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isolation and characterization of isocitrate lyase from a thermophilic bacillus sp.isocitrate lyase was isolated in homogeneous state from a thermophilic bacillus. the enzyme has a mol.wt. of 180000 and a pi of 4.5 and contains threonine as the n-terminal residue. it resembles in size the cognate enzyme from the mesophilic bacterium pseudomonas indigofera, but is smaller than the enzyme from the eukaryotic fungus neurospora crassa. all three lyases are tetramers and similar in amino acid composition, but the thermophile enzyme is distinctive from its mesophilic coutnerparts in ...1978687365
formation of nadph-nitrate reductase activity in vitro from aspergillus nidulans niad and cnx mutants.mutants of a. nidulans at several loci lack detectable nadph-nitrate reductase activity. these loci include niad, the structural gene for the nitrate reductase polypeptide, and five other loci termed cnxabc, e, f, g and h which are presumed to be involved in the formation of a molybdenum-containing component (mcc) necessary for nitrate reductase activity. when forzen mycelia from a. nidulans deletion mutant niad26 were homogenized in a ten broeck homogenizer together with frozen mycelia from eit ...1976796678
in situ effects of s1 endonuclease (neurospora crassa) on pachytene chromatin of xenopus laevis females at metamorphosis. 1977837986
determination of the absolute configuration at c-20 and c-24 of ergosterol in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.samples of ergosterol isolated from saccharomyces cerevisiae, neurospora crassa, and agaricus sp., and commercial ergosterol all displayed identical proton magnetic resonance (pmr) spectra at 220 mhz. from the effects produced on the doublet for c-21 by epimerization at c-20 and c-24 in sterols of known configuration, the absolute configurations at these positions in ergosterol were determined. the data demonstrate that ergosterol from both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes is the same and that at ...1977853879
differential excision from dna of the c-8 and n2 guanosine adducts of n-acetyl-2-aminofluorene by single strand-specific endonucleases.purified duck reticulocyte dna was reacted in vitro with [9-14c]-n-acetoxy-n-acetyl-2-aminofluorene. hydrolysis of the [14c]-n-acetyl-2-aminofluorene-modified dna followed by sephadex lh-20 column chromatography showed that 85% of the dna-bound [14c]-n-acetyl-2-aminofluorene was n-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-n-acetyl-2-aminofluorene and 15% was 3-(deoxyguanosin-n2-yl)-n-acetyl-2-aminofluorene. when this modified dna was incubated with the single strand-specific nuclease, s1, and the undigested fraction ...1977908018
[a flavinogenic mutant of the yeast pichia guilliermondii with impaired iron transport].a mutant of the yeast pichia guilliermondii was produced by means of uv; the mutant was capable of riboflavin overproduction in the presence of high concentrations of iron in the medium. the content of total and non-hemin iron and cytochrome c, and the activity of catalase, were lower in the cells of the mutant than in the parent cells, while the activity of riboflavin synthetase was higher. the content of iron in the cells increased when the mutant was cultivated on media with citric acid, side ...1976933879
site of cleavage of superhelical phix174 replicative form dna by the single strand-specific neurospora crassa endonuclease.experiments with the neurospora crassa single strand-specific endonuclease have provided evidence for the existence of regions of partially single-stranded character in covalently closed superhelical replicative form dna of phix174. the nuclease converts the superhelical molecules to either singly hit relaxed circular or doubly hit linear molecules. we show that the initial cleavage of phix174 superhelical dna is a "nick" bounded by a 5'-phosphate and a 3'-hydroxyl; no nucleotides are excised as ...1976942717
characterization of dna condensates induced by poly(ethylene oxide) and polylysine.high-molecular-weight dna is known to collapse into very compact particles in a salt solution containing polymers like poly(ethylene oxide) [(eo)n] or polyacrylate. the biological relevance of this phenomenon is suggested by our recent finding that high concentrations of the highly acidic internal peptides found in the mature t4 bacteriophage head, as well as poly(glutamic acid) and poly(aspartic acid), can collapse dna in a similar manner. the structure of dnas collapsed by various methods has ...19751060108
kinetic studies on the specificity of chelate-iron uptake in aspergillus.three strains of the fungus aspergillus, aspergillus quadricinctus (e. yuill), a. fumigatus (fresenius), and a. melleus (yukawa), each producing different iron-chelating compounds during iron-deficient cultivation, were used for 55fe3+ uptake measurements. iron from chelates of the ferrichrome-type family was taken up by young mycelia of all strains tested, irrespective of the ferrichrome-type compound these strains predominantly produce in low-iron cultures. ferrichrysin-producing strains, howe ...19751099079
genetic control of radiation sensitivity and dna repair in neurospora.radiation sensitivity in the fungus neurospora crassa is under the control of at least eight distinct loci and is also affected by cytoplasmic factors. although radiation-sensitive mutants which affect inter- or intragenic meiotic recombination have not been isolated, mutants which are defective in the repair of pyrimidine dimers have been found. evidence from both mutational and biochemical studies shows that neurospora has an excision-repair system for pyrimidine dimers which is very similar t ...19751103873
hydroxykynureninase and the excretion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate by yeast.a comparative analysis of the kynureninase-type activity found in various organisms has demonstrated two forms of enzyme. one, inducible by tryptophan, has a relatively low km for l-kynurenine, and is found in microorganisms such as pseudomonas fluorescens and neurospora crassa. the other, unaffected by tryptophan, has a low km for l-3-hydroxykynurenine and is found in a wide variety of organisms, including molds, amphibia, birds and mammals. the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks the inducibl ...19751244118
regulation of the activity of microbial kynureninase by transamination of the enzyme-bound coenzyme.kynureninase was purified to homogeneity from the extracts of pseudomonas marginalis and neurospora crassa. the active kynureninase containing pyridoxal 5'-phosphate transaminates with l-ornithine or l-alanine to form the inactive pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate form of enzyme and delta1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate or pyruvate. this inactive enzyme transaminates with pyruvate to restore the active pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzyme and l-alanine. the activity of kynureninase is regulated in this manner by tran ...19751244119
introduction of interrupted secondary structure in supercoiled dna as a function of superhelix density: consideration of hairpin structures in superhelical dna.pm2 dna was prepared with different superhelical densities (sigma) in order to examine the relationship betweenn supercoiling and the occurrence of a region(s) of unpaired bases in this dna. a previous study showed that ch3hgoh reacts with native superhelical pm2 dna more rapidly than the nicked form ii. this evaluation of binding, monitored through the change of sedimentation velocity, was repeated on pm2 dna i with different superhelical densities. early binding is detected by an increase in s ...19761255870
ca(2+)-dependent ubiquitination of calmodulin in yeast.recently we were able to show that calmodulin from vertebrates, plants (spinach) and the mold neurospora crassa can be covalently conjugated to ubiquitin in a ca(2+)-dependent manner by ubiquityl-calmodulin synthetase (ucam-synthetase) from mammalian sources [r. ziegenhagen and h.p. jennissen (1990) febs lett. 273, 253-256]. it was therefore of high interest to investigate whether this covalent modification of calmodulin also occurs in one of the simplest eukaryotes, the unicellular saccharomyce ...19921309706
a protein required for rna processing and splicing in neurospora mitochondria is related to gene products involved in cell cycle protein phosphatase functions.the neurospora crassa cyt-4 mutants have pleiotropic defects in mitochondrial rna splicing, 5' and 3' end processing, and rna turnover. here, we show that the cyt-4+ gene encodes a 120-kda protein with significant similarity to the ssd1/srk1 protein of saccharomyces cerevisiae and the dis3 protein of schizosaccharomyces pombe, which have been implicated in protein phosphatase functions that regulate cell cycle and mitotic chromosome segregation. the cyt-4 protein is present in mitochondria and i ...19921311848
purification and characterization of a mammalian endo-exonuclease.an endo-exonuclease has been purified from cultured monkey (cv-1) cells. the enzyme which was purified to near homogeneity to be a 65 kda monomeric protein. the single-strand dnase activity is endonucleolytic and nonprocessive, whereas the double-strand dnase activity is exonucleolytic and processive. the enzyme was also found to have rnase activity using poly-ra as substrate. the ph optimum for ss-dnase is 8 and for ds-dnase it is 7.5. both dnase activities require a divalent metal ion (mg2+, m ...19921324480
non-linear inhibition curves for tight-binding inhibitors of dimeric ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductases. evidence for rapid inhibitor mobility.steady-state electron flow through and electron delivery into isolated dimeric bc1 complex (ubiquinol--cytochrome c oxidoreductase) from neurospora crassa and beef heart mitochondria were studied in the presence of increasing concentrations of antimycin a, funiculosin and/or myxothiazol. parabolic or linear inhibition curves were obtained, depending upon the different quinols and inhibitors that were used. linear curves occur when the inhibitor directly affects the rate-determining step. the mos ...19921325904
identification of the mitochondrial receptor complex in saccharomyces cerevisiae.mitochondrial protein import involves the recognition of preproteins by receptors and their subsequent translocation across the outer membrane. in neurospora crassa, the two import receptors, mom19 and mom72, were found in a complex with the general insertion protein, gip (formed by mom7, mom8, mom30 and mom38) and mom22. we isolated a complex out of s. cerevisiae mitochondria consisting of mom38/isp42, the receptor mom72, and five new yeast proteins, the putative equivalents of n. crassa mom7, ...19921327874
structures of the genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of the neurospora crassa mitochondrial atp synthase.we have isolated and sequenced cdna and genomic clones encoding the alpha and beta subunits of the neurospora crassa atp synthase. the genes are not linked to each other: atp-1(alpha) maps to either linkage group i or v, and atp-2(beta) lies on linkage group ii. the two genes resemble each other in having a large number of introns, five in atp-1 and seven in atp-2, mostly positioned near their 5' ends and varying in length from 60-332 bp. the coding regions of both genes have a high g+c content ...19921351018
the acu-1 gene of coprinus cinereus is a regulatory gene required for induction of acetate utilisation enzymes.we have isolated a gene from coprinus cinereus which cross-hybridises to the faca and acu-5 genes of aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa, respectively. these genes encode acetyl-coa synthetase, an enzyme which is inducible by acetate and required for growth on acetate as sole carbon source. we have designated the c. cinereus gene acs-1 and have used transformation to demonstrate its functional homology to the ascomycete genes by complementation of an n. crassa acu-5 mutation. the acs-1 ge ...19921354839
an acetate-sensitive mutant of neurospora crassa deficient in acetyl-coa hydrolase.the predicted amino acid sequence of the product of the acetate-inducible acu-8 gene of neurospora crassa, previously of unknown function, has close homology to the recently published sequence of saccharomyces cerevisiae acetyl-coa hydrolase. an acu-8 mutant strain, previously characterized as acetate non-utilizing, shows strong growth-inhibition by acetate, but will use it as carbon source at low concentrations. the mutant was shown to be deficient in acetyl-coa hydrolase and to accumulate acet ...19921357077
mitochondrial dna of schizophyllum commune: restriction map, genetic map, and mode of inheritance.mitochondrial dna (mtdna) found in the basidiomycete schizophyllum commune (strain 4-40) is a circular molecule 49.75 kbp in length. a physical map containing 61 restriction sites revealed no repeat structures. cloned genes from neurospora crassa, aspergillus nidulans, and saccharomyces cerevisiae were used in southern hybridizations to locate nine mitochondrial genes, including a possible pseudogene of atpase 9, on the restriction map. a probe from a functional atpase 9 gene identified homologo ...19921358467
structural relationship between the hexameric and tetrameric family of glutamate dehydrogenases.the family of glutamate dehydrogenases include a group of hexameric oligomers with a subunit m(r) of around 50,000, which are closely related in amino acid sequence and a smaller group of tetrameric oligomers based on a much larger subunit with m(r) 115,000. sequence comparisons have indicated a low level of similarity between the c-terminal portion of the tetrameric enzymes and a substantial region of the polypeptide chain for the more widespread hexameric glutamate dehydrogenases. in the light ...19921358610
the ncypt1 gene from neurospora crassa is located on chromosome 2: molecular cloning and structural analysis.small gtp-binding proteins are encoded by ras-like genes and play a central role in cell differentiation and membrane vesicle transport. by screening genomic and cdna libraries of the ascomycete fungus neurospora crassa with zmypt genes from zea mays we have isolated a member of the ypt gene family, ncypt1. the gene resides on a 4 kb fragment of genomic dna and contains four introns, which interrupt the coding sequence of a protein of 203 amino acid residues. the ncytp1 gene was assigned to a si ...19921361212
cloning and disruption of a gene required for growth on acetate but not on ethanol: the acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase gene of saccharomyces cerevisiae.a dna fragment of saccharomyces cerevisiae with high homology to the acetyl-coenzyme a (acetyl-coa) synthetase genes of aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa has been cloned, sequenced and mapped to chromosome i. it contains an open reading frame of 2139 nucleotides, encoding a predicted gene product of 79.2 kda. in contrast to its ascomycete homologs, there are no introns in the coding sequence. the first atg codon of the open reading frame is in an unusual context for a translational star ...19921363452
hsp80 of neurospora crassa: cdna cloning, gene mapping, and studies of mrna accumulation under stress.using mrna isolated from neurospora crassa mycelium, grown for 14 h at normal growth temperature of 28 degrees c, and heat shocked for 1 h at 48 degrees c, a cdna library was prepared in the expression vector lambda gt11. following immunoscreening of this library with a polyclonal antiserum raised against a 80-kilodalton heat-shock protein (hsp80), cdna clones containing 1.1- and 1.4-kilobase inserts were selected. analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence o ...19921363716
integrative transformation of the ascomycete podospora anserina: identification of the mating-type locus on chromosome vii of electrophoretically separated chromosomes.protoplasts of wild-type strain s and a long-lived extrachromosomal mutant (al2) of the ascomycete podospora anserina were transformed using a plasmid (pan7-1) which contains the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene (hph) of escherichia coli under the control of aspergillus nidulans regulatory sequences. after optimizing the transformation procedure, transformation efficiencies of 15-21 transformants/micrograms plasmid dna were obtained. using a second selectable vector (pbt3), which contains th ...19911367277
cloning and heterologous expression of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster from penicillum chrysogenum.a cosmid clone containing the putative penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster from penicillium chrysogenum was used to transform the related filamentous fungi neurospora crassa and aspergillus niger, which do not produce beta-lactam antibiotics. both of the transformed hosts contained intact p. chrysogenum dna derived from the cosmid clone and produced authentic penicillin v. assays of penicillin biosynthetic enzyme activity additionally demonstrated that they possessed delta-(l-alpha-amino-adipyl ...19901368505
x-ray-induced specific-locus mutations in the ad-3 region of two-component heterokaryons of neurospora crassa. x. heterozygous effects of multilocus deletion mutations of genotype ad-3a or ad-3b.previous studies on x-ray-induced irreparable adenine-3 mutations (designated [ad-3]ir), induced in heterokaryon 12 of neurospora crassa, demonstrated that they were not recessive and exhibited heterozygous effects in terms of markedly reduced linear growth rates (de serres, 1965). complementation tests with a series of tester strains carrying multilocus deletion mutations in the ad-3 and immediately adjacent genetic regions demonstrated that x-ray-induced irreparable mutations map, in the main ...19921373846
x-ray-induced specific-locus mutations in the ad-3 region of two-component heterokaryons of neurospora crassa. xi. heterozygous effects of gene/point mutations of genotype ad-3a or ad-3b.previous studies on x-ray-induced irreparable adenine-3 mutants (designated ad-3ir), induced in heterokaryon 12 of neurospora crassa, showed that they were not recessive, and that they demonstrated heterozygous effects in terms of markedly reduced linear growth rates as compared with a wild-type control (de serres, 1965, 1988). homology tests on x-ray-induced irreparable mutants showed that they map, in the main part, as a series of overlapping multilocus deletions that extend both proximally an ...19921381467
structure and expression of the drosophila ubiquitin-52-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.ubiquitin belongs to a multigene family. in drosophila two members of this family have been previously described. we report here the organization and expression of a third member, the dub52 gene, isolated by screening a drosophila melanogaster genomic library. this gene encodes an ubiquitin monomer fused to a 52-amino acid extension protein. there are no introns interrupting the coding sequence. recently, it has been described that this extension encodes a ribosomal protein in saccharomyces, dic ...19921381584
fk-506-binding proteins from streptomycetes producing immunosuppressive macrolactones of the fk-506 type.fk-506-binding proteins (fkbps), which in t cells are supposed to mediate the immunosuppressive effects of the compounds fk-506 and rapamycin, have been isolated from streptomyces chrysomallus, s. hygroscopicus subsp. ascomyceticus, and s. hygroscopicus. the latter two strains are producers of ascomycin (the ethyl analog of fk-506) and rapamycin, respectively. like the 12-kda fkbp in eukaryotic organisms such as humans, bovines, and saccharomyces cerevisiae, or the fkbps from gram-positive strep ...19921381710
reversible inactivation of a foreign gene, hph, during the asexual cycle in neurospora crassa transformants.a plasmid construct carrying the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene fused to the expression elements of the trpc gene of aspergillus nidulans was used to obtain hygromycin b (hyg)-resistant transformants of neurospora crassa. the plasmid does not have any homology with the n. crassa genome. here we demonstrate that most of the transformants arise from integration of the transforming dna into only one of the nuclei present in the protoplasts. furthermore, in most of the transformants the in ...19921383683
primary structure and in vitro expression of the n. crassa phosphoglycerate kinase.the primary structure of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) from neurospora crassa was determined by sequencing a full-length cdna. the deduced 418 amino acids protein shows a considerable identity to pgks of other organisms with all the residues thought to be important for the function of the yeast enzyme conserved. the cloned pgk cdna could be efficiently expressed in vitro resulting in a product with the expected molecular weight.19921385737
molecular genetic studies of complex i in neurospora crassa, aspergillus niger and escherichia coli. 19921385977
purification of a phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein from neurospora crassa.this paper reports, for the first time, the purification of a phospholipid transfer protein (pltp) from a fungus, neurospora crassa. the protein was purified from the post-microsomal supernatant of n. crassa by successive chromatography on deae-cellulose, sephadex-g75 and pbe 94 (ph 4-7). the purified protein (m(r) 38,000) was found to transfer phosphatidylinositol preferentially over phosphatidylcholine, like the pltp from the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae. pc transfer was completely inhibite ...19921386256
characterization and partial purification of an insulinase from neurospora crassa.an insulin-binding metal- and thiol-dependent proteinase has been purified 1491-fold from high speed cytosolic fractions of the fungus neurospora crassa. this enzyme resembles insulin-degrading enzymes (insulinases) present in mammalian cells and in drosophila melanogaster in the following ways: (i) it degrades radiolabeled insulin with a specificity similar to that of rat muscle insulinase, as demonstrated by hplc analysis of the degradation products; (ii) it is inhibited by bacitracin, edta, 1 ...19921386721
18o isotopic 13c nmr shift as proof that bifunctional peptidylglycine alpha-amidating enzyme is a monooxygenase.the biosynthesis of c-terminal alpha-amidated peptides from their corresponding c-terminal glycine-extended precursors is catalyzed by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating enzyme (alpha-ae) in a reaction that requires copper, ascorbate, and molecular oxygen. using bifunctional type a rat alpha-ae, we have shown that o2 is the source of the alpha-carbonyl oxygen of pyruvate produced during the amidation of dansyl-tyr-val-[alpha-13c]-d-ala, as demonstrated by the 18o isotopic shift in the 13c nmr spect ...19921387319
characterization of the ilv-2 gene from neurospora crassa encoding alpha-keto-beta-hydroxylacyl reductoisomerase.we have isolated the cdna and corresponding genomic dna for the ilv-2 locus of neurospora crassa. this gene encodes alpha-keto-beta-hydroxylacyl reductoisomerase (ilv-2), required for the synthesis of isoleucine and valine. the gene contains four introns, maps to the right arm of chromosome v, and encodes a protein of 400 amino acids (aa). alignment of the aa sequence of ilv-2 with the two other known eukaryotic sequences encoding this enzyme reveals two conserved regions.19921398116
the cell division cycle gene cdc60 encodes cytosolic leucyl-trna synthetase in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the cdc60 mutation (for cell division cycle) of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, confers arrest at the start point of the cell cycle upon shift to the restrictive temperature [bedard et al., curr. genet. 4 (1981) 205-214]. we have cloned the cdc60 gene by complementation of the temperature-sensitive phenotype. sequence analysis revealed a single open reading frame of 3270 bp and the deduced amino acid sequence showed 50.5% sequence identity to the cytosolic leucyl-trna synthetase (leurs) fro ...19921398122
development of a specific-locus assay in the ad-3 region of two-component heterokaryons of neurospora: a review.in recognition of the need for a more comprehensive data base for genetic risk assessment of human exposure to mutagenic agents in the environment, a model system was developed for specific-locus studies in neurospora crassa. this lower eukaryotic organism permits the utilization of microbial techniques for recovery of large numbers of specific-locus mutations at two closely linked loci as well as their subsequent genetic analysis. in particular, this assay makes possible exploratory experiments ...19921425606
characteristics of spontaneous and induced specific-locus mutation in the ad-3 region of neurospora crassa: utilization in genetic risk assessment.data from experiments on the induction of specific-locus mutations in model systems are utilized in genetic risk assessment to estimate potential adverse effects in the human population. in such assessments with radiation or chemical mutagens, the following information is required: (1) spontaneous and induced forward-mutation frequencies, (2) dose-response curves for the overall induction of specific-locus mutations, (3) genetic characterization of spontaneous and induced mutations, and (4) dose ...19921425607
immunocharacterization of actin and its immunofluorescent localization during the developmental gametophytic stages of allomyces arbuscula.highly specific polyclonal antibodies against actin from allomyces arbuscula were produced in rabbits, immunopurified by immunoblotting and specified with actin isolated from neurospora crassa and mouse skeletal muscle. used as immunofluorescence probes, they allowed localization of actin in the sequential gametophytic stages of the mould.19921426986
sequence of the genes encoding subunits a and b of the vacuolar h(+)-atpase of schizosaccharomyces pombe.the genes encoding subunits a (vma1) and b (vma2) of the vacuolar h(+)-atpase from schizosaccharomyces pombe were cloned by hybridization to cdnas of the homologous genes in neurospora crassa. both genes are interrupted by introns, two in vma1 and four in vma2. positions of introns do not appear to be conserved when compared to those of n. crassa. the subunit a gene encodes a single product of 619 amino acids and is not interrupted by the coding sequence for a second product as found for sacchar ...19921441756
primary structure and mitochondrial import in vitro of the 20.9 kda subunit of complex i from neurospora crassa.the 20.9 kda subunit of nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex i) from neurospora crassa is a nuclear-coded component of the hydrophobic arm of the enzyme. we have determined the primary structure of this subunit by sequencing a full-length cdna and a cleavage product of the isolated polypeptide. the deduced protein sequence is 189 amino acid residues long and contains a putative membrane-spanning domain. striking similarity over a 60 amino-acid-residue domain with the m (matrix) protein of par ...19921445273
characterization of the 9.5-kda ubiquinone-binding protein of nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex i) from neurospora crassa.a small polypeptide subunit of the nadh:ubiquinone reductase (complex i) from neurospora crassa has been identified by photoaffinity labeling to participate in the binding of ubiquinone [heinrich, h., & werner, s. (1992) biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. this polypeptide is further characterized by its primary structure and by an assessment of its localization within complex i. a lambda gt11 cdna expression library was screened using a specific antibody directed against this individ ...19921445879
prediction of transmembrane topology of f0 proteins from escherichia coli f1f0 atp synthase using variational and hydrophobic moment analyses.the a subunit, a membrane protein from the e. coli f1f0 atp synthase has been examined by fourier analysis of hydrophobicity and of amino-acid residue variation. the amino-acid sequences of homologous subunits from vibrio alginolyticus, saccharomyces cerevisiae, neurospora crassa, aspergillus nidulans, schizosaccharomyces pombe and candida parapsilosis were used in the variability analysis. by fourier analysis of sequence variation, two transmembrane helices are predicted to have one face in con ...19921445940
cloning and sequencing of the cdna encoding tyrosinase of the japanese pond frog, rana nigromaculata.we cloned and sequenced the cdna encoding tyrosinase (tyn) of the japanese pond frog, rana nigromaculata. the 3511-bp cdna contained a 54-bp 5'-noncoding region, a 1596-bp open reading frame encoding tyn of 532 amino acids (aa), and a 1861-bp 3'-noncoding region. the aa sequence of frog tyn predicted from the cdna sequence was homologous to that of mouse and human tyns. the aa sequence including the copper-binding domain, which is likely the active center of tyn, was highly conserved among these ...19921446833
developmental and light regulation of eas, the structural gene for the rodlet protein of neurospora.the surface of many fungal spores is covered by a hydrophobic sheath termed the rodlet layer. we have determined that the rodlet protein of neurospora crassa is encoded by a cloned gene designated bli-7, and that bli-7 is identical to the known gene eas (easily wettable). using eas dna as a probe we show that eas mrna is abundant in illuminated mycelia and conidiophores but is not detectable or is barely detectable in dark-grown mycelia, mature macroconidia, microconidia, and ascospores. mutatio ...19921459459
the neurospora circadian clock-controlled gene, ccg-2, is allelic to eas and encodes a fungal hydrophobin required for formation of the conidial rodlet layer.the neurospora crassa clock-controlled gene (ccg-2) is transcriptionally activated by the circadian clock in a time-of-day-specific manner. transcript and sequence analyses of ccg-2 reveal that the predicted ccg-2 polypeptide bears significant similarity to a class of low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich, hydrophobic proteins (hydrophobins), first identified in schizophyllum, and including the product of the developmentally regulated aspergillus gene, rodletless, required for spore surface rodlet ...19921459460
the regulatory gene nit-2 of neurospora crassa complements a nnu mutant of gibberella zeae (fusarium graminearum).the nnu mutant of gibberella zeae (=fusarium graminearum) is unable to catabolize many of the nitrogen sources utilized by its wild-type parent, and may have suffered a mutation in the major nitrogen regulatory locus. transformation of this mutant with the major nitrogen regulatory gene from neurospora crassa, nit-2, restored the wild-type phenotype, thus confirming that the nnu mutation is in the major nitrogen regulatory locus of g. zeae. our results are consistent with the premise of conserva ...19921465117
[synthesis and structure of substituted bromo and nitrobenzyl benzylidene imidazolidinediones and thiazolidinediones].synthesis and physico-chemical properties of five bromobenzyl-benzylidene-imidazolidinediones and five nitrobenzyl- or benzyl-benzylidene-thiazolidinediones are described. the microbiological activity of bromobenzyl-benzylidene-imidazolidinediones against microorganisms such as candida albicans, neurospora crassa and mycobacterium smegmatis are evaluated.19921471825
isolation, partial amino acid sequence, and cellular distribution of heat-shock protein hsp98 from neurospora crassa.hsp98 is one of the most prominent proteins synthesized during the heat-shock response of neurospora crassa. we purified hsp98 and determined the amino acid sequence of two overlapping peptides obtained by cyanogen bromide cleavage. this 28 amino acid sequence from hsp98 has 75% homology with a region of the clpb protein of escherichia coli and 86% homology to a 96-kda protein of trypanosoma brucei. it also has 71% homology to hsp104 of saccharomyces cerevisiae. hsp98 was enriched in the microso ...19921472534
neurospora crassa blue-light-inducible gene bli-7 encodes a short hydrophobic protein.blue light induces a number of physiological reactions in neurospora crassa. we have cloned and sequenced the gene bli-7, which is inducible by blue light, and both glucose and nitrogen starvation. this gene is strongly expressed at the rna-level and contributes up to 0.2% of n. crassa total rna when fully induced. the deduced amino acid sequence reveals a short (108 amino acids), hydrophobic protein which has homology to the protein sc-3, encoded by a gene of schizophyllum commune which was iso ...19921472707
further characterization of the histidine gene cluster of streptomyces coelicolor a3(2): nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of hisd.we have further characterized the genomic region of streptomyces coelicolor a3(2) that contains genes involved in the biosynthesis of histidine. a 2,357-base pair fragment contained in plasmid psch3328 that complemented hisd mutations has been sequenced. computer analysis revealed an open reading frame that encodes a protein with significant homology to the escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium and mycobacterium smegmatis hisd product, saccharomyces cerevisiae his4c, and neurospora crassa his ...19921488552
a dominant selectable marker that is meiotically stable in neurospora crassa: the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans.when neurospora crassa is transformed using a neurospora gene as the selectable marker, the vegetatively stable transformants obtained cannot be used successfully in a cross because the selectable marker will be inactivated by the process of rip (repeat-induced point mutation). introduction of the acetamidase-encoding gene amds of aspergillus nidulans into n. crassa by transformation yielded transformants that would grow in minimal medium containing acetamide as a sole nitrogen source. in mitoti ...19921494342
molecular cloning and characterization of the saccharomyces cerevisiae cyt2 gene encoding cytochrome-c1-heme lyase.cytochrome c1, a subunit of the mitochondrial ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase, is synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as a precursor protein of 37 kda. maturation to the mature 31-kda form involves two proteolytic processing steps of the amino-terminal presequence. after removal of the amino-terminal part by the matrix-localized processing peptidase, the carboxy-terminal part of the presequence is cleaved off by an unknown intermembrane space protease. this step depends on covalent linkage of h ...19921499554
efficient transformation of claviceps purpurea using pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants: cloning of the omp decarboxylase gene.a homologous transformation system was developed for the phytopathogenic fungus claviceps purpurea. orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ompd)-deficient mutants were obtained by uv mutagenesis and selection for resistance against 5-fluoroorotate. these mutants could be complemented well by the corresponding genes of aspergillus niger (pyra) and neurospora crassa (pyr4), yielding significantly higher transformation rates (and lower copy numbers per transformant) than the phleomycin resistanc ...19921508154
sequences of 20 subunits of nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria. application of a novel strategy for sequencing proteins using the polymerase chain reaction.nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the first enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of mitochondria, is a membrane-bound multi-subunit assembly, and the bovine heart enzyme is now known to contain about 40 different polypeptides. seven of them are encoded in the mitochondrial dna; the remainder are the products of nuclear genes and are imported into the organelle. the primary structures of 12 of the nuclear coded subunits have been described and those of a further 20 are described here. ...19921518044
ornithine decarboxylase gene of neurospora crassa: isolation, sequence, and polyamine-mediated regulation of its mrna.ornithine decarboxylase (odc), which initiates the biosynthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, is encoded by the spe-1 gene of the fungus neurospora crassa. this gene and its cdna have been cloned and sequenced. the gene has a single 70-nucleotide intron in the coding sequence. the cdna, comprising the entire coding region, recognizes a single 2.4-kb mrna in northern (rna) blots. the mrna transcript, defined by s1 mapping, has an extremely long, 535-base leader without s ...19921530878
the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase of podospora anserina is a bifunctional enzyme active in protein synthesis and rna splicing.the neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase (mt tyrrs), which is encoded by the nuclear gene cyt-18, functions not only in aminoacylation but also in the splicing of group i introns. here, we isolated the cognate podospora anserina mt tyrrs gene, designated yts1, by using the n. crassa cyt-18 gene as a hybridization probe. dna sequencing of the p. anserina gene revealed an open reading frame (orf) of 641 amino acids which has significant similarity to other tyrrss. the yts1 orf i ...19921531084
characterization of the glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase genes of aspergillus nidulans (acud) and neurospora crassa (acu-3).the nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding the acetate-inducible glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase from the ascomycete fungi aspergillus nidulans (acud) and neurospora crassa (acu-3) are presented. the respective a. nidulans and n. crassa genes are interrupted at identical positions by two introns and encode proteins of 538 and 543 amino acids, which have 75% identity. the predicted protein sequences do not demonstrate the c-terminal tripeptide s-k-l that has been implicated in peroxi ...19921531185
glvr1, a receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus, is homologous to a phosphate permease of neurospora crassa and is expressed at high levels in the brain and thymus.the human gene glvr1 has been shown to render mouse cells sensitive to infection by gibbon ape leukemia virus. this indication that the glvr1 protein acts as a virus receptor does not reveal the protein's normal physiological role. we now report that glvr1 is homologous to pho-4+, a phosphate permease of neurospora crassa, at a level sufficiently high to predict that glvr1 is also a transport protein, although the substrate transported remains unknown. to characterize the gene further, we have c ...19921531369
characterization of the formate (for) locus, which encodes the cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase of neurospora crassa.serine hydroxymethyltransferase (shmt) occupies a central position in one-carbon (c1) metabolism, catalyzing the reaction of serine and tetrahydrofolate to yield glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. methylenetetrahydrofolate serves as a donor of c1 units for the synthesis of numerous compounds, including purines, thymidylate, lipids, and methionine. we provide evidence that the formate (for) locus of neurospora crassa encodes cytosolic shmt. the for+ gene was localized to a 2.8-kb bglii f ...19921532227
production of the cys3 regulator, a bzip dna-binding protein, is sufficient to induce sulfur gene expression in neurospora crassa.the cys-3+ gene of neurospora crassa encodes a bzip (basic region-leucine zipper) regulatory protein that is essential for sulfur structural gene expression (e.g., ars-1+). nuclear transcription assays confirmed that cys-3+ was under sulfur-regulated transcriptional control and that cys-3+ transcription was constitutive in sulfur controller (scon)-negative regulator mutants. given these results, i have tested whether expression of cys-3+ under high-sulfur (repressing) conditions was sufficient t ...19921532230
the dna-binding domain of the cys-3 regulatory protein of neurospora crassa is bipartite.cys-3, the major sulfur regulatory gene of neurospora crassa, encodes a regulatory protein that is capable of sequence-specific interaction with dna. the interaction is mediated by a region within the cys3 protein (the bzip region) which contains a potential dimer-forming surface, the leucine zipper, and an adjacent basic dna contact region, nh2-terminal to the leucine zipper. to investigate the bipartite nature of the bzip region, a series of cys-3 mutants obtained by oligonucleotide-directed m ...19921532511
analysis of junction sequences resulting from integration at nonhomologous loci in neurospora crassa.we have analyzed the junctions involved in two examples of ectopic integration of plasmids containing the am+ (glutamate dehydrogenase) gene into a strain of neurospora crassa bearing a complete deletion of the am locus. in one transformed strain a single copy of plasmid dna had been integrated into linkage group (lg) iii dna without the loss of chromosomal dna. in contrast, 450 bp had been lost from plasmid sequences at the site of integration. the transforming dna used was circular, so we post ...19921533845
saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa contain heavy metal sequestering phytochelatin.in fungi, cellular resistance to heavy metal cytotoxicity is mediated either by binding of metal ions to proteins of the metallothionein type or by chelation to phytochelatin-peptides of the general formula (gamma-glu-cys)n-gly. hitherto, only one fungus, candida glabrata has been shown to contain both metal inactivating systems. here we show by unambiguous fab-ms analysis that both a metallothionein-free mutant of saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a wildtype strain synthesize phytochelatin (p ...19921534214
new polyenic antibiotics active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. viii. construction of synthetic medium for production of mono-chloro-congeners of enacyloxins.new antibiotics enacyloxins (enxs) are a family of non-lactonic polyene antibiotics produced by frateuria sp. w-315. for the production of antibiotics, we had to employ two-step fermentations, the first is the production of spent medium of neurospora crassa and the second is the production of antibiotics by frateuria. to simplify the production of antibiotics, systematic analyses have been done on the spent medium, and factors which affect the production of antibiotics characterized. from the ab ...19921534321
the cleavable presequence is not essential for import and assembly of the phosphate carrier of mammalian mitochondria but enhances the specificity and efficiency of import.the phosphate carrier (pic) of mammalian mitochondria is synthesized with a cleavable presequence, in contrast to other members of the mitochondrial family of inner membrane carrier proteins. the precursor of pic is efficiently imported, proteolytically processed, and correctly assembled in isolated mitochondria. here we report that a presequence-deficient pic was imported with an efficiency of about 50% as compared with the authentic precursor of pic. this mature-sized pic was correctly assembl ...19921534805
the mating types of podospora anserina: functional analysis and sequence of the fertilization domains.the two idiomorphic alleles called mat+ and mat-, which control the mating types in podospora anserina, have been cloned. mat+ and mat- encompass 3.8 kb and 4.7 kb respectively, of unrelated dna sequences flanked by common sequences. subcloning allowed the identification and localization in each locus of the gene that controls fertilization, probably by determining the mating type. the mat+ gene, called fpr1, encodes a protein with a potential dna-binding hmg domain. the presence of this motif s ...19921534866
control of mating type heterokaryon incompatibility by the tol gene in neurospora crassa and n. tetrasperma.the mating-type of neurospora crassa (a and a) have a dual function: a and a individuals are required for sexual reproduction, but only strains of the same mating type will form a stable vegetative heterokaryon. neurospora tetrasperma, in contrast, is a naturally occurring a+a heterokaryon. it was shown previously that the mating-type genes of both species are functionally the same and are not responsible for this difference in heterokaryon incompatibility. this suggests that a separate genetic ...19921535606
cloning and sequence analysis of a rapamycin-binding protein-encoding gene (rbp1) from candida albicans.rapamycin (rm) and fk506 are macrolide antifungal agents that exhibit potent immunosuppressive properties in higher eukaryotes which are mediated through interaction with specific receptor proteins (fkbps or rbps, for fk506- and rm-binding proteins, respectively). these proteins possess peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (ppiase) activity in vitro which is inhibited by the binding of rm and fk506. we previously isolated a gene encoding an rbp from saccharomyces cerevisiae, and demonstrated that ...19921563628
small subunit ribosomal rna of blastomyces dermatitidis: sequence and phylogenetic analysis.we determined the small subunit (18s) ribosomal rna sequence of the dimorphic fungus blastomyces dermatitidis. the sequence was compared to that of fourteen other eukaryotic organisms, ten of which were higher fungi, and an evolutionary tree was constructed based on these sequences. b. dermatitidis aligned most closely with the ascomycetes neurospora crassa and podospora anserina, in agreement with previous phylogenetic analysis based on morphological criteria. phase-specific cdna clones derived ...19921564447
[synthesis and antimicrobial activity of chlorobenzyl benzylidene imidazolidinedione derivatives and substituted thiazolidinediones].the synthesis of five chlorobenzyl benzylidene imidazolidinediones and four fluorobenzyl benzylidene thiazolidinediones is described. in order to investigate their antimicrobial activity they are evaluated against microorganism such as candida albicans, neurospora crassa, staphylococcus aureus, mycobacterium smegmatis and escherichia coli.19921615023
identification of a family of bacteriophage t4 genes encoding proteins similar to those present in group i introns of fungi and phage.the bacteriophage t4 sega gene lies in a genetically unmapped region between the gene beta gt (beta-glucosyltransferase) and uvsx (recombination protein) and encodes a protein of 221 amino acids. we have found that the first 100 amino acids of the sega protein are highly similar to the n termini of four other predicted t4 proteins, also of unknown function. together these five proteins, sega-e (similar to endonucleases of group i introns), contain regions of similarity to the endonuclease i-tev ...19921631169
specificity of leaf mitochondrial and chloroplast processing systems for nuclear-encoded precursor proteins.the specificity of the mitochondrial and chloroplast processing enzymes for the nuclear-encoded precursor proteins was investigated. mitochondrial precursor proteins of the nicotiana plumbaginifolia and the neurospora crassa beta subunits of f1-atpase and the neurospora rieske fes precursor protein were processed to the correct mature size by matrix extracts isolated from spinach leaves, yeast, rat liver and beef heart. the mitochondrial extracts failed to process chloroplast precursor proteins ...19911654154
calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase from neurospora crassa. molecular cloning and expression of recombinant catalytic subunit.a cdna for the catalytic subunit of a calmodulin (cam)-dependent protein phosphatase was cloned from neurospora crassa. the open reading frame of 1557 base pairs encoded a protein of mr approximately 59,580 and was followed by a 3'-untranslated region of 363 base pairs including the poly(a) tail. based on primer extension analysis, the mrna transcript in vivo was 2403 base pairs. expression of this cam-protein phosphatase mrna was developmentally regulated, being highest during early mycelial gr ...19911655737
chiral linear hydroxamates as biomimetic analogues of ferrioxamine and coprogen and their use in probing siderophore-receptor specificity in bacteria and fungi.linear hydroxamate derivatives, possessing chiral alpha-amino acid moieties, were synthesized and their iron transport activities were studied in bacteria and fungi. no growth-promoting activity could be detected in the gram-positive hydroxamate-auxotroph aureobacterium flavescens jg9. however, gram-negative enterobacteria, such as escherichia coli, pantoea agglomerans and hafnia alvei were able to utilize iron from these analogues. uptake of 55fe-labeled analogues was inhibited by sodium azide, ...19911657086
over-expression, purification and determination of the proteolytic processing site of the yeast mitochondrial cbs1 protein.yeast transformants harboring the cbs1 gene under the control of the strong adc1 promoter on a high copy number plasmid express the mitochondrial cbs1 protein at artificially high levels. over-expressed protein is imported into mitochondria and correctly processed to yield the mature mitochondrial 23.5 kda form, but differs in its solubility properties from cbs1 in wild-type mitochondria. it forms insoluble protein aggregates, which are refractory to solubilization with 1% taurodeoxycholate. we ...19911657414
ubiquitination of endogenous calmodulin in rabbit tissue extracts.previously we were able to show that purified calmodulins from vertebrates, plants (spinach) and the mold neurospora crassa can be covalently conjugated to ubiquitin in a ca(2+)-dependent manner. it was therefore pertinent to answer the question if a tissue extract contains all the components necessary for the endogenous synthesis of ubiquityl calmodulin (ucam). therefore [125i]ubiquitin, atp/mg2+ and ca2+ were added to tissue extracts enriched by a single ion exchange step. in such extracts of ...19911661685
isolation and characterization of the adenylate cyclase structural gene of neurospora crassa.a single gene (nac) encoding an adenylate cyclase was cloned from the genomic dna library of neurospora crassa, using the dna fragment encoding the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase of saccharomyces cerevisiae as a probe. the open reading frame of this gene (6900 base pairs) was interrupted three time by introns. the protein encoded consists of 2300 amino acids and has adenylate cyclase activity. n. crassa adenylate cyclase has a high degree of homology with the catalytic domains of yeast an ...19911680356
genomic analysis of a virulent and a less virulent strain of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana, using restriction fragment length polymorphisms.the genomic dna of two strains of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana, strain gk2016, a "wild type" (virulent), and strain gk2051, a less virulent mutant to grasshoppers, was digested with 12 restriction endonucleases. gel electrophoresis conditions were established to show restriction fragment length patterns visually in the digested dna stained with ethidium bromide. the less virulent mutant was generated by ultraviolet illumination of conidiospores at a 95% lethal dose. both strain ...19911680543
isolation and expression of the acetate-inducible isocitrate lyase gene (acu-3) from neurospora crassa: evidence for a second constitutive isozyme.heterologous hybridisation of the aspergillus nidulans structural gene for isocitrate lyase (acud) to a lambda genomic library of neurospora crassa identified a recombinant phage containing the hybridising sequence on an internal 9 kb ecori fragment. a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) enabled the fragment to be assigned to linkage group v (lg v), the location of the acetate-inducible isocitrate lyase, acu-3 of neurospora. functional ectopic complementation by co-transformation of ...19911681413
sequence and expression of gln3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger dna-binding domain.the gln3 gene of saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the activation of transcription of a number of genes in response to the replacement of glutamine by glutamate as source of nitrogen. we cloned the gln3 gene and constructed null alleles by gene disruption. gln3 is not essential for growth, but increased copies of gln3 lead to a drastic decrease in growth rate. the complete nucleotide sequence of the gln3 gene was determined, revealing one open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 730 a ...19911682800
isolation and sequence of an fk506-binding protein from n. crassa which catalyses protein folding.slow protein-folding reactions are accelerated by a prolyl cis/trans isomerase isolated from porcine kidney which is identical to cyclophilin, a protein that is probably the cellular receptor for the immunosuppressant cyclosporin a. catalysis probably involves the isomerization of prolyl peptide bonds in the folding protein chains. cyclosporin a inhibits folding catalysis by cyclophilin. here we report the isolation, cloning, sequencing and expression of another protein with prolyl isomerase act ...19901696687
optimized vectors and selection for transformation of neurospora crassa and aspergillus nidulans to bleomycin and phleomycin resistance.to provide a dominant selectable marker for transformation of neurospora crassa strains lacking specific auxotrophic mutations, we have engineered the bleomycin (bm) resistance-encoding gene (ble) from the bacterial transposon tn5 for expression in n. crassa. the coding region of the ble gene was fused to the promoter and terminator regions of the n. crassa am gene. in some vectors, multiple cloning sites were placed flanking the ble gene to provide a versatile ble cassette. when introduced into ...19901699844
the apocytochrome b gene of chlamydomonas smithii contains a mobile intron related to both saccharomyces and neurospora introns.the mitochondrial dna of the two interfertile algal species chlamydomonas smithii and chlamydomonas reinhardtii are co-linear with the exception of ca. 1 kb insertion (the alpha insert) present in c. smithii dna only. in vegetative diploids resulting from interspecific crosses, mitochondrial genomes are transmitted biparentally except for the alpha insert which is transmitted to all c. reinhardtii molecules in a manner reminiscent of the intron-mediated conversion event that occurs at the omega ...19901701210
analysis of the altered mrna stability (ams) gene from escherichia coli. nucleotide sequence, transcriptional analysis, and homology of its product to mrp3, a mitochondrial ribosomal protein from neurospora crassa.the product of the altered mrna stability (ams) gene of escherichia coli is involved in decay of mrna. the complete nucleotide sequence of a 4-kilobase bamhi restriction fragment containing the ams coding sequence was determined. transcription of the ams gene was analyzed by high resolution s1 mapping. a promoter was found with a homology score of 58% 361 nucleotides upstream from the start codon of ams. the ams structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 2,445 nucleotides. the protein ...19911704367
voltage gating of the mitochondrial outer membrane channel vdac is regulated by a very conserved protein.soluble protein preparations obtained from the mitochondrial fractions of three very different organisms, neurospora crassa, rat, and potato, were discovered to greatly enhance the voltage sensitivity of the mitochondrial outer membrane channel, vdac. the active ingredient, referred to as the vdac modulator, increased the rate of voltage-dependent channel closure by approximately 10-fold. the modulator from one species increased the closing rate of vdac channels from all three species. the activ ...19911705100
localization of actin and characterization of its isoforms in the hyphae of neurospora crassa.the actin of neurospora crassa wild type strain st. lawrence has been purified, characterized and localized. a fungal 43 kda protein was isolated by affinity chromatography on dnase i-sepharose. this protein was identified as actin on immunoblots when an anti-actin monoclonal antibody raised against chicken gizzards was used as a probe. after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis three actin isoforms were detected. the distribution of actin in hyphae was examined by fitc-phalloidin staining of for ...19911706289
incipient mitochondrial evolution in yeasts. ii. the complete sequence of the gene coding for cytochrome b in saccharomyces douglasii reveals the presence of both new and conserved introns and discloses major differences in the fixation of mutations in evolution.we have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome b in saccharomyces douglasii. the gene is 6310 base-pairs long and is interrupted by four introns. the first one (1311 base-pairs) belongs to the group id of secondary structure, contains a fragment open reading frame with a characteristic giy ... yig motif, is absent from saccharomyces cerevisiae and is inserted in the same site in which introns 1 and 2 are inserted in neurospora crassa and podospora anseri ...19911708831
core i protein of bovine ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase; an additional member of the mitochondrial-protein-processing family. cloning of bovine core i and core ii cdnas and primary structure of the proteins.core i and core ii proteins are the largest nuclear-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase (bc1 complex) lacking redox prosthetic groups. cdna clones of the two bovine core proteins have been isolated by the screening of lambda zap cdna libraries either with an oligonucleotide probe based on the sequence of an internal peptide or with a polymerase-chain-reaction-amplified fragment. the core i precursor protein consists of 362 amino acids with a 34-amino-acid prese ...19911712295
insulin-induced stimulation of protein phosphorylation in neurospora crassa cells.1) insulin stimulated the phosphorylation of at least 14 discrete proteins in neurospora crassa cells. specific proteins were phosphorylated at serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues, as determined by phosphoamino acid analysis of discrete spots on two-dimensional gels. 2) insulin stimulated the phosphorylation by [gamma-32p]atp of at least six discrete proteins in solubilized n. crassa membrane preparations at serine and tyrosine residues. 3) a phosphotyrosine-containing protein of 38 kda, pi ...19911717334
a nuclear gene with many introns encoding ammonium-inducible chloroplastic nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase(s) in chlorella sorokiniana.chlorella sorokiniana possesses ammonium-inducible, chloroplastic, nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (nadp-gdh) homo- or heterohexamers composed of alpha- and/or beta-subunits which were previously shown to derive from precursor protein(s) of identical size. from the present studies, data are consistent with these two subunits being encoded by a single nuclear gene. the nadp-gdh gene is greater than 7 kb in length due to the presence of at least 21 introns, an unusually large number for a eu ...19911718478
over- and under-representation of short oligonucleotides in dna sequences.strand-symmetric relative abundance functionals for di-, tri-, and tetranucleotides are introduced and applied to sequences encompassing a broad phylogenetic range to discern tendencies and anomalies in the occurrences of these short oligonucleotides within and between genomic sequences. for dinucleotides, ta is almost universally under-represented, with the exception of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, and cg is strongly under-represented in vertebrates and in mitochondrial genomes. the tradit ...19921741388
expression of the escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase gene in pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides.the plant-pathogenic fungus pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides has been successfully transformed by using two different positive selection systems in combination with the escherichia coli gusa gene. the selectable markers used in this study were the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene (hph) from e. coli and the gene (bml) for beta-tubulin from a benomyl-resistant mutant of neurospora crassa. a lower transformation rate was obtained with the bml system than with the hph system. conversely, cotr ...19911746951
heterologous expression of the aspergillus nidulans regulatory gene nira in fusarium oxysporum.we have isolated strains of fusarium oxysporum carrying mutations conferring a phenotype characteristic of a loss of function in the regulatory gene of nitrate assimilation (nira in aspergillus nidulans, nit-4 in neurospora crassa). one of these nir- mutants was successfully transformed with a plasmid containing the nira gene of a. nidulans. the nitrate reductase of the transformants is still inducible, although the maximum activity is lower than in the wild type. single and multiple integration ...19911756977
cloning of a sequence of aquaspirillum magnetotacticum that complements the arod gene of escherichia coli.a 2 kb dna fragment isolated from a cosmid library of aquaspirillum magnetotacticum strain ms-1 complements the aromatic-metabolite requirements and iron-uptake deficiencies of escherichia coli and salmonella typhimurium strains that lack a functional arod (biosynthetic dehydrodquinase) sequence. all recombinant cosmids selected for their arod complementation property carry this sequence. no dna sequence homology has, however, been detected by southern hybridization between the cloned fragment a ...19911766390
[synthesis and antimicrobial activity of substituted fluorobenzyl benzylidenethiazolidinediones and imidazolidinediones].the synthesis of six benzylidene thiazolidine-diones and three benzylidene imidazolidine-diones is described. in order to investigate their antimicrobial activity, they are evaluated against micro-organism such as staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus feacalis, mycobacterium smegmatis and neurospora crassa.19911795213
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