evaluation of fungal culture filtrate containing chitinase as a biocontrol agent against helicoverpa evaluate the biocontrol efficacy of culture filtrate containing chitinase from trichoderma harzianum against heliothis.200717953595
environmental dynamics of bacillus amyloliquefaciens ccmi 1051 antifungal activity under different nitrogen patterns.the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on the antifungal activity of the bacillus sp. ccmi 1053 cultures.200817953685
transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing chitinases of fungal origin show enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stress agents.genes encoding defense-related proteins have been used to alter the resistance of plants to pathogens and other environmental challenges, but no single fungal gene overexpression has produced broad-spectrum stress resistance in transgenic lines. we have generated transgenic tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) lines that overexpress the endochitinases chit33 and chit42 from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum and have evaluated their tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. both chit33 and chit ...200616891545
the logarithmic transformation should be avoided for stabilising the variance of mould growth rate.radial growth rate, micro (mm d(-1)) was evaluated by plotting the radius of the colony, r (mm) versus time (d) for alternaria alternata, aspergillus flavus, cladosporium cladosporioides, mucor racemosus, rhizopus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum at different t and a(w). for each of the 12 data sets, an analysis of variance of the raw growth rate data was performed. it was observed from the p-values that all square-root transformed values of micro were non-significant at the significance level a ...200818031858
heterologous expression and site-directed mutagenesis studies of two trichoderma harzianum chitinases, chit33 and chit42, in escherichia coli.heterologous expression of two fungal chitinases, chit33 and chit42, from trichoderma harzianum was tested in the different compartments and on the surface of escherichia coli cells. our goal was to find a fast and efficient expression system for protein engineering and directed evolution studies of the two fungal enzymes. cytoplasmic overexpression resulted in both cases in inclusion body formation, where active enzyme could be recovered after refolding. periplasmic expression of chit33, and es ...200716997574
role of bacillus spp. in antagonism between pleurotus ostreatus and trichoderma harzianum in heat-treated wheat-straw substrates.this study aimed to identify bacteria involved in trichodermaharzianum inhibition while promoting pleurotus ostreatus defences in order to favour cultivation-substrate selectivity for mushroom production. pcr-dgge profiles of total dna from wheat-straw substrate showed weak differences between bacterial communities from substrate inoculated with p. ostreatus with or without t. harzianum. the major cultivable bacteria were isolated from three batches of wheat-straw-based cultivation substrates sh ...200818295481
biological control of peach fungal pathogens by commercial products and indigenous yeasts.the potential use of the commercial biocontrol products serenade (bacillus subtilis qst-713) and trichodex (trichoderma harzianum rifai strain t39) to inhibit the postharvest pathogenic molds penicillium crustosum and mucor circinelloides was investigated. both products exhibited antagonistic activity in vitro against the pathogens, reducing their growth at different levels. in addition, epiphytic yeasts isolated from peaches were identified as candida maltosa, pichia fermentans, and pichia kluy ...200617066929
partial silencing of a hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coa reductase-encoding gene in trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 results in a lower level of resistance to lovastatin and lower antifungal the present article, we describe the cloning and characterization of the trichoderma harzianum hmgr gene encoding a hydroxymethylglutaryl coa reductase (hmgr), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of terpene compounds. in t. harzianum, partial silencing of the hmgr gene gave rise to transformants with a higher level of sensitivity to lovastatin, a competitive inhibitor of the hmgr enzyme. in addition, these hmgr-silenced transformants produced lower levels of ergosterol than the wild-type strain ...200717218128
biotic relation between fusarium oxysporum schlecht. and fungi isolated from the substrate of stewartia pseudocamellia (max.).the effect of the fungi community colonizing the substrate of stewartia plants on the growth of fusarium oxysporum schlecht. was investigated. the soil samples from 2 years old stewartia cuttings were taken for analysis in the second decade of october 2002 and 2003, when the symptoms of disease appeared on stewartia plant. fungi were isolated from the substrate using the sand method (mańka k. 1974). fusarium oxysporum were isolated from root system of stewartia pseudocamellia plant. the isolates ...200516637175
an antifungal peptide from passion fruit (passiflora edulis) seeds with similarities to 2s albumin actual worldwide problem consists of an expressive increase of economic losses and health problems caused by fungi. in order to solve this problem, several studies have been concentrating on the screening of novel plant defence peptides with antifungal activities. these peptides are commonly characterized by having low molecular masses and cationic charges. this present work reports on the purification and characterization of a novel plant peptide of 5.0 kda, pe-afp1, purified from the seeds ...200616766236
cloning and heterologous expression of aspartic protease sa76 related to biocontrol in trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a soil-borne filamentous fungus that exhibits biological control properties because it parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. the production of hydrolytic enzymes appears to be a key element in the parasitic process. among the enzymes released by trichoderma, the aspartic proteases play a major role. a gene (sa76) encoding an aspartic protease was cloned by 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends from t. harzianum t88. the coding region of the gene is 1,593 bp ...200718031337
desorption of zinc by extracellularly produced metabolites of trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma reesei and coriolus determine the role of fungal metabolites in the desorption of metals.200718045407
susceptibility of the ant-cultivated fungus leucoagaricus gongylophorus (agaricales: basidiomycota) towards microfungi.the aim of this study was to select virulent strains of microfungi against leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a symbiotic fungus cultivated by leaf-cutting ants. the results from in vitro assays showed that microfungal strains had a variable and significant impact on the colony development of l. gongylophorus. specifically, trichoderma harzianum, escovopsis weberi cbs 810.71 and e. weberi a088 were more effective, inhibiting the l. gongylophorus colonies by 75, 68 and 67%, respectively (p < 0.05) afte ...200616897590
biological control of botrytis gray mould on tomato cultivated in greenhouse.research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of the botrytis gray mould, caused by botrytis cinerea pers., one of the most important fungal diseases of the tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.). biological control was performed by using trichoderma harzianum rifai, an antagonist that is a naturally occurring fungus found on some plants and in the soil worldwide. trichoderma spp. are fungi diffused in nearly all agricultural soils and in other environments suc ...200617390837
characterization of a novel fungal chitosanase csn2 from gongronella sp. jg.a 28kda chitosanase designated as csn2 was purified from the culture broth of the fungus gongronella sp. jg through three chromatography steps: cm-sepharose ff, superdex 200 and sp-sepharose ff. its optimal reaction ph and temperature were ph 5.6 and between 55 degrees c and 60 degrees c. the half-lives of csn2 at 50 degrees c and 55 degrees c were estimated to be 30min and 11min, respectively. the k(m) value of csn2 in sodium acetate buffer (ph 5.6) at 55 degrees c was 8.86mg/ml. mn(2+), ca(2+) ...200818722595
use of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride for the biological control of meloidogyne incognita on tomato.trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride were tested for their capacity to reduce the incidence of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita on tomato. in vitro studies demonstrated that all tested isolates were effective in causing nematode mortality compared with the control. trichoderma slightly reduced nematode damage to tomato in vivo. treatment of the soil with the biocontrol agents before transplanting, improved control over treatment directly at transplanting. the trichoderma isol ...200617390844
biochemical characterization of biocontrol agents used for control of root pathogens.due to low microbial biodiversity in the nutrient solution and the root, open and closed hydroponic systems are regarded as sensitive from biological point of view. this is of particular importance as an enhanced spread of root pathogen may occur in closed hydroponic systems and possibilities for chemical control are restricted. biocontrol agents appear to be a feasible alternative. for an effective use of these agents, knowledge on the behaviour, external requirements and the specific capabilit ...200617390847
screening of bioagents against root rot of mung bean caused by rhizoctonia solani.a laboratory and green house experiment was carried out on the comparative antagonistic performance of four different bioagents (aspergillus sp. gliocladium virens, trichoderma harzianum and t. viride) isolated from soil against rhizoctonia solani. under laboratory conditions, t. harzianum exhibited maximum (75.55%) mycelial growth inhibition of r. solani. this was followed by t. viride, which showed 65.93% mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen. gliocladium virens was also found to be effec ...200617390853
colony morphology mutants of trichoderma harzianum with increased beta-1,4-n-acetyl-glucosaminidase production.a total of 36 uv-induced mutants with altered colony morphology were isolated from strain trichoderma harzianum t334, a potential biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic fungi with the ability to produce constitutively low levels of chitinases. the level of constitutive beta-1,4-n-acetyl-glucosaminidase production in standing and shaken cultures under non-inductive conditions was tested in mutants and compared to that of the parental strain. about 30% of the mutants showed significantly increa ...200717523389
defence-related gene expression in transgenic lemon plants producing an antimicrobial trichoderma harzianum endochitinase during fungal infection.constitutive over-expression of antifungal genes from microorganisms involved in plant defence mechanisms represents a promising strategy for conferring genetic resistance against a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi. in the present work, two transgenic lemon clones with the chit42 gene from trichoderma harzianum were tested for resistance to fungal disease and expression level of defence-related genes was evaluated. different resistance-related processes, such as production of reactive oxyge ...200818306055
inhibition of inducible tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by the fungal epipolythiodiketopiperazine gliovirin.tnf-alpha is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates further cytokine induction, especially of il-1 and il-6, in many human diseases including cancer, inflammation and immune disorders. in a search for new inhibitors of inducible tnf-alpha promoter activity and expression, cultures of the imperfect fungus trichoderma harzianum were found to produce gliovirin, a previously isolated epipolythiodiketopiperazine. gliovirin inhibited inducible tnf-alpha promoter activity and synthesis in lps ...200717552910
trichoderma harzianum: a biocontrol agent against bipolaris oryzae.rice brown spot, caused by bipolaris oryzae, can be a serious disease causing a considerable yield loss. trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent for a number of plant fungal diseases. thus, this research was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action by which t. harzianum antagonizes bipolaris oryzae in vitro, and the efficacy of spray application of a spore suspension of t. harzianum for control of rice brown spot disease under field conditions. in vitro, the antagonisti ...200717592758
leaf hairs influence phytopathogenic fungus infection and confer an increased resistance when expressing a trichoderma alpha-1,3-glucanase.the leaf surface of a very large number of plant species are covered by trichomes. non-glandular trichomes are specialized unicellular or multicellular structures that occur in many different plant species and function in xenobiotic detoxification and protecting the plant against pest attack. by analysing the susceptibility of trichome mutants, evidence is provided that indicates the influence of leaf trichomes on foliar fungal infections in arabidopsis thaliana, probably by facilitating the adh ...200617043085
thctf1 transcription factor of trichoderma harzianum is involved in 6-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one production and antifungal activity.we describe the cloning and characterization of the trichoderma harzianum thctf1 gene, which shows high sequence identity with a transcription factor gene of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. in t. harzianum, disruption of the thctf1 gene by homologous recombination gave rise to transformants that in plate experiments did not show the yellow pigmentation observed in the wild-type strain. in several trichoderma spp. a yellow pigmentation and a coconut aroma have been related to the production of 6-pen ...200919007898
cloning and heterologous expression of ss10, a subtilisin-like protease displaying antifungal activity from trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitic activity depends on the secretion of complex mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes able to degrade the host cell wall. a gene (ss10) encoding a subtilisin-like protease was cloned from t. harzianum t88, a biocontrol agent effective against soil-borne fungal pathogens. the full-length cdna was isolated by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of the cdna ends. the coding region of the gene is 1302 bp ...200919025577
management of root knot nematode on tomato through application of fungal antagonists, acremonium strictum and trichoderma of root knot nematode disease infecting tomato, by the use of fungal bioagents acremonium strictum and trichoderma harzianum isolated from egg masses of m. incognita infecting tomato has been carried out. the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of root knot nematode infested tomato revealed consistent association of acremonium strictum. in the present study a. strictum and other fungal bioagents viz. aspergillus niger, paecilomyces lilacinus, rhizoctonia solani and trichoderma harzianum isolat ...200818368544
a fermentation system designed to independently evaluate mixing and/or oxygen tension effects in microbial processes: development, application and order to evaluate the independent effects of hydrodynamic conditions and/or oxygen tension on culture physiology and productivity, a fermentation system designed to control dissolved oxygen at constant power drawn (p/v) was developed. the system included a fully instrumented 14 l bioreactor coupled to a pc for data acquisition and control. power drawn was measured (using a commercial torquemeter coupled to the shaft) and maintained constant by varying the agitation speed; while gas blending w ...200717225992
fermentation and antimicrobial activities of extracts from different species of fungus belonging to genus, trichoderma.the present paper discusses the effects of the crude extracts of trichoderma spp. on a number of fungal and bacterial organisms. these include paecilomyces variotii, penicillium notatum, nematospora corylii, mucor miehei, bacillus brevis, bacillus subtilis, enterobacter dissolvens and sarcina lutea. the culture broth extracts of different isolates of trichoderma harzianum, t. longibrachiatum and t. koningii cultured in different media were investigated individually for in-vitro antifungal and an ...200417298115
microbial toxicity of pesticide derivatives produced with uv-photodegradation.our study aimed at acquiring information about the biological effect of pesticides and their degradates produced by uv-treatment on microbiological activity. five photosensitive pesticides (carbendazim, acetochlor, simazine, chlorpyrifos, eptc) and six representative soil microbes (bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas fluorescens, mycobacterium phlei, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium expansum, trichoderma harzianum) were applied throughout our model experiments. the antimicrobial effects of the pestici ...200717639315
qid74 cell wall protein of trichoderma harzianum is involved in cell protection and adherence to hydrophobic surfaces.trichoderma is widely used as biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi, and as biofertilizer because of its ability to establish mycorriza-like association with plants. the key factor to the ecological success of this genus is the combination of very active mycoparasitic mechanisms plus effective defense strategies induced in plants. this work, different from most of the studies carried out that address the attacking mechanisms, focuses on elucidating how trichoderma is able to tolerate ho ...200717300969
thhog1 controls the hyperosmotic stress response in trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a widespread mycoparasitic fungus, able to successfully colonize a wide range of substrates under different environmental conditions. transcript profiling revealed a subset of genes induced in t. harzianum under hyperosmotic shock. the hog1 gene, a homologue of the mapk hog1 gene that controls the hyperosmotic stress response in saccharomyces cerevisiae, was characterized. t. harzianum hog1 complemented the hog1delta mutation in s. cerevisiae, but showed different featur ...200616735732
human exposure to airborne fungi from genera used as biocontrol agents in plant production.the fungi trichoderma harzianum, t. polysporum, t. viride, paeciliomyces fumosoroseus, p. lilacinus, verticillium/lecanicillium lecanii, ulocladium oudemansii, u. atrum and beauveria bassiana are used or considered to be used for biocontrol of pests and plant diseases. human exposure to these fungi in environments where they may naturally occur or are used as biocontrol agents has not been directly investigated to date. this review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of human ex ...200717655172
application of dna bar codes for screening of industrially important fungi: the haplotype of trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto indicates superior chitinase formation.selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. using chitinase production by hypocrea lixii/trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by dna bar codes. we analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) and its2 of the rrna-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene ...200717827332
isolation of fungi from heterodera glycines and in vitro bioassays for their antagonism to eggs.twenty fungi were assayed in vitro for antagonism to eggs of heterodera glycines. eight of the fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of h. glycines during the current study, one was isolated from panagrellus redivivus, and eleven were obtained from other researchers or collections. the bioassays were conducted on eggs from nematodes that had been grown monoxenically on excised root tips. phoma chrysanthemicola, one strain of verticillium chlamydosporium, and one strain of v. lecanii caused a de ...199019287754
influence of autoclaved saprotrophic fungal mycelia on proteolytic activity in ectomycorrhizal fungi.the production of proteolytic enzymes by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi i.e., amanita muscaria (16-3), laccaria laccata (9-12), l. laccata (9-1), suillus bovinus (15-4), suillus bovinus (15-3), suillus luteus (14-7) on mycelia of trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma virens and mucor hiemalis and sodium caseinate, yeast extract was evaluated. the strains of a. muscaria (16-3) and l. laccata (9-12) were characterized by the highest activity of the acidic and neutral proteases. taking the m ...200717333458
trichoderma harzianum rifai 1295-22 mediates growth promotion of crack willow (salix fragilis) saplings in both clean and metal-contaminated soil.we investigated if the plant growth promoting fungus trichoderma harzianum rifai 1295-22 (also known as "t22") could be used to enhance the establishment and growth of crack willow (salix fragilis) in a soil containing no organic or metal pollutants and in a metal-contaminated soil by comparing this fungus with noninoculated controls and an ectomycorrhizal formulation commercially used to enhance the establishment of tree saplings. crack willow saplings were grown in a temperature-controlled gro ...200717345130
recycle of enzymes and substrate following enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated aspenwood.the commercial production of chemicals and fuels from lignocellulosic residues by enzymatic means still requires considerable research on both the technical and economic aspects. two technical problems that have been identified as requiring further research are the recycle of the enzymes used in hydrolysis and the reuse of the re calcitrant cellulose remaining after incomplete hydrolysis. enzyme recycle is required to lower the cost of the enzymes, while the reuse of the spent cellulose will low ...198718581434
the interaction of xylanases with commercial pulps.when purified xylanases from trichoderma harzianum e58 or from a clone of bacillus circulans were incubated with various low-yield wood pulps, little of the original enzyme activity could be detected in the filtrate at the end of the reaction. partial bleaching of the pulps prior to enzymatic treatment generally resulted in an increased recovery of the xylanase activity. it appears that both nonspecific adsorption and soluble inhibitors may be responsible for the loss of much of the xylanase act ...199118597365
induced proteome of trichoderma harzianum by botrytis a notable biocontrol agent, trichoderma harzianum can antagonize a diverse array of phytopathogenic fungi, including botrytis cinerea, rhizoctonia solani and fusarium oxysporum. elucidating the biocontrol mechanism of t. harzianum in response to the pathogens enables it to be exploited in the control of plant diseases. two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de) was performed to obtain secreted protein patterns of t. harzianum ets 323, grown in media that contained glucose, a mixture of glucos ...200919422913
mutanase induction in trichoderma harzianum by cell wall of laetiporus sulphureus and its application for mutan removal from oral biofilms.the cell wall material from fruiting bodies of laetiporus sulphureus has been suggested as a new alternative to mutan for the mutanase induction in trichoderma harzianum. structural analyses revealed that the alkali-soluble wall fraction from this polypore fungus contained 56.3% of (1-->3)-linked alpha-glucans. when the strain t. harzianum f-340 was grown on a cell wall preparation from l. sulphureus, the maximal enzyme productivity obtained after 3 days of cultivation was 0.71 u/ml. this yield ...200818667864
bioactive lipopeptides of ice-nucleating snow bacterium pseudomonas syringae strain 31r1.the production of secondary metabolite lipopeptides by ice-nucleating pseudomonas syringae strain 31r1 was investigated. pseudomonas syringae strain 31r1 is a rifampicin-resistant derivative of p. syringae no. 31 used for the commercial production of snow. it is shown that p. syringae strain 31r1 produces antifungal lipodepsipeptides, syringomycins e and g, and, in addition, a novel and unique lipopeptide, peptin31. spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses revealed that peptin31 is a linear unde ...200818789127
fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of tenerife (canary islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors.knowledge about fungal diversity scaling relationships relative to that of plants is important to understand ecosystem functioning. tenerife island, a natural laboratory to study terrestrial biodiversity, is represented by six different vegetation zones characterized by specific abiotic conditions and plant communities with a high proportion of endemic plants. little is known about the biodiversity of associated fungi. to understand the relationship between plant and fungal communities, we analy ...200918830279
antagonism of nutrient-activated conidia of trichoderma harzianum (atroviride) p1 against botrytis cinerea.abstract the effect of preliminary nutrient activation on the ability of conidia of the antagonist trichoderma harzianum (atroviride) p1 to suppress botrytis cinerea was investigated in laboratory, greenhouse, and field trials. preliminary nutrient activation at 21 degrees c accelerated subsequent germination of the antagonist at temperatures from 9 to 21 degrees c; at >/=18 degrees c, the germination time of preactivated t. harzianum p1 conidia did not differ significantly from that of b. ciner ...200118943332
the thpg1 endopolygalacturonase is required for the trichoderma harzianum-plant beneficial interaction.considering the complexity of the in vivo interactions established by a mycoparasitic biocontrol agent at the plant rhizosphere, proteomic, genomic, and transcriptomic approaches were used to study a novel trichoderma gene coding for a plant cell wall (pcw)-degrading enzyme. a proteome analysis, using a three-component (trichoderma spp.-tomato plantlets-pathogen) system, allowed us to identify a differentially expressed trichoderma harzianum endopolygalacturonase (endopg). spot 0303 remarkably i ...200919589077
interactions between trichoderma harzianum strain t22 and maize inbred line mo17 and effects of these interactions on diseases caused by pythium ultimum and colletotrichum graminicola.abstract seed treatment with trichoderma harzianum strain t22, which results in colonization of plant roots but little or no colonization of shoots or leaves, had substantial effects on growth of and disease expression in maize inbred line mo17. shoots and roots of 10-day-old seedlings grown in a sandy loam field soil were larger (roots were nearly twice as long) in the presence of t22 than in its absence. both main and secondary roots were increased in size and area and the root hair area was g ...200418943537
increase of laccase activity during interspecific interactions of white-rot fungi.white-rot fungi are of interest due to their ability to degrade lignin. lignin-degrading enzymes such as laccase can also degrade xenobiotic compounds. the effects of interspecific interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms on laccase activity was studied in laboratory cultures. laccase activity in cultures of trametes versicolor and pleurotus ostreatus increased significantly after the introduction of soil fungi, bacteria and yeasts or after contact with nonsterile soil. addi ...200419712364
disease progression by active mycelial growth and biocontrol of pythium ultimum var. ultimum studied using a rhizobox system.abstract this study demonstrates that outward growth of mycelium from primary foci through bulk potting mix to roots of adjoining plants can be an important means of spread of damping-off and root rot caused by pythium ultimum. the use of a rhizobox system, which confines plant roots, enabled us to study the spread of actively growing mycelium between root systems placed at precise distances from each other. in steamed potting mix, hyphae of p. ultimum on average grew 9.6 cm from diseased root t ...200018944533
molecular identification of trichoderma species associated with pleurotus ostreatus and natural substrates of the oyster mold of pleurotus ostreatus, caused by trichoderma species, has recently resulted in crop losses worldwide. therefore, there is an emerging need for rapid means of diagnosing the causal agents. a pcr assay was developed for rapid detection of trichoderma pleurotum and trichoderma pleuroticola, the two pathogens causing green mold of p. ostreatus. three oligonucleotide primers were designed for identifying these species in a multiplex pcr assay based on dna sequences within the fourth and f ...200919735461
expression of endochitinase from trichoderma harzianum in transgenic apple increases resistance to apple scab and reduces vigor.abstract the goal of this research was to improve scab resistance of apple by transformation with genes encoding chitinolytic enzymes from the bio-control organism trichoderma harzianum. the endochitinase gene, as cdna and genomic clones, was transferred into apple cv. marshall mcintosh by agrobacterium-transformation. a total of 15 lines were identified as transgenic by nptii enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by southern analysis. substantial differen ...200018944574
antifungal mechanism of a novel antifungal protein from pumpkin rinds against various fungal pathogens.a novel antifungal protein (pr-2) was identified from pumpkin rinds using water-soluble extraction, ultrafiltration, cation exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 14865.57 da. automated edman degradation showed that the n-terminal sequence of pr-2 was qgigvgdndgkrgkr-. the pr-2 protein strongly inhibited in vitro growth of bot ...200919807165
fungal spores: a critical review of the toxicological and epidemiological evidence as a basis for occupational exposure limit setting.fungal spores are ubiquitous in the environment. however, exposure levels in workplaces where mouldy materials are handled are much higher than in common indoor and outdoor environments. spores of all tested species induced inflammation in experimental studies. the response to mycotoxin-producing and pathogenic species was much stronger. in animal studies, nonallergic responses dominated after a single dose. allergic responses also occurred, especially to mycotoxin-producing and pathogenic speci ...200919863384
the mycoparasite ampelomyces quisqualis expresses exga encoding an exo-beta-1,3-glucanase in culture and during mycoparasitism.abstract ampelomyces quisqualis, a mycoparasite of fungi causing powdery mildews, exhibited high levels of extracellular exo-beta-1,3-glucanase activity in culture compared with neurospora crassa and gliocladium roseum. a. quisqualis culture filtrates affected powdery mildew caused by sphaerotheca fusca in a manner indicative of cell wall degradation, as determined by microscopic examination. a gene encoding an exo-beta-1,3-glucanase in a. quisqualis, designated exga, was isolated and sequenced. ...199918944674
harzianic acid, an antifungal and plant growth promoting metabolite from trichoderma harzianum.a trichoderma harzianum strain, isolated from composted hardwood bark in western australia, was found to produce a metabolite with antifungal and plant growth promoting activity. the structure and absolute configuration of the fungal compound, harzianic acid (1), were determined by x-ray diffraction studies. harzianic acid showed antibiotic activity against pythium irregulare, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and rhizoctonia solani. a plant growth promotion effect was observed at low concentrations of ...200919894739
pyrene degradation and copper and zinc uptake by fusarium solani and hypocrea lixii isolated from petrol station soil.this study aimed to isolate and identify potential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah)-degrading and/or metal-tolerant fungi from pah-contaminated and metal-contaminated soils.201019922595
incorporation of weather forecasting in integrated, biological-chemical management of botrytis cinerea.abstract a strategy for integrated biological and chemical control of botrytis cinerea in nonheated greenhouse vegetables was developed. the biocontrol agent used was a commercial preparation developed from an isolate of trichoderma harzianum, t39 (trichodex). decisions concerning whether to spray the biocontrol agent or a fungicide were made based on a weather-based disease warning system. the integrated strategy (botman [short for botrytis manager]) was implemented as follows: when slow or no ...199718945177
an enzyme cocktail for efficient protoplast formation in aspergillus niger.novozym 234 has been traditionally used to prepare protoplasts for genetic transformation of fungi. since it is no longer on the market, a new enzyme cocktail was defined to protoplast aspergillus niger. the cocktail consists of lysing enzymes from trichoderma harzianum, chitinase from streptomyces griseus and beta-glucuronidase from helix pomatia.200919041907
effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro biological control of fusarium oxysporum by trichoderma harzianum (t8).in this study the effect of two plant growth regulators (indolacetic acid, iaa and gibberellic acid, ga3) and also trichoderma harzianum (t8) on the phytopathogen fungus fusarium oxysporium (f15) was investigated. iaa and ga3 with 15 and 30 ppm concentration have no significant effect on t. harzianum (t8) growth. the biocontrol activity of t. harzianum on f. oxysporum was slightly decreased by the presence of iaa and/or ga3. addition of 40 ppm of ga3 to the culture medium of f. oxsporum increase ...200719090187
the trichoderma harzianum demon: complex speciation history resulting in coexistence of hypothetical biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages.the mitosporic fungus trichoderma harzianum (hypocrea, ascomycota, hypocreales, hypocreaceae) is an ubiquitous species in the environment with some strains commercially exploited for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. although t. harzianum is asexual (or anamorphic), its sexual stage (or teleomorph) has been described as hypocrea lixii. since recombination would be an important issue for the efficacy of an agent of the biological control in the field, we investigated the phylogene ...201020359347
[filamentous fungi preservation in distilled water.].some methods for keeping the fungal culture collection have been used. however, the choice of either one on the basis that must ensure the cultural genetic stability and its phenotipic characteristics. in this work the preservation method in distilled water recognized in the literature as a single, economic and certain method that guarantie the survival of fungus cultures for long periods was used. 26 strains of generus and species: aspergillus niger, aspergillus candidus, fusarium sp., fusarium ...199818473541
identification of potential marker genes for trichoderma harzianum strains with high antagonistic potential against rhizoctonia solani by a rapid subtraction hybridization approach.a rapid subtraction hybridization approach was used to isolate genes differentially expressed during mycelial contact between trichoderma harzianum (hypocrea lixii) and rhizoctonia solani, and could serve as marker genes for selection of superior biocontrol strains. putatively positive clones were evaluated by transcription analysis during mycelial contact with r. solani versus growth on glucose, and for their differential transcription between two strains with either strong or poor biocontrol c ...200919116716
identification and investigation on antagonistic effect of trichoderma spp. on tea seedlings white foot and root rot (sclerotium rolfsii sacc.) in vitro condition.the aim of this two years research work is to recognize bio control agents and its antagonistic efficiency on sclerotium rolfsii in vitro condition. sclerotium rolfsii sacc. is a causal agent of white foot and root rot disease in many plants. this fungi causing damage in tea nurseries of tea cultivated countries especially in iran. due to importance this disease in tea nurseries of iran and impossibility using of chemical control against this damaging agent in this research, five species of tric ...200819137869
trichoderma harzianum and glomus intraradices modify the hormone disruption induced by fusarium oxysporum infection in melon plants.the plant hormones salicylic acid (sa), jasmonic acid (ja), ethylene (et), and abscisic acid (aba) are known to play crucial roles in plant disease and pest resistance. changes in the concentrations of these plant hormones in melon plant shoots, as a consequence of the interaction between the plant, the pathogen fusarium oxysporum, the antagonistic microorganism trichoderma harzianum, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus intraradices were investigated. attack by f. oxysporum activated a ...201020528186
attempts to control fusarium root rot of bean by seed summer 2006, a root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum was observed in commercial farms on common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) on the cv billò and borlotto. a study was undertaken in order to evaluate the efficacy of different biological control agents applied as seed dressing. in the presence of a medium-high disease incidence, among the biocontrol agents tested, trichoderma harzianum t 22, bacillus subtilis qst 713, followed by pseudomonas chlororaphis, provided generally the best control. their ...200819226744
substrate conditions that influence the assays used for determining the beta-glucosidase activity of cellulolytic microorganisms.culture filtrates from trichoderma harzianum e58, t. reesei cl 847 and penicillium sp. c 462 were assayed for beta-glucosidase activity using a range of substrates and sugar analysis methods. although sugar analyses by the dinitrosalicylic acid (dns) and nelson-somogyi methods gave a similar profile, when increasing concentrations of salicin were assayed, considerably higher values were obtained with the dns assay. the salicin concentration used for the assay greatly influenced the final beta-gl ...198618555279
a new serine protease gene from trichoderma harzianum is expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae.serine proteases are highly conserved among fungi and considered to play a key role in different aspects of fungal biology. these proteases can be involved in development and have been related to biocontrol processes. difficulties in heterologous expression in a bacterial or yeast host have hampered engineering of these proteases for industrial application. we report here a successful expression of the serine protease sl41 from a biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum in saccharomyces cerevisia ...200919235505
effect of entomopathogenic nematodes and trichoderma harzianum on the strawberry black root rot pathogens pratylenchus penetrans and rhizoctonia fragariae.the effects of inundative releases of entomopathogenic steinernema carpocapsae and s. feltiae infective juveniles and applications of the biological control fungus trichoderma harzianum t-22 (rootshield) on pratylenchus penetrans and strawberry black root rot caused by rhizoctonia fragariae were determined in field microplots and small plots. entomopathogenic nematodes were applied as a soil drench at rates of 7.4 or 14.8 billion per ha in may or august for 3 years. rootshield was applied as cro ...200219265955
trichoderma harzianum endochitinase does not provide resistance to meloidogyne hapla in transgenic tobacco.eggs of meloidogyne hapla contain chitin, a substrate for chitinase. our goal was to determine if endochitinase from the biocontrol fungus t. harzianum expressed in transgenic tobacco increases resistance to this nematode. endochitinase-transgenic t tobacco seedlings expressing increased endochitinase activity in leaves (11 to 125 times over control) and roots (2 to 15 times over control) were transferred to quartz sand:loam soil mix (4:1 ratio) and inoculated with 5,000 m. hapla eggs/pot. tomat ...200019270979
steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop.material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees c-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, w ...198618555395
factors affecting the production of trichoderma harzianum secondary metabolites during the interaction with different plant pathogens.strains of trichoderma spp. produce numerous bioactive secondary metabolites. the in vitro production and antibiotic activities of the major compounds synthesized by trichoderma harzianum strains t22 and t39 against leptosphaeria maculans, phytophthora cinnamomi and botrytis cinerea were evaluated. moreover, the eliciting effect of viable or nonviable biomasses of rhizoctonia solani, pythium ultimum or b. cinerea on the in vitro production of these metabolites was also investigated.200919413806
a laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator bombus terrestris.this study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (mcas) on the bumblebee, bombus terrestris l., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (ipm). aq10 (ampelomyces quisqualis), binab-t-vector (hypocrea parapilulifera + t. atroviride; 1/1), prestop-mix (gliocladium catenulatum j1446), serenade (bacillus subtilis qst713), trianum-p (trichoderma harzianum t22), botanigard (beauveria bassiana gha) and granup ...200919437453
genetic and metabolic biodiversity of trichoderma from colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.the genus trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. the biodiversity of trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. in the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from mexico, guatemala, panama, ecuador, peru, brazil and colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. a comparatively high diversity of species was found, c ...200919439189
biological conversion of olive pomace into compost by using trichoderma harzianum and phanerochaete chrysosporium.olive pomace was composted by using a reactor for a period of 50 days in four bioreactors. urea was added to adjust c/n ration between 25-30. at the end of 50 days of composting using trichoderma harzianum and phanerochaete chrysosporium, cellulose and lignin were highly degraded. it was found that after 30 days, p. chrysosporium and t. harzianum degraded approximately 71.9% of the lignin and 59.25% of the cellulose, respectively. the percent of ash content in the raw waste mixture was 13%. this ...200919467866
cytoskeleton and mitochondrial morphology of saprotrophs and the pathogen heterobasidion annosum in the presence of suillus bovinus metabolites.ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to synthesize antifungal compounds both in vitro and in symbiosis with the host-plants. culture filtrates of the ectomycorrhizal fungus suillus bovinus (at phs of 2.5-6) showed antifungal activity towards saprotrophs trichoderma harzianum, and trichoderma virens and the pathogen heterobasidion annosum, by significantly suppressing their growth relative to sterile liquid medium at the same phs. in the presence of the culture filtrates, hyphae of the saprotrophs and ...200919539761
contribution of the saprobic fungi trametes versicolor and trichoderma harzianum and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi glomus deserticola and g. claroideum to arsenic tolerance of eucalyptus globulus.the presence of high concentrations of arsenic (as) decreased the shoot and root dry weight, chlorophyll and p and mg content of eucalyptus globulus colonized with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi glomus deserticola or g. claroideum, but these parameters were higher than in non-am plants. as increased the percentage of am length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) activity in the root of e. globulus. trichoderma harzianum, but not trametes versicolor, increased the shoot and root ...200919648001
molecular cloning and expression of the trichoderma harzianum c4 endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene in saccharomyces endo-beta-1,4-xylanase (beta-xylanase) from trichoderma harzianum c4 was purified without cellulase activity by sequential chromatographies. the specific activity of the purified enzyme preparation was 430 units/mg on d-xylan. the complementary dna (cdna) encoding beta-xylanase (xynii) was amplified by pcr and isolated from cdna pcr libraries constructed from t. harzianum c4. the nucleotide sequence of the cdna fragment contained an open reading frame of 663 bp that encodes 221 amino acids, o ...200919734721
trichoderma species form endophytic associations within theobroma cacao trichomes.trichoderma species are usually considered soil organisms that colonize plant roots, sometimes forming a symbiotic relationship. recent studies demonstrate that trichoderma species are also capable of colonizing the above ground tissues of theobroma cacao (cacao) in what has been characterized as an endophytic relationship. trichoderma species can be re-isolated from surface sterilized cacao stem tissue, including the bark and xylem, the apical meristem, and to a lesser degree from leaves. sem a ...200919765658
occupational exposure to microorganisms used as biocontrol agents in plant production.exposure to bioaerosols containing fungi and bacteria may cause various deleterious respiratory health effects. fungi and bacteria are commercially produced and applied to the environment as microbiological pest control agents (mpcas). attention has been drawn towards the exposure and health risks due to the use of commercially important mpcas. as part of a risk evaluation this paper intends to review whether the exposure to mpcas (beauveria bassiana, verticillium lecanii, trichoderma harzianum, ...201121196399
changes in hyphal morphology and activity of phenoloxidases during interactions between selected ectomycorrhizal fungi and two species of trichoderma.patterns of phenoloxidase activity can be used to characterize fungi of different life styles, and changes in phenoloxidase synthesis were suspected to play a role in the interaction between ectomycorrhizal and two species of trichoderma. confrontation between the ectomycorrhizal fungi amanita muscaria and laccaria laccata with species of trichoderma resulted in induction of laccase synthesis, and the laccase enzyme was bound to mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. tyrosinase release was noted only ...201121286809
[agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase gene transformation for pinellia ternata].to obtain transgenic pinellia ternata plants resistant to fungus by transfer chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase gene from trichoderma harzianum.200919894502
trichoderma biocontrol: signal transduction pathways involved in host sensing and mycoparasitism.fungi of the genus trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like rhizoctonia spp., pythium spp., botrytis cinerea and fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. plant disease control by trichoderma is based on complex interactions between trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of trichoderma against the plant ...200719936091
occurrence of soil- and tick-borne fungi and related virulence tests for pathogenicity to ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae).ixodes scapularis say, the blacklegged tick, vectors borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. 1984, the bacterium that causes lyme disease, the most important vector-borne disease in the united states. efforts to reduce i. scapularis populations are shifting toward the development of biological control methods. currently, only a few entomopathogenic fungal species are considered virulent to ticks. we hypothesized that these species may not represent the most abundant local taxa that would be pathogen ...201121485371
covalent selection of the thiol proteome on activated thiol sepharose: a robust tool for redox proteomics.protein thiols contribute significantly to antioxidant defence and selective oxidation of cysteines is important in signal transduction even in sub-stress scenarios. however, cysteine is the second rarest residue in proteins and it can be difficult to target low-abundance thiol (-sh)-containing proteins in proteomic separations. activated thiol sepharose (ats) allows covalent selection of -sh-containing proteins which can then be recovered by reduction with mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol. thi ...201020082816
new insights in trichoderma harzianum antagonism of fungal plant pathogens by secreted protein analysis.trichoderma harzianum all42 were capable of overgrowing and degrading rhizoctonia solani and macrophomina phaseolina mycelia, coiling around the hyphae with formation of apressoria and hook-like structures. hyphae of t. harzianum all42 did not show any coiling around fusarium sp. hyphae suggesting that mycoparasitism may be different among the plant pathogens. in this study, a secretome analysis was used to identify some extracellular proteins secreted by t. harzianum all42 after growth on cell ...201020213103
improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic cavendish banana (musa spp. aaa group) cv. grand nain.the most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by mycosphaerella fijiensis. in this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene then-42 from trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (stsy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35s promoter and the inducible pr-10 promoter, respectively. the superoxide dismutase ge ...201120397044
antifungal effects of the bioactive compounds enniatins a, a(1), b, b(1).to produce enniatin (ens), fusarium tricinctum cect 20150 was grown in a liquid medium of potato (pdb), being mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semipreparative column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water using gradient condition. the purity of the ens fractions was verified by analytical hplc and lc/ms-ms. the pure fractions of ens were utilized to study the biological activity on several mycotoxigenic moulds as fusarium verticilloides ...201020417654
trichoderma harzianum ioc-4038: a promising strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex with significant β-glucosidase activity from sugarcane bagasse cellulignin.sugarcane bagasse is an agroindustrial residue generated in large amounts in brazil. this biomass can be used for the production of cellulases, aiming at their use in second-generation processes for bioethanol production. therefore, this work reports the ability of a fungal strain, trichoderma harzianum ioc-4038, to produce cellulases on a novel material, xylan free and cellulose rich, generated from sugarcane bagasse, named partially delignified cellulignin. the extract produced by t. harzianum ...201020455032
chitosan increases conidiation in fungal pathogens of invertebrates.antifungal activity of chitosan on plant pathogenic fungi has been widely studied, but little is known about the effect of chitosan on fungal biocontrol agents. in this work, we characterize the increase of conidiation induced by chitosan in fungal pathogens of invertebrates (fpi). chitosan increased conidiation of fpi, including beauveria bassiana, widely used as mycoinsecticide, and did not affect conidia viability or pathogenicity. increased conidiation induced by chitosan is shown to be conc ...201020532757
the effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency.the carbon-use-efficiency (cue) of microorganisms is an important parameter in determining ecosystem-level carbon (c) cycling; however, little is known about how variance in resources affects microbial cue. to elucidate how resource quantity and resource stoichiometry affect microbial cue, we cultured four microorganisms - two fungi (aspergillus nidulans and trichoderma harzianum) and two bacteria (pectobacterium carotovorum and verrucomicrobium spinosum) - under 12 unique c, nitrogen (n) and ph ...201020550579
an innovative brilliant blue fcf method for fluorescent staining of fungi and bacteria.abstract most natural and synthetic dyes currently used for microbial fluorescent staining are toxic or carcinogenic and are harmful to animals, humans and the environment. a food dye for microbial staining, brilliant blue fcf, was used as an alternative to lactofuchsin and lactophenol blue. brilliant blue fcf shows pronounced microbial cell fluorescence staining of an array of pathogenic/toxigenic (fusarium granunearum 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotypes, and escherichia coli o157:h7) and ...201020560873
Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity.ABSTRACT:201122070776
exposure to bioaerosols during the growth season of tomatoes in an organic greenhouse using supresivit (trichoderma harzianum) and mycostop (streptomyces griseoviridis).in working environments, especially in confined spaces like greenhouses, elevated concentrations of airborne microorganisms may become a problem for workers' health. additionally, the use of microbial pest control agents (mpcas) may increase exposure to microorganisms. the aim of this study was to investigate tomato growers' exposure to naturally occurring bioaerosol components [dust, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans, and endotoxin] and mpcas applied by drip irrigation. air ...201020622135
impact of biological control agents on fusaric acid secreted from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (massey) snyder and hansen in gladiolus grandiflorus corms.fusaric acid (fa) (5-n-butylpuridine 2-carboxyl acid), a highly toxic secondary metabolite produced by fusarium oxysporum strains, plays a significant role in disease development. the abilities of three f. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (massey) snyder and hansen isolates (g010; 649-91; and 160-57) to produce fa in infected gladiolus corm tissues was evaluated in vitro in relation to the presence of two biological control agents, trichoderma harzianum t22, and aneurinobacillus migulanus. pathogenicit ...201120814727
enhancement of metabolites productivity of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653, by co-culture with trichoderma harzianum the course of discovering new metabolites from co-culture of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653 and trichoderma harzianum fki-5655, a new compound, designated secopenicillide c, and four known compounds, penicillide, mc-141, pestalasin a and stromemycin were isolated. the production of these compounds, except pestalasin a, was enhanced in co-culture to be two to six times higher than in pure culture of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653, which was the producer of these compounds.201122008698
biodiversity of trichoderma strains in tunisia.trichoderma strains were sampled in 4 different bioclimatic zones of tunisia, a mediterranean north african country with strong climatic and edaphic variability from north to south, to assess the genetic diversity of endemic species of trichoderma and their relationship to the bioclimatic zones. in all, 53 strains were isolated and identified at the species level by analysis of their internal transcribed spacers regions 1 and 2 (its1 and its2) of the rdna cluster and (or) a fragment of the trans ...200919295648
the influence of trichoderma harzianum on the root-knot fusarium wilt complex in cotton.wilt-susceptible cultivar 'rowden' cotton was inoculated wilh meloidogyne incognita (n), trichoderma harzianum (t), and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (f) alone and in all combinations in various time sequences. plants inoculated with f alone or in combination with t did not develop wilt, simultaneous inoculation of 7-day-old seedlings with all three organisms (ntf) produced earliest wilt. however, plants receiving nematodes at 7 days and fusarium and trichoderma at 2 or 4 weeks later (n- ...197619308202
chemical composition and antifungal activity of matricaria recutita flower essential oil against medically important dermatophytes and soil-borne pathogens.fungal infections are potential public health threats all over the world. in the present study, effect of matricaria recutita flower essential oil (eo) was evaluated against medically important dermatophytes and opportunistic saprophytes using microbioassay technique.201223518164
anticancer and antimicrobial activity of mangrove derived fungi hypocrea lixii vb1.mangrove is one of the oldest living tree species and its leaves are among the most extensively studied botanicals in use today. scientific research throughout the world has found evidence to support the fact that its foliar extracts have great potential against human microbial pathogens. this study highlights the isolation of foliar fungi from rhizophora mucronata, avicenna officialis and avicenna marina.201223302537
in vitro and in vivo biocontrol of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi by certain bioagents and their possible mode of action.the study aimed to investigate new wide-spectrum biological control agents against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. screening of 336 fungal strains and 256 bacterial strains was carried out in vitro to select the most promising isolates for controlling destructive pathogens of greenhouse-vegetables. in dual cultures, bacillus subtilis jf419701 and trichoderma harzianum jf419706 (teleomorph: hypocrea lixii) inhibited the growth of alternaria alternata, fusarium oxysporum, exserohilum rostratum, ...201223269217
[molecular diagnosis of human histoplasmosis in whole blood samples].to assess the value of using whole blood samples for the molecular diagnosis of histoplasmosis, we applied an in-house dna extraction method and a nested pcr targeting a 210 bp specific segment of the histoplasma capsulatum hcp100 gene. a whole blood volume of 2.5-3 milliliters was centrifuged and the cellular pellet was treated with trichoderma harzianum lyticase and proteinase k prior to applying a conventional phenol dna extraction. this procedure allowed complete cell lysis, high dna yield a ...200919391520
scanning electron microscopy observations of the interaction between trichoderma harzianum and perithecia of gibberella zeae.chronological events associated with the interaction between a strain of trichoderma harzianum, t472, with known biological control activity against perithecial production of g. zeae, were studied with scanning electron microscopy to investigate the mechanisms of control. large clusters of perithecia consisting of 5-15 perithecia formed on the autoclaved, mulched wheat straw inoculated with g. zeae alone (control) with an average of 157 perithecia per plate. small clusters consisting of 3-6 and ...201020943563
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