-parasite equilibrium. acute thrombocytopenia and rouleaux formation were also observed. death, attributed to liver flukes, occurred 168 days after the yak was transferred from high to low altitude. a 2nd yak died of foot-and-mouth disease, thus supporting the nepali belief that yaks will ...1975125056
extraction and preliminary use for diagnosis of soluble precipitating antigen from babesia bigemina.soluble antigen from bovine blood with a babesia bigemina parasitemia of 5-6% formed 4 precipitin lines in gel diffusion tests with antiserum from infected cattle. antigen was obtained from plasma and hemolysate by elution from deae cellulose columns and (nh4)2so4 precipitation as well as from washed parasite-erythrocyte stroma by sonication or freeze-thawing. about 5 ml of antigen suitable for diagnostic tests could be extracted from 200 ml of infected blood.1975807719
babesia bigemina, babesia argentina, and anaplasma marginale: coinfectious immunity in bovines. 19751123013
studies on imidocarb dihydrochloride in experimental babesia bigemina infection in calves. 19751212605
susceptibility of boran cattle to experimental infections with anaplasma marginale and babesia bigemina. 19751217278
letter: prenatal babesia bigemina infection in a calf. 19751220660
studies on transmission of babesia bigemina. 19751211980
immunization against anaplasmosis and babesiosis: part i. evaluation of immunization using minimum infective doses under laboratory conditions.a method of immunization against anaplasmosis and babesiosis using minimum infective doses was developed under laboratory conditions. stabilates of anaplasma marginale stored at -60 degrees c were found infective when diluted 10-fold to 10(-3). stabilates of babesia argentina and babesia bigemina stored under the same conditions were infective when diluted 10-fold to 10(-1). intact calves inoculated with the above dilutions of stabilates developed moderate parasitemias and recovered from infecti ...19761006801
rediscovery of koch's "strahlenörper" of babesia bigemina. 1976997728
comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) with complement fixation (cf) tests for diagnosis of babesia spp infections in colombian cattle.a total of 372 serum samples were collected from colombian cattle before and during the course of natural babesia spp. infection on the north coast of colombia. the serum samples were used to compare indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) with complement fixation (cf) tests for diagnosis of babesiosis. the ifa technique detected babesia argentina antibodies an average of 4.0 weeks earlier than the cf test and babesia bigemina an average of 2.5 weeks earlier. both ifa and cf were capable of differen ...1976781955
piroplasmosis in buffaloes and its serological diagnosis based on a homology between buffalo and bovine immunoglobulins.babesia argentina, babesia bigemina and theileria mutans were transmitted experimentally from water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) to splenectomised bos taurus calves. buffaloes were positive to an indirect fluorescent antibody test for b. argentina when reagents of bovine origin were used. the formation of similar patterns during immunoelectrophoresis suggested a homology of buffalo and bovine serum proteins, particularly igg.19761267733
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. iv. a field trial on immunization against east coast fever (theileria parva infection of cattle).seven cattle, immunized by an infection and treatment method with 3 strains of theileria parva (muguga, kiambu 5 and serengeti transformed), and five controls were exposed to natural tick infestation in tanzania, at a site where 2 precontrols had previously contracted fatal east coast fever within 3 weeks. all controls became infected with fatal ecf within a month of exposure. one immunized animal survived, two died from a theileria mutans infection and one from a babesia bigemina infection. the ...1976982549
therapy trial using betamethasone in addition to specific treatment with a diamidine and quinuronium derivate in cattle experimentally infected with babesia bigemina. 197616300142
haematological reactions to experimental babesia bigemina infection in splenectomised and non-splenectomised cattle. 1977888605
antigenic variation of babesia bigemina.the purpose of the study was to determine whether antigenic differences occurred in four stabilates of babesia bigemina derived from a single purified isolate and propagated as acute and chronic, blood-borne and tick-borne infections in colombian cattle. antigens were characterised by means of the complement fixation (cf), gel diffusion (gd), agar gel electrophoresis (age) and the indirect haemagglutination tests (iha). differences were detected. acute blood and chronic blood antigens were simil ...1977905655
tick-borne diseases of domestic animals in northern nigeria. i. historical review, 1923-1969.information on the occurrence of tick-borne diseases of domestic animals in northern nigeria for the period 1923 to 1966 is summarised. due to lack of obvious outbreaks and diverse interest of the veterinary staff, the published information is very scanty. significant for the period under review was the complicating factor of babesia bigemina infections in cattle undergoing rinderpest immunisation procedures or suffering from trypanosomiasis. tick-borne diseases were also considered important in ...1977910300
studies on the pathological changes in babesia bigemina infection in indigenous cow calves. 1977910588
identification of babesia bigemina in the tick boophilus decoloratus by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique.developing stages of babesia bigemina were detected in the giemsa-stained haemolymph smears of replete boophilus decoloratus females engorged on infected animals. replicate smears of these were prepared for staining by the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) technique. with specific antisera to b bigemina in dilutions up to 1/160 and rabbit antibovine globulin conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (conjugate) the b bigemina stages were seen to fluoresce under the fluorescent microscope. whe ...1977333527
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. viii. experiments with african buffalo (syncerus caffer).it has been found that african buffalo may remain infective carriers of theileria parva lawrencei for at least 5 years. this infection is now known to exist in buffalo in 3 sites in northern tanzania. it was shown that buffalo can be infected with haematoxenus veliferus and theileria mutans of cattle and retransmission of these parasites from buffalo to cattle was successful. the species of haematoxemus reported in wild buffalo in central and east africa is likely to be h. veliferus, while the p ...1977410128
preliminary observations on the ultrastructure of suppossed sexual stages of babesia bigemina (piroplasmea). 1977919690
acute babesia bigemina infection: changes in coagulation and kallikrein parameters.plasma from splenectomized calves infected with b. bigemina were assayed for disturbances in the coagulation system. changes were observed in the wbct, ptt, pt, tt and rt as well as in fibrinogen, calcium and thrombocyte levels. these changes were most marked during days 6--7 when parasite numbers were greatest. massive intramuscular haemolysis coincided with these changes. the plasma kallikrein level fell progressively from days 6--11 and the level of activated kallikrein rose slightly. parasit ...1977919688
acute babesia bigemina infection: changes in fibrinogen catabolism.plasma from cattle infected with babesia bigemina contained soluble fibrin in monomer and high molecular weight complex forms. fibrin(ogen) degradation products were not constantly detected and there appeared to be little or no evidence to suggest fibrinolysis or fibrin deposition. it is suggested that classical disseminated intravascular coagulation does not occur during b. bigemina infection.1977919687
a differential diagnostic criterion for babesia major and babesia bigemina vermicules from tick haemolymph.babesia major mature and immature vermicules in the haemolymph of haemaphysalis punctata were measured and found to be significantly larger than vermicules of babesia bigemina. mature b. major vermicules had a mean length of 15.53 micrometer and mature b. bigemina vermicules had a mean length of 11.79 micrometer. this difference provides a new criterion for the differentiation of the two species.1977906629
babesia bigemina in kenya: experimental transmission by boophilus decoloratus and the production of tick-derived stabilates.a babesia-free batch of laboratory reared boophilus decoloratus ticks was infected with a kenyan strain of babesia bigemina by feeding them on a steer infected by inoculation of a blood stabilate. the engorged female ticks showed developing stages of b. bigemina in their haemolymph and subsequently their progeny transmitted the parasite to a susceptible splenectomized steer. attempts were made to produce stabilates from pre-fed larvae and nymphs derived from infected batches of b. decoloratus. o ...1977876684
the fine structure of intra-erythrocytic stages of babesia bigemina.the electron microscope was used to study the structure of merozoites, merozoites in the process of transformation to trophozoites, trophozoites, and the method of multiplication of b. bigemina. the merozoites were piriform in shape and surrounded by 3 peripheral membranes of which the 2 inner ones often appeared as a single thick osmiophilic structure (inner membrane). anterior and posterior polar rings, microtubules, micronemes, rhoptries and mitochondria with and without tubular cristae were ...1977614533
light and electron microscopic observations on the development of babesia bigemina in larvae, nymphae and non-replete females of boophilus decoloratus.in boophilus decoloratus infected by transovarian passage with b. bigemina, primary schizogony occurred as a continuous repetitive process in all 3 stages of the tick's life cycle spent on the host. the primary schizonts and the large merozoites (= vermicules) produced by them were observed in the gut epithelium, haemocytes, muscles, ad peritracheal cells. secondary schizogony which led to the formation of small merozoites (= infective forms) occurred mainly in the salivary glands, but was also ...1977613293
the effect of natural exposure to anaplasma and babesia infections on native calves in an endemic area of colombia.the age at which native calves first became infected with anaplasma marginale and babesia bigemina and the effect of the infections as characterised by anaemia was determined by the biweekly examination of newly born calves on four ranches located in an endemic area of anaplasmosis and babesiosis on the north coast of colombia. all of the calves examined became infected with a. marginale at 4-24 weeks of age and with b. bigemina at 2-34 weeks of age. the mean age at first infection with both hae ...1977562010
tick-borne diseases of domestic animals in northern nigeria. ii. research summary, 1966 to 1976.during the first 10 years of its existence, the department of parasitology and entomology of the faculty of veterinary medicine, ahmadu bello university in zaria, nigeria, confirmed or described for the first time the occurrence of 25 different tick-borne parasites of domestic animals in the northern part of the country. most of these organisms occur as inapparent infections but may serve as complicating factors in any adverse host condition. the transmission of babesia bigemina by boophilus dec ...1977339447
comparisons of the complement-fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody reactions in the detection of bovine babesiasis.complement-fixation (cf) and indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) antigens were prepared from babesia bigemina isolates obtained in texas. these serologic procedures were evaluated on 130 serum samples sequentially collected from 5 b bigemina-infected mature cattle, beginning on the day of exposure and continuing for 175 day thereafter. both tests were effective in detecting specific antibodies for the first 84 days of infection, with 57 of 60 (95%) serums tested being positive on the cf test and ...1977320922
transmission of babesia bigemina by transfer of adult male boophilus microplus. 1978687283
immunization against anaplasmosis and babesiosis. part ii. evaluation of cryo-preserved vaccines using different doses and routes of inoculation.anaplasma marginale, babesia argentina and babesia bigemina infected blood used as vaccines for immunization trials in valle del cauca, were preserved with 4 molar dimethyl-sulfoxide (4m dmso) and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees c). the effectivity of the vaccines was determined in 87 healthy calves utilizing serial 10-fold dilutions. the effects of dose, inoculation routes, time and temperature were determined. the minimum infective dose for a. marginale was 10(-3) (2 x 10(6)) when 2 ml ...1978675843
the duration of latent infection and functional immunity in droughtmaster and hereford cattle following natural infection with babesia argentina and babesia bigemina.tne droughtmaster and 9 hereford cattle were born in an enzootic babesiasis area and became naturally infected with babesia argentina and b.bigemina during a 3 year period. they were then kept free of cattle ticks (boophilus microplus) for the remainder of the experiment. annually for the next 3 years their individual infection status with babesia was determined by sub-inoculation of blood into splenectomised calves. at the end of this period the functional immunity of all cattle was challenged ...1978655965
efficacy of attenuated anaplasma marginale vaccine under laboratory and field conditions in colombia.four-month-old holstein-friesian calves were inoculated with 3 different doses (1, 2, and 3 ml) of attenuated anaplasma marginale vaccine. vaccinated calves showed mild anaplasma parasitemia, slight decrease in packed cell volume, low serologic conversion, and no clinical illness. an artificial challenge exposure of vaccinated and unvaccinated calves with virulent colombian a marginale showed that the vaccine provided protection against clinical signs of the disease, including parasitemia and an ...1978629456
the extraction of infective babesia bovis and babesia bigemina from tick eggs and b. bigemina from unfed larval ticks. 1978743062
the immune responses to antigenic variants of babesia bigemina in the bovine.four babesia bigemina stabilates were used to determine the immune response of cattle to acute and chronic blood- and tick-borne infections. thirty-two intact calves were divided into 16 groups of two and each calf was inoculated with infective b bigemina erythrocytic stabilates. twenty-eight days later they were challanged with homologous and heterologous stabilates, and monitored for an additional 20 days. the hosts' apparently reduced response to homologous challenge but marked immune respon ...197877539
babesia rodhaini, babesia bovis, and babesia bigemina: analysis and sorting of red cells from infected mouse or calf blood by flow fluorimetry using 33258 hoechst. 197992419
electron microscopic detection of initial and some subsequent developmental stages of babesia bigemina in salivary glands of ticks. 1979433387
pentamidine in chemoimmunisation of cattle against babesia bigemina infection.a single dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg of pentamidine led to clinical recovery of splenectomised calves infected with babesia bigemina. on the other hand as much as 5 mg/kg administered during patency did not destroy the carrier state in intact calves. the fact that the sterilising dose was at least five times as great as that needed for clinical recovery makes pentamidine a promising agent for chemoimmunisation against b. bigemina infection.1979442205
experimental studies on the pathogenicity of babesia bigemina in buffalo calves. 1979462563
preliminary observations on the combined use of imidocarb and babesia blood vaccine in cattle.imidocarb was used by three different methods to control reactions in cattle induced by a babesia blood vaccine produced in south africa. simultaneous administration of 0,15 mg/kg imidocarb and babesia bovis vaccine gave satisfactory control. when the vaccine was given seven days prior to the imidocarb treatment a dose between 0,15 mg/kg and 0,6 mg/kg imidocarb was required for effective control. a combined b. bovis and babesia bigemina vaccine given at 21 and again 61 days after a 3 mg/kg imido ...1979553972
experiments on the babesia bigemina carrier state in east african buffalo and eland.three captive east african buffalo (syncerus caffer) were injected with 5 x 109 bovine erythrocytes with babesia bigemina pathogenic for cattle. none of the buffalo showed signs of disease, but babesia were found in blood smears for four days indicating their multiplication. the carrier state of babesia bigemina was established in two buffalo for 28 and 147 days respectively by sub-inoculation into splenectomized calves, while no parasites were demonstrated 28 days after injection in the third b ...1979543000
epidemiology and control of bovine babesiosis in south africa.babesiosis is the cause of serious economic losses in south africa and involves most areas with an annual rainfall of more than 400 mm. both babesia bigemina and babesia bovis are present and both are considered to be important. the vectors, distribution and factors influencing enzootic stability of both species are discussed. except in some areas only marginally suitable for ticks, and where tick control alone may be adequate, control by immunisation is recommended. short term prevention can be ...1979576018
bovine babesiosis: pathogenicity and heterologous species immunity of tick-borne babesia bovis and b bigemina infections.a total of 22 nonsplenectomized hereford, holstein-friesian, and cross-bred 18-month-old cattle were used to assess the degree of protection conferred by previous infection with babesia bovis or b bigemina against infection and disease from tick-borne challenge exposure with the heterologous species. prior infection with b bigemina or b bovis did not significantly (p less than 0.05) reduce the susceptibility of cattle to tick-borne infection and disease caused by the heterologous species. carrie ...19807212429
erythrocytic na+ and k+ changes during babesia bigemina infection in cattle.the levels of na+ and k+ in whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes were measured during the course of primary babesia bigemina infection in cattle. there were significant changes in the levels of na+ and k+ in erythrocytes, but not in plasma. erythrocytic na+ decreased and k+ increased during the course of infection, returning to normal two to three weeks later. similar ionic changes were produced in animals which were bled to cause packed cell volume depression. it is therefore suggested that the ...19807255896
[ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the pellicle and apical complexes of the kinete of babesia bigemina and babesia ovis in the hemolymph and oavry of the tick].the term kinete is used in this paper for the cigar-shaped, motile development stages (vermicule") of babesia occurring intra- and extracellularly in hemolymph and overy (including oocytes) of vectors, hard ticks (ixodoidea). the structure of, and cytochemical activities of hydrolases (acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase) in the pellicle and the apical complex was studied at the fine-structural level in kinetes of babesia bigemina smith & kilborne, in hemolympho of female boophilus microplus ...19807373571
immunization of cattle with a babesia bigemina antigen in freund's complete adjuvant.three adult intact cattle and five splenetomized calves were immunized against babesia bigemina by the subcutaneous injection of an adjuvant-vaccine given twice at 3- and 4-week intervals, respectively. the antigen consisted of b bigemina parasites and erythrocytic stroma. the vaccinated adults plus one control, and the vaccinated splenectomized calves plus four comparable controls were challenge exposed at 67 and 33 days, respectively, after the last vaccine injection. all control animals died ...19807406273
serum carboxypeptidase b levels during acute and mild babesia bovis and acute babesia bigemina infections of cattle.serum carboxypeptidase b (scpb) levels were measured in splenectomised calves and in non-splenectomised cattle infected with three virulent and one avirulent strains of babesia bovis, and in splenectomised calves infected with virulent babesia bigemina parasites. scpb levels commenced falling three days post-infection in animals infected with virulent b. bovis strains and fell significanttly terminally. in animals infected with the avirulent b. bovis strain, the scpb levels were not significantl ...19807456644
increased numbers of strahlenkörper in boophilus microplus ticks ingesting a blood-passaged strain of babesia bigemina.observations were made on the morphology and infectivity of babesia bigemina parasites in the gut of boophilus microplus ticks. the babesia parasites were derived from stabilates of a laboratory strain, prepared at intervals during several years of blood-passaging in cattle. increased numbers of a particular developmental stage of the parasite, considered to be a type of strahlenkörper, were observed in ticks ingesting parasites derived from the latter stages of passaging. the presence of large ...19817342228
studies on a bovine babesia transmitted by hyalomma marginatum rufipes koch, 1844.a babesia sp. was recently observed in hyalomma marginatum rufipes and found to be transmissible to bovines. further observations were carried out on this parasite and a study made of the morphology of stages in both erythrocytes and tick haemolymph. apart from babesia divergens, intra-erythrocytic parasites were not readily distinguishable from bovine babesia spp. merozoites in tick haemolymph morphologically resembled those of babesia bigemina, but they were significantly larger. this babesia ...19817345388
the retention of babesia bigemina infection by boophilus decoloratus exposed to imidocarb dipropionate during engorgement.babesia bigemina was retained in the vector boophilus decoloratus for a complete generation despite the use of the babesicide, imidocarp dipropionate, to prevent reinfection. this drug did not sterilize ticks of the b. bigemina infection as has been suggested for b. bovis.19817345389
efficacy of imidocarb diproprionate and primaquine phosphate in the prevention of tick-borne disease in imported hereford heifers in south korea.this paper describes the build-up of tick-borne blood parasites in a group of hereford heifers imported from new zealand to the island of jeju do, south korea. all became infected with theileria sergenti and half with babesia bigemina. an attempt was made to contain the 2 parasites by treatment with either primaquine phosphate or imidocarb diproprionate. both drugs had some prophylactic activity against t. sergenti for at least 26 days and imidocarb dipropionate eliminated b. bigemina. since t. ...19817292606
experimental transmission of babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale to calves with the larvae of boophilus decoloratus. 19817293560
development of a highly infective babesia bigemina vaccine of reduced virulence.the virulence of a strain of babesia bigemina was reduced by syringe passaging at 3 to 16-week intervals in a series of 7 calves. the calves were splenectomised 1 to 14 weeks after inoculation to induce the relapse parasitaemias used for passaging. parasites taken at relapse from the last 3 calves in the series were inoculated into splenectomised calves from which highly parasitised blood for vaccine was obtained. the vaccine produced mild infections in 32 recipient cattle. when challenged eithe ...19817236153
effect of experimental babesia bigemina infection on the haematological values of splenectomized white fulani calves. 19817335940
inhibition of babesia spp. by plastics.five commercially available plastic containers were compared with glass for toxicity toward babesia rodhaini and babesia bigemina. comparisons were made by using infectivity tests in mice (b. rodhaini) and cattle (b. bigemina). low-density polypropylene and polystyrene containers were not toxic, but two of the three polyvinyl chloride containers tested significantly reduced the viability of both species of babesia. plasticizer present in various amounts on the surface of the toxic containers was ...19817224620
experimental transmission of babesia bigemina in sheep using infective larval tick of boophilus decoloratus. 19817342213
bovine babesiosis: protection of cattle with culture-derived soluble babesia bovis antigen.adult hereford (bos taurus) cattle were protected from severe reactions and death caused by the tick-borne protozoan hemoparasite babesia bovis, 3 months after vaccination with a cell culture--derived immunogen. the immunogen consisted of filtered, freeze-dried supernatant fluid collected from long-term cultures of babesia bovis in vitro. it was reconstituted with saponin adjuvant and injected twice subcutaneously at 2-week intervals. serum collected from vaccinated cattle caused thickening of t ...19817209532
serological prevalence of bovine babesiosis in guyana.the serological prevalence of bovine babesiosis in guyana was determined utilising the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) and the complement fixation (cf) tests. babesia bigemina ifa and cf antibody activity was detected in 80% and 40% respectively of the sera from native cattle while ifa and cf antibody activity to babesia bovis was observed in 61% and 16% of the sera. the prevalence of antibody was compared between calves less than 6 months of age and mature cattle. there was little differenc ...19817020193
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