elucidation of biocontrol mechanisms of trichoderma harzianum against different plant fungal pathogens: universal yet host specific the present study, different transcripts of trichoderma harzianum thhp-3 were evaluated for their response against four fungal pathogens fusarium oxysporum, colletotrichum capsici, colletotrichum truncatum and gloesercospora sorghi using rt-qpcr. the time course study of t. harzianum transcripts related to signal transduction, lytic enzymes, secondary metabolites and various transporters revealed variation in expression against four fungal pathogens. in a broader term, the transcripts were up ...201727856319
differential response of extracellular proteases of trichoderma harzianum against fungal the present study, production of extracellular proteases by trichoderma harzianum was evaluated based on the relative gene expression and spectrophotometric assay. the fungal isolates were grown in czapek dox broth medium supplemented with deactivated mycelium of plant fungal pathogens such as fusarium oxysporum, colletotrichum capsici, gloeocercospora sorghi, and colletotrichum truncatum. the maximum protease activity was detected after 48 h of incubation against colletotrichum spp. similarl ...201627278806
trichoderma harzianum t-22 induces systemic resistance in tomato infected by cucumber mosaic virus.understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. the ability of trichoderma harzianum, strain t-22 (t22) to control cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with t22/cmv were examined. plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reac ...201627777581
the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene derived from trichoderma harzianum induces maize resistance to curvularia lunata through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (paf-ah) derived from trichoderma harzianum was upregulated by the interaction of t. harzianum with maize roots or the foliar pathogen curvularia lunata. paf-ah was associated with chitinase and cellulase expressions, but especially with chitinase, because its activity in the ko40 transformant (paf-ah disruption transformant) was lower, compared with the wild-type strain t28. the result demonstrated that the colonization of maize roots by t. harzianum i ...201526273755
molecular cloning and characterization of ech46 endochitinase from trichoderma the present study, endochitinase of t. harzianum isolate-thhp3 induced against mycelium of f. oxysporum was cloned, sequenced and characterized. the complete nucleotide sequence contained an orf of 1293bp corresponding to 430 amino acids with 46kda molecular weight and theoretical pi 5.59. the precursor protein contained 22 amino acids long signal peptide at n terminus. the domain architecture of endochitinase showed low complexity regions, presence of 1w9p domain specific to cyclopentapeptid ...201627456116
crystal structure and biochemical characterization of the recombinant thbgl, a gh1 β-glucosidase overexpressed in trichoderma harzianum under biomass degradation conditions.the conversion of biomass-derived sugars via enzymatic hydrolysis for biofuel production is a challenge. therefore, the search for microorganisms and key enzymes that increase the efficiency of the saccharification of cellulosic substrates remains an important and high-priority area of study. trichoderma harzianum is an important fungus known for producing high levels of cellulolytic enzymes that can be used for cellulosic ethanol production. in this context, β-glucosidases, which act synergisti ...201627006690
synthesis, spectral investigation (¹h, ¹³c) and anti-microbial screening of benzophenone series of benzophenone imines with general formula ph2-c=nr; r = benzyl, 4-fluorobenzyl, naphthyl, phenyl, 4-nitrophenyl were synthesized by condensation of dichlorodiphenylmethane and different aromatic primary amines (1:1) those imines were characterized by different physiochemical and spectroscopic techniques like melting point, elemental analysis, ft-ir, multinuclear nmr (¹h, ¹³c). after characterization, imines were subjected to anti-microbial activities. all compounds showed promising ...201526639485
characterization of a novel resistance-related deoxycytidine deaminase from brassica oleracea var. capitata.brassica oleracea deoxycytidine deaminase (bodcd), a deoxycytidine deaminase (dcd, ec enzyme, is known to play an important role in the trichoderma harzianum ets 323 mediated resistance mechanism in young leaves of b. oleracea var. capitata during rhizoctonia solani infection. bodcd potentially neutralizes cytotoxic products of host lipoxygenase activity, and thereby bodcd restricts the hypersensitivity-related programmed cell death induced in plants during the initial stages of infect ...201424475736
expression, immobilization and enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylase fused to a cellulose-binding domain.escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (gad), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba), was fused to the cellulose-binding domain (cbd) and a linker of trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase ii. to prevent proteolysis of the fusion protein, the native linker was replaced with a s(3)n(10) peptide known to be completely resistant to e. coli endopeptidase. the cbd-gad expressed in e. coli was successfully immobilized on avicel, a crystalline ...201222312257
identification and characterization of the trichoderma harzianum gene encoding alpha-1,3-glucanase involved in streptococcal mutan degradation.alpha-1,3-glucanases (mutanases) are currently of great interest due to their potential use in the field of dental care. these enzymes have been reported in several bacteria, yeasts and fungi, but up to now, characterization of this family of proteins has been relatively poor. in this study, we identify and characterize a mutanase gene from trichoderma harzianum ccm f-340. sequence analysis, on the nucleotide and amino acid levels reveals that this alpha-1,3-glucanase is highly homologous to alp ...201122390063
[presearch on preventing the medicinal plant diseases with trichoderma harzianum preparation].to control the medicinal plant diseases with the preparation of trichoderma harzianum.200315015261
trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by fusarium oxysporum in isolate, named trichoderma harzianum t-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with t-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. furthermore, we found that t-soybean inhibited the growth of f. oxysporum by parasitic function. in addition, plate test ...201728135657
native isolate of trichoderma: a biocontrol agent with unique stress tolerance properties.species of trichoderma are widely recognized for their biocontrol abilities, but seldom studied collectively, for their plant growth promotion, abiotic stress tolerance and bioremediation properties. our study is a concentrated effort to establish the potential of native isolate trichoderma harzianum ksnm (t103) to tolerate biotic (root pathogens) and abiotic stresses [high salt (100-1000 mm); heavy metal (chromium, nickel and zinc: 1-10 mm); pesticides: malathion (100-600 ppm), carbofuran (100- ...201627339311
changes induced by trichoderma harzianum in suppressive compost controlling fusarium wilt.the addition of species of trichoderma to compost is a widespread technique used to control different plant diseases. the biological control activity of these species is mainly attributable to a combination of several mechanisms of action, which may affect the microbiota involved in the suppressiveness of compost. this study was therefore performed to determine the effect of inoculation of trichoderma harzianum (t. harzianum) on compost, focusing on bacterial community structure (16s rrna) and c ...201325149244
fusarium oxysporum induces the production of proteins and volatile organic compounds by trichoderma harzianum t-e5.trichoderma species have been used widely as biocontrol agents for the suppression of soil-borne pathogens. however, some antagonistic mechanisms of trichoderma are not well characterized. in this study, a series of laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the importance of mycoparasitism, exoenzymes, and volatile organic compounds (vocs) by trichoderma harzianum t-e5 for the control of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (foc). we further tested whether these mechanisms were induc ...201425135494
phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.the application of trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. some trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. in this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by diff ...201425023078
strategies utilized by trophically diverse fungal species for pinus sylvestris root colonization.physiological changes in host plants in response to the broad spectrum of fungal modes of infection are still not well understood. the current study was conducted to better understand the infection of in vitro cultures of pinus sylvestris l. seedlings by three trophically diverse fungal species, fusarium oxysporum e. f. sm. & swingle, trichoderma harzianum rifai and hebeloma crustuliniforme (bull.) quél. biochemical methods and microscopy were utilized to determine (i) which factors (apoplastic ...201424391166
integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.the efficacy of cowdung, bangladesh institute of nuclear agriculture (bina)-biofertilizer, and bangladesh agricultural university (bau)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. the results exhibited that bina-biofertilizer and baubiofungicide (peat soil-based rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi fusarium oxysporum and sclerotium ...201222580305
inoculation of tomato seedlings with trichoderma harzianum and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their effect on growth and control of wilt in tomato seedlings.a green house study was conducted to investigate the ability of an isolate of trichoderma harzianum (p52) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in enhancing growth and control of a wilt pathogen caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato seedlings. the plants were grown in plastic pots filled with sterilized soils. there were four treatments applied as follows; p52, amf, amf + p52 and a control. a completely randomized design was used and growth measurements and disease assessmen ...201124031662
wetting properties of fungi mycelium alter soil infiltration and soil water repellency in a γ-sterilized wettable and repellent soil.soil water repellency (swr) has a drastic impact on soil quality resulting in reduced infiltration, increased runoff, increased leaching, reduced plant growth, and increased soil erosion. one of the causes of swr is hydrophobic fungal structures and exudates that change the soil-water relationship. the objective of this study was to determine whether swr and infiltration could be manipulated through inoculation with fungi. the effect of fungi on swr was investigated through inoculation of three ...201223245615
secretome analysis of the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum all 42 cultivated in different media supplemented with fusarium solani cell wall or glucose.trichoderma harzianum is a fungus well known for its potential as a biocontrol agent against many fungal phytopathogens. the aim of this study was to characterize the proteins secreted by t. harzianum all42 when its spores were inoculated and incubated for 48 h in culture media supplemented with glucose (glu) or with cell walls from fusarium solani (fscw), a phytopathogen that causes severe losses in common bean and soy crops in brazil, as well as other crop diseases around the world. trichoderm ...201626631988
mycoparasitism studies of trichoderma species against three phytopathogenic fungi: evaluation of antagonism and hydrolytic enzyme production.trichoderma spp. are used for biocontrol of several plant pathogens. however, their efficient interaction with the host needs to be accompanied by production of secondary metabolites and cell wall-degrading enzymes. three parameters were evaluated after interaction between four trichoderma species and plant-pathogenic fungi: fusarium solani, rhizoctonia solani and sclerotinia sclerotiorum. trichoderma harzianum and t. asperellum were the most effective antagonists against the pathogens. most of ...201323690037
identification of differentially expressed genes from trichoderma harzianum during growth on cell wall of fusarium solani as a tool for biotechnological application.the species of t. harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. however, there is a lack of studies concerning its use as a biological control agent against f. solani, a pathogen involved in several crop diseases. in this study, we have used subtractive library hybridization (ssh) and quantitative real-time pcr (rt-qpcr) techniques in order to explore changes in t. harzianum genes expression during growth on cell wall of f. solani (fscw) or glucose. rt-qpcr ...201323497274
trichoderma l-lysine-α-oxidase producer strain culture fluid inhibits impatiens necrotic spot virus.a method for pcr diagnosis of impatiens necrotic spot virus is developed. concentrated culture fluid with active l-lysine-α-oxidase (0.54 u/ml) from trichoderma harzianum rifai fungus producer strain f-180 inhibits vitally hazardous impatiens necrotic spot phytovirus.201626742733
induction of sa-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis in trichoderma harzianum-treated tomato plants after infection of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita.salicylic acid-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis were induced in tomato treated with trichoderma harzianum when infected by root-knot nematodes and limited the infection by activation of sar and ethylene production. soil pre-treatment with trichoderma harzianum (th) strains item 908 (t908) and t908-5 decreased susceptibility of tomato to meloidogyne incognita, as assessed by restriction in nematode reproduction and development. the effect of t. harzianum treatments on plant defense was ...201728239746
isolation and characterization of pra1, a trypsin-like protease from the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 displaying nematicidal activity.mycoparasitic trichoderma strains secrete a complex set of hydrolytic enzymes under conditions related to antagonism. several proteins with proteolytic activity were detected in culture filtrates from t. harzianum cect 2413 grown in fungal cell walls or chitin and the protein responsible for the main activity (pra1) was purified to homogeneity. the enzyme was monomeric, its estimated molecular mass was 28 kda (sds-page), and its isoelectric point 4.7-4.9. the substrate specificity and inhibition ...200415221228
effects of different inoculum densities of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride against meloidogyne javanica on tomato.a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different inoculum densities of two saudi isolates of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride against meloidogyne javanica on tomato. four densities (10(4), 10(6), 10(8) and 10(10) spores/g of soil) of each fungus were used. the results indicate that all four inoculum densities of the two trichoderma species suppressed the nematode reproduction and root galling; and increased the growth of tomato plants, compared to controls. ...201626981012
biological control of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne javanica by trichoderma harzianum.abstract the fungal biocontrol agent, trichoderma harzianum, was evaluated for its potential to control the root-knot nematode meloidogyne javanica. in greenhouse experiments, root galling was reduced and top fresh weight increased in nematode-infected tomatoes following soil pretreatment with trichoderma peat-bran preparations. the use of a proteinase prb1-transformed line (p-2) that contains multiple copies of this gene improved biocontrol activity in the greenhouse experiments compared with t ...200118942999
antifungal rhizosphere bacteria can increase as response to the presence of saprotrophic fungi.knowledge on the factors that determine the composition of bacterial communities in the vicinity of roots (rhizosphere) is essential to understand plant-soil interactions. plant species identity, plant growth stage and soil properties have been indicated as major determinants of rhizosphere bacterial community composition. here we show that the presence of saprotrophic fungi can be an additional factor steering rhizosphere bacterial community composition and functioning. we studied the impact of ...201526393509
interspecific competitive interactions between pairs of fungal species in natural substrates.the role of interspecific competition in fungal communities in natural substrates is poorly understood because fungi do not form easily definable populations. a new approach to investigating fungal competition, using natural substrates containing a range of known biomass concentrations of each of two species, is described. relative competitive success of each species is assessed over time in terms of propagule production and substrate colonisation by each species. in an agricultural soil mucor h ...199328314028
[antimycoplasmic activity of fermentation broth of trichoderma harzianum rifai f-180, an organism producing l-lysine-α-oxidase, an antitumor and antiviral enzyme].a concentrate of the fermentation broth of trichoderma harzianum rifai f-180, an organism producing l-lysine-α-oxidase, an antitumor and antiviral enzyme, with the activity in the fermentation broth of 0.54-0.56 u/mi was recovered. the effect of the concentrate on the mycoplasmas growth was investigated for the first time. two representatives of mycoplasmafaceae, i.e. mycoplasma hominis and mycoplasma fermentans and one representative of aholeplasmataceae. i. e. aholeplasma laidlawii were used. ...201426448986
identification of genes induced in alkaloid-producing cultures of claviceps order to identify genes which are expressed during alkaloid synthesis in an axenic culture of claviceps sp. (strain atcc 26245), a cdna library from a producing culture was differentially screened with cdna from producing (cdna+) and non-producing (cdna-) cultures, respectively. altogether, ten cdna clones were obtained, the alkaloid-synthesis-correlated expression of which was confirmed by northern analyses. evaluation of their nucleotide and derived amino-acid sequences identified one gene ...19979108144
effect of fungi and light on seed germination of three opuntia species from semiarid lands of central mexico.fungal attack under light reduces mechanical resistance of the testa of opuntia seeds, making it easier for the embryo to emerge. however, the effect of fungi on opuntia seed germination in darkness is unknown. we evaluated the combined effects of light and inoculation with phoma medicaginis, trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma koningii, and penicillium chrysogenum on germination of o. streptacantha, o. leucotricha, and o. robusta seeds, from central mexico. we also evaluated the combined effects ...201323526153
anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity of marine-associated fungi from the south brazilian coast.trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. infection with this protozoan may have serious consequences, especially for women. currently, 5-nitroimidazole drugs are the treatment of choice for trichomonosis, but the emergence of resistance has limited the effectiveness of this therapy. in this context, this study aimed to evaluate the anti-t. vaginalis activity of marine-associated fungi found in the south brazilian coast ...201323201217
identification of an acidic endo-polygalacturonase from penicillium oxalicum cz1028 and its broad use in major tropical and subtropical fruit juices production.endo-polygalacturonases play an important role on depectinization in fruit juices industry. a putative endo-polygalacturonase gene poxaenpg28a was cloned from penicillium oxalicum cz1028. poxaenpg28a consisted of a putative signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 28, and it shared 72% identity with that of a functionally characterized endo-polygalacturonase from trichoderma harzianum. gene poxaenpg28a was successfully expressed in pichia pastoris with a high ...201728254341
rhizosphere competent microbial consortium mediates rapid changes in phenolic profiles in chickpea during sclerotium rolfsii infection.the present study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness and potentiality of three compatible rhizosphere microbes, viz., fluorescent pseudomonas aeruginosa (phu094), trichoderma harzianum (thu0816) and mesorhizobium sp. (rl091), in promoting plant growth and mobilizing phenolic acid biosynthesis in chickpea under challenge of sclerotium rolfsii. the microbes were applied as seed coating in different combinations in two experimental sets and the pathogen was inoculated afte ...201424168925
bio-protective microbial agents from rhizosphere eco-systems trigger plant defense responses provide protection against sheath blight disease in rice (oryza sativa l.).sheath blight of rice (oryza sativa l.) caused by rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. however, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. the present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing pseudomonas fluorescens and trichoderma har ...201627664749
combined inoculation of pseudomonas fluorescens and trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (vanilla planifolia).this study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on vanilla plants. based on the in vitro performance of indigenous trichoderma spp. and pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. the maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of trichoderma harzianum with pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by ps ...201324494528
technology for efficient and successful delivery of vermicompost colonized bioinoculants in pogostemon cablin (patchouli) benth.the usefulness of vermicompost as a supporting media for growth of bioinoculants was evaluated for successful transfer of sufficient propagules of bioinoculants into the organic fields. the rooted plants after 50 days were pot and field tested for their growth and yield performances when transplanted along with rooting medium into pots/organic fields. the rooting medium, 50 days of inoculation, contained sufficient population of bioinoculants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi. treatment with ...201222806808
effect of paecilomyces lilacinus, trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma virens fungal extracts on the hatchability of ancylostoma eggs.ancylostoma species have demanded attention due to their zoonotic potential. the use of anthelmintics is the usual method to prevent environmental contamination by ancylostoma eggs and larvae. nematophagous fungi have been widely used in their biological control due to the fungus ability to capture and digest free nematode forms.201727810261
a new strategy for co-composting dairy manure with rice straw: addition of different inocula at three stages of considering the impact of inoculation time and the characteristics of composting material and inoculants on the usefulness of inoculation, a new composting strategy has been proposed and studied, in which three inocula were inoculated at three stages of composting process respectively: inoculum a (thermoactinomyces sp. gf1 and gf2) was inoculated before fermentation to increase or maintain high temperature of pile, inoculum b (coprinus cinerea and coprinus comatus) was inoculated after thermo ...201525837785
marine fungi isolated from chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of southern chile. this activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. we analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. we isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. the five isolated st ...201627418075
bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine trichoderma the present study, a marine strain of trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. for optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°c), ph values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g l(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). the optimum conditions fo ...201425392801
cloning and heterologous expression of serine protease sl41 related to biocontrol in trichoderma harzianum.serine proteases are highly conserved among fungi and considered to play a key role in different aspects of fungal biology. these proteases are involved in fungal growth and have been related to biocontrol processes. to assess the functional role of serine proteases from trichoderma harzianum t88, an effective biocontrol agent, on inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi, a gene (sl41) encoding a serine protease was isolated by 5' and 3' race (rapid amplification of cdna ends). northern blot analysis ...201324060651
solid state production of polygalacturonase and xylanase by trichoderma species using cantaloupe and watermelon rinds.different solid state fermentation (ssf) sources were tested such as cantaloupe and watermelon rinds, orange and banana peels, for the production of polygalacturonase (pg) and xylanase (xyl) by trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma virens. the maximum production of both pg and xyl were obtained by t. harzianum and t. virnes grown on cantaloupe and watermelon rinds, respectively. time course, moisture content, temperature, ph, supplementation with carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized to ach ...201324037654
recombinant expression and characterization of an endoglucanase iii (cel12a) from trichoderma harzianum (hypocreaceae) in the yeast pichia pastoris.filamentous fungi from the genus trichoderma have been widely investigated due to their considerable production of important biotechnological enzymes. previous studies have demonstrated that the t. harzianum strain ioc-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity. after excluding the native signal peptide, the open reading frame of the t. harzianum endoglucanase iii enzyme was cloned in the expression vector ppiczαa, enabling protein secretion to the culture medium. the recombinant plasmid wa ...201222653604
fast methods for screening of trichothecenes in fungal cultures using gc-ms/ methods for screening for production of simple and macrocyclic trichothecenes, produced on solid substrates were developed. crude extracts fromfusarium cultures grown on yeast extract sucrose agar (approx. 0.3 cm(2) culture) were derivatised using pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analysed by gc - tandem mass spectrometry using a finnigan gcq(+) ion trap. the ms was operated in the ei(+) multiscan mode allowing simultaneous full scan and ms/ms of 3-4 parent ions. production of acetyl t-2 t ...200023605545
the improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens.the antagonistic potential of trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. to enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. two mutants, th-m1 and t. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. ...201726887221
trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in central europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.the aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the gorce mountains (location a), karkonosze mountains (location b) and tatra mountains (location c) in central europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. the present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: trichoderma atro ...201626586561
cloning and characterization of a protein elicitor sm1 gene from trichoderma harzianum.a small protein, cysteine-rich, designated sm1, produced by trichoderma virens and trichoderma atroviride, acts as elicitor for triggering plant defense reactions. we analyzed sm1 gene expression of eight different strains of trichoderma spp. grown on glucose, seeds or roots of beans. regardless of the carbon source, t37 strain had significantly higher sm1 expression and was chosen for further studies. when grown on different carbon sources, sm1 expression was highest on galactose, bean seed, gl ...201424322765
phylogeny of the clinically relevant species of the emerging fungus trichoderma and their antifungal susceptibilities.a set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (its) regions of the nuclear ribosomal dna and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), endochitinase chi18-5 (chi18-5), and actin 1 (act1) genes. the most frequent species was trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by trichoderma ci ...201424719448
microplate-based evaluation of the sugar yield from giant reed, giant miscanthus and switchgrass after mild chemical pre-treatments and hydrolysis with tailored trichoderma enzymatic blends.giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass are considered prominent lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain fermentable sugars for biofuel production. the bioconversion into sugars requires a delignifying pre-treatment step followed by hydrolysis with cellulase and other accessory enzymes like xylanase, especially in the case of alkali pre-treatments, which retain the hemicellulose fraction. blends richer in accessory enzymes than commercial mix can be obtained growing fungi on feedstock-based substra ...201728386674
integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining cu-based wood preservatives and trichoderma spp.the production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. the objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a trichoderma spp. with a highly ant ...201728379978
fungal biomass protein production from trichoderma harzianum using rice polishing.industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. high levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. the aim of this study was to access the potential of trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°c at ph 4. carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 g ...201728367444
draft genome sequence of the root-colonizing fungus trichoderma harzianum b97.trichoderma harzianum is one of the most beneficial microorganisms applied on diverse crops against biotic and abiotic stresses and acts also as a plant growth-promoting fungus. here, we report the genome of t. harzianum b97, originating from a french agricultural soil and used as a biofertilizer that can tolerate abiotic stresses.201728360171
applying taguchi design and large-scale strategy for mycosynthesis of nano-silver from endophytic trichoderma harzianum sya.f4 and its application against phytopathogens.development of reliable and low-cost requirement for large-scale eco-friendly biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step for industrial applications of bionanotechnology. in the present study, the mycosynthesis of spherical nano-ag (12.7 ± 0.8 nm) from extracellular filtrate of local endophytic t. harzianum sya.f4 strain which have interested mixed bioactive metabolites (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, nitrate reductase (320 nmol/hr/ml), carbohydrate (25 μg/μl) an ...201728349997
relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by phytophthora nicotianae.the understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. the use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative pcr are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two trichoderma strains (trichoderma harzianum or trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial an ...201728346470
the combination of trichoderma harzianum and chemical fertilization leads to the deregulation of phytohormone networking, preventing the adaptive responses of tomato plants to salt stress.plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. in addition to biocontrol abilities, trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. the application of trichoderma harzi ...201728303151
biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity.white mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. there are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus trichoderma harzianum and characterized. cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were ini ...201728300141
fungi-based treatment of brewery wastewater-biomass production and nutrient reduction.the beer-brewing process produces high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater, and the increasing number of microbreweries worldwide has created a need for innovative solutions to deal with this waste. in the present study, fungal biomass production and the removal of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen from synthetic brewery wastewater were studied. different filamentous fungi with a record of safe use were screened for growth, and trametes versicolor, pleurotus ostreatus and trichoderma harzi ...201728213731
the relation between xyr1 overexpression in trichoderma harzianum and sugarcane bagasse saccharification performance.this work investigates the influence of the positive regulator xyr1 of trichoderma harzianum on the production of cellulolytic enzymes, using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. constitutive expression of xyr1 was achieved under the control of the strong trichoderma reesei pki1 promoter. five clones with xyr1 overexpression achieved higher xyr1 expression and greater enzymatic productivity when cultivated under submerged fermentation, hence validating the genetic construction for t. harzianum. c ...201728192217
assessment of ni accumulation capability by fungi for a possible approach to remove metals from soils and waters.abandoned industrial sites and mines may constitute possible hazards for surrounding environment due to the presence of toxic compounds that may contaminate soils and waters. the possibility to remove metal contaminants, specifically nickel (ni), by means of fungi was presented exploiting a set of fungal strains isolated from a ligurian dismissed mine. the achieved results demonstrate the high ni(ii) tolerance, up to 500 mg ni l(-1), and removal capability of a trichoderma harzianum strain. this ...201728121266
detecting the hormonal pathways in oilseed rape behind induced systemic resistance by trichoderma harzianum th12 to sclerotinia sclerotiorum.plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. in oilseed rape plant brassica napus aacc and in the artificially synthesized raphanus alboglabra rrcc, the root-colonizing trichoderma harzianum th12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (isr), and its culture filtrate (cf) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (sar) response against infection by the sclerotinia sclerotiorum. salicylic acid (sa) and jasmonic acid/ethylene ( ...201728045929
biodiversity of trichoderma community in the tidal flats and wetland of southeastern investigate the biodiversity of trichoderma (hypocreaceae) and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland) in southeast china. further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of trichoderma spp. a total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as t. aureoviride, t. asperellum, t. harzianum ...201628002436
enhanced production of curdlan by coupled fermentation system of agrobacterium sp. atcc 31749 and trichoderma harzianum gim 3.442.a coupled fermentation system of agrobacterium sp. atcc 31749 and trichoderma harzianum gim 3.442 (at-cfs) with wheat bran as the optimal nitrogen source was established for producing low-molecular-weight curdlan with high production, which can potentially reduce the cost of low-molecular-weight curdlan biosynthesis. the initial inoculate ratio, ph and the fermentation time were optimized. compared with the curdlan from the single fermentation system of agrobacterium sp. atcc 31749 (a-sfs), the ...201727987884
purification and biochemical characterization of a neutral serine protease from trichoderma harzianum. use in antibacterial peptide production from a fish by-product hydrolysate.this study reports the purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular neutral protease from the fungus trichoderma harzianum. the protease (th-protease) was purified from the culture supernatant to homogeneity by a three-step procedure with 14.2% recovery and 9.06-fold increase in specific activity. the purified enzyme appeared as a single protein band after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) with a molecular mass of about 20 kda. the optimum ...201627987188
cellulase from trichoderma harzianum interacts with roots and triggers induced systemic resistance to foliar disease in maize.trichoderma harzianum is well known to exhibit induced systemic resistance (isr) to curvularia leaf spot. we previously reported that a c6 zinc finger protein (thc6) is responsible for a major contribution to the isr to the leaf disease, but the types of effectors and the signals mediated by thc6 from trichoderma are unclear. in this work, we demonstrated that two hydrolases, thph1 and thph2, from t. harzianum were regulated by thc6. furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (emsa) st ...201627830829
structural basis of transport function in major facilitator superfamily protein from trichoderma harzianum.trichothecenes are the sesquiterpenes secreted by trichoderma spp. residing in the rhizosphere. these compounds have been reported to act as plant growth promoters and bio-control agents. the structural knowledge for the transporter proteins of their efflux remained limited. in this study, three-dimensional structure of thmfs1 protein, a trichothecene transporter from trichoderma harzianum, was homology modelled and further molecular dynamics (md) simulations were used to decipher its mechanism. ...201727816530
functions of thga1 gene in trichoderma harzianum based on transcriptome analysis.trichoderma spp. are important biocontrol filamentous fungi, which are widely used for their adaptability, broad antimicrobial spectrum, and various antagonistic mechanisms. in our previous studies, we cloned thga1 gene encoding gαi protein from trichoderma harzianum th-33. its knockout mutant showed that the growth rate, conidial yield, camp level, antagonistic action, and hydrophobicity decreased. therefore, illumina rna-seq technology (rna-seq) was used to determine transcriptomic differences ...201727672660
addition of surfactants and non-hydrolytic proteins and their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse.poly(ethylene glycol) (peg 4000) and bovine serum albumin (bsa) were investigated with the purpose of evaluating their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. effects of these supplements were assayed for different enzymatic cocktails (trichoderma harzianum and penicillium funiculosum) that acted on lignocellulosic material submitted to different pretreatment methods with varying solid (25 and 100 g/l) and protein (7.5 and 20 mg/g cellulose) loadings. the highest levels of glucos ...201727631122
structure and properties of native and unfolded lysing enzyme from t. harzianum: chemical and ph denaturation.the effect of chemical denaturants and ph on the change of the conformation of the protein lysing enzyme from trichoderma harzianum has been investigated by dynamic light scattering (dls) and turbidimetry. chemical denaturants are frequently used to describe the mechanisms of folding and transition states. we have analyzed the ph effect on the properties and particle size of the protein. the compaction factor ci has shown that the protein is weakly disordered. the molecular dynamics simulations ...201627496603
statistical culture-based strategies to enhance chlamydospore production by trichoderma harzianum sh2303 in liquid fermentation.trichoderma-based formulations are applied as commercial biocontrol agents for soil-borne plant pathogens. chlamydospores are active propagules in trichoderma spp., but their production is currently limited due to a lack of optimal liquid fermentation technology. in this study, we explored response surface methodologies for optimizing fermentation technology in trichoderma sh2303. our initial studies, using the plackett-burman design, identified cornmeal, glycerol, and initial ph levels as the m ...201627487807
microbial secondary metabolites ameliorate growth, in planta contents and lignification in withania somnifera (l.) the present investigation, metabolites of streptomyces sp. mtn14 and trichoderma harzianum thu significantly enhanced biomass yield (3.58 and 3.48 fold respectively) in comparison to the control plants. the secondary metabolites treatments also showed significant augmentation (0.75-2.25 fold) in withanolide a, a plant secondary metabolite. lignin deposition, total phenolic and flavonoid content in w. somnifera were maximally induced in treatment having t. harzianum metabolites. also, trichode ...201627436916
the psychrotolerant antarctic fungus lecanicillium muscarium ccfee 5003: a powerful producer of cold-tolerant chitinolytic enzymes.lecanicillium muscarium ccfee 5003, isolated in continental antarctica, is a powerful producer of extracellular cold-tolerant enzymes. chitin-hydrolyzing enzymes seems to be the principal extracellular catalytic activities of this psychrotolerant fungus. the production of chitinolytic activities is induced by chitin and other polysaccharides and is submitted to catabolite repression. the chitinolytic system of l. muscarium consists of a number of different proteins having various molecular weigh ...201627058517
biodegradation of carbamazepine and clarithromycin by trichoderma harzianum and pleurotus ostreatus investigated by liquid chromatography - high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (fticr ms-irmpd).in this study, the capability of pharmaceutical biodegradation of fungus trichoderma harzianum was evaluated through the comparison with the well-known biodegradation capability of white-rot fungus pleurotus ostreatus. the study was performed in aqueous phase under aerobic conditions, using two of the most frequently detected drugs in water bodies: carbamazepine and clarithromycin, with concentrations commonly found in treated wastewater (4μg/l and 0.03μg/l respectively). for the first time, we ...201627039063
phosphoproteomic analysis of induced resistance reveals activation of signal transduction processes by beneficial and pathogenic interaction in grapevine.protein phosphorylation regulates several key processes of the plant immune system. protein kinases and phosphatases are pivotal regulators of defense mechanisms elicited by resistance inducers. however, the phosphorylation cascades that trigger the induced resistance mechanisms in plants have not yet been deeply investigated. the beneficial fungus trichoderma harzianum t39 (t39) induces resistance against grapevine downy mildew (plasmopara viticola), but its efficacy could be further improved b ...201627010348
isolation and expression of two polyketide synthase genes from trichoderma harzianum 88 during mycoparasitism.metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. in this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (ks) fragments were isolated from cultured trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. the gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled ks gene fragments as probes. the complete sequence analy ...201726991299
trichoderma harzianum produces a new thermally stable acid phosphatase, with potential for biotechnological application.acid phosphatases (acpases) are produced by a variety of fungi and have gained attention due their biotechnological potential in industrial, diagnosis and bioremediation processes. these enzymes play a specific role in scavenging, mobilization and acquisition of phosphate, enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. in this study, a new acpase from trichoderma harzianum, named acpase ii, was purified and characterized as a glycoprotein belonging to the acid phosphatase family. acpase ii presents ...201626938873
isolation and identification of trichoderma harzianum from groundwater: an effective biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater.the ability of non-viable form of trichoderma harzianum, isolated from fluoride rich groundwater, was investigated as biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater. biosorption experiments were carried out at laboratory scale for removal of fluoride from groundwater. significant effect of operational parameters on fluoride biosorption using trichoderma harzianum as biosorbent was evaluated by varying operational parameters such as: initial fluoride concentration (2-8 mgl(-1)), biosorbent dose (0. ...201626930871
dose-dependent response of trichoderma harzianum in improving drought tolerance in rice genotypes.this study demonstrates a dose-dependent response of trichoderma harzianum th-56 in improving drought tolerance in rice by modulating proline, sod, lipid peroxidation product and dhn / aqu transcript level, and the growth attributes. in the present study, the effect of colonization of different doses of t. harzianum th-56 strain in rice genotypes were evaluated under drought stress. the rice genotypes treated with increasing dose of t. harzianum strain th-56 showed better drought tolerance as co ...201626898554
enhanced cellulase production by trichoderma harzianum by cultivation on glycerol followed by induction on cellulosic substrates.the use of glycerol obtained as an intermediate of the biodiesel manufacturing process as carbon source for microbial growth is a potential alternative strategy for the production of enzymes and other high-value bioproducts. this work evaluates the production of cellulase enzymes using glycerol for high cell density growth of trichoderma harzianum followed by induction with a cellulosic material. firstly, the influence of the carbon source used in the pre-culture step was investigated in terms o ...201626883662
selection and characterization of argentine isolates of trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of septoria leaf blotch of wheat.species of the genus trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. the applicability of trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. the present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of trichoderma spp. from the argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. a t ...201626873560
elicitors' influenced differential ginsenoside production and exudation into medium with concurrent rg3/rh2 panaxadiol induction in panax quinquefolius cell suspensions.cobalt nitrate, nickel sulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium nitroprusside, and culture filtrates of pseudomonas monteili, bacillus circularans, trichoderma atroviridae, and trichoderma harzianum were tested to elicit ginsenoside production in a cell suspension line of panax quinquefolius. abiotic elicitors preferentially increased panaxadiols whereas biotic elicitors upregulated the panaxatriol synthesis. cobalt nitrate (50 μm) increased total ginsenosides content by twofold (54.3 mg/l) within 5  ...201626795963
biocontrol potential of trichoderma harzianum isolate t-aloe against sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.sclerotinia stem rot, caused by sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib.) de bary is a major disease of soybean (glycine max (l.) merr.). at present, we revealed the three-way interaction between trichoderma harzianum t-aloe, pathogen s. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of t-aloe against s. sclerotiorum in soybean. in our experiments, t-aloe inhibited the growth of s. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture test ...201626774866
development of a multiplex q-pcr to detect trichoderma harzianum rifai strain t22 in plant roots.the fungal species trichoderma harzianum is widely used as a biological agent in crop protection. to verify the continued presence of this fungus on plant roots manually inoculated with t. harzianum strain t22, a q-pcr was designed using specific probes for this particular strain. to develop these molecular diagnostic tools, genome mining was first carried out to retrieve putative new regions by which different strains of t. harzianum could be distinguished. subsequently, sanger sequencing of th ...201626747625
purification and characterization of endo β-1,4-d-glucanase from trichoderma harzianum strain hzn11 and its application in production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum acidophilic-solvent-thermostable endo β-1,4-d-glucanase produced from a potential trichoderma harzianum strain hzn11 was purified to homogeneity by deae-sepharose and sephadex g-100 chromatography with 33.12 fold purification with specific activity of 66.25 u/mg and molecular mass of ~55 kda. the optimum temperature and ph were 60 °c and 5.5 retaining 76 and 85 % of activity after 3 h, respectively. it showed stability between ph 4.5-6.0 and temperature between 50-70 °c indicating thermostabi ...201628330171
potential of trichoderma harzianum for control of banana leaf fungal pathogens when applied with a food source and an organic adjuvant.trichoderma isolates were obtained from diseased leaves and fruit collected from plantations in the main banana production area in northern queensland. phylogenetic analyses identified the trichoderma isolates as t. harzianum and t. virens. the trichoderma spp. were found to be antagonistic against the banana leaf pathogens mycosphaerella musicola, cordana musae, and deightoniella torulosa in vitro. several products used by the banana industry to increase production, including molasses, fishoil ...201628330078
antibiosis of trichoderma spp strains native to northeastern mexico against the pathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina.sampling of agricultural soils from the mexican northeastern region was performed to detect trichoderma spp., genetically characterize it, and assess its potential use as a biologic control agent against macrophomina phaseolina. m. phaseolina is a phytopathogen that attacks over 500 species of cultivated plants and causes heavy losses in the regional sorghum crop. sampling was performed immediately after sorghum or corn harvest in an area that was approximately 170 km from the mexico-usa border. ...201726691467
determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous trichoderma isolates from pakistan.this study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous trichoderma strains namely, trichoderma asperellum, trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma sp. native trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (dns) method using suitable substrates. the antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following ...201726691463
the cerato-platanin protein epl-1 from trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection.trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. in this work, we analyzed the effect of epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of t. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expressio ...201526647876
imprint desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging for monitoring secondary metabolites production during antagonistic interaction of analysis of microbial cocultures grown on agar media by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (desi-ms) is quite challenging. due to the high gas pressure upon impact with the surface, the desorption mechanism does not allow direct imaging of soft or irregular surfaces. the divots in the agar, created by the high-pressure gas and spray, dramatically change the geometry of the system decreasing the intensity of the signal. in order to overcome this limitation, an imprinting ...201526637047
effect of mixture of trichoderma isolates on biochemical parameter in tomato fruits against sclerotinia sclerotiorum rot of tomato plant.experiments revealed that a mixture of trichoderma harzianum isolates, bhu51 and bhu105 showed lowest mean disease rating (mdr) of 1.70 and 1.62% and per cent disease reduction (pdr) by 41.00 and 44.84% during the year 2008-09 and 2009-10, respectively. shoot length, chlorophyll content and yield was also recorded highest in the mixture of bhu51+ bhu105 treatment followed by single tichoderma treatments while lowest was found in pathogen inoculated control. the nutritional quality such as lycope ...201526536803
role of trichoderma harzianum in mitigating nacl stress in indian mustard (brassica juncea l) through antioxidative defense system.salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. in the present study the effect of different concentrations of nacl (0, 100, and 200 mm) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in brassica juncea and the protective role of trichoderma harzianum (th) was investigated. salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. higher concent ...201526528324
biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by trichoderma species: a mini review.fungi belonging to trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. even though members of trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzym ...201526498812
[l-lysine-α-oxidase in vitro activity in experiments on models of viruses sindbis, forest-spring encephalitis, western nile, tyaginya and dhori].the antitumor effect of l-lysine-α-oxidase from the culture fluid of trichoderma harzianum rifai f-180 was investigated for the first time. the in vitro studies revealed its high activity on a model of the forest-spring encephalitis virus and no activity against the sindbis, western nile, tyaginya and dhori viruses.201526415376
mathematical modeling of enzyme production using trichoderma harzianum p49p11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.a mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum p49p11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). the model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40 gl(-1)). the 10 gl(-1) concentration was used to validate t ...201526378961
cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum.the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum, strain imi 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. the main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus t. harzianum to cadmium. the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) method was used for the characterization of the genes of t. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by me ...201526349455
expression profiles of defence related cdnas in oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and trichoderma harzianum rifai t32.basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (elaies guineensis jacq.) caused by pathogenic ganoderma species. trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. however, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. to better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cdnas in the roots of oil palm inoculated with trichoderma harzianum t ...201526322853
mechanism of triphenylmethane cresol red degradation by trichoderma harzianum m06.cresol red belongs to the triphenylmethane (tpm) class of dyes which are potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. however, very few studies on biodegradation of cresol red were investigated as compared to other type dyes such as azo and anthraquinone dye. the aim of this work is to evaluate triphenylmethane dye cresol red degradation by fungal strain isolated from the decayed wood in johor bahru, malaysia. detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as trichoderma species and designated as ...201526275435
fungal biomolecules assisted biosynthesis of au-ag alloy nanoparticles and evaluation of their catalytic property.the catalytic reduction of methylene blue was studied using biosynthesised gold-silver (au-ag) alloy nanoparticles (nps). the fungal biomass of trichoderma harzianum was used as a reducing and stabilising agent in the synthesis of au-ag alloy nps. the synthesised nps were well characterised by uv-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. the plausible synthesis ...201526224346
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