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variability of non-mutualistic filamentous fungi associated with atta sexdens rubropilosa nests.a survey of the filamentous fungi other than the symbiotic one found in association with atta sexdens rubropilosa colonies was carried out. different fungal species (27 taxa) were isolated a few days after treating the workers with toxic baits (sulfluramid; mirex-s), from 40 laboratory and 20 field nests. syncephalastrum racemosum (54%) and escovopsis weberi (21%), trichoderma harzianum (38%) and fusarium oxysporum (23%) were the prevalent species in laboratory and field nests, respectively. acr ...200516475502
cloning of beauveria bassiana chitinase gene bbchit1 and its application to improve fungal strain virulence.entomopathogenic fungi can produce a series of chitinases, some of which act synergistically with proteases to degrade insect cuticle. however, chitinase involvement in insect fungus pathogenesis has not been fully characterized. in this paper, an endochitinase, bbchit1, was purified to homogeneity from liquid cultures of beauveria bassiana grown in a medium containing colloidal chitin. bbchit1 had a molecular mass of about 33 kda and pi of 5.4. based on the n-terminal amino acid sequence, the c ...200515640210
modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds.the effect of ethanol (e) on the radial growth rate (mu) of food spoilage moulds (aspergillus candidus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, cladosporium cladosporioides, eurotium herbariorum, mucor circinelloides, mucor racemosus, paecilomyces variotii, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium digitatum, rhizopus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum) was assessed in potato dextrose agar (pda) medium at a(w) 0.99, 25 degrees c. in order to model this effect, the monod type equation described previousl ...200515698687
the heterotrimeric g-protein subunits gng-1 and gnb-1 form a gbetagamma dimer required for normal female fertility, asexual development, and galpha protein levels in neurospora crassa.we have identified a gene encoding a heterotrimeric g protein gamma subunit, gng-1, from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. gng-1 possesses a gene structure similar to that of mammalian ggamma genes, consisting of three exons and two introns, with introns present in both the open reading frame and 5'-untranslated region. the gng-1 amino acid sequence displays high identity to predicted ggamma subunits from other filamentous fungi, including giberella zeae, cryphonectria parasitica, tricho ...200515701799
enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.basal stem rot (bsr) disease caused by ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in indonesia and malaysia. the available control measures for bsr disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. alternative control measures to overcome the ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biologi ...200515750748
tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities of trichoderma spp. in relation to p uptake and growth and yield parameters of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).nine isolates of trichoderma spp. were investigated for their ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate in pikovskaya's broth and were compared with an efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacterium bacillus megaterium subsp. phospaticum pb that was used as the reference strain. all 9 trichoderma isolates were found to solubilize insoluble tricalcium phosphate to various extents. trichoderma viride (tv 97) (9.03 microg x ml(-1)), trichoderma virens (pdbctvs 12) (9.0 microg x ml(-1)), and trichoderma ...200515920619
post-transcriptional control of a glucoamylase gene from trichoderma harzianum under stress conditions.we have examined the regulation of trichoderma harzianum glucoamylase gene (gla66) in response to different growth conditions. transcription of the gla66 gene is initiated from two different sites, yielding two transcripts of 2.1 kb and 2.6 kb respectively. the 2.1 kb mrna (st) encodes for an extracellular glucoamylase of 66 kda. this protein shows the domains conserved in other fungal glucoamylases: a signal peptide responsible for protein secretion and a catalytic domain, both joined by a link ...200515948964
studies on the management of root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, vigna radiata cv ml-1108.studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, vigna radiata cv ml-1108. all the treatments significantly improved ...200516052706
bgn16.3, a novel acidic beta-1,6-glucanase from mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum cect 2413.a new component of the beta-1,6-glucanase (ec 3.2.1.75) multienzymatic complex secreted by trichoderma harzianum has been identified and fully characterized. the protein, namely bgn16.3, is the third isozyme displaying endo-beta-1,6-glucanase activity described up to now in t. harzianum cect 2413. bgn16.3 is an acidic beta-1,6-glucanase that is specifically induced by the presence of fungal cell walls in t. harzianum growth media. the protein was purified to electrophoretical homogenity using it ...200515982190
microbial synthesis of chitinase in solid cultures and its potential as a biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.antifungal activity of chitinase can be effectively utilized in biologic pest control strategies. because solid-state cultivation has been termed a cost-effective means for fungal growth and metabolite production, chitinase production by trichoderma harzianum was studied using wheat bran-based solid medium containing 1% colloidal chitin. chitinase synthesis was found to be growth associated because maximum enzyme (5.4 u/g of dry substrate) and biomass production occurred at 72 h. substrate moist ...200516186619
proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from trichoderma harzianum. identification of a fungal cell wall-induced aspartic protease.trichoderma mycoparasitic activity depends on the secretion of complex mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes able to degrade the host cell wall. we have analysed the extracellular proteome secreted by t. harzianum cect 2413 in the presence of different fungal cell walls. significant differences were detected in 2de maps, depending on the use of specific cell walls or chitin. a combination of maldi-tof and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry allowed the identification of a novel aspartic protease (p ...200516226906
[cloning and expression in yeasts of the class v chitinase cdna gene from trichoderma harzianum].to explore the integrated bio-control mechanism of trichoderma harzianum and acquire some bio-control associated novel genes, a trichoderma harzianum mycelium cdna library has been constructed and thereby randomly selected clones were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. full-length cdna, encoding class v chitinase (chiv), successfully cloned. the results indicated that the orf of chiv was 1194 bp, encoding 397 aa, deduced molecular weight 44 kd. the gene was ligated to the vector ...200515989271
production of soluble crude protein using cellulolytic fungi on rice stubble as substrate under waste program management.the investigation was undertaken to enhance the decomposition process by pre-treatment of rice stubble, having higher concentration of lignin. air-dried rice stubble was treated with 1.8 liter of 1% naoh and autoclaved. six cellulolytic fungi, trichoderma harzianum, penicillium citrinum, curvularia lunata, aspergillus flavus and alternaria alternata were grown in basal synthetic medium along with delignified rice-residue as carbon source for production of soluble crude protein. though the loss o ...200524049491
6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone production by trichoderma harzianum: the influence of energy dissipation rate and its implications on fungal physiology.the influence of the agitation conditions on biomass growth, morphology, carbon metabolism, viability, and 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone (6pp) production by trichoderma harzianum were studied in an extractive fermentation system. batch spore-inoculated cultures developed at dissolved oxygen concentrations above 35% of air saturation were carried out in a 14 l bioreactor. the effect of energy dissipation rate over culture performance was assessed using two sets of three rushton turbines (having different ...200515880469
identification of genes with a biocontrol function in trichoderma harzianum mycelium using the expressed sequence tag approach.species of trichoderma are commercially applied as biological control agents against plant fungal pathogens based on different mechanisms, such as the production of antifungal metabolites, competition for space and nutrients and mycoparasitism. but the integrated biocontrol mechanism of trichoderma harzianum is not well explored at the genetic level. this study aimed to initiate the preliminary development of an expressed sequence tag (est) database for t. harzianum and thereby gain potentially ...200515808946
specific pcr assays for the detection and quantification of dna from the biocontrol strain trichoderma harzianum 2413 in soil.strain identification in situ is an important factor in the monitoring of microorganisms used in the field. in this study, we demonstrated the use of sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) markers to detect genomic dna from trichoderma harzianum 2413 from soil. two primers (scar a1/scar a1c) were tested against dna of 27 isolates of trichoderma spp. and amplified a 990-bp fragment from t. atroviride 11 and a 1.5-kb fragment from t. harzianum 2413, using an annealing temperature of 68 deg ...200515688256
arbuscular mycorrhiza and collembola interact in affecting community composition of saprotrophic microfungi.the functioning of the plant-mycorrhiza system depends on interactions with other organisms, including saprotrophic (st) soil fungi. the interactions between mycorrhizal and st fungi are likely affected by fungivorous soil animals, such as collembola. in a two-factorial laboratory experiment lasting for 30 weeks we assessed the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (glomus mosseae) and collembola (protaphorura fimata, heteromurus nitidus and folsomia candida) on the community composition o ...200515619097
the chemistry of the bio-control agent, trichoderma harzianum.the role of 6-n-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one and other metabolites of the fungus trichoderma harzianum, in its application as a bio-control agent, is discussed.200516961094
generation, annotation and analysis of ests from trichoderma harzianum cect 2413.the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum is used as biological control agent of several plant-pathogenic fungi. in order to study the genome of this fungus, a functional genomics project called "trichoest" was developed to give insights into genes involved in biological control activities using an approach based on the generation of expressed sequence tags (ests).200616872539
detection of peptaibols and partial cloning of a putative peptaibol synthetase gene from t. harzianum cect 2413.the characterization of 11- and 18-residue peptaibols (peptides synthesized by peptide synthetases) at trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 (a filamentous fungus) was performed. using a heterologous probe from tex1, the only peptaibol synthetase cloned and characterized so far in trichoderma species, was cloned; a region that comprised 11676 bp of a second peptide synthetase gene detected in these strain (called salps2) and sequenced. the deduced sequence of salps2 (3891 amino acids) contained three ...200616821720
cloning and characterization of the erg1 gene of trichoderma harzianum: effect of the erg1 silencing on ergosterol biosynthesis and resistance to terbinafine.trichoderma species are commonly used as biocontrol agents of different plant-pathogenic fungi. terpene compounds are involved in the biocontrol process due to their antifungal properties (e.g., ergokonins and viridins) but additionally their structural function in the cell membranes (ergosterol) is essential. we report here the characterization of the t. harzianum erg1 gene, encoding a squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of triterpene derivatives such as ergosterol. in t. harzi ...200616466954
mechanism of action of the endo-(1-->3)-alpha-glucanase mutap from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum.(1-->3)-alpha-glucanases catalyze the hydrolysis of fungal cell wall (1-->3)-alpha-glucan, and function during cell division of yeasts containing this cell wall component or act in mycoparasitic processes. here, we characterize the mechanism of action of the (1-->3)-alpha-glucanase mutap from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum. we observed that mutap releases predominantly beta-glucose upon hydrolysis of crystalline (1-->3)-alpha-glucan, indicating inversion of the anomeric configura ...200616780840
enhancement of mutanase production in trichoderma harzianumby mutagenesis.conidia of trichoderma harzianum f-340, an active producer of fungal mutanase, were mutagenized with physical and chemical mutagens used separately or in combination. after mutagenesis, the drop in conidia viability ranged from 0.004% to 71%. among the applied mutagens, nitrosoguanidine gave the highest frequency of cultures with enhanced mutanase activity (98%). in total, 400 clones were isolated, and preliminarily evaluated for mutanase activity in flask microcultures. eight most productive mu ...200616646531
individual-based approach to modeling hyphal growth of a biocontrol fungus in soil.abstract fungi in soil perform beneficial roles that include biological control of soilborne plant pathogens. however, relatively little predictive information is available about the growth and activity of fungal hyphae in soil habitats. a stochastic computer simulation model ("fungmod") was developed to predict hyphal growth of the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum thzid1 in soil. the model simulates a fungal colony as a population of spatially referenced hyphal segments, and is individua ...200618943499
oil and air dispersion in a simulated fermentation broth as a function of mycelial morphology.the culture conditions of a multiphase fermentation involving morphologically complex mycelia were simulated in order to investigate the influence of mycelial morphology (trichoderma harzianum) on castor oil and air dispersion. measurements of oil drops and air bubbles were obtained using an image analysis system coupled to a mixing tank. complex interactions of the phases involved could be clearly observed. the sauter diameter and the size distributions of drops and bubbles were affected by the ...200612675561
in vitro activity and synergism of amphotericin b, azoles and cationic antimicrobials against the emerging pathogen trichoderma spp.the uncommon fungal pathogen trichoderma shows increasing medical importance particularly in immunocompromised patients. despite systemic antifungal therapy, prognosis of trichoderma infection is poor regardless of the type of infection and the therapy used. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity and synergism of double antifungal combinations including amphotericin b, voriconazole, fluconazole, chlorhexidine digluconate and akacid plus against 15 isolates of trichode ...200616987867
[hydrolysis of cellulose by fungi. ii. production of cellulases by trichoderma harzianum by fermentation in liquid media].microcristalline cellulose (cellulose avicel, merck) supported growth of trichoderma harzianum and induced production of cellulases in liquid cultures. after 50 h growth, the total cellulasic activities present in both the supernatant and the mycelium were 3,000 iu/l of carboxymethyl cellulose, 400 iu/l of filter paper activity, and 4 iu/l of cotton activity corresponding to 1.7 g/l of proteins. cellulase production could be increased by a preliminary treatment of cellulose, and ph regulation du ...20066891887
[hydrolysis of cellulose by fungi. 1. screening of cellulolytic strains].trichoderma harzianum was selected from 30 strains of cellulolytic fungi with the aim of producing cellulases by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates. special attention was paid to cellulase production (i.e. carboxymethylcellulase and filter paper activity), apical growth and conidia production. under the conditions of our experiments, t. harzianum exhibited the highest cellulasic activities with 1,315 iu/l of carboxymethyl cellulose and 80 iu/l of filter paper activity. apical ...20066891886
fungal solid state culture of palm kernel cake.palm kernel cake (pkc), an agro-industrial by-product used extensively in the animal feed industry, has limited use in fish feeds due to its high fiber and low protein contents. in this study, pkc was processed under solid state culture conditions with five fungal strains and the effect of this fungal culturing on the amino acid, fatty acid, cellulose and hemicellulose fractions was evaluated. fungal strains used were sclerotium rolfsii, trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma longiobrachiatum, trich ...200616216731
in-vessel composting of household wastes.the process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. a lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (trichoderma viridae, trichoderma harzianum, trichorus spirallis, aspergillus sp., paecilomyces fusisporus, chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mix ...200616153815
an antifungal peptide from passion fruit (passiflora edulis) seeds with similarities to 2s albumin proteins.an actual worldwide problem consists of an expressive increase of economic losses and health problems caused by fungi. in order to solve this problem, several studies have been concentrating on the screening of novel plant defence peptides with antifungal activities. these peptides are commonly characterized by having low molecular masses and cationic charges. this present work reports on the purification and characterization of a novel plant peptide of 5.0 kda, pe-afp1, purified from the seeds ...200616766236
major secondary metabolites produced by two commercial trichoderma strains active against different phytopathogens.trichoderma harzianum strains t22 and t39 are two micro-organisms used as active agents in a variety of commercial biopesticides and biofertilizers and widely applied amongst field and greenhouse crops. the production, isolation, biological and chemical characterization of the main secondary metabolites produced by these strains are investigated.200616869896
biochemical characterization of an extracellular polygalacturonase from trichoderma harzianum.an extracellular polygalacturonase (pgii) from trichoderma harzianum was purified to homogeneity by two chromatography steps using deae-sepharose and sephacryl s-200. the molecular weight of t. harzianum pgii was 31,000 da by gel filtration and sds-page. pgii had isoelectric point of 4.5 and optimum ph of 5.0. pgii was very stable at the ph 5.0. the extent of hydrolysis of different pectins by enzyme was decreased with increasing of degree of esterification (de). pgii had very low activity towar ...200616872705
[biological preparations with different mechanism of action for protecting potato against fungal diseases].mycological analysis throughout the vegetation period of potato (solanum tuberosum) made it possible to study in detail the structure of micromycete community, to determine typical dominant (frequency, more than 60%), typical common (frequency, 30 to 60%), typical rare (frequency, 10 to 30%), and casual (frequency, less than 10%) species and to estimate changes in the microorganism community caused by plant protection preparations with different mechanisms of action. it was shown that, as a resu ...200616521583
biological control of botrytis gray mould on tomato cultivated in greenhouse.research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of the botrytis gray mould, caused by botrytis cinerea pers., one of the most important fungal diseases of the tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.). biological control was performed by using trichoderma harzianum rifai, an antagonist that is a naturally occurring fungus found on some plants and in the soil worldwide. trichoderma spp. are fungi diffused in nearly all agricultural soils and in other environments suc ...200617390837
self-fusion of protoplasts enhances chitinase production and biocontrol activity in trichoderma harzianum.protoplasts were isolated from trichoderma harzianum strain pth18 using lysing enzymes and self-fusion of t. harzianum protoplasts was carried out using polyethylene glycol in stc buffer. the fused protoplasts of t. harzianum were regenerated and 15 self-fusants were selected to study the chitinase production and biocontrol activity. high chitinase activity was measured in the culture filtrates of most of the self-fusants (87%) than the parent. among the fusants, the strain sfth8 produced maximu ...200616330207
biological control of peach fungal pathogens by commercial products and indigenous yeasts.the potential use of the commercial biocontrol products serenade (bacillus subtilis qst-713) and trichodex (trichoderma harzianum rifai strain t39) to inhibit the postharvest pathogenic molds penicillium crustosum and mucor circinelloides was investigated. both products exhibited antagonistic activity in vitro against the pathogens, reducing their growth at different levels. in addition, epiphytic yeasts isolated from peaches were identified as candida maltosa, pichia fermentans, and pichia kluy ...200617066929
synthesis of enzymes connected with mycoparasitism by ectomycorrhizal fungi.the production of enzymes involved in mycoparasitism by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi: amanita muscaria (16-3), laccaria laccata (9-12), l. laccata (9-1), suillus bovinus (15-4), s. bovinus (15-3), s. luteus (14-7) on different substrates such as colloidal chitin, mycelia of trichoderma harzianum, t. virens and mucor hiemalis was examined. chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were assayed spectrophotometrically by measuring the amount of reducing sugars releasing from suitable substrate ...200616395555
thptr2, a di/tri-peptide transporter gene from trichoderma harzianum.the generation of a wide ests library and database from trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 was the base for identifying the gene thptr2, coding for a ptr family di/tri-peptide transporter. the deduced protein sequence of the thptr2 gene showed the conserved motifs and also the 12 transmembrane domains typical of the ptr transporters. the highest level of thptr2 expression was found when the fungus was grown in chitin as sole carbon source. we also found that thptr2 expression was increased when tri ...200616466953
biochemical characterization of biocontrol agents used for control of root pathogens.due to low microbial biodiversity in the nutrient solution and the root, open and closed hydroponic systems are regarded as sensitive from biological point of view. this is of particular importance as an enhanced spread of root pathogen may occur in closed hydroponic systems and possibilities for chemical control are restricted. biocontrol agents appear to be a feasible alternative. for an effective use of these agents, knowledge on the behaviour, external requirements and the specific capabilit ...200617390847
improved 2-de of microorganisms after acidic extraction.2-de separations of protein extracts sometimes have problems with poor resolution and streaking. this problem is particularly apparent with microorganisms, most notably those with a large cell wall. here we describe a novel, rapid protocol for the extraction of microorganisms in acidic conditions, leading to increased resolution and 2-d gel quality. the efficiency of the protocol is demonstrated with extracts of bacteria, escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis; fungus, trichoderma harzianum and ...200616609937
[a study of the physicochemical and biological properties of mutanase from trichoderma harzianum].to determine the physicochemical properties of the mutanase of trichoderma harzianum isolated from china and to study the influence of mutanase on the adherence of oral streptococci and the structure of oral biofilms.200616620625
use of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride for the biological control of meloidogyne incognita on tomato.trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride were tested for their capacity to reduce the incidence of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita on tomato. in vitro studies demonstrated that all tested isolates were effective in causing nematode mortality compared with the control. trichoderma slightly reduced nematode damage to tomato in vivo. treatment of the soil with the biocontrol agents before transplanting, improved control over treatment directly at transplanting. the trichoderma isol ...200617390844
screening of bioagents against root rot of mung bean caused by rhizoctonia solani.a laboratory and green house experiment was carried out on the comparative antagonistic performance of four different bioagents (aspergillus sp., gliocladium virens, trichoderma harzianum and t. viride) isolated from soil against rhizoctonia solani. under laboratory conditions, t. harzianum exhibited maximum (75.55%) mycelial growth inhibition of r. solani this was followed by t. viride, which showed 65.93 per cent mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen. gliocladium virens was also found to ...200617612349
screening of bioagents against root rot of mung bean caused by rhizoctonia solani.a laboratory and green house experiment was carried out on the comparative antagonistic performance of four different bioagents (aspergillus sp. gliocladium virens, trichoderma harzianum and t. viride) isolated from soil against rhizoctonia solani. under laboratory conditions, t. harzianum exhibited maximum (75.55%) mycelial growth inhibition of r. solani. this was followed by t. viride, which showed 65.93% mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen. gliocladium virens was also found to be effec ...200617390853
inhibition of aflatoxin b production of aspergillus flavus, isolated from soybean seeds by certain natural plant products.the inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, captan, leaf powder of withania somnifera, hyptis suaveolens, eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of citrus sinensis, citrus medica and punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger on aflatoxin b(1) production by toxigenic strain of aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated.200617032218
leaf hairs influence phytopathogenic fungus infection and confer an increased resistance when expressing a trichoderma alpha-1,3-glucanase.the leaf surface of a very large number of plant species are covered by trichomes. non-glandular trichomes are specialized unicellular or multicellular structures that occur in many different plant species and function in xenobiotic detoxification and protecting the plant against pest attack. by analysing the susceptibility of trichome mutants, evidence is provided that indicates the influence of leaf trichomes on foliar fungal infections in arabidopsis thaliana, probably by facilitating the adh ...200617043085
[extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].the presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. the inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. the substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of t. harzianum is a subtilisin-li ...200617205798
effects of fungal interaction on ochratoxin a production by a. carbonarius at different temperatures and a(w).ochratoxin a is a well-known mycotoxin produced by species of the genera penicillium and aspergillus. ota-producing species from a. section nigri are considered the source of ota detected in grapes, dried vine fruits and wines. other fungi present in grapes during their maturation can grow and interact with ota-producing aspergillus species and affect ota production. in this study seven fungi (alternaria alternata, cladosporium herbarum, eurotium amstelodami, trichoderma harzianum, penicillium d ...200616735071
thhog1 controls the hyperosmotic stress response in trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a widespread mycoparasitic fungus, able to successfully colonize a wide range of substrates under different environmental conditions. transcript profiling revealed a subset of genes induced in t. harzianum under hyperosmotic shock. the hog1 gene, a homologue of the mapk hog1 gene that controls the hyperosmotic stress response in saccharomyces cerevisiae, was characterized. t. harzianum hog1 complemented the hog1delta mutation in s. cerevisiae, but showed different featur ...200616735732
transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing chitinases of fungal origin show enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stress agents.genes encoding defense-related proteins have been used to alter the resistance of plants to pathogens and other environmental challenges, but no single fungal gene overexpression has produced broad-spectrum stress resistance in transgenic lines. we have generated transgenic tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) lines that overexpress the endochitinases chit33 and chit42 from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum and have evaluated their tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. both chit33 and chit ...200616891545
susceptibility of the ant-cultivated fungus leucoagaricus gongylophorus (agaricales: basidiomycota) towards microfungi.the aim of this study was to select virulent strains of microfungi against leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a symbiotic fungus cultivated by leaf-cutting ants. the results from in vitro assays showed that microfungal strains had a variable and significant impact on the colony development of l. gongylophorus. specifically, trichoderma harzianum, escovopsis weberi cbs 810.71 and e. weberi a088 were more effective, inhibiting the l. gongylophorus colonies by 75, 68 and 67%, respectively (p < 0.05) afte ...200616897590
xyloglucanases in the interaction between saprobe fungi and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus mosseae.we studied the production of xyloglucanase enzymes of pea and lettuce roots in the presence of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi. the am fungus glomus mosseae and the saprobe fungi fusarium graminearum, fusarium oxysporum-126, trichoderma harzianum, penicillium chrysogenum, pleurotus ostreatus and aspergillus niger were used. g. mosseae increased the shoot and root dry weight of pea but not of lettuce. most of the saprobe fungi increased the level of mycorrhization of pea and lettuce ...200716904235
studies on the interaction between grape-associated filamentous fungi on a synthetic medium.eleven fungi isolated from grapes and sun-dried grapes (alternaria alternata, cladosporium herbarum, eurotium amstelodami, penicillium janthinellum, p. decumbens, trichoderma harzianum, candida sp., aspergillus carbonarius ota-negative, a. carbonarius ota-positive, a. niger var. niger. and a. japonicus var. aculeatus), were grown in snm medium at different water activities (0.82-0.97) and temperature (20-40 degrees c) levels for 18 days. pairs of one aspergillus faced with one non-aspergillus we ...200716996158
a fermentation system designed to independently evaluate mixing and/or oxygen tension effects in microbial processes: development, application and performance.in order to evaluate the independent effects of hydrodynamic conditions and/or oxygen tension on culture physiology and productivity, a fermentation system designed to control dissolved oxygen at constant power drawn (p/v) was developed. the system included a fully instrumented 14 l bioreactor coupled to a pc for data acquisition and control. power drawn was measured (using a commercial torquemeter coupled to the shaft) and maintained constant by varying the agitation speed; while gas blending w ...200717225992
in vitro suppression of fungi caused by combinations of apparently non-antagonistic soil bacteria.we hypothesized that apparently non-antagonistic soil bacteria may contribute to suppression of fungi during competitive interactions with other bacteria. four soil bacteria (brevundimonas sp., luteibacter sp., pedobacter sp. and pseudomonas sp.) that exhibited little or no visible antifungal activity on different agar media were prescribed. single and mixed strains of these species were tested for antagonism on a nutrient-poor agar medium against the plant pathogenic fungi fusarium culmorum and ...200717233750
partial silencing of a hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coa reductase-encoding gene in trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 results in a lower level of resistance to lovastatin and lower antifungal activity.in the present article, we describe the cloning and characterization of the trichoderma harzianum hmgr gene encoding a hydroxymethylglutaryl coa reductase (hmgr), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of terpene compounds. in t. harzianum, partial silencing of the hmgr gene gave rise to transformants with a higher level of sensitivity to lovastatin, a competitive inhibitor of the hmgr enzyme. in addition, these hmgr-silenced transformants produced lower levels of ergosterol than the wild-type strain ...200717218128
qid74 cell wall protein of trichoderma harzianum is involved in cell protection and adherence to hydrophobic surfaces.trichoderma is widely used as biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi, and as biofertilizer because of its ability to establish mycorriza-like association with plants. the key factor to the ecological success of this genus is the combination of very active mycoparasitic mechanisms plus effective defense strategies induced in plants. this work, different from most of the studies carried out that address the attacking mechanisms, focuses on elucidating how trichoderma is able to tolerate ho ...200717300969
heterologous expression and site-directed mutagenesis studies of two trichoderma harzianum chitinases, chit33 and chit42, in escherichia coli.heterologous expression of two fungal chitinases, chit33 and chit42, from trichoderma harzianum was tested in the different compartments and on the surface of escherichia coli cells. our goal was to find a fast and efficient expression system for protein engineering and directed evolution studies of the two fungal enzymes. cytoplasmic overexpression resulted in both cases in inclusion body formation, where active enzyme could be recovered after refolding. periplasmic expression of chit33, and es ...200716997574
microbial toxicity of pesticide derivatives produced with uv-photodegradation.our study aimed at acquiring information about the biological effect of pesticides and their degradates produced by uv-treatment on microbiological activity. five photosensitive pesticides (carbendazim, acetochlor, simazine, chlorpyrifos, eptc) and six representative soil microbes (bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas fluorescens, mycobacterium phlei, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium expansum, trichoderma harzianum) were applied throughout our model experiments. the antimicrobial effects of the pestici ...200717639315
microscopic and transcriptome analyses of early colonization of tomato roots by trichoderma harzianum.the capacity of the fungus trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 to colonize roots and stimulate plant growth was analyzed. tobacco seedlings (nicotiana benthamiana) transferred to petri dishes inoculated with t. harzianum conidia showed increased plant fresh weight (140%) and foliar area (300%), as well as the proliferation of secondary roots (300%) and true leaves (140%). the interaction between strain cect 2413 and the tomato-root system was also studied during the early stages of root colonization ...200717407057
[reaction of microorganisms to the digestive fluid of the earthworms].the reaction of soil bacteria and fungi to the digestive fluid of the earthworm aporrectodea caliginosa was studied. the fluid was obtained by centrifugation of the native enzymes of the digestive tract. the inhibition of growth of certain bacteria, spores, and fungal hyphae under the effect of extracts from the anterior and middle sections of the digestive tract of a. caliginosa was discovered for the first time. in bacteria, microcolony formation was inhibited as early as 20-30 s after the app ...200717410875
inhibition of inducible tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by the fungal epipolythiodiketopiperazine gliovirin.tnf-alpha is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates further cytokine induction, especially of il-1 and il-6, in many human diseases including cancer, inflammation and immune disorders. in a search for new inhibitors of inducible tnf-alpha promoter activity and expression, cultures of the imperfect fungus trichoderma harzianum were found to produce gliovirin, a previously isolated epipolythiodiketopiperazine. gliovirin inhibited inducible tnf-alpha promoter activity and synthesis in lps ...200717552910
trichoderma harzianum rifai 1295-22 mediates growth promotion of crack willow (salix fragilis) saplings in both clean and metal-contaminated soil.we investigated if the plant growth promoting fungus trichoderma harzianum rifai 1295-22 (also known as "t22") could be used to enhance the establishment and growth of crack willow (salix fragilis) in a soil containing no organic or metal pollutants and in a metal-contaminated soil by comparing this fungus with noninoculated controls and an ectomycorrhizal formulation commercially used to enhance the establishment of tree saplings. crack willow saplings were grown in a temperature-controlled gro ...200717345130
cloning and characterization of bgn16.3, coding for a beta-1,6-glucanase expressed during trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitism.to clone and characterize the gene coding for bgn16.3, a beta-1,6-glucanase putatively implicated in mycoparasitism by trichoderma harzianum, a biocontrol agent used against plant pathogenic fungi.200717897233
evaluation of fungal culture filtrate containing chitinase as a biocontrol agent against helicoverpa armigera.to evaluate the biocontrol efficacy of culture filtrate containing chitinase from trichoderma harzianum against heliothis.200717953595
in vitro biocontrol analysis of alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler under different environmental conditions.the species trichoderma harzianum was analyzed as possible biocontrol agent of alternaria alternata under different environmental conditions (water activity and temperature). the strains were analyzed macroscopically to obtain the index of dominance. the analysis was completed using two microscopic techniques. t. harzianum showed dominance on contact over a. alternata at all testing temperatures and water activities tested except at 0.95 a(w) and 15 degrees c, at which t. harzianum inhibited a. ...200717356789
colony morphology mutants of trichoderma harzianum with increased beta-1,4-n-acetyl-glucosaminidase production.a total of 36 uv-induced mutants with altered colony morphology were isolated from strain trichoderma harzianum t334, a potential biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic fungi with the ability to produce constitutively low levels of chitinases. the level of constitutive beta-1,4-n-acetyl-glucosaminidase production in standing and shaken cultures under non-inductive conditions was tested in mutants and compared to that of the parental strain. about 30% of the mutants showed significantly increa ...200717523389
trichoderma harzianum: a biocontrol agent against bipolaris oryzae.rice brown spot, caused by bipolaris oryzae, can be a serious disease causing a considerable yield loss. trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent for a number of plant fungal diseases. thus, this research was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action by which t. harzianum antagonizes bipolaris oryzae in vitro, and the efficacy of spray application of a spore suspension of t. harzianum for control of rice brown spot disease under field conditions. in vitro, the antagonisti ...200717592758
influence of autoclaved saprotrophic fungal mycelia on proteolytic activity in ectomycorrhizal fungi.the production of proteolytic enzymes by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi i.e., amanita muscaria (16-3), laccaria laccata (9-12), l. laccata (9-1), suillus bovinus (15-4), suillus bovinus (15-3), suillus luteus (14-7) on mycelia of trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma virens and mucor hiemalis and sodium caseinate, yeast extract was evaluated. the strains of a. muscaria (16-3) and l. laccata (9-12) were characterized by the highest activity of the acidic and neutral proteases. taking the m ...200717333458
desorption of zinc by extracellularly produced metabolites of trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma reesei and coriolus versicolor.to determine the role of fungal metabolites in the desorption of metals.200718045407
trichoderma biocontrol: signal transduction pathways involved in host sensing and mycoparasitism.fungi of the genus trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like rhizoctonia spp., pythium spp., botrytis cinerea and fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. plant disease control by trichoderma is based on complex interactions between trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of trichoderma against the plant ...200719936091
effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro biological control of fusarium oxysporum by trichoderma harzianum (t8).in this study the effect of two plant growth regulators (indolacetic acid, iaa and gibberellic acid, ga3) and also trichoderma harzianum (t8) on the phytopathogen fungus fusarium oxysporium (f15) was investigated. iaa and ga3 with 15 and 30 ppm concentration have no significant effect on t. harzianum (t8) growth. the biocontrol activity of t. harzianum on f. oxysporum was slightly decreased by the presence of iaa and/or ga3. addition of 40 ppm of ga3 to the culture medium of f. oxsporum increase ...200719090187
cloning and heterologous expression of aspartic protease sa76 related to biocontrol in trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a soil-borne filamentous fungus that exhibits biological control properties because it parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. the production of hydrolytic enzymes appears to be a key element in the parasitic process. among the enzymes released by trichoderma, the aspartic proteases play a major role. a gene (sa76) encoding an aspartic protease was cloned by 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends from t. harzianum t88. the coding region of the gene is 1,593 bp ...200718031337
human exposure to airborne fungi from genera used as biocontrol agents in plant production.the fungi trichoderma harzianum, t. polysporum, t. viride, paeciliomyces fumosoroseus, p. lilacinus, verticillium/lecanicillium lecanii, ulocladium oudemansii, u. atrum and beauveria bassiana are used or considered to be used for biocontrol of pests and plant diseases. human exposure to these fungi in environments where they may naturally occur or are used as biocontrol agents has not been directly investigated to date. this review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of human ex ...200717655172
chitosan-mediated changes in cell wall composition, morphology and ultrastructure in two wood-inhabiting fungi.the effect of chitosan on cell wall deposition was investigated in the two wood-inhabiting fungal species trichoderma harzianum (cbs 597.91) and sphaeropsis sapinea (nzfs 2725). the study used three independent analytical techniques to quantify chitin in the fungal mycelium. a colorimetric method for the detection of d-glucosamine was compared with two gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (gc-ms) methods employing alditol acetates analysis and pyrolysis. the latter used a stable-isotope-labelled ...200717707625
application of dna bar codes for screening of industrially important fungi: the haplotype of trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto indicates superior chitinase formation.selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. using chitinase production by hypocrea lixii/trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by dna bar codes. we analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and its2 of the rrna-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene ...200717827332
ph and pac1 control development and antifungal activity in trichoderma harzianum.in trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 external ph regulates essential functions such as growth rate, sporulation, cell and colony morphology, pattern of secreted proteins, gene expression or mycoparasitism-related enzymatic activities. ph regulation is mediated by the transcriptional factor pac1 (homologous to pacc regulator in other fungi), encoded by pac1 whose expression increases with ph. two pac1 mutants have been obtained from cect 2413: p2.32, that possesses an allele of pac1 active at any p ...200717881256
effect of diatomaceous earth and trichoderma harzianum t-22 (rifai strain krl-ag2) on the fungus gnat bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (diptera: sciaridae).this study, consisting of three experiments, was designed to assess whether diatomaceous earth, when applied to the surface of growing media, reduces adult fungus gnat bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (diptera: sciaridae) emergence or inhibits the females from laying eggs; and whether fungus gnat adults are attracted to the fungus trichoderma harzianum t-22 (rifai strain krl-ag2) under laboratory conditions. in the first two experiments, diatomaceous earth was applied at two different thicknesses (3. ...200717849889
the influence of circulation frequency on fungal morphology: a case study considering kolmogorov microscale in constant specific energy dissipation rate cultures of trichoderma harzianum.the energy dissipation/circulation function (edcf) is the product of the specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller swept volume (p/kd(3)) and the frequency of particle circulation (1/t(c)) through that volume. a direct relationship between mycelial fragmentation and edcf has been reported. however, and although hyphal fragmentation is assumed to occur by hyphae-eddy interaction, kolmogorov microscale (lambda) has not been shown to determine, at least directly, fungal morphology. in this w ...200717586080
isolation and characterization of a beta-tubulin gene from trichoderma harzianum. 200717551827
mycoparasitism studies of trichoderma harzianum strains against rhizoctonia solani: evaluation of coiling and hydrolytic enzyme production.the genus trichoderma is a potential biocontrol agent against several phytopathogenic fungi. one parameter for its successful use is an efficient coiling process followed by a substantial production of hydrolytic enzymes. the interaction between fifteen isolates of trichoderma harzianum and the soil-borne plant pathogen, rhizoctonia solani, was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (tem). macroscopic observations of fungal growth in dual cultures revealed that growth i ...200717534583
effects of mutual interaction of laccaria laccata with trichoderma harzianum and t. virens on the morphology of microtubules and mitochondria.organelles are known to respond to challenges caused by many stress factors. the morphology of the microtubular cytoskeleton and mitochondria during mutual interaction in coculture of laccaria laccata with trichoderma harzianum and t. virens were examined. hyphae from the interaction region were sampled between 4 and 12 days of growth. microtubules were labelled with a specific antibody and mitochondria with 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide, and the organelles were examined microscopically. th ...200718176836
effect of substrates on growth and shelf life of trichoderma harzianum and its use in biocontrol of diseases.a study on the effect of different agrowastes on the population density and shelf life of trichoderma harzianum indicated that all the substrates showed effective propagation of t. harzianum; however, the population count after 30 days was maximum in used tea leaves (8 x 10(8) cfu/g) and shelf life was found to be maximum (2.9 x 10(5) cfu/g after 210 days) in wheat bran-sawdust. the application of these formulations on chickpea and groundnut plants significantly reduced the percent mortality due ...200716495048
characterization of genes encoding novel peptidases in the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 using the trichoest functional genomics approach.proteolytic enzymes (ec 3.4) secreted by trichoderma strains are receiving increasing attention because of their potential implication in the trichoderma biocontrol abilities. we have used an expressed sequence tag (est) approach to identify genes encoding extracellular peptidases in t. harzianum cect 2413 grown under several biocontrol-related conditions. based on blastx results and gene ontology annotation, a total of 61 (among 3478) unique sequences (unisequences) were predicted to encode enz ...200717415567
removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions by trichoderma harzianum.removal and recovery of uranium from dilute aqueous solutions by indigenously isolated viable and non-viable fungus (trichoderma harzianum) and algae (rd256, rd257) was studied by performing biosorption-desorption tests. fungal strain was found comparatively better candidate for uranium biosorption than algae. the process was highly ph dependent. at optimized experimental parameters, the maximum uranium biosorption capacity of t. harzianum was 612 mg u g(-1) whereas maximum values of uranium bio ...200717291559
hybrid mitochondrial plasmids from senescence suppressor isolates of neurospora intermedia.we analyzed several natural suppressor isolates of the pkalilo-based fungal senescence syndrome of neurospora intermedia. the pkalilo plasmid did not increase in titer in these isolates. nor did it show integration "de novo." in at least two of the senescence suppressor isolates, pkalilo had formed stable recombinants with other mitochondrial elements. pkalilo/mtdna recombination junctions were complete and appeared to have been formed via a nonhomologous recombination mechanism. further analysi ...200717151255
fungal biosynthesis of endochitinase and chitobiase in solid state fermentation and their application for the production of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine from colloidal chitin.the present study was directed to the production of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine using endochitinase and chitobiase from fungal cultures in solid culturing. fifteen fungal strains were evaluated for endochitinase and chitobiase production under solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial residues, of which penicillium aculeatum nrrl 2129 showed maximum endochitinase activity whereas trichoderma harzianum tubf 927 showed maximum chitobiase activity. eleven substrates, alone and in combination with c ...200717092709
efficient isolation of anthraquinone-derivatives from trichoderma harzianum ets 323.anthraquinone-derivatives, chrysophanol and pachybasin, were purified by a silica column chromatography with two different solvent systems from trichoderma harzianum ets 323. the fungus was incubated in sugarcane bagasse solid medium at room temperature without rotation. structure of chrysophanol was solved by x-ray diffraction and pachybasin by nmr spectra. about 233+/-13 mg of pure chrysophanol and 773+/-40 mg of pure pachybasin were recovered per kg of solid cultural medium, with yields 1.7+/ ...200717067682
exploitation of trichoderma harzianum mycelial waste for the removal of rhodamine 6g from aqueous solution.the harvested mycelial waste of trichoderma harzianum was used as an adsorbent for the removal of rhodamine 6g and was studied in batch mode. the effects of agitation time and initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and ph were examined. the study revealed that the amount of dye adsorbed (mgg(-1)) increased with increase in agitation time and reached equilibrium after 120 min, for dye concentrations of 10-50 mg l(-1). the adsorbent dosage of 1.0 g/50 ml and ph of 8.0 were found to be optimum ...200717045731
statistical optimization of process conditions for cellulase production by liquid state bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge.a two-level fractional factorial design (ffd) was used to determine the effects of six factors, i.e. substrate (domestic wastewater sludge - dws) and co-substrate concentration (wheat flour - wf), temperature, initial ph, inoculum size and agitation rate on the production of cellulase enzyme by trichoderma harzianum in liquid state bioconversion. on statistical analysis of the results from the experimental studies, optimum process conditions were found to be temperature 32.5 degrees c, substrate ...200817981027
mycorrhizal fungi and trichoderma harzianum as biocontrol agents for suppression of rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease of tomato.the objective of the present work was to examine the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (amf) glomus intraradices and trichoderma harzianum in soil. soil application with t. harzianum or/and g. intraradices significantly reduced tomato seedlings damping-off incited by rhizoctonia solani. moreover, more pronounced disease suppression was obtained when both bioagents were applied together. application of t. harzianum to healthy or inoculated seedlings significantly increased phospho ...200819226759
cloning and characterization of the thcut1 gene encoding a cutinase of trichoderma harzianum t34.the cloning and characterization of the thcut1 gene, which encodes a cutinase protein of the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum t34, is reported. cutinases, which are secreted enzymes that hydrolyse cutin, belong to a class of serine esterases able to hydrolyze fatty acid esters and emulsified triglycerides. the thcut1 gene was isolated by screening of a genomic dna library from est 2104, generated from a t. harzianum t34 cdna library constructed under mycoparasitic and nutrient stress cond ...200818987860
water deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus trichoderma harzianum and two wheat genotypes.the aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of mutualistic interactions between the fungus trichoderma harzianum and two wheat genotypes, triticum aestivum cv. talhuén and t. turgidum subsp. durum cv. alifén, and the extent to which water deficit affected these interactions. two wheat genotypes were cultivated in the presence or absence of t. harzianum and in the presence or absence of water deficit. t. harzianum was in turn cultivated in the presence or absence of wheat plants and in the ...200818192424
amendment with peony root bark improves the biocontrol efficacy of trichoderma harzianum against rhizoctonia solani.we tested trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol agent for rhizoctonia solani ag2-1, using six natural antifungal materials to improve its efficacy. among the six materials tested, peony (paeonia suffruticosa) root bark (prb) showed the strongest antifungal activity against r. solani ag2-1, and was not antagonistic to t. harzianum. scanning electron microscopy showed that treatment with prb extract resulted in shortened and deformed r. solani ag2-1 hyphal cells. the control of radish damping-off ...200818852509
overexpression of a trichoderma hsp70 gene increases fungal resistance to heat and other abiotic stresses.all organisms share similar mechanisms in the heat shock response, such as synthesis of conserved heat shock proteins. here, we report on the cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a trichoderma harzianum t34 hsp70 gene. the expression of this gene was evaluated in cultures grown in abiotic stress conditions. an increased level of expression was detected when the fungus was grown at 37 or 41 degrees c, as well as in the presence of oxidative or osmotic agents. the overexpression of ...200818824239
production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in solid-state fermentation.many trichoderma species are able to produce 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-pp), a lactone with coconut-like aroma. in the present work, several culture parameters were studied to enhance the production of 6-pp by trichoderma harzianum 4040 in solid-state fermentation. green coir powder added to a nutrient solution was used as support material for fermentation. a plackett-burman screening technique was applied, followed by a fractionary factorial design. the best culture conditions within the experimental ...200824031295
induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in callus cultures in vitro.sodium salicylate (nasa) increased induction of both intracellular and extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases in calluses of campion and duckweed. nasa concentrations from 30 to 100 mm were optimal for induction of intracellular glucanase in the campion callus, and for induction of extracellular glucanase the optimal concentration varied from 5 to 100 mm. the glucanase activity in the duckweed callus was lower than in the campion callus, and co-cultivation of the campion callus with trichoderma harzi ...200818707591
proteomic study of biocontrol mechanisms of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 in response to rhizoctonia solani.to elucidate the entire range of proteins that are secreted by trichoderma harzianum ets 323 in its antagonism with rhizoctonia solani, an in vivo interaction between them was mimicked and not only the secreted cell wall-degrading enzymes (cwdes) but also all of the proteome were investigated. seven cwdes, chitinase, cellulase, xylanase, beta-1,3-glucanase, beta-1,6-glucanase, mannanase, and protease,were revealed by activity assay, in-gel activity stain, 2-de, and lc-ms/ms analysis. extracellul ...200818642836
the molecular basis of shoot responses of maize seedlings to trichoderma harzianum t22 inoculation of the root: a proteomic approach.trichoderma spp. are effective biocontrol agents for several soil-borne plant pathogens, and some are also known for their abilities to enhance systemic resistance to plant diseases and overall plant growth. root colonization with trichoderma harzianum rifai strain 22 (t22) induces large changes in the proteome of shoots of maize (zea mays) seedlings, even though t22 is present only on roots. we chose a proteomic approach to analyze those changes and identify pathways and genes that are involved ...200818562766
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