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combination of trichoderma harzianum endochitinase and a membrane-affecting fungicide on control of alternaria leaf spot in transgenic broccoli plants.progeny from transgenic broccoli (cv. green comet) expressing a trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene were used to assess the interaction between endochitinase and the fungicide bayleton in the control of alternaria brassicicola. in vitro assays have shown synergistic effects of endochitinase and fungicides on fungal pathogens. our study examined the in planta effects of endochitinase and bayleton, individually and in combination. two month old transgenic and non-transgenic plants were spraye ...200111341311
improved antifungal activity of a mutant of trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 which produces more extracellular proteins.trichoderma harzianum is a well-known biological control agent against fungal plant diseases. in order to select improved biocontrol strains from trichoderma harzianum cect 2413, a mutant has been isolated for its ability to produce wider haloes than the wild type, when hydrolysing pustulan, a polymer of beta-1,6-glucan. the mutant possesses between two and four times more chitinase, beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glucanase activities than the wild type, produces about three times more extracellular pro ...200111414328
antifungal activity of a novel endochitinase gene (chit36) from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm.a novel 36-kda endochitinase named chit36 has been isolated and characterized from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm. partial amino acid sequences from the purified protein were used to clone the fungal cdna, based on polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. the complete open reading frame encodes a 344-amino acid protein which shows 84% similarity to a putative chitinase from streptomyces coelicolor. chit36 was overexpressed under the pki1 constitutive promoter from trichoderma reesei vi ...200111425470
toxic-metabolite-producing bacteria and fungus in an indoor environment.toxic-metabolite-emitting microbes were isolated from the indoor environment of a building where the occupant was suffering serious building-related ill-health symptoms. toxic substances soluble in methanol and inhibitory to spermatozoa at <10 microg (dry weight) ml(-1) were found from six bacterial isolates and one fungus. the substances from isolates of bacillus simplex and from isolates belonging to the actinobacterial genera streptomyces and nocardiopsis were mitochondriotoxic. these substan ...200111425751
oxidation of triphenylarsine to triphenylarsineoxide by trichoderma harzianum and other fungi.arsenic resistant strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil contaminated by chemical warfare agents. until now, no metabolic products of microbial attack against the phenyl residues of the model substrate triphenylarsine (tp) were found if it was incubated together with these strains in liquid culture assays. however, one of the isolated fungi, trichoderma harzianum as 11, was found to oxidize tp to triphenylarsineoxide (tpo). the yeast trichosporon mucoides sbug 801 and the white-ro ...200111482658
characterization of a chitinase and an endo-beta-1,3-glucanase from trichoderma harzianum rifai t24 involved in control of the phytopathogen sclerotium rolfsii.of 24 trichoderma isolates, t harzianum rifai (t24) showed a potential for control of the phytopathogenic basidiomycete sclerotium rolfsii. when t24 was grown on different carbon sources, growth inhibition of s. rolfsii by the t24 culture filtrate correlated with the activity of extracellular chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase. the 43-kilodalton (kda) chitinase and the 74-kda beta-1,3-glucanase were purified from the t24 culture filtrate in two and three steps, respectively, using ammonium sulphat ...200111499921
identification of trichoderma strains by image analysis of hplc chromatograms.forty-four trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with uv detection of culture extracts. the classes were compared with morphological identification and rdna sequence data, and for each class all strains were of the same identity. with all three techniques each strain--except one--was identified as the same species. these strain ...200111583856
detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) produced by moulds on various materials.twelve fungal species were screened for microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs): aspergillus fumigatus, a. versicolor, a. niger, a. ochraceus, trichoderma harzianum, t. pseudokoningii, penicillium brevicompactum, p. chrysogenum, p. claviforme, p. expansum, fusarium solani and mucor sp. more than 150 volatile substances derived from fungal cultures have been analysed by head-space solid-phase microextraction (hs-spme). each species had a defined mvoc profile which may be subjected to conside ...200111759153
purification and properties of extracellular chitinases from the parasitic fungus isaria japonica.two chitinases (p-1 and p-2) induced with colloidal chitin were purified from the culture supernatant of isaria japonica by chromatography on deae bio-gel, chromatofocusing and gel filtration with superdex 75 pg. the enzymes were electrophoretically homogeneous and estimated to have a molecular mass of 43,273 (+/-5) for p-1 and 31,134 (+/-6) for p-2 by maldi-ms. the optimum ph and temperature was 3.5-4.0 and 50 degrees c for p-1 and 4.0-4.5 and 40 degrees c for p-2. p-1 acted against chitosan 7b ...200116233143
biological control of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne javanica by trichoderma harzianum.abstract the fungal biocontrol agent, trichoderma harzianum, was evaluated for its potential to control the root-knot nematode meloidogyne javanica. in greenhouse experiments, root galling was reduced and top fresh weight increased in nematode-infected tomatoes following soil pretreatment with trichoderma peat-bran preparations. the use of a proteinase prb1-transformed line (p-2) that contains multiple copies of this gene improved biocontrol activity in the greenhouse experiments compared with t ...200118942999
a convenient fluorometric method for the detection of extracellular n-acetylglucosaminidase production by filamentous fungi.a rapid and convenient method for the detection of chitinases accumulating in filamentous fungal cultures was developed. the assay is performed on cultures growing in microtiter plates, with a fluorogenic substrate: 4-methylumbelliferyl-n-acetyl-d-glucosaminide (4-meunag). the fluorescence of the product, 4-methylumbelliferone, was detected. this method was successfully used to follow induction and repression of extracellular exochitinase activity in the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.200111118651
influence of a fungus-feeding nematode on growth and biocontrol efficacy of trichoderma harzianum.abstract a fungivorous nematode, aphelenchoides sp., was isolated from field soil by baiting with mycelium of the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum thzid1, and subsequently was maintained on agar cultures of the fungus. interactions between the nematode and the green fluorescent protein-producing transformant, t. harzianum thzid1-m3, were investigated in both heat-treated (80 degrees c, 30 min) and untreated field soil. thzid1-m3 was identified in soil by epifluorescence microscopy. when t ...200118943350
an antifungal exo-alpha-1,3-glucanase (agn13.1) from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum secretes alpha-1,3-glucanases when it is grown on polysaccharides, fungal cell walls, or autoclaved mycelium as a carbon source (simulated antagonistic conditions). we have purified and characterized one of these enzymes, named agn13.1. the enzyme was monomeric and slightly basic. agn13.1 was an exo-type alpha-1,3-glucanase and showed lytic and antifungal activity against fungal plant pathogens. northern and western analyses indicated that agn13.1 is induced by conditions t ...200111722942
survival and proliferation of alginate encapsulated trichoderma spp. in egyptian soil in comparison with allyl alcohol soil fumigation.conidia of trichoderma harzianum and t. pseudokoningii (rifai) were formulated to make alginate pellets with or without 10% cellulose as a food-base material. the formulations were compared for their ability for survival and proliferation of trichoderma spp. in clay-loamy soil (50% moisture content) with allyl alcohol fumigation (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 ml/1,000 ml space). trichoderma medium e (tme) containing 100 microg/ml pentachloronitrobenzene (pcnb) was valuable for isolation and counting of tric ...200111678588
purification and some properties of a beta-glucosidase from trichoderma harzianum type c-4.type c-4 strain of trichoderma harzianum was isolated as a microorganism with high cellulolytic activity. beta-glucosidase is involved in the last step of cellulose saccharification by degrading cellobiose to glucose, and plays an important role in the cellulase enzyme system with a synergic action with endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase for cellulose degradation. beta-glucosidase from t. harzianum type c-4 was purified to homogeneity through sephacryl s-300, deae-sephadex a-50, and mono p colu ...200111676016
effect of tunicamycin on n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase produced by trichoderma harzianum.the effect of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of protein n-glycosylation, was studied in non-growing mycelium of trichoderma harzianum induced to secrete n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase by the addition of n-acetylglucosamine. tunicamycin (30 microg ml(-1)) had no significant effect on growth of the fungus, or on the total protein secreted or specific activity of n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase. however, in the presence of the inhibitor an underglycosylated form of the enzyme was produced. the apparent ...200111514096
the potential application of aqueous two-phase systems for in situ recovery of 6-pentyl-infinity-pyrone produced by trichoderma harzianum.commercial production of aroma compounds by de novo microbial biosynthesis has been principally limited by the low productivity so far achieved. production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone (6pp), a coconut-like aroma compound, by trichoderma harzianum has been limited by the toxic effect that occurs even at low concentration (<100 ppm). this work evaluated the feasibility of the use of aqueous-two phase systems (atps), as in situ extraction systems, in order to overcome the toxic effects of 6pp and to i ...200111339945
colonisation of soilless growing media for tomato by trichoderma harzianum.an experiment was conducted to evaluate the distribution of t. harzianum in soilless media used in greenhouse growing systems for tomatoes. growing media based on rockwool and based on coconut fibre were included. the fungus was applied to the roots of the plant by means of a conidial suspension. the upper plant parts were removed from the coconut fibre an the rockwool slab after 10 and 15 weeks respectively. both the coconut fibre and the rockwool slab were divided into fragments with a width o ...200112425039
accurate and rapid viability assessment of trichoderma harzianum using fluorescence-based digital image analysis.fluorescence microscopy and image analysis were evaluated in order to assess the viability of trichoderma harzianum, an economically important filamentous fungus. after the evaluation of the two most commonly used fluorochromes, acridine orange (ao) and fluorescein diacetate (fda) as metabolic indicator stains, ao gave ambiguous results and therefore fda was chosen. the lower stability at room temperature and fast fluorescence intensity decay (50% after only 30 s of illumination in uv light) cou ...200212378609
selection of strain and optimization of mutanase production in submerged cultures of trichoderma harzianum.nineteen fungal strains belonging to different genera were tested for extracellular mutanase production in shaken flasks. the optimal enzymatic activity was achieved by trichoderma harzianum f-470, a strain for which the mutanase productivity has not yet been published. some of factors affecting the enzyme production in shaken flasks and aerated fermenter cultures have been standardized. mandels mineral medium with initial ph 5.3, containing 0.25% mutan and inoculated with 10% of the 48-h myceli ...200212371618
assessment of the rhizosphere competency and pentachlorophenol-metabolizing activity of a pesticide-degrading strain of trichoderma harzianum introduced into the root zone of corn seedlings.to develop a dependable approach to introduce laboratory selected, pesticide-degrading microorganisms into soil environments for the purpose of in situ bioremediation, we tested the possibility of utilizing plant rhizospheres as the vehicle. we first established the rhizosphere competency of a strain of the soil fungus trichoderma harzianum, a biocontrol species well studied by plant pathologists to colonize plant rhizosphere in many parts of the world. the strain we chose, t.h.2023 is resistant ...200212009191
the performance of fungal xylan-degrading enzyme preparations in elemental chlorine-free bleaching for eucalyptus pulp.cellulase-free xylan-degrading enzyme preparations from acrophialophora nainiana, humicola grisea var. thermoidea and two trichoderma harzianum strains were used as bleaching agents for eucalyptus kraft pulp, prior to a chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequence. in comparison to the control sequence (performed without xylanase pretreatment), the sequence incorporating enzyme treatment was more effective. removal of residual lignin was indicated by a reduction in kappa number. overall, enz ...200211986920
a protocol for evaluation of the role of disinfectants in limiting pathogens and weed moulds in commercial mushroom production.in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the effects of three commercial disinfectants on isolates of trichoderma harzianum rifai and cladobotryum dendroides (bull) w gams & hoozemans were combined in the development of methodologies for realistic assessment of disinfectant performance. 'environ' and 'purogene' incorporated into agar media at 50 mg ai litre-1 were effective in totally preventing the mycelial growth of t harzianum and c dendroides isolates, whereas with 'sudol' a concentration of 500 ...200211975175
production and biotransformation of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone by trichoderma harzianum in two-phase culture systems.the final concentration of 6-pentyl-a-pyrone (6pp) produced in cultures of trichoderma spp. is limited by the fact that inhibition of biomass growth occurs at 6pp concentrations as low as 100 mg/l. the aim of this work was to evaluate liquid-liquid extractive fermentation systems as an alternative to overcome the toxicity problems and to increase the production of 6pp by this fungus. two alkanes (n-decane and n-hexadecane) and two dicarboxylic esters (dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate) wer ...200211876408
the expression of extracellular fungal cell wall hydrolytic enzymes in different trichoderma harzianum isolates correlates with their ability to control pyrenochaeta lycopersici.four isolates of trichoderma harzianum (thn3, th11, th12 and th16) were selected for their ability to control the in vitro development of the tomato root pathogen pyrenochaeta lycopersici. analysis of the mechanisms involved in biocontrol showed that the formation of non-volatile metabolites appears to be one of those involved in biocontrol of p. lycopersici by all t. harzianum isolates tested. nevertheless, the higher secretion of chitinases, both in number of isoenzymes and activity by the th1 ...200212462992
antagonistic activity of penicillium oxalicum corrie and thom, penicillium decumbens thom and trichoderma harzianum rifai isolates against fungi, bacteria and insects in vitro.the antibiotic activity of 70 isolates belonging to the genera aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium, alternaria and trichoderma was tested as preliminary screening. the highest activity was obtained with three penicillium oxalicum isolates, one penicillium decumbens isolate and the trichoderma harzianum isolate. after that, we chose these five isolates in order to carry out other studies with bacteria, fungi and insects. extracts from these isolates were obtained. the extracts were tested for anti ...200212828512
a refined method for the determination of saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall composition and beta-1,6-glucan fine structure.in yeast and other fungi, cell division, cell shape, and growth depend on the coordinated synthesis and degradation of cell wall polymers. we have developed a reliable and efficient micro method to determine saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall composition that distinguishes between beta1,3- and beta1,6-glucan. the method is based on the sequential treatment of cell walls with specific hydrolytic enzymes followed by dialysis. the low molecular weight (mw) products thus separated account for each p ...200211811978
characterization of a protease produced by a trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease.several trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. however, although trichoderma strains were found to impair development of crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. we have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrol ...200211835696
comparative degradation of oomycete, ascomycete, and basidiomycete cell walls by mycoparasitic and biocontrol fungi.fourteen fungi (primarily representing mycoparasitic and biocontrol fungi) were tested for their ability to grow on and degrade cell walls (cws) of an oomycete (pythium ultimum), ascomycete (fusarium equisetii), and basidiomycete (rhizoctonia solani), and their hydrolytic enzymes were characterized. protein was detected in the cultural medium of eleven of the test isolates, and these fungi significantly degraded cws over the 14-day duration of the experiment. in general, a greater level of cw de ...200211888164
complete dna sequence and analysis of a mitochondrial plasmid in the mycoparasitic trichoderma harzianum strain t95.a circular plasmid called pthr1, with a monomer size of 2.6 kb, was identified in the mitochondria of a trichoderma harzianum isolate. hybridization studies using cloned plasmids revealed no dna sequence similarity between the plasmid and the mitochondrial genome of the isolate. the complete sequence of the plasmid was determined, and the sequence analysis revealed that it contained a single long open reading frame of 1818 bp. sequence comparisons indicated that the derived amino acid sequence o ...200211982336
aspartyl protease from trichoderma harzianum cect 2413: cloning and characterization.a gene that encodes an extracellular aspartyl protease from trichoderma harzianum cect 2413, papa, has been isolated and characterized. based on several conserved regions of other fungal acid proteases, primers were designed to amplify a probe that was used to isolate the papa gene from a genomic library of t. harzianum. papa was an intronless orf which encoded a polypeptide of 404 aa, including a prepropeptide at the n-terminal region formed by one putative signal peptide, a second peptide whic ...200211988504
diversity in soil fungi from undisturbed and disturbed celtis tala and scutia buxifolia forests in the eastern buenos aires province (argentina).the rhizospheric soil microfungi from a native forest (undisturbed and disturbed) were studied using soil dilution plate and soil washing methods. fungi were isolated using slightly acid and alkaline culture media. 54 taxa were isolated: 49 from undisturbed forest soil and 37 from disturbed forest soil. acremonium sp., aspergillus ustus, coemansia pectinata, doratomyces stemonitis, fusarium solani, f. oxysporum, gliocladium roseum, humicola fusco-atra, mortierella sp., penicillium lilacinum, tri ...200212002400
comparison of the effects of temperature and water activity on growth rate of food spoilage moulds.the influence of temperature (t) and water activity (aw) on the growth rate (mu) of seven moulds (alternaria alternata, aspergillus flavus, cladosporium cladosporioides, mucor racemosus, penicillium chrysogenum, rhizopus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum) was assessed in suboptimal conditions. firstly, the dependence of fungal growth on temperature, at aw 0.99, was modelled through an approach described previously for bacteria. a dimensionless growth rate variable: mu(dimalpha)=mu/mu (optalpha) d ...200212032803
degradation of pyrene by indigenous fungi from a former gasworks site.indigenous fungi isolated from soil of a former gasworks site were investigated in submerged cultures with pyrene as the sole carbon source. five fungal strains capable of degrading pyrene included one strain of trichoderma harzianum and four strains with characteristics of the genus penicillium. these are identified as penicillium simplicissimum, penicillium janthinellum, penicillium funiculosum and penicillium terrestre. a maximum of 75% of 50 mg l(-1) and 67% of 100 mg l(-1) of pyrene was rem ...200212044679
characterisation of two 14-3-3 genes from trichoderma reesei: interactions with yeast secretory pathway components.the 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed proteins taking part in numerous cellular processes. two genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins, ftt1 and ftt2, were isolated and characterised from the filamentous fungus trichoderma reesei. ftti showed the highest sequence identity (98% at the amino acid level) to the trichoderma harzianum protein th1433. fttii is relatively distinct from ftti, showing approximately 75% identity to other fungal 14-3-3 proteins. despite their sequence div ...200212063166
trichosetin, a novel tetramic acid antibiotic produced in dual culture of trichoderma harzianum and catharanthus roseus callus.the dual culture of trichoderma harzianum and catharanthus roseus callus produced an antimicrobial compound with a remarkable activity against the gram-positive bacteria staphylococcus aureus and bacillus subtilis. structural elucidation revealed that this compound, which we have named trichosetin, is a novel tetramic acid (2,4-pyrrolidinedione) antibiotic and a homolog of the fungal metabolite equisetin. this compound however, was not produced in the individual culture of t. harzianum or c. ros ...200212132686
composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.preliminary studies were conducted on wheat straw to test the technical viability of an integrated system of composting, with bioinoculants and subsequent vermicomposting, to overcome the problem of lignocellulosic waste degradation, especially during the winter season. wheat straw was pre-decomposed for 40 days by inoculating it with pleurotus sajor-caju, trichoderma harzianum, aspergillus niger and azotobacter chroococcum in different combinations. this was followed by vermicomposting for 30 d ...200212227532
extracellular laccases in ascomycetes trichoderma atroviride and trichoderma harzianum.laccase activity in trichoderma harzianum and in our own isolate trichoderma atroviride was correlated with the production of the green pigment in conidial spores. the laccases of the two fungal species exhibit comparable kinetic parameters, ph optima and thermal sensitivity but differed in physiological properties, such as their catalytic activity during growth.200212422522
endophytic fungal beta-1,6-glucanase expression in the infected host grass.mutualistic fungal endophytes infect many grass species and often confer benefits to the hosts such as reduced herbivory by insects and animals. the physiological interactions between the endophytes and their hosts have not been well characterized. fungal-secreted proteins are likely to be important components of the interaction. in the interaction between poa ampla and the endophyte neotyphodium sp., a fungal beta-1,6-glucanase is secreted into the apoplast, and activity of the enzyme is detect ...200212427996
cloning and characterization of the naga gene that encodes beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from aspergillus nidulans and its expression in aspergillus oryzae.we isolated a beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase encoding gene and its cdna from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, and designated it naga. the naga gene contained no intron and encoded a polypeptide of 603 amino acids with a putative 19-amino acid signal sequence. the deduced amino acid sequence was very similar to the sequence of candida albicans hex1 and trichoderma harzianum nag1. yeast cells containing the naga cdna under the control of the gal1 promoter expressed beta-n-acetylglucosami ...200212450128
genetic relatedness of trichoderma sect. pachybasium species based on molecular approaches.molecular approaches including internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of ribosomal dna, universal primer polymerase chain reaction (up-pcr) fingerprinting, and dna-dna hybridization were used to study the genetic relatedness of species within trichoderma sect. pachybasium. in the analysis of its and 5.8s sequences of ribosomal dna, parsimony analysis demonstrated that forty-one strains were distributed into five main groups supported by high bootstrap values. the species of trichoderma sect ...200212455615
expression regulation of the endochitinase chit36 from trichoderma asperellum (t. harzianum t-203).the presence of the endochitinase chit36 from trichoderma harzianum tm was assessed in several antagonistic trichoderma strains belonging to different molecular taxonomic groups. chit37 from t. harzianum cect 2413 was sequenced and found to display 89% homology with chit36 at the amino acid level. northern analysis showed that chit36y from t. asperellum is regulated both by glucose and nitrogen levels. stress conditions, colloidal chitin and n-acetyl-glucosamine are effective inducers of this ge ...200212478390
[the existence of contamination in enzymes used for the isolation of aspergillus and candida species dna].molecular biological methods which are widely used in different fields, have been replaced with conventional diagnostic tests for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections, recently. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is one of these methods, with high specificity and sensitivity, which is accepted throughout the world. however, the enzymes that are used for the isolation of target dna, may be contaminated with the gene sequences of some other fungal species in the preparation steps and may ...200212652873
effect of entomopathogenic nematodes and trichoderma harzianum on the strawberry black root rot pathogens pratylenchus penetrans and rhizoctonia fragariae.the effects of inundative releases of entomopathogenic steinernema carpocapsae and s. feltiae infective juveniles and applications of the biological control fungus trichoderma harzianum t-22 (rootshield) on pratylenchus penetrans and strawberry black root rot caused by rhizoctonia fragariae were determined in field microplots and small plots. entomopathogenic nematodes were applied as a soil drench at rates of 7.4 or 14.8 billion per ha in may or august for 3 years. rootshield was applied as cro ...200219265955
trichoderma harzianum metabolites pre-adapt mushrooms to trichoderma aggressivum antagonism.trichoderma spp. is the cause of green mold, a disorder that affects cultivated mushrooms. the aims of the study were to establish whether improvement of mushroom resistance to trichoderma aggressivum could be obtained by inducing reaction mechanisms before contact with the pathogen and whether this ability was species or strain dependent. twenty nine isolates of agaricus bisporus, 29 isolates of lentinula edodes and 18 isolates of pleurotus spp. were studied. the effect of t. harzianum metaboli ...200321156605
long-term effects on other fungi are studied in biological and chemical stump treatments in the fight against heterobasidion annosum coll.the effects on mycoflora of norway spruce stumps of biological and chemical treatments in the fight against heterobasidion annosum coll. were investigated two yr after applications of these treatments. the biological treatments were hypholoma fasciculare, phanerochaete velutina, vuilleminia comedens, trichoderma harzianum and both the conidial suspension and culture filtrate of verticillium bulbillosum; propiconazole was used as chemical treatment. samplings were performed on 130 stumps, includi ...200321156626
safety evaluation of a glucanase preparation intended for use in food including a subchronic study in rats and mutagenicity studies.an enzyme preparation containing glucanase produced by the fungus trichoderma harzianum is intended to be used to improve the clarification and filtration of wines. the safety of a glucanase preparation was assessed in a series of toxicological tests to document its safety in use. oral administration to rats of up to 10 ml/kg bw/day (equivalent to a total organic solids dosage of 1258 mg/kg bw/day or a glucanase dosage of 1882 bgxu/kg bw/day) for 13 weeks did not cause any adverse effect. the te ...200312662905
genetic and metabolic diversity of trichoderma: a case study on south-east asian isolates.we have used isolates of trichoderma spp. collected in south-east asia, including taiwan and western indonesia, to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity of endemic species of trichoderma. ninety-six strains were isolated in total, and identified at the species level by analysis of morphological and biochemical characters (biolog system), and by sequence analysis of their internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (its1 and 2) of the rdna cluster, using ex-type strains and taxonomically est ...200312684020
multilocus phylogenetic structure within the trichoderma harzianum/hypocrea lixii complex.trichoderma harzianum is a ubiquitous species in the environment and is effective in the biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi. t. harzianum has not been linked unequivocally to its sexual state nor has its phylogeny been studied in detail. it has been suggested that t. harzianum is a species complex based on the phenotypic and genotypic variability encountered. on the basis of morphological and cultural characters and dna sequence data analysis of four genes (its rdna, translation elonga ...200312695093
interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.the efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, paecilomyces lilacinus, plectosphaerella cucumerina and pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (pcn) as part of an integrated pest management (ipm) regime were studied. the compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi rhizoctonia solani, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium bilaii and trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. p ...200312735243
determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials.the release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. in this study, the release of spores from nine species of typical indoor fungi has been measured under controlled conditions. the fungi were cultivated for a period of 4-6 weeks on sterilized wet wallpapered gypsum boards at a relative humidity (rh) of appr ...200312756008
expression of the red fluorescent protein dsred-express in filamentous ascomycete fungi.the recently reported red fluorescent protein dsred from the reef coral discosoma sp. represents a new marker that has been codon-optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. to facilitate expression of dsred in ascomycete fungi, we used the clone pdsred-express (clontech) for constructing a plasmid vector, ppgpd-dsred, containing the constitutive aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (gpd) promoter. this vector was used for co-transformation of penicillium paxilli, trichoderma ha ...200312799012
characterization of the surface hydrophobicity of filamentous fungi.a method for the quantitative analysis of the hydrophobicity of the mycelial mat of filamentous fungi based on contact angle measurements is presented. it was tested for a range of fungi belonging to the classes of basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and deuteromycetes. the measured contact angles of the mycelial mats ranged between hydrophilic (<30 degrees) for the deuteromycetes fusarium oxysporum fo47 gus1 and trichoderma harzianum p1[pzega1] and hydrophobic (>60 degrees) for the ascomycete cladospor ...200312558591
microbial community composition affects soil fungistasis.most soils inhibit fungal germination and growth to a certain extent, a phenomenon known as soil fungistasis. previous observations have implicated microorganisms as the causal agents of fungistasis, with their action mediated either by available carbon limitation (nutrient deprivation hypothesis) or production of antifungal compounds (antibiosis hypothesis). to obtain evidence for either of these hypotheses, we measured soil respiration and microbial numbers (as indicators of nutrient stress) a ...200312571002
phytotoxicity of the tetramic acid metabolite trichosetin.trichosetin, a tetramic acid-containing metabolite produced in the dual culture of trichoderma harzianum and catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don callus, was subjected to phytotoxicity assays. in seedling growth assays, trichosetin inhibited root and shoot growth of all five plant species tested by damaging the cell membrane, as evidenced by the dose-dependent increase in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. vital staining of trichosetin-treated nicotiana tabacum by-2 cells, with rhodamine 123 ...200312620323
a selective medium for quantitative reisolation of trichoderma harzianum from agaricus bisporus compost.we adapted a selective medium, previously developed for reisolation of trichoderma spp. from soil, for quantitative determination of growth of t. harzianum from commercial agaricus bisporus composts. this medium enables comparisons of aggressive (sensu inhibition of a. bisporus yield) with nonaggressive t. harzianum groups. the resulting medium contains the antimicrobials chloramphenicol, streptomycin, quintozene, and propamocarb and was highly selective, allowing the recovery of t. harzianum, a ...200312839798
saprotrophic and mycoparasitic components of aggressiveness of trichoderma harzianum groups toward the commercial mushroom agaricus bisporus.we examined the mycoparasitic and saprotrophic behavior of isolates representing groups of trichoderma harzianum to establish a mechanism for the aggressiveness towards agaricus bisporus in infested commercial compost. mycoparasitic structures were infrequently observed in interaction zones on various media, including compost, with cryoscanning electron microscopy. t. harzianum grows prolifically in compost in the absence or presence of a. bisporus, and the aggressive european (th2) and north am ...200312839799
structure of dried cellular alginate matrix containing fillers provides extra protection for microorganisms against uvc radiation.soil microorganisms in general and biocontrol agents in particular are very sensitive to uv light. the packaging of biocontrol microorganisms into cellular solids has been developed as a means of reducing loss caused by exposure to environmental uv radiation. the bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents pantoea agglomerans and trichoderma harzianum were immobilized in freeze-dried alginate beads containing fillers and subjected to 254 nm uv radiation (uvc). immobilization of cells in freeze-dried ...200312859230
investigating the role of a verticillium fungicola beta-1,6-glucanase during infection of agaricus bisporus using targeted gene disruption.studies on the mycopathogen verticillium fungicola have shown the up-regulation of beta-1,6-glucanases when grown in the presence of host cell walls and host cell wall components including chitin. these cell-wall-degrading enzymes are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenic ability of mycopathogens. a beta-1,6-glucanase gene, vfglu1, showing high similarity to beta-1,6-glucanase genes from hypocrea virens, neotyphodium sp., and trichoderma harzianum, was isolated using degenerate pcr from v ...200312892639
evaluation of trichoderma spp. for biocontrol of tomato sudden caused by pythium aphanidermatum following flooding in tropical hot season.tomato sudden death is a major problem in tomato production in tropical lowland areas. the plant wilts and dies following artificial or natural flooding for 48-72 hrs in the summer season. occurrence of this disease is related to aggressiveness of pythium aphanidermatum on tomato at high soil temperature (>30 degrees c). several methods such as using biological control agents, fungicides and other cultural practices were applied in attempts to control tomato sudden death. three trichoderma harzi ...200315151279
the north american mushroom competitor, trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum, produces antifungal compounds in mushroom compost that inhibit mycelial growth of the commercial mushroom agaricus bisporus.trichoderma harzianum is a ubiquitously distributed asexual soil fungus that produces a variety of antibiotic compounds. colonisation of soil inhabited by competing microbiota is facilitated by the antibiotic activity of these compounds. in addition, t. harzianum produces hydrolytic enzymes that degrade the cell wall components of many microorganisms, which can then be used as a source of nutrients. recently, biotypes of t. harzianum differing morphologically from those originally described by r ...200315000247
[presearch on preventing the medicinal plant diseases with trichoderma harzianum preparation].to control the medicinal plant diseases with the preparation of trichoderma harzianum.200315015261
glucose uptake in trichoderma harzianum: role of gtt1.using a differential display technique, the gene gtt1, which codes for a high-affinity glucose transporter, has been cloned from the mycoparasite fungus trichoderma harzianum cect 2413. the deduced protein sequence of the gtt1 gene shows the 12 transmembrane domains typical of sugar transporters, together with certain residues involved in glucose uptake, such as a conserved arginine between domains iv and v and an aromatic residue (phe) in the sequence of domain x. the gtt1 gene is transcription ...200312912890
determination of some physiological factors affecting xylanase production from trichoderma harzianum 1073 d3.in this study, different trichoderma strains were tested and trichoderma harzianum 1073 d3 was found to be the most potent xylanase producer. then some cultural parameters, namely, incubation time, substrate concentration, initial culture ph and temperature were optimized in order to increase xylanase production from trichoderma harzianum 1073 d3. the optimum incubation time was found to be 13 days. it was concluded that 1% xylan concentration is suitable for high xylanase production rate. the o ...200312578314
rhizoctonia solani, an elicitor of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone production by trichoderma harzianum in a two liquid phases, extractive fermentation system.6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone (6pp) production by trichoderma harzianum, in an extractive fermentation system, was elicitated by rhizoctonia solani. the extent of 6pp elicitation was related to the state of rhizoctonia and to the trichoderma inoculum type. the use of non-viable rhizoctonia solani mycelium in mycelium-inoculated trichoderma harzianum culture, yielded the maximal 6pp production (474 mg l(-1)) compared to control cultures (147 mg l(-1)) and decreased the process time from 192 to 96 h.200415604771
regulation of n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase produced by trichoderma harzianum: evidence that camp controls its expression.trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus reported to be a producer of extracellular n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (nagase) when grown in chitin-containing medium. an approximately 64-kda protein with nagase activity was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. the involvement of cyclic amp (camp) in the synthesis of nagase from t. harzianum in chitin-containing medium was also investigated. molecules that increase the intracellular levels of camp, including caffeine, al ...200415380555
differential recognition of animal type beta4-galactosylated and alpha3-fucosylated chito-oligosaccharides by two family 18 chitinases from trichoderma harzianum.we report the purification of two glycosyl hydrolase family 18 chitinases, chit33 and chit42, from the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum and characterization using a panel of different soluble chitinous substrates and inhibitors. we were particularly interested in the potential of these (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel fold enzymes to recognize beta-1,4-galactosylated and alpha-1,3-fucosylated oligosaccharides, which are animal-type saccharides of medical relevance. three-dimensional structural mod ...200415229194
observation of protoplasts from the conidia of arthrinium aureum by scanning electron microscopy.protoplast formation from conidia of arthrinium aureum was achieved with lysing enzyme l-2265 (sigma chemical) from trichoderma harzianum. scanning electron microscopy of conidia protoplasts showed the acquired spherical shape.200415119853
isolation and characterization of protease overproducing mutants of trichoderma harzianum.several trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes is considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. strain trichoderma harzianum t334 is a potential biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic fungi with the ability to produce low levels of proteases constitutively. to improve its fungal antagonistic capacity, mutagenetic program was undertaken for the construction of protease overproduc ...200415063489
quantitative characterisation of the morphology of trichoderma harzianum cultured in shake-flasks and containing tween 40.image analysis was used to measure the effect of tween 40 on the morphology of trichoderma harzianum. the percentage of pellets was maximal (93%) with tween at 0.2 ml l(-1), whereas the maximal proportion of dispersed mycelia (40%) was with tween at 1.6 ml l(-1). the particle median diameter decreased from 2 to 0.5 mm as tween concentration was increased and was inversely correlated to the biomass dry weight. adding pre-determined aliquots of tween 40 to the culture medium can be used to define ...200415005150
extracellular chitinase production by trichoderma harzianum in submerged fermentation.extra-cellular chitinase production by a chitinolytic fungus trichoderma harzianum tubf 966 using submerged fermentation was studied. colloidal chitin (1.5% w/v) was used as sole carbon source. maximum chitinase production (14.7 u/ml) was obtained when fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees c for 96 h using 72 h old mycelium in a medium containing colloidal chitin 1.5% (w/v) as carbon source and 0.42 (% w/v) peptone as nitrogen source (ph 5.5). supplementation of additional carbon sources (0 ...200414768028
fungal proteomics: initial mapping of biological control strain trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a soil-borne filamentous fungus that exhibits biological control properties. t. harzianum can prevent the growth of pathogenic fungi on many types of plant crops, providing a chemically benign alternative to fungicidal agents currently on the market. a proteomic approach was taken to separate and identify proteins from a strain of t. harzianum with well established biocontrol properties. we developed a method of extracting proteins under acidic conditions that increased ...200414685766
isolation and characterization of pra1, a trypsin-like protease from the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 displaying nematicidal activity.mycoparasitic trichoderma strains secrete a complex set of hydrolytic enzymes under conditions related to antagonism. several proteins with proteolytic activity were detected in culture filtrates from t. harzianum cect 2413 grown in fungal cell walls or chitin and the protein responsible for the main activity (pra1) was purified to homogeneity. the enzyme was monomeric, its estimated molecular mass was 28 kda (sds-page), and its isoelectric point 4.7-4.9. the substrate specificity and inhibition ...200415221228
use of green fluorescent protein and image analysis to quantify proliferation of trichoderma harzianum in nonsterile soil.abstract one drawback of traditional methods for fungal biomass measurement is the inability to distinguish biomass of an introduced fungus from that of the indigenous microbial community in nonsterile soil. we quantified biomass of a specific fungal biological control agent in nonsterile soil using epifluorescence microscopy and image analysis of green fluorescent protein (gfp)-expressing trichoderma harzianum (thzid1-m3). numbers of colony forming units on a semiselective medium were compared ...200418943710
an immunological approach to quantifying the saprotrophic growth dynamics of trichoderma species during antagonistic interactions with rhizoctonia solani in a soil-less mix.studies of the saprotrophic growth dynamics of trichoderma species and their fungal hosts during antagonistic interactions are severely hampered by the absence of methods that allow the unambiguous identification and quantification of individual genera in complex environments such as soil or compost containing mixed populations of fungi. furthermore, methods are required that allow discrimination between active hyphal growth and other components of fungal biomass such as quiescent spores that ar ...200415008811
phenylpropanoids, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidases in elicitor-challenged cassava (manihot esculenta) suspension cells and leaves.control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. the aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components.200415145789
biocontrol agents of botrytis cinerea tested in climate chambers by making artificial infection on tomato leafs.to reduce the use of chemical agents, that are causing damage to the environment, in the fight against botrytis cinerea, different bca's were tested for their possibility to control botrytis cinerea in a biological way. in order to investigate the effectiveness of the different micro organisms and elot-vis, experiments were carried out in climate chambers with 5 weeks old tomato plants. leafs on the plant were inoculated with drops of a suspension that contained spores of botrytis cinerea. the p ...200415756850
molecular cloning and characterization of a cdna encoding the n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase homologue of paracoccidioides brasiliensis.a cdna encoding the n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (nag) protein of paracoccidioides brasiliensis, pb nag1, was cloned and characterized. the 2663-nucleotide sequence of the cdna consisted of a single open reading frame encoding a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 64.73 kda and an isoeletric point of 6.35. the predicted protein includes a putative 30-amino-acid signal peptide. the protein as a whole shares considerable sequence similarity with 'classic' nag. the primary sequence of pb ...200415283239
biological effects of trichoderma harzianum peptaibols on mammalian cells.trichoderma species isolated from water-damaged buildings were screened for toxicity by using boar sperm cells as indicator cells. the crude methanolic cell extract from trichoderma harzianum strain es39 inhibited the boar sperm cell motility at a low exposure concentration (50% effective concentration, 1 to 5 microg [dry weight] ml of extended boar semen(-1)). the same exposure concentration depleted the boar sperm cells of nadh(2). inspection of the exposed boar sperm cells by transmission ele ...200415294840
behaviour of the hyphae of laccaria laccata in the presence of trichoderma harzianum in vitro.the growth rate and the behaviour of laccaria laccata and trichoderma harzianum hyphae in co-culture and in the rhizosphere of 3-month-old pinus sylvestris seedlings grown in vitro were investigated. in the interaction zone, hyphae of l. laccata became more pigmented and formed short branches growing towards the hyphae of the saprobic fungus, coiled around them and penetrated sporadically. vacuolated hyphae of t. harzianum showed protoplasm granulation and breaks in walls followed by release of ...200415322966
development of selective media for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from soil and plant debris.a new semi-selective medium, acidified weak potato-dextrose agar (awpda) with mertect (active ingredient: thiabendazole), was developed for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from samples of soil and plant debris. the medium was selected based on growth inhibition tests against alternaria and several other commonly encountered saprobic fungi utilizing three antifungal agents, botran (active ingredient: dichloran), bayleton (active ingredient: triadimefon), and mertect, and two b ...200415381969
effect of treatment with trichoderma harzianum rifai formulated in invert emulsion on postharvest decay of apple blue mold.conidia of trichoderma harzianum were formulated in invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) at a concentration of 6.0 x 10(7) conidia/ml of the formulation. treatments with conidia in the formulated emulsion and conidia in sterile distilled water were conducted to assess the effect on penicillium expansum link inoculated on apple fruits. comparisons were made with control treatments of an uninoculated emulsion and uninoculated distilled water. the t. harzianum-containing emulsion significantly (p <o ...200415454318
evaluation of solid-state bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge as a promising environmental-friendly disposal technique.natural and environmental-friendly disposal of wastewater sludge is a great concern. recently, biological treatment has played prominent roles in bioremediation of complex hydrocarbon- rich contaminants. composting is quite an old biological-based process that is being practiced but it could not create a great impact in the minds of concerned researchers. the present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the solid-state bioconversion (ssb) processes in the biodegradation of wastewat ...200415491662
[biological properties of l-lysine alpha-oxidase in native and conjugated form].the significant difference between biological properties of l-lysine-alpha-oxidase from trichoderma harzianum rifai (lo) and l-asparaginase from e. coli has been observed in vitro and in vivo. high antitumor activity was shown against 8 types of murine and rat transplanted tumors with a wide range of lo therapeutic doses: 35-350 u/mg. the lo conjugates with monoclonal antibodies cd5 specific to the surface of cell line yurkat were obtained without significant loss of either enzymatic and cytotox ...200415518184
fungal proteomics: mapping the mitochondrial proteins of a trichoderma harzianum strain applied for biological control.mitochondria are essential for cellular functions across organisms. a proteomic approach was taken to separate and identify mitochondrial proteins from a strain of trichoderma harzianum with well established biocontrol properties. we optimized a method for the preparation of a sample enriched with mitochondria by ensuring efficient cell lysis and including several washing steps to minimize cytoplasmic contamination. we separated hundreds of proteins, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ...200414652694
purification and characterization of an n-acetylglucosaminidase produced by a trichoderma harzianum strain which controls crinipellis perniciosa.isolate 1051 of trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus, was found to impair development of the phytopathogen, crinipellis perniciosa, in the field. this trichoderma strain growing in liquid medium containing chitin produced substantial amounts of chitinases. the n-acetylglucosaminidase present in the culture-supernatant was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, as demonstrated by sds-page analysis. the enzyme had a molecular mass of 36 kda a ...200414673545
formation and regeneration of protoplasts in sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126.different cultural conditions for forming and reverting protoplasts were systematically studied to establish a rapid and efficient protocol for sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126.200414723686
a putative high affinity hexose transporter, hxta, of aspergillus nidulans is induced in vegetative hyphae upon starvation and in ascogenous hyphae during cleistothecium formation.fungi employ different carbohydrate uptake systems to adapt to certain environmental conditions and to different carbon source concentrations. the hydrolysis of polymeric carbohydrates and the subsequent uptake of monomeric forms may also play a role in development. aspergillus nidulans accumulates cell wall components during vegetative growth and degrades them during sexual development. we have identified the hxta (high affinity hexose transporter) gene in a differential library, which was enri ...200414732261
increased antifungal and chitinase specific activities of trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 by addition of a cellulose binding domain.trichoderma harzianum is a widely distributed soil fungus that antagonizes numerous fungal phytopathogens. the antagonism of t. harzianum usually correlates with the production of antifungal activities including the secretion of fungal cell walls that degrade enzymes such as chitinases. chitinases chit42 and chit33 from t. harzianum cect 2413, which lack a chitin-binding domain, are considered to play an important role in the biocontrol activity of this strain against plant pathogens. by adding ...200414740190
enhanced secretion of bacillus stearothermophilus l1 lipase in saccharomyces cerevisiae by translational fusion to cellulose-binding domain.the secretion of bacillus stearothermophilus l1 lipase in saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by employing a fusion partner, a cellulose-binding domain (cbd) from trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase ii (theg). the cbd was connected to the n-terminal of l1 lipase through an endogenous linker peptide from theg. the expression cassette for the fusion protein in s. cerevisiae was constructed using the alpha-amylase signal peptide and the galactose-inducible gal10 promoter. secretion of cbd-lin ...200414740195
trichoderma harzianum enhances the production of nematicidal compounds in vitro and improves biocontrol of meloidogyne javanica by pseudomonas fluorescens in tomato.to determine the influence of soil-borne fungus trichoderma harzianum on the biocontrol performance of pseudomonas fluorescens strain cha0 and its 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg) overproducing derivative cha0/pme3424 against meloidogyne javanica.200414746551
production and characterization of hemicellulase activities from trichoderma harzianum strain t4.xylan and mannan are the major constituent groups of hemicellulose in the cell wall of higher plants. the mesophilic fungus trichoderma harzianum strain t4 produces extracellular xylanase and mannanase activities when grown in the presence of oat (avena sativa)-spelt xylan and wheat bran as the carbon sources respectively. after the growth procedure, the crude extracts were submitted to ultrafiltration in an amicon system fitted with a 10 kda-cut-off membrane. mannanase activity was only detecte ...200414763904
increase of laccase activity during interspecific interactions of white-rot fungi.white-rot fungi are of interest due to their ability to degrade lignin. lignin-degrading enzymes such as laccase can also degrade xenobiotic compounds. the effects of interspecific interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms on laccase activity was studied in laboratory cultures. laccase activity in cultures of trametes versicolor and pleurotus ostreatus increased significantly after the introduction of soil fungi, bacteria and yeasts or after contact with nonsterile soil. addi ...200419712364
interactions between trichoderma harzianum strain t22 and maize inbred line mo17 and effects of these interactions on diseases caused by pythium ultimum and colletotrichum graminicola.abstract seed treatment with trichoderma harzianum strain t22, which results in colonization of plant roots but little or no colonization of shoots or leaves, had substantial effects on growth of and disease expression in maize inbred line mo17. shoots and roots of 10-day-old seedlings grown in a sandy loam field soil were larger (roots were nearly twice as long) in the presence of t22 than in its absence. both main and secondary roots were increased in size and area and the root hair area was g ...200418943537
fermentation and antimicrobial activities of extracts from different species of fungus belonging to genus, trichoderma.the present paper discusses the effects of the crude extracts of trichoderma spp. on a number of fungal and bacterial organisms. these include paecilomyces variotii, penicillium notatum, nematospora corylii, mucor miehei, bacillus brevis, bacillus subtilis, enterobacter dissolvens and sarcina lutea. the culture broth extracts of different isolates of trichoderma harzianum, t. longibrachiatum and t. koningii cultured in different media were investigated individually for in-vitro antifungal and an ...200417298115
variability of non-mutualistic filamentous fungi associated with atta sexdens rubropilosa nests.a survey of the filamentous fungi other than the symbiotic one found in association with atta sexdens rubropilosa colonies was carried out. different fungal species (27 taxa) were isolated a few days after treating the workers with toxic baits (sulfluramid; mirex-s), from 40 laboratory and 20 field nests. syncephalastrum racemosum (54%) and escovopsis weberi (21%), trichoderma harzianum (38%) and fusarium oxysporum (23%) were the prevalent species in laboratory and field nests, respectively. acr ...200516475502
biological protection of the main cereals against fungal specific diseases.our field experiments showed that the use of czech biopreparations (supresivit, ibefungin and polyversum) based on the following microorganisms: trichoderma harzianum, bacillus subtilts and pythium oligandrum applied as the seed treatment, the spray on the plants and like the mixture with mineral fertilizers (npk, ammonium sulphate) lead namely after the seed-treatment and after the application as the mixture with mineral fertilizers to the increasing of the yield about 3-5 % (spring barley, win ...200516637172
biotic relation between fusarium oxysporum schlecht. and fungi isolated from the substrate of stewartia pseudocamellia (max.).the effect of the fungi community colonizing the substrate of stewartia plants on the growth of fusarium oxysporum schlecht. was investigated. the soil samples from 2 years old stewartia cuttings were taken for analysis in the second decade of october 2002 and 2003, when the symptoms of disease appeared on stewartia plant. fungi were isolated from the substrate using the sand method (mańka k. 1974). fusarium oxysporum were isolated from root system of stewartia pseudocamellia plant. the isolates ...200516637175
cloning of beauveria bassiana chitinase gene bbchit1 and its application to improve fungal strain virulence.entomopathogenic fungi can produce a series of chitinases, some of which act synergistically with proteases to degrade insect cuticle. however, chitinase involvement in insect fungus pathogenesis has not been fully characterized. in this paper, an endochitinase, bbchit1, was purified to homogeneity from liquid cultures of beauveria bassiana grown in a medium containing colloidal chitin. bbchit1 had a molecular mass of about 33 kda and pi of 5.4. based on the n-terminal amino acid sequence, the c ...200515640210
modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds.the effect of ethanol (e) on the radial growth rate (mu) of food spoilage moulds (aspergillus candidus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, cladosporium cladosporioides, eurotium herbariorum, mucor circinelloides, mucor racemosus, paecilomyces variotii, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium digitatum, rhizopus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum) was assessed in potato dextrose agar (pda) medium at a(w) 0.99, 25 degrees c. in order to model this effect, the monod type equation described previousl ...200515698687
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