PMID(sorted ascending)
microbial community composition affects soil fungistasis.most soils inhibit fungal germination and growth to a certain extent, a phenomenon known as soil fungistasis. previous observations have implicated microorganisms as the causal agents of fungistasis, with their action mediated either by available carbon limitation (nutrient deprivation hypothesis) or production of antifungal compounds (antibiosis hypothesis). to obtain evidence for either of these hypotheses, we measured soil respiration and microbial numbers (as indicators of nutrient stress) a ...200312571002
determination of some physiological factors affecting xylanase production from trichoderma harzianum 1073 this study, different trichoderma strains were tested and trichoderma harzianum 1073 d3 was found to be the most potent xylanase producer. then some cultural parameters, namely, incubation time, substrate concentration, initial culture ph and temperature were optimized in order to increase xylanase production from trichoderma harzianum 1073 d3. the optimum incubation time was found to be 13 days. it was concluded that 1% xylan concentration is suitable for high xylanase production rate. the o ...200312578314
phytotoxicity of the tetramic acid metabolite trichosetin.trichosetin, a tetramic acid-containing metabolite produced in the dual culture of trichoderma harzianum and catharanthus roseus (l.) g. don callus, was subjected to phytotoxicity assays. in seedling growth assays, trichosetin inhibited root and shoot growth of all five plant species tested by damaging the cell membrane, as evidenced by the dose-dependent increase in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. vital staining of trichosetin-treated nicotiana tabacum by-2 cells, with rhodamine 123 ...200312620323
[the existence of contamination in enzymes used for the isolation of aspergillus and candida species dna].molecular biological methods which are widely used in different fields, have been replaced with conventional diagnostic tests for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections, recently. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is one of these methods, with high specificity and sensitivity, which is accepted throughout the world. however, the enzymes that are used for the isolation of target dna, may be contaminated with the gene sequences of some other fungal species in the preparation steps and may ...200212652873
safety evaluation of a glucanase preparation intended for use in food including a subchronic study in rats and mutagenicity enzyme preparation containing glucanase produced by the fungus trichoderma harzianum is intended to be used to improve the clarification and filtration of wines. the safety of a glucanase preparation was assessed in a series of toxicological tests to document its safety in use. oral administration to rats of up to 10 ml/kg bw/day (equivalent to a total organic solids dosage of 1258 mg/kg bw/day or a glucanase dosage of 1882 bgxu/kg bw/day) for 13 weeks did not cause any adverse effect. the te ...200312662905
oil and air dispersion in a simulated fermentation broth as a function of mycelial morphology.the culture conditions of a multiphase fermentation involving morphologically complex mycelia were simulated in order to investigate the influence of mycelial morphology (trichoderma harzianum) on castor oil and air dispersion. measurements of oil drops and air bubbles were obtained using an image analysis system coupled to a mixing tank. complex interactions of the phases involved could be clearly observed. the sauter diameter and the size distributions of drops and bubbles were affected by the ...200612675561
genetic and metabolic diversity of trichoderma: a case study on south-east asian isolates.we have used isolates of trichoderma spp. collected in south-east asia, including taiwan and western indonesia, to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity of endemic species of trichoderma. ninety-six strains were isolated in total, and identified at the species level by analysis of morphological and biochemical characters (biolog system), and by sequence analysis of their internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (its1 and 2) of the rdna cluster, using ex-type strains and taxonomically est ...200312684020
multilocus phylogenetic structure within the trichoderma harzianum/hypocrea lixii complex.trichoderma harzianum is a ubiquitous species in the environment and is effective in the biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi. t. harzianum has not been linked unequivocally to its sexual state nor has its phylogeny been studied in detail. it has been suggested that t. harzianum is a species complex based on the phenotypic and genotypic variability encountered. on the basis of morphological and cultural characters and dna sequence data analysis of four genes (its rdna, translation elonga ...200312695093
interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.the efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, paecilomyces lilacinus, plectosphaerella cucumerina and pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (pcn) as part of an integrated pest management (ipm) regime were studied. the compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi rhizoctonia solani, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium bilaii and trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. p ...200312735243
determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials.the release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. in this study, the release of spores from nine species of typical indoor fungi has been measured under controlled conditions. the fungi were cultivated for a period of 4-6 weeks on sterilized wet wallpapered gypsum boards at a relative humidity (rh) of appr ...200312756008
expression of the red fluorescent protein dsred-express in filamentous ascomycete fungi.the recently reported red fluorescent protein dsred from the reef coral discosoma sp. represents a new marker that has been codon-optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. to facilitate expression of dsred in ascomycete fungi, we used the clone pdsred-express (clontech) for constructing a plasmid vector, ppgpd-dsred, containing the constitutive aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (gpd) promoter. this vector was used for co-transformation of penicillium paxilli, trichoderma ha ...200312799012
antagonistic activity of penicillium oxalicum corrie and thom, penicillium decumbens thom and trichoderma harzianum rifai isolates against fungi, bacteria and insects in vitro.the antibiotic activity of 70 isolates belonging to the genera aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium, alternaria and trichoderma was tested as preliminary screening. the highest activity was obtained with three penicillium oxalicum isolates, one penicillium decumbens isolate and the trichoderma harzianum isolate. after that, we chose these five isolates in order to carry out other studies with bacteria, fungi and insects. extracts from these isolates were obtained. the extracts were tested for anti ...200212828512
a selective medium for quantitative reisolation of trichoderma harzianum from agaricus bisporus compost.we adapted a selective medium, previously developed for reisolation of trichoderma spp. from soil, for quantitative determination of growth of t. harzianum from commercial agaricus bisporus composts. this medium enables comparisons of aggressive (sensu inhibition of a. bisporus yield) with nonaggressive t. harzianum groups. the resulting medium contains the antimicrobials chloramphenicol, streptomycin, quintozene, and propamocarb and was highly selective, allowing the recovery of t. harzianum, a ...200312839798
saprotrophic and mycoparasitic components of aggressiveness of trichoderma harzianum groups toward the commercial mushroom agaricus bisporus.we examined the mycoparasitic and saprotrophic behavior of isolates representing groups of trichoderma harzianum to establish a mechanism for the aggressiveness towards agaricus bisporus in infested commercial compost. mycoparasitic structures were infrequently observed in interaction zones on various media, including compost, with cryoscanning electron microscopy. t. harzianum grows prolifically in compost in the absence or presence of a. bisporus, and the aggressive european (th2) and north am ...200312839799
structure of dried cellular alginate matrix containing fillers provides extra protection for microorganisms against uvc radiation.soil microorganisms in general and biocontrol agents in particular are very sensitive to uv light. the packaging of biocontrol microorganisms into cellular solids has been developed as a means of reducing loss caused by exposure to environmental uv radiation. the bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents pantoea agglomerans and trichoderma harzianum were immobilized in freeze-dried alginate beads containing fillers and subjected to 254 nm uv radiation (uvc). immobilization of cells in freeze-dried ...200312859230
investigating the role of a verticillium fungicola beta-1,6-glucanase during infection of agaricus bisporus using targeted gene disruption.studies on the mycopathogen verticillium fungicola have shown the up-regulation of beta-1,6-glucanases when grown in the presence of host cell walls and host cell wall components including chitin. these cell-wall-degrading enzymes are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenic ability of mycopathogens. a beta-1,6-glucanase gene, vfglu1, showing high similarity to beta-1,6-glucanase genes from hypocrea virens, neotyphodium sp., and trichoderma harzianum, was isolated using degenerate pcr from v ...200312892639
glucose uptake in trichoderma harzianum: role of gtt1.using a differential display technique, the gene gtt1, which codes for a high-affinity glucose transporter, has been cloned from the mycoparasite fungus trichoderma harzianum cect 2413. the deduced protein sequence of the gtt1 gene shows the 12 transmembrane domains typical of sugar transporters, together with certain residues involved in glucose uptake, such as a conserved arginine between domains iv and v and an aromatic residue (phe) in the sequence of domain x. the gtt1 gene is transcription ...200312912890
fungal proteomics: mapping the mitochondrial proteins of a trichoderma harzianum strain applied for biological control.mitochondria are essential for cellular functions across organisms. a proteomic approach was taken to separate and identify mitochondrial proteins from a strain of trichoderma harzianum with well established biocontrol properties. we optimized a method for the preparation of a sample enriched with mitochondria by ensuring efficient cell lysis and including several washing steps to minimize cytoplasmic contamination. we separated hundreds of proteins, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ...200414652694
purification and characterization of an n-acetylglucosaminidase produced by a trichoderma harzianum strain which controls crinipellis perniciosa.isolate 1051 of trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus, was found to impair development of the phytopathogen, crinipellis perniciosa, in the field. this trichoderma strain growing in liquid medium containing chitin produced substantial amounts of chitinases. the n-acetylglucosaminidase present in the culture-supernatant was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, as demonstrated by sds-page analysis. the enzyme had a molecular mass of 36 kda a ...200414673545
fungal proteomics: initial mapping of biological control strain trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a soil-borne filamentous fungus that exhibits biological control properties. t. harzianum can prevent the growth of pathogenic fungi on many types of plant crops, providing a chemically benign alternative to fungicidal agents currently on the market. a proteomic approach was taken to separate and identify proteins from a strain of t. harzianum with well established biocontrol properties. we developed a method of extracting proteins under acidic conditions that increased ...200414685766
formation and regeneration of protoplasts in sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126.different cultural conditions for forming and reverting protoplasts were systematically studied to establish a rapid and efficient protocol for sclerotium rolfsii atcc 201126.200414723686
a putative high affinity hexose transporter, hxta, of aspergillus nidulans is induced in vegetative hyphae upon starvation and in ascogenous hyphae during cleistothecium formation.fungi employ different carbohydrate uptake systems to adapt to certain environmental conditions and to different carbon source concentrations. the hydrolysis of polymeric carbohydrates and the subsequent uptake of monomeric forms may also play a role in development. aspergillus nidulans accumulates cell wall components during vegetative growth and degrades them during sexual development. we have identified the hxta (high affinity hexose transporter) gene in a differential library, which was enri ...200414732261
increased antifungal and chitinase specific activities of trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 by addition of a cellulose binding domain.trichoderma harzianum is a widely distributed soil fungus that antagonizes numerous fungal phytopathogens. the antagonism of t. harzianum usually correlates with the production of antifungal activities including the secretion of fungal cell walls that degrade enzymes such as chitinases. chitinases chit42 and chit33 from t. harzianum cect 2413, which lack a chitin-binding domain, are considered to play an important role in the biocontrol activity of this strain against plant pathogens. by adding ...200414740190
enhanced secretion of bacillus stearothermophilus l1 lipase in saccharomyces cerevisiae by translational fusion to cellulose-binding domain.the secretion of bacillus stearothermophilus l1 lipase in saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by employing a fusion partner, a cellulose-binding domain (cbd) from trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase ii (theg). the cbd was connected to the n-terminal of l1 lipase through an endogenous linker peptide from theg. the expression cassette for the fusion protein in s. cerevisiae was constructed using the alpha-amylase signal peptide and the galactose-inducible gal10 promoter. secretion of cbd-lin ...200414740195
trichoderma harzianum enhances the production of nematicidal compounds in vitro and improves biocontrol of meloidogyne javanica by pseudomonas fluorescens in determine the influence of soil-borne fungus trichoderma harzianum on the biocontrol performance of pseudomonas fluorescens strain cha0 and its 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg) overproducing derivative cha0/pme3424 against meloidogyne javanica.200414746551
production and characterization of hemicellulase activities from trichoderma harzianum strain t4.xylan and mannan are the major constituent groups of hemicellulose in the cell wall of higher plants. the mesophilic fungus trichoderma harzianum strain t4 produces extracellular xylanase and mannanase activities when grown in the presence of oat (avena sativa)-spelt xylan and wheat bran as the carbon sources respectively. after the growth procedure, the crude extracts were submitted to ultrafiltration in an amicon system fitted with a 10 kda-cut-off membrane. mannanase activity was only detecte ...200414763904
extracellular chitinase production by trichoderma harzianum in submerged fermentation.extra-cellular chitinase production by a chitinolytic fungus trichoderma harzianum tubf 966 using submerged fermentation was studied. colloidal chitin (1.5% w/v) was used as sole carbon source. maximum chitinase production (14.7 u/ml) was obtained when fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees c for 96 h using 72 h old mycelium in a medium containing colloidal chitin 1.5% (w/v) as carbon source and 0.42 (% w/v) peptone as nitrogen source (ph 5.5). supplementation of additional carbon sources (0 ...200414768028
the north american mushroom competitor, trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum, produces antifungal compounds in mushroom compost that inhibit mycelial growth of the commercial mushroom agaricus bisporus.trichoderma harzianum is a ubiquitously distributed asexual soil fungus that produces a variety of antibiotic compounds. colonisation of soil inhabited by competing microbiota is facilitated by the antibiotic activity of these compounds. in addition, t. harzianum produces hydrolytic enzymes that degrade the cell wall components of many microorganisms, which can then be used as a source of nutrients. recently, biotypes of t. harzianum differing morphologically from those originally described by r ...200315000247
quantitative characterisation of the morphology of trichoderma harzianum cultured in shake-flasks and containing tween 40.image analysis was used to measure the effect of tween 40 on the morphology of trichoderma harzianum. the percentage of pellets was maximal (93%) with tween at 0.2 ml l(-1), whereas the maximal proportion of dispersed mycelia (40%) was with tween at 1.6 ml l(-1). the particle median diameter decreased from 2 to 0.5 mm as tween concentration was increased and was inversely correlated to the biomass dry weight. adding pre-determined aliquots of tween 40 to the culture medium can be used to define ...200415005150
an immunological approach to quantifying the saprotrophic growth dynamics of trichoderma species during antagonistic interactions with rhizoctonia solani in a soil-less mix.studies of the saprotrophic growth dynamics of trichoderma species and their fungal hosts during antagonistic interactions are severely hampered by the absence of methods that allow the unambiguous identification and quantification of individual genera in complex environments such as soil or compost containing mixed populations of fungi. furthermore, methods are required that allow discrimination between active hyphal growth and other components of fungal biomass such as quiescent spores that ar ...200415008811
[presearch on preventing the medicinal plant diseases with trichoderma harzianum preparation].to control the medicinal plant diseases with the preparation of trichoderma harzianum.200315015261
isolation and characterization of protease overproducing mutants of trichoderma harzianum.several trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes is considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. strain trichoderma harzianum t334 is a potential biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic fungi with the ability to produce low levels of proteases constitutively. to improve its fungal antagonistic capacity, mutagenetic program was undertaken for the construction of protease overproduc ...200415063489
observation of protoplasts from the conidia of arthrinium aureum by scanning electron microscopy.protoplast formation from conidia of arthrinium aureum was achieved with lysing enzyme l-2265 (sigma chemical) from trichoderma harzianum. scanning electron microscopy of conidia protoplasts showed the acquired spherical shape.200415119853
phenylpropanoids, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidases in elicitor-challenged cassava (manihot esculenta) suspension cells and leaves.control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. the aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components.200415145789
evaluation of trichoderma spp. for biocontrol of tomato sudden caused by pythium aphanidermatum following flooding in tropical hot season.tomato sudden death is a major problem in tomato production in tropical lowland areas. the plant wilts and dies following artificial or natural flooding for 48-72 hrs in the summer season. occurrence of this disease is related to aggressiveness of pythium aphanidermatum on tomato at high soil temperature (>30 degrees c). several methods such as using biological control agents, fungicides and other cultural practices were applied in attempts to control tomato sudden death. three trichoderma harzi ...200315151279
isolation and characterization of pra1, a trypsin-like protease from the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 displaying nematicidal activity.mycoparasitic trichoderma strains secrete a complex set of hydrolytic enzymes under conditions related to antagonism. several proteins with proteolytic activity were detected in culture filtrates from t. harzianum cect 2413 grown in fungal cell walls or chitin and the protein responsible for the main activity (pra1) was purified to homogeneity. the enzyme was monomeric, its estimated molecular mass was 28 kda (sds-page), and its isoelectric point 4.7-4.9. the substrate specificity and inhibition ...200415221228
differential recognition of animal type beta4-galactosylated and alpha3-fucosylated chito-oligosaccharides by two family 18 chitinases from trichoderma harzianum.we report the purification of two glycosyl hydrolase family 18 chitinases, chit33 and chit42, from the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum and characterization using a panel of different soluble chitinous substrates and inhibitors. we were particularly interested in the potential of these (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel fold enzymes to recognize beta-1,4-galactosylated and alpha-1,3-fucosylated oligosaccharides, which are animal-type saccharides of medical relevance. three-dimensional structural mod ...200415229194
molecular cloning and characterization of a cdna encoding the n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase homologue of paracoccidioides brasiliensis.a cdna encoding the n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (nag) protein of paracoccidioides brasiliensis, pb nag1, was cloned and characterized. the 2663-nucleotide sequence of the cdna consisted of a single open reading frame encoding a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 64.73 kda and an isoeletric point of 6.35. the predicted protein includes a putative 30-amino-acid signal peptide. the protein as a whole shares considerable sequence similarity with 'classic' nag. the primary sequence of pb ...200415283239
biological effects of trichoderma harzianum peptaibols on mammalian cells.trichoderma species isolated from water-damaged buildings were screened for toxicity by using boar sperm cells as indicator cells. the crude methanolic cell extract from trichoderma harzianum strain es39 inhibited the boar sperm cell motility at a low exposure concentration (50% effective concentration, 1 to 5 microg [dry weight] ml of extended boar semen(-1)). the same exposure concentration depleted the boar sperm cells of nadh(2). inspection of the exposed boar sperm cells by transmission ele ...200415294840
behaviour of the hyphae of laccaria laccata in the presence of trichoderma harzianum in vitro.the growth rate and the behaviour of laccaria laccata and trichoderma harzianum hyphae in co-culture and in the rhizosphere of 3-month-old pinus sylvestris seedlings grown in vitro were investigated. in the interaction zone, hyphae of l. laccata became more pigmented and formed short branches growing towards the hyphae of the saprobic fungus, coiled around them and penetrated sporadically. vacuolated hyphae of t. harzianum showed protoplasm granulation and breaks in walls followed by release of ...200415322966
regulation of n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase produced by trichoderma harzianum: evidence that camp controls its expression.trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus reported to be a producer of extracellular n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (nagase) when grown in chitin-containing medium. an approximately 64-kda protein with nagase activity was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. the involvement of cyclic amp (camp) in the synthesis of nagase from t. harzianum in chitin-containing medium was also investigated. molecules that increase the intracellular levels of camp, including caffeine, al ...200415380555
development of selective media for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from soil and plant debris.a new semi-selective medium, acidified weak potato-dextrose agar (awpda) with mertect (active ingredient: thiabendazole), was developed for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from samples of soil and plant debris. the medium was selected based on growth inhibition tests against alternaria and several other commonly encountered saprobic fungi utilizing three antifungal agents, botran (active ingredient: dichloran), bayleton (active ingredient: triadimefon), and mertect, and two b ...200415381969
effect of treatment with trichoderma harzianum rifai formulated in invert emulsion on postharvest decay of apple blue mold.conidia of trichoderma harzianum were formulated in invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) at a concentration of 6.0 x 10(7) conidia/ml of the formulation. treatments with conidia in the formulated emulsion and conidia in sterile distilled water were conducted to assess the effect on penicillium expansum link inoculated on apple fruits. comparisons were made with control treatments of an uninoculated emulsion and uninoculated distilled water. the t. harzianum-containing emulsion significantly (p <o ...200415454318
evaluation of solid-state bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge as a promising environmental-friendly disposal technique.natural and environmental-friendly disposal of wastewater sludge is a great concern. recently, biological treatment has played prominent roles in bioremediation of complex hydrocarbon- rich contaminants. composting is quite an old biological-based process that is being practiced but it could not create a great impact in the minds of concerned researchers. the present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the solid-state bioconversion (ssb) processes in the biodegradation of wastewat ...200415491662
[biological properties of l-lysine alpha-oxidase in native and conjugated form].the significant difference between biological properties of l-lysine-alpha-oxidase from trichoderma harzianum rifai (lo) and l-asparaginase from e. coli has been observed in vitro and in vivo. high antitumor activity was shown against 8 types of murine and rat transplanted tumors with a wide range of lo therapeutic doses: 35-350 u/mg. the lo conjugates with monoclonal antibodies cd5 specific to the surface of cell line yurkat were obtained without significant loss of either enzymatic and cytotox ...200415518184
rhizoctonia solani, an elicitor of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone production by trichoderma harzianum in a two liquid phases, extractive fermentation system.6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone (6pp) production by trichoderma harzianum, in an extractive fermentation system, was elicitated by rhizoctonia solani. the extent of 6pp elicitation was related to the state of rhizoctonia and to the trichoderma inoculum type. the use of non-viable rhizoctonia solani mycelium in mycelium-inoculated trichoderma harzianum culture, yielded the maximal 6pp production (474 mg l(-1)) compared to control cultures (147 mg l(-1)) and decreased the process time from 192 to 96 h.200415604771
arbuscular mycorrhiza and collembola interact in affecting community composition of saprotrophic microfungi.the functioning of the plant-mycorrhiza system depends on interactions with other organisms, including saprotrophic (st) soil fungi. the interactions between mycorrhizal and st fungi are likely affected by fungivorous soil animals, such as collembola. in a two-factorial laboratory experiment lasting for 30 weeks we assessed the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (glomus mosseae) and collembola (protaphorura fimata, heteromurus nitidus and folsomia candida) on the community composition o ...200515619097
cloning of beauveria bassiana chitinase gene bbchit1 and its application to improve fungal strain virulence.entomopathogenic fungi can produce a series of chitinases, some of which act synergistically with proteases to degrade insect cuticle. however, chitinase involvement in insect fungus pathogenesis has not been fully characterized. in this paper, an endochitinase, bbchit1, was purified to homogeneity from liquid cultures of beauveria bassiana grown in a medium containing colloidal chitin. bbchit1 had a molecular mass of about 33 kda and pi of 5.4. based on the n-terminal amino acid sequence, the c ...200515640210
specific pcr assays for the detection and quantification of dna from the biocontrol strain trichoderma harzianum 2413 in soil.strain identification in situ is an important factor in the monitoring of microorganisms used in the field. in this study, we demonstrated the use of sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) markers to detect genomic dna from trichoderma harzianum 2413 from soil. two primers (scar a1/scar a1c) were tested against dna of 27 isolates of trichoderma spp. and amplified a 990-bp fragment from t. atroviride 11 and a 1.5-kb fragment from t. harzianum 2413, using an annealing temperature of 68 deg ...200515688256
modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds.the effect of ethanol (e) on the radial growth rate (mu) of food spoilage moulds (aspergillus candidus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, cladosporium cladosporioides, eurotium herbariorum, mucor circinelloides, mucor racemosus, paecilomyces variotii, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium digitatum, rhizopus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum) was assessed in potato dextrose agar (pda) medium at a(w) 0.99, 25 degrees c. in order to model this effect, the monod type equation described previousl ...200515698687
the heterotrimeric g-protein subunits gng-1 and gnb-1 form a gbetagamma dimer required for normal female fertility, asexual development, and galpha protein levels in neurospora crassa.we have identified a gene encoding a heterotrimeric g protein gamma subunit, gng-1, from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. gng-1 possesses a gene structure similar to that of mammalian ggamma genes, consisting of three exons and two introns, with introns present in both the open reading frame and 5'-untranslated region. the gng-1 amino acid sequence displays high identity to predicted ggamma subunits from other filamentous fungi, including giberella zeae, cryphonectria parasitica, tricho ...200515701799
enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.basal stem rot (bsr) disease caused by ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in indonesia and malaysia. the available control measures for bsr disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. alternative control measures to overcome the ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biologi ...200515750748
biocontrol agents of botrytis cinerea tested in climate chambers by making artificial infection on tomato reduce the use of chemical agents, that are causing damage to the environment, in the fight against botrytis cinerea, different bca's were tested for their possibility to control botrytis cinerea in a biological way. in order to investigate the effectiveness of the different micro organisms and elot-vis, experiments were carried out in climate chambers with 5 weeks old tomato plants. leafs on the plant were inoculated with drops of a suspension that contained spores of botrytis cinerea. the p ...200415756850
[improvement of trichoderma strains for biocontrol].the use of the fungal genus trichoderma to control fungal plant diseases is a promising alternative to the use of chemical compounds. the aim of this work has been to obtain trichoderma strains with improved capacity as biological control agents. to do so, the hydrolytic capacity on fungal cell walls of strains of the fungus trichoderma harzianum has been increased. on one hand, transformation experiments with genes which coded for chitinases and glucanases have been carried out in t. harzianums ...200015762779
identification of genes with a biocontrol function in trichoderma harzianum mycelium using the expressed sequence tag approach.species of trichoderma are commercially applied as biological control agents against plant fungal pathogens based on different mechanisms, such as the production of antifungal metabolites, competition for space and nutrients and mycoparasitism. but the integrated biocontrol mechanism of trichoderma harzianum is not well explored at the genetic level. this study aimed to initiate the preliminary development of an expressed sequence tag (est) database for t. harzianum and thereby gain potentially ...200515808946
the use of wavelength-selective plastic cladding materials in horticulture: understanding of crop and fungal responses through the assessment of biological spectral weighting functions.plant responses to light spectral quality can be exploited to deliver a range of agronomically desirable end points in protected crops. this can be achieved using plastics with specific spectral properties as crop covers. we have studied the responses of a range of crops to plastics that have either (a) increased transmission of uv compared with standard horticultural covers, (b) decreased transmission of uv or (c) increased the ratio of red (r) : far-red (fr) radiation. both the uv-transparent ...200515819600
antifungal properties of surangin b, a coumarin from mammea longifolia.the natural product electron transport inhibitor surangin b was examined for its ability to inhibit in vitro mycelial growth and spore germination in several species of fungi. as an inhibitor of mycelial growth, surangin b showed strongest activity against rhizoctonia solani (ic50 = 3.8 microm) and botrytis cinerea (ic50 = 11.2 microm). inhibitory effects were less pronounced in alternaria dauci, fusarium oxysporum and penicillium sp. (ic50 values > 30 microm) and absent in trichoderma harzianum ...200515856416
6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone production by trichoderma harzianum: the influence of energy dissipation rate and its implications on fungal physiology.the influence of the agitation conditions on biomass growth, morphology, carbon metabolism, viability, and 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone (6pp) production by trichoderma harzianum were studied in an extractive fermentation system. batch spore-inoculated cultures developed at dissolved oxygen concentrations above 35% of air saturation were carried out in a 14 l bioreactor. the effect of energy dissipation rate over culture performance was assessed using two sets of three rushton turbines (having different ...200515880469
tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities of trichoderma spp. in relation to p uptake and growth and yield parameters of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.).nine isolates of trichoderma spp. were investigated for their ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate in pikovskaya's broth and were compared with an efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacterium bacillus megaterium subsp. phospaticum pb that was used as the reference strain. all 9 trichoderma isolates were found to solubilize insoluble tricalcium phosphate to various extents. trichoderma viride (tv 97) (9.03 microg x ml(-1)), trichoderma virens (pdbctvs 12) (9.0 microg x ml(-1)), and trichoderma ...200515920619
double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds: exposure system and clinical results.the objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (brs) at work. from three water-damaged schools eight employees with a positive histamine release test to penicillium chrysogenum were exposed double- blinded to either placebo, approximately 600,000 spores/m3 air of p. chrysogenum or approximately 350,000 spores/m3 of tri ...200515926947
post-transcriptional control of a glucoamylase gene from trichoderma harzianum under stress conditions.we have examined the regulation of trichoderma harzianum glucoamylase gene (gla66) in response to different growth conditions. transcription of the gla66 gene is initiated from two different sites, yielding two transcripts of 2.1 kb and 2.6 kb respectively. the 2.1 kb mrna (st) encodes for an extracellular glucoamylase of 66 kda. this protein shows the domains conserved in other fungal glucoamylases: a signal peptide responsible for protein secretion and a catalytic domain, both joined by a link ...200515948964
bgn16.3, a novel acidic beta-1,6-glucanase from mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum cect 2413.a new component of the beta-1,6-glucanase (ec multienzymatic complex secreted by trichoderma harzianum has been identified and fully characterized. the protein, namely bgn16.3, is the third isozyme displaying endo-beta-1,6-glucanase activity described up to now in t. harzianum cect 2413. bgn16.3 is an acidic beta-1,6-glucanase that is specifically induced by the presence of fungal cell walls in t. harzianum growth media. the protein was purified to electrophoretical homogenity using it ...200515982190
[cloning and expression in yeasts of the class v chitinase cdna gene from trichoderma harzianum].to explore the integrated bio-control mechanism of trichoderma harzianum and acquire some bio-control associated novel genes, a trichoderma harzianum mycelium cdna library has been constructed and thereby randomly selected clones were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. full-length cdna, encoding class v chitinase (chiv), successfully cloned. the results indicated that the orf of chiv was 1194 bp, encoding 397 aa, deduced molecular weight 44 kd. the gene was ligated to the vector ...200515989271
studies on the management of root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, vigna radiata cv ml-1108.studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, vigna radiata cv ml-1108. all the treatments significantly improved ...200516052706
in-vessel composting of household wastes.the process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. a lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (trichoderma viridae, trichoderma harzianum, trichorus spirallis, aspergillus sp., paecilomyces fusisporus, chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mix ...200616153815
microbial synthesis of chitinase in solid cultures and its potential as a biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.antifungal activity of chitinase can be effectively utilized in biologic pest control strategies. because solid-state cultivation has been termed a cost-effective means for fungal growth and metabolite production, chitinase production by trichoderma harzianum was studied using wheat bran-based solid medium containing 1% colloidal chitin. chitinase synthesis was found to be growth associated because maximum enzyme (5.4 u/g of dry substrate) and biomass production occurred at 72 h. substrate moist ...200516186619
fungal solid state culture of palm kernel cake.palm kernel cake (pkc), an agro-industrial by-product used extensively in the animal feed industry, has limited use in fish feeds due to its high fiber and low protein contents. in this study, pkc was processed under solid state culture conditions with five fungal strains and the effect of this fungal culturing on the amino acid, fatty acid, cellulose and hemicellulose fractions was evaluated. fungal strains used were sclerotium rolfsii, trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma longiobrachiatum, trich ...200616216731
proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from trichoderma harzianum. identification of a fungal cell wall-induced aspartic protease.trichoderma mycoparasitic activity depends on the secretion of complex mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes able to degrade the host cell wall. we have analysed the extracellular proteome secreted by t. harzianum cect 2413 in the presence of different fungal cell walls. significant differences were detected in 2de maps, depending on the use of specific cell walls or chitin. a combination of maldi-tof and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry allowed the identification of a novel aspartic protease (p ...200516226906
purification and properties of extracellular chitinases from the parasitic fungus isaria japonica.two chitinases (p-1 and p-2) induced with colloidal chitin were purified from the culture supernatant of isaria japonica by chromatography on deae bio-gel, chromatofocusing and gel filtration with superdex 75 pg. the enzymes were electrophoretically homogeneous and estimated to have a molecular mass of 43,273 (+/-5) for p-1 and 31,134 (+/-6) for p-2 by maldi-ms. the optimum ph and temperature was 3.5-4.0 and 50 degrees c for p-1 and 4.0-4.5 and 40 degrees c for p-2. p-1 acted against chitosan 7b ...200116233143
in vitro studies on the potential for biological control of aspergillus flavus and fusarium moniliforme by trichoderma species. a study of the production of extracellular metabolites by trichoderma species.culture filtrates of trichoderma viride and trichoderma harzianum were inhibitory of fusarium moniliforme and, to a lesser extent, aspergillus flavus. the degree of inhibition was, however, dependent on the carbon or nitrogen source incorporated into the medium. scanning electron microscopy revealed the development of abnormal fruiting structures on exposure to some trichoderma culture filtrate, while macroscopically, growth restriction and, in the case of a. flavus, altered colony colouration w ...199716284721
biological control of sclerotinia sclerotiorum attacking soybean plants. degradation of the cell walls of this pathogen by trichoderma harzianum (bafc 742). biological control of sclerotinia sclerotiorum by trichoderma harzianum.two experiments of biological control of sclerotinia sclerotiorum, one in the greenhouse and the other in the field, were carried out with soybean and trichoderma harzianum as host and antagonist, respectively. significant control of disease was achieved in both experiments, but there were no significant differences in plant growths. in the greenhouse, the application of t. harzianum as alginate capsules, increased the survival of soybean plants more than 100% with respect to the disease treatme ...199816284851
self-fusion of protoplasts enhances chitinase production and biocontrol activity in trichoderma harzianum.protoplasts were isolated from trichoderma harzianum strain pth18 using lysing enzymes and self-fusion of t. harzianum protoplasts was carried out using polyethylene glycol in stc buffer. the fused protoplasts of t. harzianum were regenerated and 15 self-fusants were selected to study the chitinase production and biocontrol activity. high chitinase activity was measured in the culture filtrates of most of the self-fusants (87%) than the parent. among the fusants, the strain sfth8 produced maximu ...200616330207
transfer of isolated nuclei into protoplasts of trichoderma harzianum.protoplasts released from young hyphae of trichoderma harzianum contained 0 to 10 nuclei per protoplast, and most (about 80%) contained from 4 to 6 nuclei. most protoplasts were larger than 3 mum in diameter. nuclei were isolated from protoplasts of an auxotrophic mutant of t. harzianum and transferred into protoplasts obtained from another auxotroph of the same strain. this intrastrain nuclear transfer gave rise to numerous progeny which were stable, prototrophic, and heterokaryotic. interstrai ...199016348255
method to enhance growth and sporulation of pelletized biocontrol fungi.the biocontrol fungi trichoderma harzianum, used to control soilborne plant pathogens, and beauveria bassiana, used to control insect pests, were formulated as mycelial biomass in alginate pellets with wheat bran added. after drying for 0, 4, or 16 h, pellets were placed in water or in aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (peg) 8000 for 4 to 24 h and then allowed to continue drying. peg-treated pellets containing t. harzianum showed significantly greater proliferation of hyphae in soil than ...199116348562
metabolism of linoleic acid or mevalonate and 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone biosynthesis by trichoderma species.the understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone in trichoderma species was achieved by using labelled linoleic acid or mevalonate as a tracer. incubation of growing cultures of trichoderma harzianum and t. viride with [u-c]linoleic acid or [5-c]sodium mevalonate revealed that both fungal strains were able to incorporate these labelled compounds (50 and 15%, respectively). most intracellular radioactivity was found in the neutral lipid fraction. at the initial time of incub ...199316349040
analysis of the beta-1,3-glucanolytic system of the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum.the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum imi206040 secretes beta-1,3-glucanases in the presence of different glucose polymers and fungal cell walls. the level of beta-1,3-glucanase activity secreted was found to be proportional to the amount of glucan present in the inducer. the fungus produces at least seven extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases upon induction with laminarin, a soluble beta-1,3-glucan. the molecular weights of five of these enzymes fall in the range from 60,000 to 80,000, and the ...199816349547
synthesis of enzymes connected with mycoparasitism by ectomycorrhizal fungi.the production of enzymes involved in mycoparasitism by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi: amanita muscaria (16-3), laccaria laccata (9-12), l. laccata (9-1), suillus bovinus (15-4), s. bovinus (15-3), s. luteus (14-7) on different substrates such as colloidal chitin, mycelia of trichoderma harzianum, t. virens and mucor hiemalis was examined. chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were assayed spectrophotometrically by measuring the amount of reducing sugars releasing from suitable substrate ...200616395555
thptr2, a di/tri-peptide transporter gene from trichoderma harzianum.the generation of a wide ests library and database from trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 was the base for identifying the gene thptr2, coding for a ptr family di/tri-peptide transporter. the deduced protein sequence of the thptr2 gene showed the conserved motifs and also the 12 transmembrane domains typical of the ptr transporters. the highest level of thptr2 expression was found when the fungus was grown in chitin as sole carbon source. we also found that thptr2 expression was increased when tri ...200616466953
cloning and characterization of the erg1 gene of trichoderma harzianum: effect of the erg1 silencing on ergosterol biosynthesis and resistance to terbinafine.trichoderma species are commonly used as biocontrol agents of different plant-pathogenic fungi. terpene compounds are involved in the biocontrol process due to their antifungal properties (e.g., ergokonins and viridins) but additionally their structural function in the cell membranes (ergosterol) is essential. we report here the characterization of the t. harzianum erg1 gene, encoding a squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of triterpene derivatives such as ergosterol. in t. harzi ...200616466954
variability of non-mutualistic filamentous fungi associated with atta sexdens rubropilosa nests.a survey of the filamentous fungi other than the symbiotic one found in association with atta sexdens rubropilosa colonies was carried out. different fungal species (27 taxa) were isolated a few days after treating the workers with toxic baits (sulfluramid; mirex-s), from 40 laboratory and 20 field nests. syncephalastrum racemosum (54%) and escovopsis weberi (21%), trichoderma harzianum (38%) and fusarium oxysporum (23%) were the prevalent species in laboratory and field nests, respectively. acr ...200516475502
effect of substrates on growth and shelf life of trichoderma harzianum and its use in biocontrol of diseases.a study on the effect of different agrowastes on the population density and shelf life of trichoderma harzianum indicated that all the substrates showed effective propagation of t. harzianum; however, the population count after 30 days was maximum in used tea leaves (8 x 10(8) cfu/g) and shelf life was found to be maximum (2.9 x 10(5) cfu/g after 210 days) in wheat bran-sawdust. the application of these formulations on chickpea and groundnut plants significantly reduced the percent mortality due ...200716495048
[biological preparations with different mechanism of action for protecting potato against fungal diseases].mycological analysis throughout the vegetation period of potato (solanum tuberosum) made it possible to study in detail the structure of micromycete community, to determine typical dominant (frequency, more than 60%), typical common (frequency, 30 to 60%), typical rare (frequency, 10 to 30%), and casual (frequency, less than 10%) species and to estimate changes in the microorganism community caused by plant protection preparations with different mechanisms of action. it was shown that, as a resu ...200616521583
characterization and ultrastructural localization of chitinases from metarhizium anisopliae, m. flavoviride, and beauveria bassiana during fungal invasion of host (manduca sexta) cuticle.extracellular chitinases have been suggested to be virulence factors in fungal entomopathogenicity. we employed isoelectric focusing and a set of three fluorescent substrates to investigate the numbers and types of chitinolytic enzymes produced by the entomopathogenic fungi metarhizium anisopliae, metarhizium flavoviride, and beauveria bassiana. each species produced a variety of n-acetyl-(beta)-d-glucosaminidases and endochitinases during growth in media containing insect cuticle. m. flavovirid ...199616535278
enhanced expression of endochitinase in trichoderma harzianum with the cbh1 promoter of trichoderma reesei.production of extracellular endochitinase could be increased 5-fold in the mycoparasite fungus trichoderma harzianum by using the cellulase promoter cbh1 of trichoderma reesei, whereas the total endochitinase activity increased 10-fold. the cbh1 promoter was not expressed on glucose and sucrose in t. harzianum and was induced by sophorose and on cellulase-inducing medium. the endogenous endochitinase gene was expressed at a low basal level on glucose and sucrose. no specific induction by crab sh ...199616535342
cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between trichoderma harzianum and pythium ultimum.the interaction between trichoderma harzianum and the soilborne plant pathogen pythium ultimum was studied by electron microscopy and further investigated by gold cytochemistry. early contact between the two fungi was accompanied by the abnormal deposition of a cellulose-enriched material at sites of potential antagonist penetration. the antagonist displayed the ability to penetrate this barrier, indicating that cellulolytic enzymes were produced. however, the presence of cellulose in the walls ...199716535619
modified cryptochrome in vivo absorption in dim photosporulation mutants of trichoderma.mutants of trichoderma harzianum that are defective in blue-light-induced sporulation were induced by nutritional stresses as an alternative to light. these mutants may be modified in the putative photoreceptor pigment "cryptochrome" or in an early transduction component. dim (dimsighted) mutants induced by a short transient stress were mapped into four complementation groups and were chosen for study of pigment deficiencies by in vivo absorption spectroscopy. mutants rib(-)10 and lys(-)44 in th ...198516593557
improved 2-de of microorganisms after acidic extraction.2-de separations of protein extracts sometimes have problems with poor resolution and streaking. this problem is particularly apparent with microorganisms, most notably those with a large cell wall. here we describe a novel, rapid protocol for the extraction of microorganisms in acidic conditions, leading to increased resolution and 2-d gel quality. the efficiency of the protocol is demonstrated with extracts of bacteria, escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis; fungus, trichoderma harzianum and ...200616609937
[a study of the physicochemical and biological properties of mutanase from trichoderma harzianum].to determine the physicochemical properties of the mutanase of trichoderma harzianum isolated from china and to study the influence of mutanase on the adherence of oral streptococci and the structure of oral biofilms.200616620625
biological protection of the main cereals against fungal specific diseases.our field experiments showed that the use of czech biopreparations (supresivit, ibefungin and polyversum) based on the following microorganisms: trichoderma harzianum, bacillus subtilts and pythium oligandrum applied as the seed treatment, the spray on the plants and like the mixture with mineral fertilizers (npk, ammonium sulphate) lead namely after the seed-treatment and after the application as the mixture with mineral fertilizers to the increasing of the yield about 3-5 % (spring barley, win ...200516637172
biotic relation between fusarium oxysporum schlecht. and fungi isolated from the substrate of stewartia pseudocamellia (max.).the effect of the fungi community colonizing the substrate of stewartia plants on the growth of fusarium oxysporum schlecht. was investigated. the soil samples from 2 years old stewartia cuttings were taken for analysis in the second decade of october 2002 and 2003, when the symptoms of disease appeared on stewartia plant. fungi were isolated from the substrate using the sand method (mańka k. 1974). fusarium oxysporum were isolated from root system of stewartia pseudocamellia plant. the isolates ...200516637175
enhancement of mutanase production in trichoderma harzianumby mutagenesis.conidia of trichoderma harzianum f-340, an active producer of fungal mutanase, were mutagenized with physical and chemical mutagens used separately or in combination. after mutagenesis, the drop in conidia viability ranged from 0.004% to 71%. among the applied mutagens, nitrosoguanidine gave the highest frequency of cultures with enhanced mutanase activity (98%). in total, 400 clones were isolated, and preliminarily evaluated for mutanase activity in flask microcultures. eight most productive mu ...200616646531
electric currents around growing trichoderma hyphae, before and after photoinduction of conidiation.electric currents were measured around trichoderma harzianum (rifai) hyphae using an extracellular vibrating electrode. a steady current enters growing hyphal tips and along the side of the apical millimeter. in addition, outward currents were detected at about one-ninth of the locations tested, 60 to 150 minutes after illumination but not in dark controls. this sporadic, localized outward current pattern might be an early biophysical response to blue light.198416663532
modified light-induced absorbance changes in dim y photoresponse mutants of trichoderma.a brief pulse of blue light induces the common soil fungus trichoderma harzianum to sporulate. photoresponse mutants with higher light requirements than the wild type are available, including one class, dim y, with modified absorption spectra. we found blue-light-induced absorbance changes in the blue region of the spectrum, in wild-type and dim y mutant strains. the light-minus-dark difference spectra of the wild type and of several other strains indicate photoreduction of flavins and cytochrom ...198616664892
acifluorfen enhancement of cryptochrome-modulated sporulation following an inductive light pulse.acifluorfen enhancement of blue-light mediated phototropism suggested that this diphenyl-ether herbicide augments the light reaction (ty leong, wr briggs 1983 plant physiol 70: 875-881). the separation of the possible direct interaction of acifluorfen with light reactions from interactions with dark pathways has been elucidated in this paper with trichoderma harzianum. acifluorfen at 30 micromolar, given for 5 hours in the growth medium, stimulated the conidiation of trichoderma in response to b ...198716665207
effects of fungal interaction on ochratoxin a production by a. carbonarius at different temperatures and a(w).ochratoxin a is a well-known mycotoxin produced by species of the genera penicillium and aspergillus. ota-producing species from a. section nigri are considered the source of ota detected in grapes, dried vine fruits and wines. other fungi present in grapes during their maturation can grow and interact with ota-producing aspergillus species and affect ota production. in this study seven fungi (alternaria alternata, cladosporium herbarum, eurotium amstelodami, trichoderma harzianum, penicillium d ...200616735071
thhog1 controls the hyperosmotic stress response in trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a widespread mycoparasitic fungus, able to successfully colonize a wide range of substrates under different environmental conditions. transcript profiling revealed a subset of genes induced in t. harzianum under hyperosmotic shock. the hog1 gene, a homologue of the mapk hog1 gene that controls the hyperosmotic stress response in saccharomyces cerevisiae, was characterized. t. harzianum hog1 complemented the hog1delta mutation in s. cerevisiae, but showed different featur ...200616735732
an antifungal peptide from passion fruit (passiflora edulis) seeds with similarities to 2s albumin actual worldwide problem consists of an expressive increase of economic losses and health problems caused by fungi. in order to solve this problem, several studies have been concentrating on the screening of novel plant defence peptides with antifungal activities. these peptides are commonly characterized by having low molecular masses and cationic charges. this present work reports on the purification and characterization of a novel plant peptide of 5.0 kda, pe-afp1, purified from the seeds ...200616766236
mechanism of action of the endo-(1-->3)-alpha-glucanase mutap from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum.(1-->3)-alpha-glucanases catalyze the hydrolysis of fungal cell wall (1-->3)-alpha-glucan, and function during cell division of yeasts containing this cell wall component or act in mycoparasitic processes. here, we characterize the mechanism of action of the (1-->3)-alpha-glucanase mutap from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum. we observed that mutap releases predominantly beta-glucose upon hydrolysis of crystalline (1-->3)-alpha-glucan, indicating inversion of the anomeric configura ...200616780840
detection of peptaibols and partial cloning of a putative peptaibol synthetase gene from t. harzianum cect 2413.the characterization of 11- and 18-residue peptaibols (peptides synthesized by peptide synthetases) at trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 (a filamentous fungus) was performed. using a heterologous probe from tex1, the only peptaibol synthetase cloned and characterized so far in trichoderma species, was cloned; a region that comprised 11676 bp of a second peptide synthetase gene detected in these strain (called salps2) and sequenced. the deduced sequence of salps2 (3891 amino acids) contained three ...200616821720
major secondary metabolites produced by two commercial trichoderma strains active against different phytopathogens.trichoderma harzianum strains t22 and t39 are two micro-organisms used as active agents in a variety of commercial biopesticides and biofertilizers and widely applied amongst field and greenhouse crops. the production, isolation, biological and chemical characterization of the main secondary metabolites produced by these strains are investigated.200616869896
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