PMID(sorted ascending)
cellulose digestion inmonochamus marmorator kby. (coleoptera: cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes.larvae of the balsam fir sawyer,monochamus marmorator kby. (coleoptera, cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus,trichoderma harzianum rifai (deuteromycetes, moniliales, moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. when larvae are maintained on a fungus- ...198624307047
cloning and characterization of a protein elicitor sm1 gene from trichoderma harzianum.a small protein, cysteine-rich, designated sm1, produced by trichoderma virens and trichoderma atroviride, acts as elicitor for triggering plant defense reactions. we analyzed sm1 gene expression of eight different strains of trichoderma spp. grown on glucose, seeds or roots of beans. regardless of the carbon source, t37 strain had significantly higher sm1 expression and was chosen for further studies. when grown on different carbon sources, sm1 expression was highest on galactose, bean seed, gl ...201424322765
a novel promising trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura.brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. for this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the brazilian cerrado. among 13 isolates, a trichoderma harzianum strain (l04) was identified as a promising candidate ...201324349958
effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles from filtrate of trichoderma harzianum against larvae and pupa of dengue vector aedes aegypti l.mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. therefore, screening for larvicidal and pupicidal activity of microbial extracts attributes could lead to development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and safe for nontarget organisms and are ecofriendly. synthetic chemical insecticides occupy predominant position in control strategies. these hazardous chemicals exert unwarranted toxicity and lethal effects on nontarget organisms, develo ...201424352539
antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of honey collected from timergara (dir, pakistan).in this study honeys of acacia modesta, prunus persica, zizyphus sativa and isodon rogosus plants were tested against two gram-positive bacterial strains (staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus), two gram-negative bacterial strains (klebsilla pneumonia and escherichia coli) and two fungal strains (alternaria alternata and trichoderma harzianum) through agar well diffusion method. the tested honeys showed high antimicrobial activities to the tested bacterial and fungal strains. all the tested ...201424374434
strategies utilized by trophically diverse fungal species for pinus sylvestris root colonization.physiological changes in host plants in response to the broad spectrum of fungal modes of infection are still not well understood. the current study was conducted to better understand the infection of in vitro cultures of pinus sylvestris l. seedlings by three trophically diverse fungal species, fusarium oxysporum e. f. sm. & swingle, trichoderma harzianum rifai and hebeloma crustuliniforme (bull.) quél. biochemical methods and microscopy were utilized to determine (i) which factors (apoplastic ...201424391166
integrated use of biocontrol agents with fungicides to control wilt incidence in pigeon-pea.when trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger, as biocontrol agents, were included with two fungicides, foltaf 80w (captafol 80%) and blue copper-50, for the treatment of pigeon-pea wilt, the disease was more effectively controlled than when the fungicides were used alone. accordingly, decreased amounts of the fungicides could be used to control the disease without adversely affecting the growth of pigeon-pea.199524414914
inhibition of cellulose saccharification and glycolignin-attacking enzymes of five lignocellulose-degrading fungi by ferulic 5 g/l, ferulic acid, a plant cell-wall phenolic, severely repressed growth of the lignocellulose-degrading fungi trichoderma harzianum, chaetomium cellulolyticum, phanaerochaete chrysosporium, trametes versicolor and pleurotus sajor-caju. at 0.5 g/l, howerver, it slightly stimulated growth of the latter two organisms. two classes of extracellular enzymes involved in cellulose and glycolignin breakdown were assayed: cellulases; and phenol oxidases as laccases. all of the strains depolymerized ...199624415080
production and preliminary characterization of rna-depolymerase from trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum produced rna-depolymerase with maximum activity after 72 to 120 h of growth. addition of k2hpo4 repressed enzyme production by the fungus. the optimal activity was at ph 7.8 and 40 to 50°c. the enzyme was stable at ph 3.2 to 9.0 and 80% of activity remained after 60 min at 40°c. edta and p-chloromercuribenzoate had no effect on the enzyme activity.199324420030
an integrated approach for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in chilli (capsicum annuum l.).an integrated approach for management of aflatoxin contamination in chilli was undertaken by evaluating the fungicides, bioagents and plant extracts against aspergillus flavus under both in vitro and field condition. maximum inhibition of radial growth (91.1%) was observed with 0.3% mancozeb followed by captan (85.2%). carbendazim (73%) was effective and superior over other systemic fungicides. a complete inhibition (100%) of a. flavus was observed in neem seed kernel extract (nske), nimbicidin ...201124425902
chitinase expression due to reduction in fusaric acid level in an antagonistic trichoderma harzianum study the effect of reduction in phytotoxin level on fungal chitinases, antagonistic trichoderma spp. were screened for their ability to reduce the level of fusaric acid (fa), the phytotoxin produced by fusarium spp. a t. harzianum isolate s17th was able to tolerate high levels of fa (up to 500 ppm) but was unable to reduce the toxin to a significant level (non-toxic) added to minimal synthetic broth (msb). however, the isolate was able to reduce 400 ppm fa in the liquid medium after 7 days t ...201324426111
characterization of a novel resistance-related deoxycytidine deaminase from brassica oleracea var. capitata.brassica oleracea deoxycytidine deaminase (bodcd), a deoxycytidine deaminase (dcd, ec enzyme, is known to play an important role in the trichoderma harzianum ets 323 mediated resistance mechanism in young leaves of b. oleracea var. capitata during rhizoctonia solani infection. bodcd potentially neutralizes cytotoxic products of host lipoxygenase activity, and thereby bodcd restricts the hypersensitivity-related programmed cell death induced in plants during the initial stages of infect ...201424475736
induction of resistance in tomato plants against tomato mosaic tobamovirus using beneficial microbial isolates.the possibility of making use of the phenome non of systemic acquired resistance (sar) to control viruses achieved by the soaking treatment of tomato seeds cv. castl rock with three growth forms to bacillus circulans, pseudomonas fluorescens 2 and trichoderma harzianum against tomato mosaic tobamovirus (tomv) infection. all the application forms of beneficial biotic inducers were reduced the mean number of tomv local lesions on datura metel. p. fluorescens 2 was found to be the best treatment in ...201324494520
combined inoculation of pseudomonas fluorescens and trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (vanilla planifolia).this study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on vanilla plants. based on the in vitro performance of indigenous trichoderma spp. and pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. the maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of trichoderma harzianum with pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by ps ...201324494528
functional analysis of a subtilisin-like serine protease gene from biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.the subtilisin-like serine protease gene thss45 has been cloned from trichoderma harzianum accc30371. its coding region is 1302 bp in length, encoding 433 amino acids, with a predicted protein molecular weight of 44.9 kda and pi of 5.91. thss45 was shown by rt-qpcr analysis to be differentially transcribed in response to eight different treatments. the transcription of thss45 was up-regulated when grown in mineral medium, under carbon starvation, and nitrogen starvation, and in the presence of 1 ...201424500477
detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from malaysian jatropha curcas linn. kernel by trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.the presence of phorbol esters (pes) with toxic properties limits the use of jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. therefore, suitable methods to detoxify pes have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. in the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted pes-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (trichoderma harzianum jq350879.1, t. harzianum jq517493.1, paecilomyces sinensis jq350881.1, cladosporium cladosporioides jq517491.1, fusarium chla ...201424504029
potential of various fungi for biomass production of experiment was conducted to evaluate biomass production of castor (ricinus communis) with inoculation of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf), trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger. in castor, dual treatment of mycorrhiza and t. harzianum was better for shoot length (29.5 cm), root length (40.3 cm), fresh shoot weight (4.90 g), fresh root weight (1.13 g), number of leaves (10) and leaf area (75.5 cm2) than dual treatment of mycorrhiza and a. niger or mycorrhiza alone. these finding ...201324511751
transcriptome profile of trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 induced by sugarcane bagasse.profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. in the present study, the transcriptome of t. harzianum ioc-3844 was analyzed using rna-seq technology. the sequencing generated 14.7 gbp for downstream analyses. de novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. ...201424558413
production of crude cellulase and xylanase from trichoderma harzianum ppddn10 nfcci-2925 and its application in photocopier waste paper recycling.this paper implies production of cellulase and xylanase enzyme using a potent strain of trichoderma harzianum for the efficient deinking of photocopier waste papers. different nutritional and environmental factors were optimized for higher production of cellulase along with xylanase. after fermentation, maximum enzyme extraction was achieved from fermented matter using a three-step extraction process with increased efficiency by 26.6-29.3 % over single-step extraction. static solid state was fou ...201424574249
secretomic survey of trichoderma harzianum grown on plant biomass substrates.the present work aims at characterizing t. harzianum secretome when the fungus is grown in synthetic medium supplemented with one of the four substrates: glucose, cellulose, xylan, and sugarcane bagasse (sb). the characterization was done by enzymatic assays and proteomic analysis using 2-de/maldi-tof and gel-free shotgun lc-ms/ms. the results showed that sb induced the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities when compared with the other substrates, while remarkable differences in terms ...201424593137
identification of mycoparasitism-related genes against the phytopathogen sclerotinia sclerotiorum through transcriptome and expression profile analysis in trichoderma harzianum.the species of t. harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against plant pathogens. however, few studies have been conducted to further our understanding of its role as a biological control agent against s. sclerotiorum, a pathogen involved in several crop diseases around the world. in this study, we have used rna-seq and quantitative real-time pcr (rt-qpcr) techniques in order to explore changes in t. harzianum gene expression during growth on cell wall of s. sclerotiorum (sscw) o ...201424635846
improved sanguinarine production via biotic and abiotic elicitations and precursor feeding in cell suspensions of latex-less variety of papaver somniferum with their gene expression studies and upscaling in bioreactor.elicitors play an important role in challenging the plant defense system through plant-environment interaction and thus altering the secondary metabolite production. culture filtrates of four endophytic fungi, namely, chaetomium globosum, aspergillus niveoglaucus, paecilomyces lilacinus, and trichoderma harzianum were tested on embryogenic cell suspensions of latex-less papaver somniferum in dose-dependent kinetics. besides this, abiotic elicitors salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon di ...201424677097
salicylic acid prevents trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. some trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. to better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (sa)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-marked trichoderma harzianum strain was followed u ...201424684632
phylogeny of the clinically relevant species of the emerging fungus trichoderma and their antifungal susceptibilities.a set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (its) regions of the nuclear ribosomal dna and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), endochitinase chi18-5 (chi18-5), and actin 1 (act1) genes. the most frequent species was trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by trichoderma ci ...201424719448
thc6 protein, isolated from trichoderma harzianum, can induce maize defense response against curvularia lunata.mutant t66 was isolated from 450 mutants (constructed with agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method) of trichoderma harzianum. maize seeds coated with t66 were more susceptible to curvularia lunata when compared with those coated with wild-type (wt) strain. the disease index of maize treated with t66 and wt were 62.5 and 42.1%, respectively. further research showed t-dna has inserted into the orf of one gene, which resulted in the functional difference between wt and t66. the gen ...201524771614
enhanced root and shoot growth of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) by trichoderma harzianum from is well known that trichoderma species can be used as biocontrol and plant growth promote agent. in this study, trichoderma harzianum isolates were evaluated for their growth promotion effects on wheat in greenhouse experiments. two isolates of t. harzianum were used. the experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. seeds were inoculated with conidial suspensions of each isolate. wheat plants grown in steriled soil in pots. t. harzianum t8 and t15 isolates incr ...201424783790
production of trichodiene by trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi.trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. harzianum a (ha) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by trichoderma arundinaceum. the first step in ha biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (td), a volatile organic compound (voc), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 resulted in production of td i ...201524813508
exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of meloidogyne incognita infestation in bacopa monnieri l.despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., bacopa monnieri. in the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., bacillus megaterium, glomus intraradices, trichoderma harzianum thu, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and bacos ...201524841892
analysis of phaseolus vulgaris response to its association with trichoderma harzianum (all-42) in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi rhizoctonia solani and fusarium solani.the present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of trichoderma harzianum (all 42-isolated from brazilian cerrado soil) to promote common bean growth and to modulate its metabolism and defense response in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi rhizoctonia solani and fusarium solani using a proteomic approach. t. harzianum was able to promote common bean plants growth as shown by the increase in root/foliar areas and by size in comparison to plants grown in its absence. the ...201424878929
construction and functional analysis of trichoderma harzianum mutants that modulate maize resistance to the pathogen curvularia lunata.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was used to generate an insertional mutant library of the mycelial fungus trichoderma harzianum. from a total of 450 mutants, six mutants that showed significant influence on maize resistance to c. lunata were analyzed in detail. maize coated with these mutants was more susceptible to c. lunata compared with those coated with a wild-type (wt) strain. similar to other fungal atmt libraries, all six mutants were single copy integrations, whi ...201424901960
biocatalytic and antimicrobial activities of gold nanoparticles synthesized by trichoderma sp.the aim of this work was to synthesize gold nanoparticles by trichoderma viride and hypocrea lixii. the biosynthesis of the nanoparticles was very rapid and took 10 min at 30 °c when cell-free extract of the t. viride was used, which was similar by h. lixii but at 100 °c. biomolecules present in cell free extracts of both fungi were capable to synthesize and stabilize the formed particles. synthesis procedure was very quick and environment friendly which did not require subsequent processing. th ...201424914997
biocontrol agents-mediated suppression of oxalic acid induced cell death during sclerotinia sclerotiorum-pea interaction.oxalic acid (oa) is an important pathogenic factor during early sclerotinia sclerotiorum-host interaction and might work by reducing hydrogen peroxide production (h2 o2 ). in the present investigation, oxalic acid-induced cell death in pea was studied. pea plants treated with biocontrol agents (bcas) viz., pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, bacillus subtilis bhhu100, and trichoderma harzianum tnhu27 either singly and/or in consortium acted on s. sclerotiorum indirectly by enabling plants to inhibit ...201524920251
overexpression of erg1 gene in trichoderma harzianum cect 2413: effect on the induction of tomato defence-related investigate the effect of the overexpression of erg1 gene of trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 (t34) on the trichoderma-plant interactions and in the biocontrol ability of this fungus.201424925373
immobilization of trichoderma harzianum α-amylase on treated wool: optimization and characterization.α-amylase from trichoderma harzianum was covalently immobilized on activated wool by cyanuric chloride. immobilized α-amylase exhibited 75% of its initial activity after 10 runs. the soluble and immobilized α-amylases exhibited maximum activity at ph values 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. the immobilized enzyme was more thermally stable than the soluble one. various substrates were hydrolyzed by immobilized α-amylase with high efficiencies compared to those of soluble α-amylase. the inhibition of the ...201424932573
family 1 carbohydrate binding-modules enhance saccharification rates.cellulose degrading enzymes usually have a two-domain structure consisting of a catalytic domain and a non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding module. although it is well known the importance of those modules in cell wall degrading process, their function is not yet fully understood. here, we analyze the cellulose-hydrolysis activity enhancement promoted by the cellobiohydrolase i carbohydrate-binding module from trichoderma harzianum. it was cloned, expressed, purified and used in combination with e ...201424949270
biological role of trichoderma harzianum-derived platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (paf-ah) on stress response and antagonism.we investigated the properties of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (paf-ah) derived from trichoderma harzianum. the enzyme, comprised of 572 amino acids, shares high homology with paf-ah proteins from t. koningii and other microbial species. the optimum enzymatic activity of paf-ah occurred at ph 6 in the absence of ca2+ and it localized in the cytoplasm, and we observed the upregulation of paf-ah expression in response to carbon starvation and strong heat shock. furthermore, paf-ah kn ...201424964161
mycoparasitism studies of trichoderma harzianum against sclerotinia sclerotiorum: evaluation of antagonism and expression of cell wall-degrading enzymes genes.trichoderma spp. are known for their biocontrol activity against several plant pathogens. a specific isolate of trichoderma harzianum, 303/02, has the potential to inhibit the growth of sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an important agent involved in several crop diseases. in this study, the interaction between t. harzianum 303/02 and mycelia, sclerotia and apothecia of s. sclerotiorum was studied by scanning electron microscopy. rt-qpcr was used to examine the expression of 11 genes potentially involve ...201424966041
insights into the structure and function of fungal β-mannosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 2 based on multiple crystal structures of the trichoderma harzianum enzyme.hemicellulose is an important part of the plant cell wall biomass, and is relevant to cellulosic ethanol technologies. β-mannosidases are enzymes capable of cleaving nonreducing residues of β-d-mannose from β-d-mannosides and hemicellulose mannose-containing polysaccharides, such as mannans and galactomannans. β-mannosidases are distributed between glycoside hydrolase (gh) families 1, 2, and 5, and only a handful of the enzymes have been structurally characterized to date. the only published x-r ...201424975648
[inhibition effects and mechanisms of the entophytic fungus trichoderma harzianum lh-7 from aloe barbadensis].inhibition spectrum and antagonistic mechanism of an endophytic fungus trichoderma harzianum lh-7, isolated from wild medicinal plant aloe barbadensis, were investigated by in vitro culture methods against 9 kinds of plant pathogens. the results showed that nutrient competition and hyper-parasitism were the two primarily antagonist approaches that strain lh-7 adopted to inhibit the tested plant pathogens with a significant inhibition rate of 62.4%-88.4%. moreover, the active compound from metabo ...201425011309
phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.the application of trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. some trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. in this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by diff ...201425023078
a combined chemical and enzymatic method to determine quantitatively the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of yeasts.a reliable method to determine cell wall polysaccharides composition in yeast is presented, which combines acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. sulphuric acid treatment is used to determine mannans, whereas specific hydrolytic enzymes are employed in a two sequential steps to quantify chitin and the proportion of β-(1,3) and β-(1,6)-glucan in the total β-glucan of the cell wall. in the first step, chitin and β-(1,3)-glucan were hydrolysed into their corresponding monomers n-acetylglucosamine and gluco ...201425041403
degradation of polyethylene by trichoderma harzianum--sem, ftir, and nmr analyses.trichoderma harzianum was isolated from local dumpsites of shivamogga district for use in the biodegradation of polyethylene. soil sample of that dumpsite was used for isolation of t. harzianum. degradation was carried out using autoclaved, uv-treated, and surface-sterilized polyethylene. degradation was monitored by observing weight loss and changes in physical structure by scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. t. har ...201425052326
fungal biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate and toxicity of its breakdown products on the basis of fungal and bacterial growth.phthalates are esters of phthalic acid that give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride. diverse studies have reported that these compounds might be carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic. radial growth rate, biomass, hyphal thickness of neurospora sitophyla, trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger, grown in two different concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (dbp) (500 and 1,000 mg/l) in agar and in submerged fermentation were studied. the inhibitory concentration (ic50) and the constant of bi ...201425063688
[effect of glomus versiforme and trichoderma harzianum on growth and quality of salvia miltiorrhiza].the present study aimed to investigate the effect of glomus versiforme and trichodema harzianum on the growth and quality of salvia miltiorrhiza continuous cropping under field conditions. the field plot experiment was conducted, these active components in the plant were analyzed by hplc, the root diseases incidence rate of s. miltiorrhiza determined by observation and counting, and relative parameters were measured. the data was statistically processed. the result showed that inoculation of g. ...201425095363
fusarium oxysporum induces the production of proteins and volatile organic compounds by trichoderma harzianum t-e5.trichoderma species have been used widely as biocontrol agents for the suppression of soil-borne pathogens. however, some antagonistic mechanisms of trichoderma are not well characterized. in this study, a series of laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the importance of mycoparasitism, exoenzymes, and volatile organic compounds (vocs) by trichoderma harzianum t-e5 for the control of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (foc). we further tested whether these mechanisms were induc ...201425135494
changes induced by trichoderma harzianum in suppressive compost controlling fusarium wilt.the addition of species of trichoderma to compost is a widespread technique used to control different plant diseases. the biological control activity of these species is mainly attributable to a combination of several mechanisms of action, which may affect the microbiota involved in the suppressiveness of compost. this study was therefore performed to determine the effect of inoculation of trichoderma harzianum (t. harzianum) on compost, focusing on bacterial community structure (16s rrna) and c ...201325149244
quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in trichoderma harzianum t-e5 colonization.the ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi trichoderma spp. the aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of trichoderma harzianum t-e5 for colonization of cucumber roots. a series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and t-e5 colonization on cucumber roots. in the split- ...201425194775
effect of mixture of trichoderma isolates on biochemical parameters in leaf of macrophomina phaseolina infected brinjal.a mixture of trichoderma harzianum nbri-1055 (fx) and t. harzianum bhu-99 (th) was evaluated for their efficiency to induce systemic resistance during three way interaction among brinjal-trichoderma-macrophomina phaseolina. total phenol content (tpc), defence related enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), peroxidase (po), polyphenol oxidase (ppo) and pr proteins (pr-2 and pr-3) were recorded. total phenolic content was recorded 12.82 times and 1.8 times higher in trichoderma mixture treated- ...201425204061
cytotoxicity of trichoderma spp. cultural filtrate against human cervical and breast cancer cell lines.trichoderma spp. are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites with biological activity belonging to a variety of classes of chemical compounds. these fungi also are well known for their ability to produce a wide range of antibiotic substances and to parasitize other fungi. in search for new substances, which might act as anticancer agents, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma asperellum cultural filtrates aga ...201425227819
microfungi in highly copper-contaminated soils from an abandoned fe-cu sulphide mine: growth responses, tolerance and bioaccumulation.copper is one of the most dangerous soil contaminants. soils affected by high copper concentrations show low biodiversity and, above all, inadequate environmental quality. microorganisms such as fungi can play a key role in metal-polluted ecosystems via colonization and decontamination. the study is devoted to characterize the microfungal community in highly cu-contaminated bare soil from derelict fe-cu sulphide mines and to isolate microfungal strains able to tolerate and accumulate cu. 11 diff ...201425240213
comparative evaluation of two trichoderma harzianum strains for major secondary metabolite production and antifungal activity.this investigation was undertaken to identify the major secondary metabolite, produced by two trichoderma harzianum strains (t-4 and t-5) with their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using poison food technique. the ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol gradually. chromatographic separation of ethyl acetate extract of t. harzianum (t-4) resulted in the isolation and identification of palmitic acid (1), 1,8-dihydrox ...201525248548
colonization of onions by endophytic fungi and their impacts on the biology of thrips tabaci.endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. thrips tabaci (lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, allium cepa l., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. however, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. we tested the colonization of onion plants by selected f ...201425254657
trichoderma harzianum t-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. the addition of specific microorganisms such as trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. in this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with t. harzianum t-78, affects the ant ...201525255983
[antitumor enzyme l-lyzine-alpha-oxidase from trichoderma harzianum rifai f-180 and investigation of its action on l-lysine oxidation by capillar electrophoresis].trichoderma harzianum rifai f-180, an organism producing the antitumor enzyme l-lysine-alpha-oxidase was cultivated and the enzyme was isolated and purified under the manufacturing conditions. the effect of l-lysine-alpha-oxidase on oxidation of l-lysine was investigated for the first time by capillary electrophoresis and the procedure conditions were developed. the reaction of l-lysine oxidative deamination is described and location of the reaction components picks on the elecrophoregrams was i ...201425300116
effects of endophyte colonization of vicia faba (fabaceae) plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae) and diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae).effects of the fungal endophytes beauveria bassiana (isolates icipe 279, g1lu3, s4su1) and hypocrea lixii (isolate f3st1) on the life-history of phaedrotoma scabriventris and diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd) and 3(rd) instar l. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, vicia faba. in the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. para ...201425338084
bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine trichoderma the present study, a marine strain of trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. for optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°c), ph values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g l(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). the optimum conditions fo ...201425392801
validation of a novel sequential cultivation method for the production of enzymatic cocktails from trichoderma strains.the development of new cost-effective bioprocesses for the production of cellulolytic enzymes is needed in order to ensure that the conversion of biomass becomes economically viable. the aim of this study was to determine whether a novel sequential solid-state and submerged fermentation method (sf) could be validated for different strains of the trichoderma genus. cultivation of the trichoderma reesei rut-c30 reference strain under sf using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was shown to be favorabl ...201525399068
genetic transformation of knufia petricola a95 - a model organism for biofilm-material interactions.we established a protoplast-based system to transfer dna to knufia petricola strain a95, a melanised rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungus that is also a component of a model sub-aerial biofilm (sab) system. to test whether the desiccation resistant, highly melanised cell walls would hinder protoplast formation, we treated a melanin-minus mutant of a95 as well as the type-strain with a variety of cell-degrading enzymes. of the different enzymes tested, lysing enzymes from trichoderma harzianum we ...201425401079
molecular characterization of intergeneric hybrid between aspergillus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum by protoplast fusion.protoplast fusion between aspergillus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum and application of fusant in degradation of shellfish waste.201525444252
novel mutations in β-tubulin gene in trichoderma harzianum mutants resistant to methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate.twelve-low resistant (lr) mutants of trichoderma harzianum with the capability of grow fast at 0.8 μg/ml methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (mbc) were obtained using uv mutagenesis. mr and hr mutants which could grow fast at 10 and 100 μg/ml mbc, respectively, were isolated by step-up selection protocols in which uv-treated mutants were induced and mycelial sector screening was made in plates with growth medium. subsequently, β-tubulin genes of 14 mutants were cloned to describe-the molecular le ...201425474873
the potentiality of trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.the interaction between sodium chloride and trichoderma harzianum (t24) on growth parameters, ion contents, mda content, proline, soluble proteins as well as sds page protein profile were studied in vicia faba giza 429. a sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. the water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinit ...201425475984
saccharification of rice straw by cellulase from a local trichoderma harzianum snrs3 for biobutanol production.rice straw has shown to be a promising agricultural by-product in the bioconversion of biomass to value-added products. hydrolysis of cellulose, a main constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is a requirement for fermentable sugar production and its subsequent bioconversion to biofuels such as biobutanol. the high cost of commercial enzymes is a major impediment to the industrial application of cellulases. therefore, the use of local microbial enzymes has been suggested. trichoderma harzianum st ...201425496491
novel mutations in β-tubulin gene in trichoderma harzianum mutants resistant to methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate.twelve-low resistant (lr) mutants of trichoderma harzianum with the capability of grow fast at 0.8 μg/ml methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (mbc) were obtained using uv mutagenesis. mr and hr mutants which could grow fast at 10 and 100 μg/ml mbc, respectively, were isolated by step-up selection protocols in which uv-treated mutants were induced and mycelial sector screening was made in plates with growth medium. subsequently, β-tubulin genes of 14 mutants were cloned to describe-the molecular le ...201425508652
integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (pisum sativum l.).the study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (rhizoctonia solani kühn) and yield improvement in pea (pisum sativum l.). before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of r. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and ...201525528673
antimicrobial and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation of constituents isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes.this study was designed to assess the susceptibility of various microorganisms and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation against diosgenin and santonin, isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes. both diosgenin and santonin showed significant zone of inhibition when studied against various gram-positive (bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli and salmonella typhi). in antifungal assay ...201525553804
oxidative damage induced by heat stress could be relieved by nitric oxide in trichoderma harzianum ltr-2.trichoderma harzianum is an important commercial biocontrol fungal agent. the temperature has been shown to be an important parameter and strain-specific to the mycelia growth of fungi, but less report makes the known of the mechanisms in t. harzianum. in our study, a 6-h treatment of heat increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) and nitric oxide (no) concentration in mycelia to 212 and 230 % the level of the control, respectively. the exogenous no donor sodium nitroprusside ...201525561405
integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by rhizoctonia solani investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by rhizoctonia solani (r. solani) through the integration of trichoderma harzianum (t. harzianum) isolate sta7, mustard oil cake and provax 200. a series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of r. solani, an effective isolate of t. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. the pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of r ...201525595298
biological control of rigidoporus lignosus in hevea brasiliensis in nigeria.the study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo control of fungal antagonists on rigidoporus lignosus (klotzsch) imaz in hevea brasiliensis (willd. ex a. juss.) muell. arg. in the rain forest zone of nigeria. in vitro assessments of biological agents were carried out in dixenic cultures in petri plates. in vivo tests were carried out in the nursery using hypocrea virens and hypocrea jecorina. significant differences were observed with the dual inoculations of fungal antagonists and r. l ...201525601145
control of root rot and wilt diseases of roselle under field conditions.roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa l.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. in this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, and macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. our results showed that micro ...201425606010
genotype-specific variation in the structure of root fungal communities is related to chickpea plant productivity.increasing evidence supports the existence of variations in the association of plant roots with symbiotic fungi that can improve plant growth and inhibit pathogens. however, it is unclear whether intraspecific variations in the symbiosis exist among plant cultivars and if they can be used to improve crop productivity. in this study, we determined genotype-specific variations in the association of chickpea roots with soil fungal communities and evaluated the effect of root mycota on crop producti ...201525616789
production and multiplication of native compost fungal activator by using different substrates and its influence on growth and development of capsicum chinensis jacq. "bhut jolokia".in vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of pinus kesiya, shorea robusta, and callicarpa arborea on trichoderma harzianum, isolate th-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on capsicum chinensis jacq. "bhut jolokia." early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in s. robusta followed by p. kesiya and c. arborea (3.5 days). the sporulation was observed earlier in s. robusta (100% after 6 days) than p. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and c. arborea (16.7% after ...201525632354
hydrodynamics, fungal physiology, and morphology.filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. in mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. the dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, im ...201525652005
systematics of the trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains.trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. it is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. while various studies have suggested that t. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. in the present study the taxonomy of the t. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. previously nam ...201725661720
biological management of sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.the beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. the present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, trichoderma harzianum tnhu27, and bacillus subtilis bhhu100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control sclerotinia sclerotiorum. plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant gro ...201525727183
penicillium ochrochloron mtcc 517 chitinase: an effective tool in commercial enzyme cocktail for production and regeneration of protoplasts from various fungi.penicillium ochrochloron mtcc 517 is a potent producer of chitinolytic enzymes. novozyme 234, traditional enzyme cocktail for protoplast generation is not available in the market. so, new enzyme cocktail is prepared for protoplast formation from various filamentous fungi which consists of 5 mg ml(-1) lysing enzymes from trichoderma harzianum, 0.06 mg ml(-1) β-glucuronidase from helix pomatia and 1 mg ml(-1) p. ochrochloron chitinase. the greatest number of protoplasts could be produced from most ...201525737658
molecular characterization of a xylanase-producing fungus isolated from fouled soil.xylanase (ec 3. 2. 1. 8), hydrolyzes xylo-oligosaccharides into d-xylose and required for complete hydrolysis of native cellulose and biomass conversion. it has broad range of applications in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and agri-food industries. fifty fungal species were isolated from the fouled soil around an oil refinery and screened for the production of xylanase enzyme by enrichment culture techniques. the isolated fungal strain was identified as hypocrea lixii ss1 based on the result ...201425763033
the variations of glycolysis and tca cycle intermediate levels grown in iron and copper mediums of trichoderma harzianum.the efficiency of optimal metabolic function by microorganism depends on various parameters, especially essential metal supplementation. in the present study, the effects of iron and copper metals on metabolism were investigated by determination of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle metabolites' levels with respect to the metal concentrations and incubation period in trichoderma harzianum. the pyruvate and citrate levels of t. harzianum increased up to 15 mg/l of copper via redirectio ...201525805013
liquid culture production of microsclerotia and submerged conidia by trichoderma harzianum active against damping-off disease caused by rhizoctonia and culturing protocols were identified that supported the formation of submerged conidia and microsclerotia (ms) by trichoderma harzianum rifai strain t-22 using liquid culture fermentation. liquid media with a higher carbon concentration (36 g l(-1)) promoted ms formation at all c:n ratios tested. hyphae aggregated to form ms after 2 d growth and after 7 d ms were fully melanized. this is the first report of ms formation by t. harzianum or any species of trichoderma. furthermore, submerg ...201525813507
trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from trichoderma harzianum f031.a new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol a (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from trichoderma harzianum f031. for the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the trichoderma species. their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minim ...201525817439
analysis of genomic regions of trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 related to biomass degradation.trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. however, the t. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. the present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. a bac library consisting of 5,760 clones was const ...201525836973
a new strategy for co-composting dairy manure with rice straw: addition of different inocula at three stages of considering the impact of inoculation time and the characteristics of composting material and inoculants on the usefulness of inoculation, a new composting strategy has been proposed and studied, in which three inocula were inoculated at three stages of composting process respectively: inoculum a (thermoactinomyces sp. gf1 and gf2) was inoculated before fermentation to increase or maintain high temperature of pile, inoculum b (coprinus cinerea and coprinus comatus) was inoculated after thermo ...201525837785
biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment.relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untre ...201525860553
optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for trichoderma harzianum using an orthogonal test.the aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the production of fungal bio-pesticides with high efficiency, low cost, and non-polluting fermentation, while also increasing their survival rate under field conditions. this is the first study to develop biocontrol trichoderma harzianum transformants ts1 that are resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. agricultural corn stover and wheat bran waste were used as a medium and inducing carbon source for solid fermentation. spore production was obse ...201525867321
untargeted metabolic profiling of vitis vinifera during fungal degradation.this paper illustrates the application of an untargeted metabolic profiling analysis of winery-derived biomass degraded using four filamentous fungi (trichoderma harzianum, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum and p. citrinum) and a yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae). analysis of the metabolome resulted in the identification of 233 significant peak features [p < 0.05; fold change (fc) > 2 and signal-to-noise ratio >50] using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by statistical chemom ...201525868913
peptaibol, secondary-metabolite, and hydrophobin pattern of commercial biocontrol agents formulated with species of the trichoderma harzianum complex.the production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. this feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics in plant-protective trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex a ...201525879509
a new cytotoxic cytochalasin from the endophytic fungus trichoderma harzianum.the new natural product 4]-hydroxy-deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin h (1), together with the known deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin h (2) and 18-deoxycytochalasin h (3) were obtained from the endophytic fungus trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of cola nitida. the structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined by 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy, and by hresims measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. compounds 1-3 showed potent cytotoxic activity against the murine ly ...201525973482
determination of the chemical structures of tandyukisins b-d, isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus.tandyukisins b-d (1-3), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of trichoderma harzianum oups-111d-4 originally derived from the marine sponge halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1d and 2d nmr techniques. in addition, their chemical structures were established by chemical transformation. they exhibited weak cytotoxicity, but selective growth inhibition on panel screening using 39 human cancer cell lines.201526006715
new c13 lipids from the marine-derived fungus trichoderma harzianum.chemical examination of the fermentation broth of a sponge-associated fungus trichoderma harzinum hms-15-3 led to the isolation of four pairs of new c13 lipid enantiomers namely harzianumols a-h (1a-4b). their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (ir, ms, 1d, and 2d nmr) data analysis, including the modified mosher's method for the assignment of their absolute configurations. the new compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic effects in hepg2 cells.201526031203
extra and intracellular synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles mediated by dead fungal biomass.the use of dead biomass of the fungus hypocrea lixii as a biological system is a new, effective and environmentally friendly bioprocess for the production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles (nps), which has become a promising field in nanobiotechnology. dead biomass of the fungus was successfully used to convert nickel ions into nickel oxide nps in aqueous solution. these nps accumulated intracellularly and extracellularly on the cell wall surface through biosorption. the average size, mor ...201526043111
comparative proteomic analysis in pea treated with microbial consortia of beneficial microbes reveals changes in the protein network to enhance resistance against sclerotinia sclerotiorum.microbial consortia may provide protection against pathogenic ingress via enhancing plant defense responses. pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, trichoderma harzianum tnhu27 and bacillus subtilis bhhu100 were used either singly or in consortia in the pea rhizosphere to observe proteome level changes upon sclerotinia sclerotiorum challenge. thirty proteins were found to increase or decrease differentially in 2-de gels of pea leaves, out of which 25 were identified by maldi-tof ms or ms/ms. these prote ...201526067380
draft whole-genome sequence of the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum t6776.trichoderma harzianum t6776 is a promising beneficial isolate whose effects consist of growth promotion, positive response of photosynthetic activity, hormonal signaling, and carbon partitioning in tomato, coupled with biocontrol of plant pathogens. here, we present the first genome assembly of t6776, providing a useful platform for the scientific community.201526067977
how fungi interact with nematode to activate the plant defence response to tomato of plant parasitic nematodes with nematode predators, parasites or antagonists is an eco-friendly approach that may avoid the problems arisen by the use of toxic chemicals. fungi belonging to trichoderma spp. are well known in literature for their role in control of plant parasitic nematodes. root-knot nematodes (rkns), meloidogyne spp., are obligate parasites that cause the formation of familiar galls on the roots of many cultivated plants. the interaction between the m. incognita mo ...201426080471
solubilisation of phosphate and micronutrients by trichoderma harzianum and its relationship with the promotion of tomato plant growth.trichoderma harzianum strain sqr-t037 is a biocontrol agent that has been shown to enhance the uptake of nutrients (macro- and microelements) by plants in fields. the objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of sqr-t037 to p and microelement (fe, mn, cu and zn) nutrition in tomato plants grown in soil and in hydroponic conditions. inoculation with sqr-t037 significantly improved the biomass and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings grown in a nutrient-limiting soil. so we invest ...201526110536
recombinant trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase i (cel7b) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. previous studies demonstrated that trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. however, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from t. harzianum are scarce. this work reports biochemical characterization ...201526156238
evaluation of dye compounds' decolorization capacity of selected h. haematococca and t. harzianum strains by principal component analysis (pca).the selected strains of microscopic fungi, haematonectria haematococca (bwiii43, k37) and trichoderma harzianum (bsiii33), decolorized the following monoathraquinone dyes with different efficiency: 0.03 % alizarin blue black b, 0.01 % carminic acid, 0.01 % poly r-478, and 0.2 % post-industrial lignin. the most effective was the removal of 0.03 % alizarin blue black b (50-60 %) and 0.01 % carminic acid (55-85 %). the principal component analysis (pca) method was applied to determine the main enzy ...201726160991
trichodiene production in a trichoderma harzianum erg1-silenced strain provides evidence of the importance of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in inducing plant defense-related gene expression.trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. a complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. the terpene trichodiene (td) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to botrytis virulence. we show here that td itself is able to induce t ...201526168138
expression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from trichoderma harzianum in strawberry increases tolerance to crown rot diseases but interferes with plant growth.the expression of antifungal genes from trichoderma harzianum, mainly chitinases, has been used to confer plant resistance to fungal diseases. however, the biotechnological potential of glucanase genes from trichoderma has been scarcely assessed. in this research, transgenic strawberry plants expressing the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from t. harzianum, under the control of the camv35s promoter, have been generated. after acclimatization, five out of 12 independent lines analysed showed a stunt ...201526178245
structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. the beneficial activities of the fungus trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. the initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from fusarium sporotrichioides. trichodiene synthase (ts) encoded by tri5 gene in t ...201626207800
hydroxylation of 1,8-cineole by mucor ramannianus and aspergillus niger.the monoterpenoid 1,8-cineole is obtained from the leaves of eucalyptus globulus and it has important biological activities. it is a cheap natural substrate because it is a by-product of the eucalyptus cultivation for wood and pulp production. in this study, it was evaluated the potential of three filamentous fungi in the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole. the study was divided in two steps: first, reactions were carried out with 1,8-cineole at 1 g/l for 24 h; afterwards, reactions were carried o ...201526221115
fungal biomolecules assisted biosynthesis of au-ag alloy nanoparticles and evaluation of their catalytic property.the catalytic reduction of methylene blue was studied using biosynthesised gold-silver (au-ag) alloy nanoparticles (nps). the fungal biomass of trichoderma harzianum was used as a reducing and stabilising agent in the synthesis of au-ag alloy nps. the synthesised nps were well characterised by uv-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. the plausible synthesis ...201526224346
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